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Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins was born on May 19, 1795, to Samuel Hopkins (1759–1814) of Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and Hannah Janney (1774–1864), of Loudoun County, Virginia. Home was Whitehall, a 500-acre (two km²) tobacco plantation in Anne Arundel County.[3] His first name derives from a maternal great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who passed it on to her sons. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard The Hopkin s family were members of the Society of Friends (Quakers). In 1807 they emancipated their slaves in accordance with their local Society decree, which called for freeing the able-bodied and caring for the others, who would remain at the plantation and provide labor as they could.[4] The second eldest of eleven children, 12 year-old Johns was required to work on the farm, interrupting his formal education. From 1806 to 1809, he likely attended The Free School of Anne Arundel County, which was located in today's Davidsonville, Maryland. GATEWAY M-6750 Laptop Keyboard In 1812, at the age of 17, Hopkins left the plantation to work in his uncle Gerard Hopkins' Baltimore wholesale grocery business. While living with his uncle's family, Johns and his cousin, Elizabeth, fell in love; however, the Quaker taboo against marriage of first cousins was especially strong, and neither Johns nor Elizabeth ever married.[3] As he became able, Hopkins provided for his extended family, both during his life and posthumously through his will. He bequeathed a home for Elizabeth, where she lived until her death in 1889. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Whitehall Plantation is located in today's Crofton, Maryland. Its home, since restored and modified, is on Johns Hopkins Road, adjacent to Reidel Road. The heavily landscaped property is surrounded by Walden Golf Course, and bears a historic marker. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard

Business years

Hopkins' early experiences and successes in business came when he was put in charge of the store while his uncle was away during the War of 1812. After seven years with his uncle, Hopkins went into business together with Benjamin Moore, a fellow Quaker. The business partnership was later dissolved with Moore purporting Hopkins' penchant for capital accumulation as the cause for the divide.[3]SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard After Moore's withdrawal, Hopkins partnered with three of his brothers and established Hopkins & Brothers. The company prospered by selling various wares in theShenandoah Valley from Conestoga wagons, sometimes in exchange for corn whiskey, which was then sold in Baltimore as "Hopkins' Best".HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard The bulk of Hopkins' fortune however was made by his judicious investments in a myriad of ventures, most notably the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O), of which he became a Director in 1847 and Chairman of the Finance Committee in 1855. He was also President of Merchants' Bank as well as director of a number of other organizations.[5]HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard A charitable individual, Hopkins put up his own money more than once to not only aid Baltimore City during times of financial crises, but also to twice bail the railroad out of debt, in 1857 and 1873.[6] In 1996, Johns Hopkins ranked 69th in "The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates - A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present."[7]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard One of the first campaigns of the American Civil War was planned at Johns Hopkins' summer estate, Clifton, where he had also entertained a number of foreign dignitaries including the future King Edward VII.[8] Hopkins was a strong supporter of the Union, unlike most Marylanders, who sympathized with and often supported the South and the Confederacy.[9] During the Civil War, Clifton became a frequent meeting place for local Union sympathizers, and federal officials. Taney, who continually opposed Lincoln's presidential decisions, such as his policies of limiting habeas corpus and stationing troops in Maryland. In 1862 Hopkins wrote a letter to Lincoln requesting the President not to heed the detractors' calls and continue to keep soldiers stationed in Maryland. Hopkins also pledged financial and logistic support to Lincoln, in particular the free use of the B&O railway system.[10][11]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard

Abolitionism

Johns Hopkins is described as being an "abolitionist before the word was even invented", having been represented as such both prior to the Civil War period, as well as during the Civil War and Reconstruction Era.[12][13][14] There are several accounts that describe the abolitionist influence Hopkins was privy to as a 12 year old participant in his parents' emancipation of their family's slaves in 1807.[3] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Prior to the Civil War Johns Hopkins worked closely with two of America's most famous abolitionists, Myrtilla Miner[15] and Henry Ward Beecher.[16] During the Civil War Johns Hopkins, being a staunch supporter of Lincoln and the Union, was instrumental in bringing fruition to Lincoln's emancipatory vision.[17][18]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard After the Civil War and during Reconstruction, Johns Hopkins' stance on abolitionism infuriated many prominent people in Baltimore.[19][20] During the AmericanReconstruction period to his death [21] his abolitionism was expressed in the documents founding the Johns Hopkins Institutions, and reported in newspaper articles before, during, and after the founding of these institutions. Before the war, there was significant written opposition to his support for Myrtilla Miner's founding of a school for African American females[22]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard (now the University of the District of Columbia). Similarly, opposition (and some support) was expressed during Reconstruction, such as in 1867, the same year he filed papers incorporating the Johns Hopkins Institutions, when he attempted unsuccessfully to stop the convening of the Constitutional Convention where the Democratic Party came into power and where a new Constitution, the Constitution still in effect, was voted to replace the Constitution of the Radical Republicans previously in power.[23]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Apparent also in the literature of the times was opposition, and support for, the various other ways he expressed opposition to the racial practices that were beginning to emerge, and re-emerge as well, in the city of Baltimore, the state of Maryland, the nation and in the posthumously constructed and founded institutions that would carry his name,[24]  HP Envy 15 Laptop KeyboardBaltimore American journalist praised Hopkins for founding three institutions, a university, a hospital and an orphan asylum, specifically for colored children, adding that Hopkins was a "man (beyond his times) who knew no race" citing his provisions for both blacks and whites in the plans for his hospital. The reporter also pointed to similarities between Benjamin Franklin's and Johns Hopkins' views on hospital care and construction, such as their shared interest in free hospitals and the availability of emergency services without prejudice. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard This article, first published in 1870, also accompanied Hopkins' obituary in the Baltimore American as a tribute in 1873. Cited in many of the newspaper articles on him during his lifetime and immediately after his death were his provisions of scholarships for the poor, and quality health services for the underserved, the poor without regard to their age, sex and color, the colored children asylum and other orphanages, the mentally ill and convalescents. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard Living his entire adult life in Baltimore, Hopkins made many friends among the city's social elite, many of them Quakers. One of these friends was George Peabody, who was also born in 1795, and who in 1857 founded the Peabody Institute in Baltimore. Other examples of public giving were evident in the city, as public buildings housing free libraries, schools and foundations sprang up along the city's widening streets. On the advice of Peabody, some believe, Hopkins determined to use his great wealth for the public good. SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard The Civil War had taken its toll on Baltimore, however, as did the yellow fever and cholera epidemics that repeatedly ravaged the nation's cities, killing 853 in Baltimore in the summer of 1832 alone. Hopkins was keenly aware of the city's need for medical facilities, particularly in light of the medical advances made during the war, TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard and in 1870 he made a will setting aside seven million dollars - mostly in B&O stock - for the incorporation of a free hospital and affiliated medical and nurse's training colleges, as well as an orphanage for colored children and a university. Many board members were on both boards. The hospital and orphan asylum would each be overseen by the 12-member hospital board of trustees, Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard and the university by the 12-member university board of trustees. Johns Hopkins' bequest was used to posthumously found the Johns Hopkins Colored Children Orphan Asylum [25] first as he requested, in 1875; the Johns Hopkins University in 1876; the Johns Hopkins Press, the longest continuously operating academic press in America, in 1878; the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in 1889; the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine 1893; and the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1916. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins' views on his bequests, and on the duties and responsibilities of the two board of trustees, especially the hospital board of trustees led by his friend and fellow Quaker Francis King, were formally stated primarily in four documents, the incorporation papers filed in 1867, his instruction letter to the hospital trustees dated March 12, 1873, his will, which was quoted from extensively in his Baltimore Sun obituary,[26] and in his will's two codicils, one dated 1870 and the other dated 1873.[27] HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard In these documents, Hopkins also made provisions for scholarships to be provided for poor youths in the states where Johns Hopkins had made his wealth, as well as assistance to orphanages other than the one for African American children, to members of his family, to those he employed, black and white, his cousin Elizabeth, and, again, to other institutions for the care and education of youths regardless of color and the care of the elderly, and the ill, including the mentally ill, and convalescents. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard John Rudolph Niernsee, one of the most famous architects of the time, designed the orphan asylum and helped to design the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The original site for the Johns Hopkins University had been chosen personally by Hopkins. According to his will, it was to be located at his summer estate, Clifton. However, a decision was made not to found the university there.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard The property, now owned by the city of Baltimore, is the site of a golf course and a park named Clifton Park. While the Johns Hopkins Colored Children Orphan Asylum was founded by the hospital trustees, the other institutions that carry the name of "Johns Hopkins" were founded under the administration of the first president of the Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital, Daniel Coit Gilman and his successors. ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard

Colored Children Orphan Asylum

As per Johns Hopkins' instruction letter, the Johns Hopkins Colored Children Orphan Asylum (JHCCOA)[28] was founded first, in 1875, a year before Gilman's inauguration, now the founding date of the university. The construction of the asylum, including its educational and living facilities, was praised by The Nation and the Baltimore American, the latter stating that the orphan asylum was a place where "nothing was wanting that could benefit science and humanity". As was done for other Johns Hopkins Institutions, it was planned after visits and correspondence with similar institutions in Europe and America. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins Orphan Asylum opened with 24 boys and girls. Under Gilman and his successors, this orphanage was later changed to serve as an orphanage and training school for black female orphans principally as domestic workers, and next as an "orthopedic convalescent" home and school for "colored crippled" children and orphans. The asylum was eventually closed in 1924 nearly fifty years after it opened, and was never reopened. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard As per Hopkins' March 1873 Instruction Letter, the School of Nursing was founded alongside the Hospital in 1889 by the hospital board of trustees in consultation with Florence Nightingale. Both the nursing school and the hospital were founded over a decade after the founding of the orphan asylum in 1875 and the university in 1876. Hopkins' instruction letter explicitly stated his vision for the hospital; first, to provide assistance to the poor of "all races", no matter the indigent patient's "age, sex or color";HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard econd, that wealthier patients would pay for services and thereby subsidize the care provided to the indigent; third, that the hospital would be the administrative unit for the orphan asylum for African American children which was to receive $25,000 in annual support out of the hospital's half of the endowment; and fourth, that the hospital and orphan asylum should serve 400 patients and 400 children respectively, fifth, that the hospital should be part of the university, and, sixth, that religion but not sectarianism should be an influence in the hospital.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard By the end of Gilman's presidency, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Press, Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Colored Children Orphan Asylum had been founded, the latter by the trustees, and the others in the order listed under the Gilman administration. "Sex" and "color" were major issues in the early history of the Johns Hopkins Institutions. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard The founding of the School of Nursing is usually linked to Johns Hopkins' statements in his March 1873 instruction letter to the trustees that "I desire you to establish, in connection with the hospital, a training school for female nurses. This provision will secure the services of women competent to care for those sick in the hospital wards, and will enable you to benefit the whole community by supplying it with a class of trained and experienced nurses".HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Women's most well known success after the founding of the nursing school was their requirement that they be allowed to attend Johns Hopkins medical institutions after they provided funds that made possible the opening of the School of Medicine in 1893. Five African American women were among the first women enrolled in the Johns Hopkins University's undergraduate school in 1970. TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Furthermore Kelly Miller and Frederick Scott were the first persons of African descent to attend the Johns Hopkins University's graduate and undergraduate schools, respectively. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Frederick Scott was the first graduate of African descent from Johns Hopkins University, and he, Robert Gamble, and Kenyan-born James Nabwangu were the first graduates of African descent from Johns Hopkins University's undergraduate school, and Johns Hopkins' medical schools respectively. Those employees holding jobs in the service sector are those of African descent who have the longest and most continuous history at the Johns Hopkins Institutions. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Following Hopkins' death, the Baltimore Sun wrote a lengthy obituary which closed thus: "In the death of Johns Hopkins a career has been closed which affords a rare example of successful energy in individual accumulations, and of practical beneficence in devoting the gains thus acquired to the public." His contribution to the university that has become his greatest legacy was, by all accounts, the largest philanthropic bequest ever made to an American educational institution. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins' Quaker faith and his early life experiences, in particular the 1807 emancipation, had a lasting influence throughout his life and his posthumous legacy as a businessman, railroad man, banker, investor, ship owner,[29] philanthropist and a founder of several Institutions. From very early on, Johns Hopkins had looked upon his wealth as a trust to benefit future generations. HP G42-466LA Laptop Keyboard He is said to have told his gardener that, "like the man in the parable, I have had many talents given to me and I feel they are in trust. I shall not bury them but give them to the lads who long for a wider education"; his philosophy quietly anticipated Andrew Carnegie's much publicized Gospel of Wealth by more than 25 years.[30]HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard His philanthropy, banking and other business practices were founded neither on slavery nor on the separate but unequal racism of the post Civil War years of his life. In this vein, integral parts of his legacy, as an emancipator, a founder of an orphan asylum for African-American youths, a staunch advocate of abolitionism and of quality care not just for those physically ill, but also for the elderly, the poor, no matter their age, gender, or skin color, and the mentally ill, have by and large been overlooked, even in the institutions that carry his name. SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard In 1973 Johns Hopkins was cited prominently in the Pulitzer Prize winning book The Americans: The Democratic Experience byDaniel Boorstin, former head of the Library of Congress. From November 14, 1975 to September 6, 1976 Hopkins portrait was displayed at the National Portrait Gallery in an exhibit on the democratization of America based on Boorstin's book. In 1989, the United States Postal Serviceissued a $1 postage stamp in Johns Hopkins' honor, as part of the Great Americans series.[31]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University[5] (informally Johns HopkinsJHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research universitybased in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as the first president on February 22, 1876.[7] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities. HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years.[8] As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins,[9] and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.[10]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (Between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland.[11] At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,[12] was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.[13]DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor. ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree.  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the nameJohn.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."[14]SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of JohnHopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."[15]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The founders intended the university to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significance: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington's birthday. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of theUniversity of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris;[16] the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemistIra Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerousscholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing educationprograms and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-Americanstudent, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi.[18] These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients."[19] HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."[19]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions. The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.[20]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university.[citation needed]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[21] They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.[21]ACER Aspire 2920-3A2G12Mi Laptop Keyboard The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students. The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.[22]DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are here. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50e-1848 Laptop Keyboard In 2007 the university was pursuing LEED certification for several buildings.[39] Energy retrofits in certain buildings have resulted in over 50% less energy consumption.[39] Retrofits included a green roof, experimentation with waterless urinals and low-flow shower heads, and upgraded fluorescent lighting that reduced electricity for lighting on one campus by over 40 percent. SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard Similar lighting retrofits were underway at all campuses. At the beginning of 2012, Hopkins sustainability announced the installation of 2,708 solar panels atop buildings at Homewood (Rec/Athletic Center, Mattin Center), the Eastern Building on 33rd Street and the East Baltimore Campus (Pinkard Building, 2024 Building, Bloomberg Building, Hampton House). These solar panels will produce 997,400 kWh and decrease 1,200,000 lbs of greenhouse gases each year.[40]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown into the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians.[36] SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee.[42] The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.[43]SAMSUNG NB30 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years.[48] Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1. SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[57] It is ranked #6 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings.[58] The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #18 internationally (#16 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy.[59] ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[60] and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[61][62][63] Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[64] #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,[65] ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008,[66] and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[67] HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine#2[68] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1[69] in the nation. TheSchool of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions.[70] The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences.[71] Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is # Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard 1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[72] Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008.[73] The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.[74]DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical &Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences andInternational Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.[75][76] Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop Keyboard The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[77] Although no formal rankings exist formusic conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and theCurtis Institute. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ67 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor.[78] Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.[79]SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard

Libraries

The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes.[80] It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Welch Medical Library, the Medical Institution Libraries, the School of Nursing Library, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, HP G62-b39SE Laptop Keyboard the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archives. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard The Milton S. Eisenhower Library, located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It was built in the 1960s. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower. JHU's library was previously housed in Gilman Hall, and other smaller departmental libraries throughout the Homewood campus.[81] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building ( although no written rule limits building height). Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard In December 2008, an addition directly to the south of the library was announced. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody and will function as a "…collaborative learning space." It successfully opened on August 13, 2012.[82][83]SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers.[45][84] In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university.[8]  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard Thirty-six (36) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members.[85] JHU views its academic strengths as being in art history, biological, physical and other natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theory, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages.[citation needed]HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard HP AETT9U00010 Laptop Keyboard Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking #3 globally behind Harvard University and Max Planck Society with the highest total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding.[86] In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to aNational Science Foundation (NSF) ranking.[87] These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Maryland. The Johns Hopkins University also offers the "Center for Talented Youth" program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the "Center for Talented Youth" or CTY helps fulfill the university's mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States.[97] To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university presses. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins Student Government Association represents undergraduates in campus issues and projects. It is elected annually.[98] Blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.[99][100]Packard Bell EasyNote TJ61 Laptop Keyboard Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006.  DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as nearby Inner Harbor.  SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the Homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid-to-late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington area. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard Since 1972, the Johns Hopkins Outdoors Club, or JHOC, has organized weekend trips for students looking to experience the outdoors. Along with Outdoor Pursuits, an arm of the University's Rec Center, JHOC offers students the opportunity to participate in activities such as canoeing, kayaking, caving, and mountain biking. HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard Housing Living on campus is required for first- and second-year students, except for commuter students who live with a parent or legal guardian.[101] Housing is not guaranteed for juniors or seniors at Johns Hopkins. DELL Latitude E5400 Laptop Keyboard Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three major residence hall complexes: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B.[102] AMR I was built in 1923 and includes Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood houses; AMR II in 1954, holding Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, Lazear houses.[citation needed] SAMSUNG M40 Laptop Keyboard The houses were named for Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and II. While each house has its own outside entrance, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish them. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad.[citation needed]They have not yet been dedicated. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, located on the other side of North Charles Street.[102]SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard Freshman enter a housing lottery in their spring semester to determine where they will live during their sophomore year. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering the campus housing lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row houses. They occupy one of four buildings.[103] The first, McCoy Hall, is located next to Wolman Hall on North Charles Street. McCoy Hall is predominantly composed of sophomores and transfer students.[104] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Apartment-style housing is offered in the Bradford Apartments, one block east of campus on St. Paul Street, and in the Homewood Apartments, two blocks south on Nor

th Charles Street.[103] The last is Charles Commons, the newest and largest university–owned dormitory, located at the corner of North Charles and East 33rd.  HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard It was completed in 2006 to house 618 students and represented a major step by the university towards offering on–campus housing to students.[104]Charles Commons consists of two 11–story towers connected by a bridge, residential suites and features a ballroom, fitness center and several conference rooms. Nolan's on 33rd, a dining hall specializing in dinner services, is also located in the building.[104]ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard JHU rents several buildings on North Charles Street to house students when necessary. At full capacity, dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates.[citation needed] Privately–owned apartment buildings around Homewood are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university–owned dormitories, housing is available.  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and eight sororities, which include approximately 25% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the university culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi fraternity became the first to form a chapter on campus. Sororities arrived at Hopkins in 1982. As with all Hopkins programs, Greek discrimination on the basis of "marital status, pregnancy, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status" is prohibited.[105] JHU also has an anti–hazing policy[106] and prohibits alcohol at recruitment activities.[107]Hopkins does not permit "city–wide" chapters, and requires all members of a JHU recognized fraternity or sorority to be a JHU student.[108]HP AE0P7U00010 Laptop Keyboard As of spring 2011, 1,208 students were members of one of Hopkins' fraternities or sororities. The All–Greek Average GPA was 3.31, above the undergraduate average GPA.[109] In spring 2010 the university was considering construction of a "fraternity row" of houses to consolidate the groups on campus.[110]DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the Inter–Fraternity Council, the National Panhellenic Conference, theNational Pan-Hellenic Council and the Multicultural Council. HP Mini CQ10-101SA Laptop Keyboard Kappa Alpha Theta, a National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) sorority, was disbanded by its national headquarters on April 14, 2009 after twelve years on campus.[117] The removal was due to repeated risk management violations.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard In March 2010, Johns Hopkins University officially opened for NPC extension.[clarification needed] In May 2010, the University Panhellenic Council selected Pi Beta Phi, which opened in the fall of 2010.[citation needed][118] Recruitment for Inter–Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester.[citation needed] All participants must have completed one semester and must be in good academic standing.[citation needed] TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7352 Laptop Keyboard Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but no sororities do.[citation needed] Baltimore City allows housing to be zoned specifically for use as a fraternity or sorority house, but in practice this zoning code has not been awarded for at least 50 years.[citation needed] Only Sigma Phi Epsilon's building has this zoning code due to its consistent ownership since the 1920s.[119]HP G61-421SO Laptop Keyboard The women's team is a member of the American Lacrosse Conference (ALC). The team is developing into a top twenty team. The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMP. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315 Laptop Keyboard APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. However, recently the team has struggled and finished with a record of 5 wins and 12 losses in the 2009 season. SONY Vaio VGN-AW11M/H Laptop Keyboard Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. JHU Men's Swimming won three consecutive NCAA Championships in 1977, 1978, and 1979.[137] In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-211NR Laptop Keyboard The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship. HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Laptop Keyboard The Swimming team ranked highly in NCAA Division III for the last 10 years, most recently placing second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry withMcDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College), TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament, with three tournament appearances since 2005. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College.[138]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard As of 2011, there had been 37 Nobel Laureates, who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were faculty members.[139] Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.[139][140] Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned M.D. while Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degrees. ACER Aspire 3613WLMi Laptop Keyboard Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category.[139] Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[141] Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[142] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[143] and David H. Hubeland Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[144] Two Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi in 2002[145] and Adam Riess in 2011. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7352 Laptop Keyboard As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 233,209 people, 89,019 households and 42,462 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,029.7 people per square mile (1,169.8/km²). There were 108,843 housing units at an average density of 1,345.4 per square mile (519.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 83.96% White, 7.07% African American, 0.36% Native American, 7.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.67% from other races and 2.55% from two or more races. 6.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5111 Laptop Keyboard There were 89,019 households out of which 22.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 52.3% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.87. ASUS F80C Laptop Keyboard\ In the city the population was spread out with 17.9% under the age of 18, 21.4% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard The median income for a household in the city was $41,941, and the median income for a family was $59,840. Males had a median income of $36,718 versus $30,551 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,498. About 5.8% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Madison is the larger principal city of the Madison-Baraboo CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Madison metropolitan area (Columbia, Dane and Iowa counties) and the Baraboo micropolitan area (Sauk County),[15][16][17] which had a combined population of 630,569[18] at the 2010 census.[2]TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

Government

Madison has a mayor-council system of government. Madison's city council, known as the Common Council, consists of 20 members, one from each district. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard City voters have supported the Democratic Party in national elections in the last half-century, and a liberal and progressive majority is generally elected to the city council. Detractors often refer to Madison as The People's Republicof Madison, the "Left Coast of Wisconsin" or as "78 square miles surrounded by reality." This latter phrase was coined by former Wisconsin Republican governor Lee S. Dreyfus, while campaigning in 1978, as recounted by campaign aide Bill Kraus.[19]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard The city's voters are generally much more liberal than voters in the rest of Wisconsin. For example, 76% of Madison voters voted against a 2006 state constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage,[20] even though the ban passed statewide with 59% of the vote.[21]HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard Madison city politics remain dominated by activists of liberal and progressive ideologies. In 1992, a local third party,Progressive Dane, was founded. Recently enacted city policies supported in the Progressive Dane platform have included aninclusionary zoning ordinance, later abandoned by the mayor and a majority of the city council, and a city minimum wage. The party holds several seats on the Madison City Council and Dane County Board of Supervisors, and is aligned variously with the Democratic and Green parties. DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard In early 2011, Madison was the site for large protests against a bill proposed by Governor Scott Walker that removed collective bargaining rights for public worker unions. The protests at the capitol ranged in size from 10,000 to over 100,000 people and lasted for several months. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

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