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Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University[5] (informally Johns HopkinsJHU, or just Hopkins) is a private research universitybased in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as the first president on February 22, 1876.[7]SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years.[8] As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins,[9] and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.[10]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor. ASUS A8E Laptop Keyboard In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. HP G42-358TU Laptop Keyboard I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the nameJohn.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."[14]  HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of JohnHopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."[15] HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. HP G71-447US Laptop Keyboard The founders intended the university to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significance: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington's birthday. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of theUniversity of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris;[16] the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemistIra Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerousscholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS530B Laptop Keyboard William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton.  HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing educationprograms and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard


Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-Americanstudent, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi.[18]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients."[19]  HP G62-b50EB Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31Z Laptop Keyboard while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."[19]IBM ThinkPad T41P Laptop Keyboard As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions. DELL Inspiron N5030 Laptop Keyboard The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.[20]TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. DELL Latitude D631 Laptop Keyboard Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university.[citation needed]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[21] They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907. SONY VAIO PCG-F23/BP2 Laptop Keyboard Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.[21]HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students. The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.[22]Toshiba Satellite M70-354 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. HP Pavilion dv6-2106eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are here.  HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years.[48] HP Pavilion G61-409CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1. Toshiba Portege R400 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[57] It is ranked #1 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings.[58] The 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #17 internationally (#15 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy.[59] In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[60] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[61][62][63] Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[64] #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,[65] ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008,[66] and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[67]Toshiba Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine#2[68] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1[69] in the nation. TheSchool of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions.[70] The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences.[71] ACER TravelMate 5623WLMi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[72] Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008.[73] The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.[74]SONY Vaio VPC-EA3S1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical &Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences andInternational Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.[75][76] HP Pavilion dv7-1070ev Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.[citation needed]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[77] Although no formal rankings exist formusic conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and theCurtis Institute. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor.[78] Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.[79] HP pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes.[80] It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Welch Medical Library, the Medical Institution Libraries, the School of Nursing Library, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archives. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard The Milton S. Eisenhower Library, located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It was built in the 1960s. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower. JHU's library was previously housed in Gilman Hall, and other smaller departmental libraries throughout the Homewood campus.[81]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building ( although no written rule limits building height). DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard In December 2008, an addition directly to the south of the library was announced. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody and will function as a "…collaborative learning space." It successfully opened on August 13, 2012.[82][83]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Research The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers.[45][84] In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university.[8] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard Thirty-seven (37) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members.[85]JHU views its academic strengths as being in art history, biological, physical and other natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theory, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages.[citation needed]HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking #3 globally behind Harvard University and Max Planck Society with the highest total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.[10]  SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding.[86] In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to aNational Science Foundation (NSF) ranking.[87] These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, HP Mini 311-1033CA Laptop Keyboard Maryland. The Johns Hopkins University also offers the "Center for Talented Youth" program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the "Center for Talented Youth" or CTY helps fulfill the university's mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world.[8]DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States.[97] To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university presses. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins Student Government Association represents undergraduates in campus issues and projects. It is elected annually.[98] Blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006. HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.[99][100]Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU Laptop Keyboard Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as nearby Inner Harbor.  ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the Homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid-to-late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington area. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country. HP Pavilion dv7-3169wm Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since 1972, the Johns Hopkins Outdoors Club, or JHOC, has organized weekend trips for students looking to experience the outdoors. Along with Outdoor Pursuits, an arm of the University's Rec Center, JHOC offers students the opportunity to participate in activities such as canoeing, kayaking, caving, and mountain biking.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Living on campus is required for first- and second-year students, except for commuter students who live with a parent or legal guardian.[101] Housing is not guaranteed for juniors or seniors at Johns Hopkins. HP G72-b10SW Laptop Keyboard Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three major residence hall complexes: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B.[102] AMR I was built in 1923 and includes Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood houses; AMR II in 1954, holding Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, SONY VGN-FE28B Laptop Keyboard Lazear houses.[citation needed] The houses were named for Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and II. While each house has its own outside entrance, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish them. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad.[citation needed]They have not yet been dedicated. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, located on the other side of North Charles Street.[102]SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard Freshman enter a housing lottery in their spring semester to determine where they will live during their sophomore year. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering the campus housing lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row houses. They occupy one of four buildings.[103] The first, McCoy Hall, is located next to Wolman Hall on North Charles Street. McCoy Hall is predominantly composed of sophomores and transfer students.[104] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Apartment-style housing is offered in the Bradford Apartments, one block east of campus on St. Paul Street, and in the Homewood Apartments, two blocks south on North Charles Street.[103] The last is Charles Commons, the newest and largest university–owned dormitory, located at the corner of North Charles and East 33rd. It was completed in 2006 to house 618 students and represented a major step by the university towards offering on–campus housing to students.[104] Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard Charles Commons consists of two 11–story towers connected by a bridge, residential suites and features a ballroom, fitness center and several conference rooms. Nolan's on 33rd, a dining hall specializing in dinner services, is also located in the building.[104]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard JHU rents several buildings on North Charles Street to house students when necessary. At full capacity, dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates.[citation needed] Privately–owned apartment buildings around Homewood are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university–owned dormitories, housing is available. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and eight sororities, which include approximately 25% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the university culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi fraternity became the first to form a chapter on campus. Sororities arrived at Hopkins in 1982. As with all Hopkins programs, Greek discrimination on the basis of "marital status, pregnancy, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status" is prohibited.[105] JHU also has an anti–hazing policy[106] and prohibits alcohol at recruitment activities.[107]Hopkins does not permit "city–wide" chapters, and requires all members of a JHU recognized fraternity or sorority to be a JHU student.[108]ASUS Z99Jc Laptop Keyboard As of spring 2011, 1,208 students were members of one of Hopkins' fraternities or sororities. The All–Greek Average GPA was 3.31, above the undergraduate average GPA.[109] In spring 2010 the university was considering construction of a "fraternity row" of houses to consolidate the groups on campus.[110]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the Inter–Fraternity Council, the National Panhellenic Conference, theNational Pan-Hellenic Council and the Multicultural Council. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Unrecognized Alpha Kappa Alpha and Delta Sigma Theta African–American interest sororities often recruit Johns Hopkins undergraduates, in their city–wide chapters. Delta Sigma Theta was the first National Pan–Hellenic Council member to charter on the campus in 1976, as well as the first sorority of any kind on the JHU campus.[citation needed]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard Kappa Alpha Theta, a National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) sorority, was disbanded by its national headquarters on April 14, 2009 after twelve years on campus.[117] The removal was due to repeated risk management violations.[citation needed] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard In March 2010, Johns Hopkins University officially opened for NPC extension.[clarification needed] In May 2010, the University Panhellenic Council selected Pi Beta Phi, which opened in the fall of 2010.[citation needed][118]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Recruitment for Inter–Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester.[citation needed] All participants must have completed one semester and must be in good academic standing.[citation needed]HP G42-161LA Laptop Keyboard Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but no sororities do.[citation needed] Baltimore City allows housing to be zoned specifically for use as a fraternity or sorority house, but in practice this zoning code has not been awarded for at least 50 years.[citation needed] Only Sigma Phi Epsilon's building has this zoning code due to its consistent ownership since the 1920s.[119]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse team. The team does not belong to a conference. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titles.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Hopkins' primary national rivals arePrinceton University, Syracuse University, and the University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola College(competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson University, the United States Naval Academy, and theUniversity of Maryland. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 103 times since 1899, twice in playoff matches. HP Pavilion dv6736nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMP. In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. However, recently the team has struggled and finished with a record of 5 wins and 12 losses in the 2009 season. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ43CN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Other teams

Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. JHU Men's Swimming won three consecutive NCAA Championships in 1977, 1978, and 1979.[137] In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. HP Pavilion dv2670br Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship. Toshiba Satellite L300-217 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Swimming team ranked highly in NCAA Division III for the last 10 years, most recently placing second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry withMcDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College),  HP Envy 15-1099eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament, with three tournament appearances since 2005. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College.[138]HP Pavilion dv6-2009eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As of 2011, there had been 37 Nobel Laureates, who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were faculty members.[139] Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.[139][140] Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned M.D. while Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degrees.  Toshiba Satellite L630-08R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category.[139] Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[141] Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[142] Gateway LT31 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[143] and David H. Hubeland Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[144] Two Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi in 2002[145] and Adam Riess in 2011. [146]HP Pavilion dv6-2005et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the Residence Act approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. As permitted by the U.S. Constitution, the District is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States Congress and is therefore not a part of any U.S. state. HP Pavilion dv7-6080eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the preexisting settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria; however, Congress returned the Virginia portion in 1846. Named in honor ofGeorge Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. Congress created asingle municipal government for the whole District of Columbia after the American Civil War. FUJITSU LifeBook A6110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Washington, D.C., had an estimated population of 617,996 in 2011, the 25th most populous place in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington Metropolitan Area, of which the District is a part, has a population of nearly 5.6 million, the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the country. SONY VAIO VGN-CR325 Laptop Keyboard The centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X301 Laptop Keyboard A locally elected mayor and 13-member council have governed the District since 1973; however, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. The District has a non-voting, at-large Congressional delegate, but no senators. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961, grants the District three electoral votes in presidential elections.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2778 Laptop Keyboard An Algonquian-speaking people known as the Nacotchtank inhabited the area around the Anacostia River when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century.[3] However, the Nacotchtank people had largely relocated from the area by the early 18th century.[4]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In his "Federalist No. 43", published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.[5] Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security.[6]HP 6037B0013901 Laptop Keyboard Article One, Section Eight of the United States Constitution therefore permits the establishment of a "District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States."[7] However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the Southern United States.[8][a] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (260 km2).[9][b]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 Laptop Keyboard Two preexisting settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, Maryland founded in 1751,[10] and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, founded in 1749.[11] During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point.[12] Many of the stones are still standing.[13]SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard A new "federal city" was then constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington. The federal district was named Columbia, which was a poetic name for the United States commonly in use at that time.[14][15] Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800.[16]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R52 1870 Laptop Keyboard Congress passed the Organic Act of 1801, which officially organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government. Further, the unincorporated area within the District was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and theCounty of Alexandria to the west.[17] After the passage of this Act, citizens living in the District were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, which therefore ended their representation in Congress.[18] HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard In the 1830s, the District's southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress.[21] Alexandria was a major market in the American slave trade and residents feared that abolitionists in Congress would end slavery in the District, further depressing the economy. Alexandrians petitioned Virginia to take back the land it had donated to form the District; a process known as retrocession.[22]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The state legislature voted in February 1846 to accept the return of Alexandria and on July 9, 1846, Congress agreed to return all the territory that had been ceded by Virginia. Therefore, the District's current area consists only of land donated by Maryland.[21] Confirming the fears of pro-slavery Alexandrians, theCompromise of 1850 outlawed the slave trade in the District, although not slavery itself.[23]HP Mini 110-1179TU Laptop Keyboard The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 led to notable growth in the District's population due to the expansion of the federal government and a large influx of freed slaves.[24] President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862, which ended slavery in the District of Columbia and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons, nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation.[25] In 1868, Congress granted the District's African American male residents the right to vote in municipal elections.[24]HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard By 1870, the District's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents.[26] Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. Some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal.[27]TOSHIBA V000120240 Laptop Keyboard Congress passed the Organic Act of 1871, which repealed the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and a created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia.[28] President Grant appointed Alexander Robey Shepherd to the position of governor in 1873. Shepherd authorized large-scale projects that greatly modernized Washington, but ultimately bankrupted the District government. In 1874, Congress replaced the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners.[29] IBM ThinkPad T40p 2373 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city's first motorized streetcars began service in 1888 and generated growth in areas of the District beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. Washington's urban plan was expanded throughout the District in the following decades.[30]Georgetown was formally annexed by the City of Washington in 1895.[31] However, the city had poor housing conditions and strained public works. Washington was the first city in the nation to undergo urban renewal projects as part of the "City Beautiful movement" in the early 1900s.[32]SONY Vaio VGN-CR231E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Increased federal spending as a result of the New Deal in the 1930s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, and museums in Washington.[33] World War II further increased government activity, adding to the number of federal employees in the capital;[34] by 1950, the District's population reached its peak of 802,178 residents.[26] HP Pavilion dv6-3126sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Civil rights and home rule The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1961, granting the District three votes in the Electoral College for the election of president and vice president, but still no voting representation in Congress.[35]Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4, 1968, riots broke out in the District, primarily in the U Street, 14th Street, 7th Street, and H Street corridors, centers of black residential and commercial areas. The riots raged for three days until more than 13,600 federal troops stopped the violence. Many stores and other buildings were burned; rebuilding was not completed until the late 1990s.[36]SONY VAIO PCG-FR395EP Laptop Keyboard In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and 13-member council for the District.[37] In 1975, Walter Washington became the first elected and first black mayor of the District.[38]SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 and deliberately crashed the plane into the Pentagon in nearby Arlington, Virginia.United Airlines Flight 93, believed to be destined for Washington, D.C., crashed in Pennsylvania when passengers tried to recover control of the plane from hijackers.[39][40]ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Washington, D.C., is located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. East Coast. Due to the District of Columbia retrocession, the city has a total area of 68.3 square miles (177 km2), of which 61.4 square miles (159 km2) is land and 6.9 square miles (18 km

2) (10.16%) is water.[41] The District is bordered by Montgomery County, Maryland to the northwest; Prince George's County, Maryland to the east; and Arlington and Alexandria, Virginia to the south and west.  Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard The Potomac River forms the District's border with Virginia and has two major tributaries: the Anacostia River and Rock Creek.[42]Tiber Creek, a natural watercourse that once passed through the National Mall, was fully enclosed underground during the 1870s.[43]The creek also formed a portion of the now-filled Washington City Canal, ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard which allowed passage through the city to the Anacostia River from 1815 until the 1850s.[44] The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal starts in Georgetown and was used during the 19th century to bypass the Great Falls of the Potomac River, located upstream (northwest) of Washington at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line.[45]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard The highest natural elevation in the District is 409 feet (125 m) above sea level at Fort Reno Park in upper northwest Washington.[46] The lowest point is sea level at the Potomac River.[47] The geographic center of Washington is near the intersection of 4th and L Streets NW.[48] Contrary to the urban legend, Washington was not built on a reclaimed swamp, but wetlands did cover areas along the water.[49][50]DELL XPS M1330 Laptop Keyboard The District has 7,464 acres of parkland, about 19% of the city's total area and the second-highest percentage among high-density U.S. cities.[51] About 23% of the District's land is owned by the U.S. government; lower than the percentage of federal lands in 12 states.[52] The National Park Service manages most of the city's parkland, SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard including Rock Creek Park, the C&O Canal National Historical Park, the National Mall and Constitution Gardens,Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, Fort Dupont Park, Meridian Hill Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, and Anacostia Park.[53] The U.S. Department of Agriculture operates the U.S. National Arboretum in Northeast Washington.[54] SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard Washington is in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa) and exhibits four distinct seasons.[55] Its climate is typical of Mid-Atlantic U.S. areas removed from bodies of water. The District is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a temperate climate.[56]ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Spring and fall are warm, while winter is cool with annual snowfall averaging 15.6 inches (40 cm). Winter temperatures average around 38 °F (3.3 °C) from mid-December to mid-February.[57] Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of79.2 °F (26.2 °C) and average daily relative humidity around 66%, which can cause moderate personal discomfort.[57][58] The combination of heat and humidity in the summer brings very frequent thunderstorms, some of which occasionally produce tornadoes in the area.[59] HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard Blizzards affect Washington on average once every four to six years. The most violent storms are called "nor'easters", which often affect large sections of the U.S. East Coast.[60] Hurricanes (or their remnants) occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall, but are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to the city's inland location.[61] Flooding of the Potomac River, however, caused by a combination of high tide, storm surge, and runoff, has been known to cause extensive property damage in Georgetown.[62]DELL Inspiron 1435 Laptop Keyboard The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on July 20, 1930, and August 6, 1918,[63] while the lowest recorded temperature was −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 11, 1899, during the Great Blizzard of 1899.[57][60] During a typical year, the city averages about 37 days at or above 90 °F (32.2 °C) and 64 nights at or below freezing.[57]FUJITSU Lifebook S6240 Laptop Keyboard Washington, D.C., is a planned city. In 1791, President Washington commissioned Pierre (Peter) Charles L’Enfant, a French-born architect and city planner, to design the new capital. The L'Enfant Plan featured broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping.[65] He based his design on plans of cities such as Paris,Amsterdam, Karlsruhe, and Milan brought from Europe by Thomas Jefferson in 1788.[66] L'Enfant's design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide in the area that is now the National Mall.[67]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard President Washington dismissed L'Enfant in March 1792 due to conflicts with the three commissioners appointed to supervise the capital's construction. Andrew Ellicott, who had worked with L'Enfant surveying the city, was then tasked with completing the design. Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans, including changes to some street patterns, L'Enfant is still credited with the overall design of the city.[68]HP Mini 210-2056tu Laptop Keyboard By the early 1900s, L'Enfant's vision of a grand national capital had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. Congress formed a special committee charged with beautifying Washington's ceremonial core.[32] What became known as the McMillan Plan was finalized in 1901 and included re-landscaping the Capitol grounds and the National Mall, clearing slums, and establishing a new city-wide park system. The plan is thought to have largely preserved L'Enfant's intended design.[65]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard By law, Washington's skyline is low and sprawling. The first building height restrictions in D.C. were put in place following the construction of the twelve-story Cairo Apartment Building in 1894. The Heights of Buildings Act of 1910 amended the restrictions to allow buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 feet (6.1 m).[69] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol or the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument,[50] which remains the District's tallest structure. City leaders have criticized the height restriction as a primary reason why the District has limited affordable housing and traffic problems caused by urban sprawl.[69]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The District is divided into four quadrants of unequal area: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol building.[70] All road names include the quadrant abbreviation to indicate their location and house numbers generally correspond with the number of blocks away from the Capitol. Most streets are set out in a grid pattern with east–west streets named with letters (e.g., C Street SW) and north–south streets with numbers (e.g., 4th Street NW).[70] IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The City of Washington was bordered by Boundary Street to the north (renamed Florida Avenue in 1890), Rock Creek to the west, and the Anacostia River to the east.[30][65] Washington's street grid was extended, where possible, throughout the District starting in 1888.[71] Georgetown's streets were renamed in 1895.[31] SONY Vaio VGN-NW120D Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some streets are particularly noteworthy, such as Pennsylvania Avenue, which connects the White House to the U.S. Capitol and K Street, which houses the offices of many lobbying groups.[72] Washington hosts 297foreign embassies and related buildings, many of which are on a section of Massachusetts Avenue informally known as Embassy Row.[73]HP Pavilion dv9335nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The architecture of Washington varies greatly. Six of the top 10 buildings in the American Institute of Architects' 2007 ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture" are in the District of Columbia:[74] the White House; the Washington National Cathedral; the Thomas Jefferson Memorial; the United States Capitol; the Lincoln Memorial; and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. SONY Vaio VGN-NR150FE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other prominent edifices in Washington. Notable exceptions include buildings constructed in the French Second Empire style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.[75] HP Envy 17-1050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Outside downtown Washington, architectural styles are even more varied. Historic buildings are designed primarily in theQueen Anne, Châteauesque, Richardsonian Romanesque, Georgian revival, Beaux-Arts, and a variety of Victorian styles. Rowhouses are especially prominent in areas developed after the Civil War and typically follow Federalist and late Victorian designs.[76] Georgetown's Old Stone House was built in 1765, making it the oldest-standing original building in the city.[77]  Compaq Presario CQ50-215ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Founded in 1789, Georgetown University features a mix of Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture.[75] The Ronald Reagan Building is the largest building in the District with a total area of approximately 3.1 million square feet (288,000 m2).[78]Toshiba Satellite A205-S5814 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes the District and surrounding suburbs, is theseventh-largest metropolitan area in the United States with approximately 5.6 million residents as of the 2010 Census.[2] When the Washington area is included with Baltimore and its suburbs, the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area had a population exceeding 8.5 million residents in 2010, the fourth-largest combined statistical area in the country.[83] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5809 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to the 2010 Census, the population of Washington, D.C., was 50.7% Black or African American, 38.5% White (34.8% non-Hispanic White), 3.5% Asian, and 0.3% Native American. Individuals from other races made up 4.1% of the District's population while individuals from two or more races made up 2.9%. Hispanics of any race made up 9.1% of the District's population.[84]HP G42-221BR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Washington has had a significant African American population since the city's foundation.[85] African American residents composed about 30% of the District's total population between 1800 and 1940.[26] The black population reached a peak of 70% by 1970, but has since steadily declined due to many African Americans moving to the surrounding suburbs. Partly as a result of gentrification, there was a 31.4% increase in the non-Hispanic white population and an 11.5% decrease in the black population between 2000 and 2010.[86]SAMSUNG N148 Laptop Keyboard About 17% of D.C. residents were age 18 or younger in 2010; lower than the U.S. average of 24%. However, at 34 years old, the District had the lowest median age compared to the 50 states.[87] As of 2010, there were an estimated 81,734 foreign immigrants living in Washington, D.C.[88] Major sources of immigration include individuals from El Salvador, Vietnam, and Ethiopia, with a concentration of Salvadorans in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood.[89]IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard Researchers found that there were 4,822 same-sex couples in the District of Columbia in 2010; about 2% of total households.[90]Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009 and the District began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in March 2010.[91]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard A 2007 report found that about one-third of District residents were functionally illiterate, compared to a national rate of about one in five. This is attributed in part to immigrants who are not proficient in English.[92] In contrast, 50% of D.C. residents had at least a four-year college degree in 2006.[88] D.C. residents had a personal income per capita of $55,755; higher than any of the 50 U.S. states.[93] However, 19% of residents were below the poverty level in 2005; higher than any state except Mississippi.[94]Compaq Presario CQ42-139TU Laptop Keyboard According to data from 2008, 28% of residents are Baptists, 13% are Roman Catholic, and 31% are members of other Christian denominations. Residents who practice other faiths make up 6% of the population and 18% do not adhere to a religion.[95]DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard Over 90% of D.C. residents have health insurance coverage; the second-highest rate in the nation. This is due in part to city programs that help provide insurance to low-income individuals who do not qualify for other types of coverage.[96] A 2009 report found that at least 3% of District residents have HIV or AIDS, which the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) characterizes as a "generalized and severe" epidemic.[97]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard Crime in Washington, D.C., is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. A 2010 study found that 5% of city blocks contributed to over one-quarter of the District's total crime.[98] The more affluent neighborhoods of Northwest Washington are typically safe, but reports of violent crime increase in poorer neighborhoods generally concentrated in the eastern portion of the city.[98] Approximately 60,000 residents are ex-convicts.[99]DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard Washington was often described as the "murder capital" of the United States during the early 1990s.[100] The number of murders peaked in 1991 at 479, but the level of violence then began to decline drastically. By 2011, Washington's annual murder count dropped to 108, the lowest total since 1963.[101] Many neighborhoods such as Columbia Heights and Logan Circle are becoming safer and vibrant. However, incidents of robberies and thefts have remained higher in these areas due to increased nightlife activity and greater numbers of affluent residents.[102] DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard While instances of property crime remain high, patterns of theft continue to disperse to the north and east of downtown.[103] Reports of both property and violent crimes have declined by nearly half since their most recent highs in the mid-1990s.[104]HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard On June 26, 2008, the Supreme Court of the United States held in District of Columbia v. Heller that the city's 1976 handgun ban violated the Second Amendmentright to gun ownership.[105] However, the ruling does not prohibit all forms of gun control; laws requiring firearm registration remain in place, as does the city's assault weapon ban.[106] In addition to the District's own Metropolitan Police Department, many federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in the city as well; most visibly the U.S. Park Police, founded in 1791.[107]HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

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