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13 avril 2012 5 13 /04 /avril /2012 03:30

 

Themes

The principal themes in Updike's work are religion, sex, and America[71] as well as death.[72] Often he would combine them, frequently in his favored terrain of "the American small town, Protestant middle class", of which he once said, HP 513130-321 Battery

"I like middles. It is in middles that extremes clash, where ambiguity restlessly rules."[50] For example, the decline of religion in America is chronicled in In the Beauty of the Lilies (1996) alongside the history of cinema, and Rabbit Angstrom contemplates the merits of sex with the wife of his friend Reverend Jack Eccles while the latter is giving his sermon in Rabbit, HP 535808-001 Battery

Run (1960). Critics have often noted that Updike imbued language itself with a kind of faith in its efficacy, and that his tendency to construct narratives spanning many years and books — the Rabbit series, the Henry Bech series, Eastwick, HP 591998-141 Battery

the Maples stories — demonstrates a similar faith in the transcendent power of fiction and language.[60] Updike's novels often act asdialectical theological debates between the book itself and the reader, the novel endowed with theological beliefs meant to challenge the reader as the plot runs its course.[5] Rabbit Angstrom himself acts as a Kierkegaardian Knight of Faith.[10] HP 593576-001 Battery

 

Sex in Updike's work is noted for its ubiquity and the reverence with which he described it:

His contemporaries invade the ground with wild Dionysian yelps, mocking both the taboos that would make it forbidden and the lust that drives men to it. Updike can be honest about it, and his descriptions of the sight, taste and texture of women's bodies can be perfect little madrigals.[73] HP HSTNN-1B1D Battery

 

The critic Edward Champion notes that Updike's prose heavily favors "external sexual imagery" rife with "explicit anatomical detail" rather than descriptions of "internal emotion" in descriptions of sex.[74] In Champion's interview with Updike on The Bat Segundo Show, HP HSTNN-OB89 Battery

Updike replied that he perhaps favored such imagery to concretize and make sex "real" in his prose.[74] Another sexual theme commonly addressed in Updike is adultery, especially in a suburban, middle class setting, most famously in Couples (1968). The Updikean narrator is often "a man guilty of infidelity and abandonment of his family."[75] HP HSTNN-W79C-7 Battery

 

Similarly, Updike wrote about America with a certain nostalgia, reverence, and recognition and celebration of America's broad diversity. ZZ Packer wrote that in Updike, "there seemed a strange ability to harken both America the Beautiful as well as America the Plain Jane, and the lovely Protestant backbone in his fiction and essays, HP HSTNN-XB89 Battery

when he decided to show it off, was as progressive and enlightened as it was unapologetic."[76] The Rabbit novels in particular can be viewed, according to Julian Barnes, as "a distraction from, and a glittering confirmation of, the vast bustling ordinariness of American life."[77] HP NBP8A157B1 Battery

But as Updike celebrated ordinary America, he also alluded to its decline: at times, he was "so clearly disturbed by the downward spin of America."[78] Adam Gopnik concludes that "Updike's great subject was the American attempt to fill the gap left by faith with the materials produced by mass culture. HP NZ375AA Battery

He documented how the death of a credible religious belief has been offset by sex and adultery and movies and sports and Toyotas and family love and family obligation. For Updike, this effort was blessed, and very nearly successful."[26] HP HSTNN-1B52 Battery

 

Updike also commonly wrote about death, his characters providing a "mosaic of reactions" to mortality, ranging from terror to attempts at insulation.[72] In The Poorhouse Fair (1959), the elderly John Hook intones, "There is no goodness without belief ... HP HSTNN-1B89 Battery

And if you have not believed, at the end of your life you shall know you have buried your talent in the ground of this world and have nothing saved, to take into the next", demonstrating a religious, metaphysical faith present in much of Updike's work. For Rabbit Angstrom, HP HSTNN-IB89 Battery

with his constant musings on mortality, his near-witnessing of his daughter's death, and his often shaky faith, death is more frightening and less obvious in its ramifications. At the end ofRabbit at Rest (1990), though, Rabbit demonstrates a kind of certainty, HP HSTNN-I62C-7 Battery

telling his son Nelson on his deathbed, "... But enough. Maybe. Enough." In The Centaur (1963), George Caldwell is afraid of his cancer and does not have any religious faith.[72] Death can also be a sort of unseen terror; it "occurs offstage but reverberates for survivors as an absent presence."[72] HP HSTNN-I61C-5 Battery

 

Updike himself also experienced a "crisis over the afterlife", and indeed "many of his heroes shared the same sort of existential fears the author acknowledged he had suffered as a young man: Henry Bech's concern that he was 'a fleck of dust condemned to know it is a fleck of dust,' HP HSTNN-I60C-5 Battery

or Colonel Ellelloû's lament that 'we will be forgotten, all of us forgotten.' Their fear of death threatens to make everything they do feel meaningless, and it also sends them running after God — looking for some reassurance that there is something beyond the familiar, HP 535753-001 Battery

everyday world with 'its signals and buildings and cars and bricks.'"[79]Updike demonstrated his own fear in some of his more personal writings, including the poem "Perfection Wasted" (1990): HP 516479-121 Battery

 

Describing his purpose in writing prose, Updike himself, in the introduction to his Early Stories: 1953-1975 (2004), wrote that his aim was always "to give the mundane its beautiful due."[7] Elsewhere he famously said, HP HSTNN-DB94 Battery

"When I write, I aim my mind not towardsNew York but towards a vague spot east of Kansas."[81] Some have suggested[49] that the "best statement of Updike's aesthetic comes in his early memoir 'The Dogwood Tree'" (1962): HP HSTNN-IB93 Battery

"Blankness is not emptiness; we may skate upon an intense radiance we do not see because we see nothing else. And in fact there is a colour, a quiet but tireless goodness that things at rest, like a brick wall or a small stone, seem to affirm."[82] HP HSTNN-IB94 Battery

 

Heller myotomy

There is a small risk of perforation during the myotomy. A gastrografin swallow is performed after the surgery to check for leaks. If the surgeon accidentally cuts through the innermost layer of the esophagus, the perforation may need to be closed with a stitch. HP HSTNN-LB93 Battery

Food can easily pass downward after the myotomy has cut through the lower esophageal sphincter, but stomach acids can also easily reflux upward. Therefore, this surgery is often combined with partial fundoplication to reduce the incidence of postoperative acid reflux. In Dor or anterior fundoplication, HP HSTNN-LB94 Battery

which is the most common method, part of the stomach (the fundus) is laid over the front of the esophagus and stitched into place so that whenever the stomach contracts, it also closes off the esophagus instead of squeezing stomach acids into it. HP HSTNN-OB93 Battery

In Toupet or posterior fundoplication, the fundus is passed around the back of the esophagus instead. Nissen or complete fundoplication (wrapping the fundus all the way around the esophagus) is generally not considered advisable becauseperistalsis is absent in achalasia patients. HP HSTNN-OB94 Battery

 

This is a somewhat challenging operation, and surgeons have reported improved outcomes after their first 50 patients. An author search at Google Scholar can be used to find studies on a surgeon's past experience with achalasia patients. HP HSTNN-XB93 Battery

 

After laparoscopic surgery, most patients can take clear liquids later the same day, start asoft diet within 2–3 days, and return to a normal diet after one month. The typical hospital stay is 2–3 days, and many patients can return to work after two weeks. If the surgery is done open instead of laparoscopically, patients may need to take a month off work. Heavy lifting is typically restricted for six weeks or more. HP HSTNN-XB94 Battery

 

The Heller myotomy is a long-term treatment, and many patients do not require any further treatment. However, some will eventually need pneumatic dilation, repeat myotomy (usually performed as an open procedure the second time around), or esophagectomy. HP NU089AA Battery

It is important to monitor changes in the shape and function of the esophagus with an annual timed barium swallow. Regular endoscopy may also be useful to monitor changes in the tissue of the esophagus, since reflux may damage the esophagus over time, potentially causing the return of dysphagia, or a premalignant condition known as Barrett's esophagus. HP HSTNN-DB95 Battery

 

Though this surgery does not correct the underlying cause and does not completely eliminate achalasia symptoms, the vast majority of patients find that the surgery greatly improves their ability to eat and drink. It is considered the definitive treatment for achalasia. HP HSTNN-IB95 Battery

 

Selected list of works

Mary Welsh Hemingway (April 5, 1908 – November 26, 1986) was an American journalistand the fourth wife (and widow) of Ernest Hemingway. HP HSTNN-LB95 Battery

 

Born in Minnesota, Welsh was a daughter of a lumberman. When she was 32, she married Lawrence Miller Cook, a drama student from Ohio. Their life together was short and they soon separated. After the separation, Mary moved to Chicago and began working at the Chicago Daily News, HP HSTNN-XB95 Battery

where she met Will Lang Jr.. The two formed a fast friendship and worked together on several assignments. A career move presented itself during a vacation trip to London, when Mary started a new job at the London Daily Express. The position soon brought her assignments in Paris during the years preceding World War II. HP NU090AA Battery

 

After the fall of France in 1940, Welsh returned to London to cover the events of the War. She also attended and reported on the press conferences of Winston Churchill. Mary made an accusation of plagiarism against several fellow journalists, including Andy Rooney, although the accusations were proven false.[1] HP 500028-142 Battery

 

It was also during the war years that she married Australian journalist Noel Monks. In 1944 she met Ernest Hemingway in London and they became intimate. HP 500029-142 Battery

 

In 1945, Mary Welsh divorced Noel Monks, and in March 1946, she married Ernest Hemingway, the ceremony taking place in Cuba. In August 1946, she had a miscarriagedue to an ectopic pregnancy. Mary lived with Ernest in Cuba, Key West, Florida and finally, Ketchum, Idaho. HP HSTNN-IB83 Battery

 

Early life and political development

Ágnes Heller was raised in a middle-class Jewish family, and her father, Pal Heller, was never able to stay with a single job for very long. During World War II however, he used his legal training and knowledge of German to help people get together the necessary paperwork to emigrate from Nazi Europe. HP 579320-001 Battery

In 1944, Heller’s father was deported, along with 450,000 other Hungarian Jews, to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he died before the war ended. Heller and her mother managed to avoid deportation as a result of luck and practical wit. HP HSTNN-OB92 Battery

 

With regard to the influence of the Holocaust on her work, Heller said:

I was always interested in the question: How could this possibly happen? How can I understand this? And this experience of the holocaust was joined with my experience in the totalitarian regime. This brought up very similar questions in my soul-search and world investigation: HP HSTNN-XB92 Battery

how could this happen? How could people do things like this? So I had to find out what morality is all about, what is the nature of good and evil, HP 292389-001 Battery

what can I do about crime, what can I figure out about the sources of morality and evil? That was the first inquiry. The other inquiry was a social question: what kind of world can produce this? What kind of world allows such things to happen? What is modernity all about? Can we expect redemption?[1] HP HSTNN-DB90 Battery

 

In 1947, Heller began to study physics and chemistry at the University of Budapest. She changed her focus to philosophy, however, when her boyfriend at the time urged her to listen to the lecture of the Marxist philosopher György Lukács, on the intersections of philosophy and culture. At the time (and ever since), she did not understand the philosophical terminology. HP 337607-001 Battery

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 However, she was immediately taken by how much his lecture addressed her concerns and interests in how to live in the modern world, especially after the experience of World War II and the Holocaust. Faced with the existential choice between Marxism and Zionism, Heller chose Marxism and did not seek to emigrate to Israel. HP 337607-003 Battery

 

1947 was also the year that Heller joined the Communist Party while at a Zionist work camp[2] and began to develop her interest in Marxism. However, she felt that the Party was stifling the ability of its adherents to think freely due to the belief in Democratic centralism(total allegiance) to the Party. She was expelled from it for the first time in 1949, the year that Mátyás Rákosi came into power and ushered in the years of Stalinist rule. HP 338794-001 Battery

 

FROM THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION OF 1956 TO THE PRAGUE SPRING OF 1968

The 1956 Hungarian Revolution was the most important political event of her life, for at this time she saw the effect of the academic freedoms of Marxist critical theory as dangerous to the entire political and social structure of Hungary. HP 342661-001 Battery

The uprising confirmed Heller’s ideas that what Marx really means is for the people to have political autonomy and collective determination of social life. HP 345027-001 Battery

 

Lukács, Heller and other Marxist critical theorists emerged from the Revolution with the belief that Marxism and socialism needed to be applied to different nations in individual ways, effectively questioning the role of the Soviet Union in Hungary’s future. HP 346970-001 Battery

These ideas set Heller on an ideological collision course with the new Moscow-supported government of János Kádár: Heller was again expelled from the Communist Party and she was dismissed from the University in 1958 for refusing to indict Lukács as a collaborator in the Revolution. HP 361742-001 Battery

She was not able to resume her research until 1963, when she was invited to join the Sociological Institute at the Hungarian Academy as a researcher (Tormey 4–18) (Grumley 5–15). HP 367759-001 Battery

 

From 1963 can be seen the emergence of what would later be called the “Budapest School”, a philosophical forum that was formed by Lukács to promote the renewal of Marxist criticism in the face of practiced and theoretical socialism. HP 371785-001 Battery

Other participants in the Budapest School included together with Heller her second husband Ferenc Fehér, György Márkus, Mihály Vajda and some other scholars with the looser connection to the school (such as András Hegedűs, Istvan Eörsi, Janos Kis and Gyorgy Bence). HP 371786-001 Battery

The School emphasized the idea of the renaissance of Marxism, described by radical philosophy scholar Simon Tormey as "a flowering of the critical, HP 383220-001 Battery

oppositional potential they believed lay within Marxism and in particular within the ‘early Marx’ ... the Marxism of the individual ‘rich in needs,' of solidarity and self-governance ... they hoped to precipitate a crisis in those systems that had the temerity to call themselves 'socialist'."[citation needed] HP 372772-001 Battery

 

Heller’s work from this period, subsequently repudiated,[citation needed] concentrates on themes such as what Marx means to the character of modern societies; liberation theory as applied to the individual; the work of changing society and government from “the bottom up,” HP 395789-001 Battery

and affecting change through the level of the values, beliefs and customs of “everyday life.” Since 1990, Heller has been more interested in the issues of aesthetics in The Concept of The Beautiful(1998), Time Is Out of Joint(2002), and Immortal Comedy(2005). HP 396008-001 Battery

 

CAREER IN HUNGARY AFTER THE PRAGUE SPRING

Until the events of the 1968 Prague Spring, the Budapest School remained supportive of reformist attitudes towards socialism. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact forces and the crushing of dissent, however, the School and Heller came to believe that the Eastern European regimes were entirely corrupted and that reformist theory was apologist. Heller explains in her interview with Polony that: HP 398876-001 Battery

the regime just could not tolerate any other opinion; that is what a totalitarian regime is. But a totalitarian regime cannot totalize entirely, it cannot dismiss pluralism; pluralism exists in the modern world, but it can outlaw pluralism. HP 411462-421 Battery

To outlaw pluralism means that the Party decided which kind of dissenting opinion was allowed. That is, you could not write something without it being allowed by the Party. But we had started to write and think independently and that was such a tremendous challenge against the way the whole system worked. They could not possibly tolerate not playing by the rules of the game. And we did not play by the rules of the game. HP 417066-001 Battery

This view was completely incompatible with Kadar’s view of Hungary’s political future after the Revolution of 1956.[citation needed] According to her latest interview in Die Junge Welt, she thinks, that political and criminal processes after 1956 were antisemitic. HP 916-2150 Battery

 

After Lukács’ death in 1971, the School’s members became victims of political persecution, were made unemployed through their dismissal from their university jobs, and were subjected to official surveillance and general harassment.[citation needed] HP CGR-B1870AE Battery

Rather than remain a dissident, Heller and her husband the philosopher Ferenc Fehér, along with many other members of the core group of the School, chose exile in Australia in 1977. HP BAT0302001 Battery

 

CAREER ABROAD

Heller and Fehér encountered what they regarded as the sterility of local culture and lived in relative suburban obscurity close to La Trobe University in Melbourne, and they assisted in the transformation of Thesis Eleven from a labourist journal to a leading Australian journal of social theory before its subsequent conversion to 'American civilization' (Tormey 4–18)(Grumley 5–15). HP DG103A Battery

 

As described by Tormey, Heller’s mature thought during this time period is based on the tenets that can be attributed to her personal history and experience as a member of the Budapest School, focusing on the stress on the individual as agent; HP DM842A Battery

the hostility to the justification of the state of affairs by reference to non-moral or non-ethical criteria; the belief in ‘human substance’ as the origin of everything that is good or worthwhile; and the hostility to forms of theorizing and political practice that deny equality, rationality and self-determination in the name of ‘our’ interests and needs, however defined. HP DP390A Battery

 

Heller and Fehér left Australia in 1986 to take up positions in The New School in New York City, where Heller currently holds the position of Hannah Arendt Professor of Philosophy in the Graduate Studies Program. Her philosophy continued its neo-liberal postmodernisation which began with its repudiation of Marxism for a functionalist and market-based theory of society and ended with a conversion to a kind of neoconservatism under the influence of the events of 9-11. HP DP399A Battery

Her contribution to the field of philosophy has been recognized by the many awards that she has received (such as the Hannah Arendt Prize for Political Philosophy, Bremen, 1995) and the Szechenyi National Prize in Hungary, 1995)[citation needed] and the various academic societies that she serves on, including the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 2007 she visited China for a week for the first time. HP EF419A Battery

 

Heller currently researches and writes prolifically on ethics, Shakespeare, aesthetics, political theory, modernity, and the role of Central Europe in historical events. HP EG417AA Battery

 

In 2006, she was the recipient of the Sonning Prize, in 2010 she received the Goethe Medal.[citation needed]

In 2010, Heller, with 26 other well known and successful Hungarian women, joined the campaign for a referendum for a female quota in the Hungarian legislation.[3] HP EV087AA Battery

 

Heller continues to publish internationally renowned works, including republications of her previous works in English, all of which are internationally revered by scholars such as Lydia Goehr (on Heller's The Concept of the Beautiful), HP EV088AA Battery

Richard Wolin (on Heller's recent republication of A Theory of Feelings), Dmitri Nikulin (on comedy and ethics), John Grumley (whose own work focuses on Heller in Agnes Heller: A Moralist in the Vortex of History), John Rundell (on Heller's aesthetics and theory of modernity), Preben Kaarsholm (on Heller's A Short History of My Philosophy), among others. HP EX941AA Battery

 

Heller is now Professor Emeritus at the New School for Social Research in New York. [3]She continues to work actively both academically and politically around the globe. HP F1466A Battery

Recently she has spoken at the Imre Kertesz College in Jena, Germany together with Polish sociologist, Zygmunt Bauman [4], at the Tübingen Book Fair in Germany speaking together with Former German Justice Minister, Herta Däubler-Gmelin, [5], and other venues worldwide. HP EX942AA Battery

 

POLITICAL SYMPATHIES AND ANTIPATHIES

She has been criticized because of her aversion towards right wing politicians, especially towards Viktor Orbán, whom she regards as a[4] dictatorial and antisemitic politician. HP F1739A Battery

After the publication of the lie speech of Ferenc Gyurcsány (MSZP-Hungarian Socialist Party) in 2006, she took a position in defense of the MSZP, and especially of Gyurcsány's movement, the Demokratikus Charta -Democratic Charta, in which she sees the only cure for Hungarian antisemitism. HP F2019 Battery

During a European Parliament session, she denied[5] that during the civic manifestations to force the resignation of Gyurcsány there had been atrocities against the protesters by the Hungarian police forces. Heller said "no one was shot, no one was tortured, show me a fact"[6] HP F2019A Battery

The source of the controversy over this statement was partly due to the fact that Hungarian demonstrators were shot with rubber bullets, some in the eye with permanent injuries ans the police broke fingers, arms and legs not only on peaceful demonstrators, HP F2019B Battery

but also on inocent bystanders. Some of the liberal press in Hungary claimed that this makes the original statement false. Heller herselfstates that she thinks that the shot verb in the question of the MP could be translated asshot down (i.e. HP F2024 Battery

The statements resulted in hate messages on Heller's answering machine, according to Heller's statement;including that she "should have rotted in her mother's womb". Heller described these calls as a hate campaign; stating on hungarian public television that she "didn't have any idea why." HP F2024A Battery

 

PUBLIC FUNDS

Ágnes Heller is now under police investigation in connection with alleged financial fraud in the Philosophy Department of the Academy of Hungarian Sciences. Government "accountability commissioner" Gyula Budai[7] [8] has claimed, that she is responsible formisusing public funds. HP F2024B Battery

 

Some of the Hungarian media published allegations of misuse of research funds by Heller and other liberal philosophers (Gábor Borbély, Kornél Steiger, Mihaly Vajda, Sándor Radnóti, and János Weiss) These researchers were the PI's of peer-reviewed grants -- total value 450 million HUF (USD 2.5 million) -- funded during the tenure of the Ferenc Gyurcsány government, including liberal Alliance of Free Democrats minister, Bálint Magyar.[9][10] HP F2299A Battery

 

Heller responds that all the accusations are false and a worrisome symptom of a drift toward authoritarianism and antisemitism in contemporary Hungary. The left, liberal and international media see the media-accusations as part of a systematic government harassment campaign against its critics.[11][12] HP F3172A Battery

 

The only allegations of the right wing media that have since been tested in court—in the form of lawsuits against the press for false statements and accusations—have been decided in the Agnes Heller's (and the other accused philosophers) favor.[13] HP F4486B Battery

The ongoing accusations of the government-supported press and other media have since been declining, but the police is to investigate the case. The decision on the prosecution was due by the end of 2011. HP F4486A Battery

 

Numerous European and international scholars[14] have come out in a significant public show of support for Heller and other academics recently under attack in Hungary, as well as expressed grave concern for the harassment taking place there against the academics. [6] [7] [8] HP F4809A Battery

Jürgen Habermas and Julian Nida-Rümelin have published a letter of "Outcry" [Aufruf] in the Süddeutsche Zeitung in Germany against what they see of the harassment against Heller and similar liberal academics in Hungary. This letter has been widely circulated and translated into English online. [9]. HP F4812A Battery

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