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Jules Verne Jules Gabriel Verne (French pronunciation: [ʒyl vɛʁn]; February 8, 1828 – March 24, 1905) was a French author who pioneered the science fiction genre.[1] He is best known for his novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), A Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard Verne wrote about space, air, andunderwater travels before air travel and practical submarines were invented, and before practical means of space travel had been devised. He is the second most translated author in the world (after Agatha Christie).[2] Some of his books have also been made into live-action and animated films and television shows. Verne is often referred to as the "Father of Science Fiction", a title sometimes shared with Hugo Gernsback and H. G. Wells.[3]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Jules Verne was born in Nantes, in France, to Pierre Verne, an attorney, and his wife, Sophie Allote de la Fuÿe.[4] Jules spent his early years at home with his parents in the bustling harbor city of Nantes. The family spent summers in a country house just outside the city, in Brains on the banks of the Loire River. Here Jules and his brother Paul would often rent a boat for one franc a day.  HP G62-b25ER Laptop Keyboard The sight of the many ships navigating the river sparked Jules's imagination, as he describes in the autobiographical short story "Souvenirs d'Enfance et de Jeunesse". TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard At the age of nine, Jules and Paul, of whom he was very fond, were sent to boarding school at the Saint Donatien College (Petit séminaire de Saint-Donatien). As a child, he developed a great interest in travel and exploration, a passion he showed as a writer of adventure stories and science fiction. His interest in writing often cost him progress in other subjects. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard、 At the boarding school, Verne studied Latin, which he used in his short story Le Mariage de Monsieur Anselme des Tilleulsin the mid 1850s. One of his teachers may have been the French inventor Brutus de Villeroi,[citation needed] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard professor of drawing and mathematics at the college in 1842, and who later became famous for creating the US Navy's first submarine, the USS Alligator. De Villeroi may have inspired Verne's conceptual design for the Nautilus in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, although no direct exchanges between the two men have been recorded. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Verne's second French biographer, his grand-niece Marguerite Allotte de la Fuÿe,[5] formulated the rumor that Verne was so fascinated with adventure at an early age that he stowed away on a ship bound for the West Indies, but that Jules's voyage was cut short when he found his father waiting for him at the next port. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard After completing his studies at the lycée, Verne went to Paris to study law. Around 1848, in conjunction with Michel Carré, he began writing libretti for operettas, five of them for his friend the composer Aristide Hignard, who also set Verne's poems as chansons. For some years, he divided his attentions between the theater and work.  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard However, some travelers' stories he wrote for the Musée des familles revealed his true talent: describing delightfully extravagant voyages and adventures with cleverly prepared scientific and geographical details that lent an air of verisimilitude.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard When Verne's father discovered that his son was writing rather than studying law, he promptly withdrew his financial support. Verne was forced to support himself as a stockbroker, which he hated despite being somewhat successful at it. During this period, he met Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas, who offered him writing advice. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Verne also met Honorine de Viane Morel, a widow with two daughters. They were married on January 10, 1857. With her encouragement, he continued to write and actively looked for a publisher. On August 3, 1861, their son, Michel Verne, was born. Michel married an actress over Verne's objections, had two children by an underage mistress, and buried himself in debts. The relationship between father and son improved as Michel grew older. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard It was Jules Verne himself who confirmed once having traveled from Stockholm, Sweden, to Christiania (now Oslo) during 1862.[6] Swedish publication of Jules Verne began during the very next year.[7] En luftballongsresa genom Afrika (A Hot Air Balloon trip through Africa), translated into Swedish, actually is dated 1863 – making it the very first dated Jules Verne full-length book on record.[8]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Verne's situation improved when he met Pierre-Jules Hetzel, one of the more important French publishers of the 19th century, who also published Victor Hugo, George Sand, ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard and Erckmann-Chatrian, among others. They formed an excellent writer-publisher team until Hetzel's death. Hetzel helped improve Verne's writings, which until then had been repeatedly rejected by other publishers. Hetzel read a draft of Verne's story about the balloon exploration of Africa, which had been rejected by other publishers for being "too scientific". With Hetzel's help, HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Verne rewrote the story, which was published in 1863 in book form as Cinq semaines en ballon (Five Weeks in a Balloon). Acting on Hetzel's advice, Verne added comical accents to his novels, changed sad endings into happy ones, and toned down various political messages. HP Pavilion dv6-3299er Laptop Keyboard Unlike En Luftballongsresa Genom Afrika, dated 1863 and published anonymously, Cinq semaines en ballon was undated (circa 1863), but noted its author. It presently is unknown whether such dating and author attribution practice was done intentionally or by accident. It also is unclear which book was published first, despite the fact that both express largely identical story lines.[clarification needed][9]HP Mini 210-2145dx Laptop Keyboard From that point, Verne published two or more volumes a year. The most successful of these are: Voyage au centre de la Terre(Journey to the Center of the Earth, 1864); De la Terre à la Lune (From the Earth to the Moon, 1865); HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboard Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, 1869); and Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours (Around the World in Eighty Days), which first appeared in Le Temps in 1872. The series is collectively known as "Voyages Extraordinaires" ("extraordinary voyages"). Verne could now live on his writings. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard But most of his wealth came from the stage adaptations of Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours (1874) and Michel Strogoff (1876), which he wrote with Adolphe d'Ennery. In 1867, Verne bought a small ship, the Saint-Michel, which he successively replaced with the Saint-Michel II and the Saint-Michel III as his financial situation improved. On board the Saint-Michel III, he sailed around Europe. HP Pavilion dv5-1130ea Laptop Keyboard In 1870, he was appointed as "Chevalier" (Knight) of the Légion d'honneur. After his first novel, most of his stories were first serialised in theMagazine d'Éducation et de Récréation, a Hetzel biweekly publication, before being published in the form of books. His brother Paul contributed to 40th French climbing of the Mont-Blanc and a collection of short stories – Doctor Ox – in 1874.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E120 Laptop Keyboard Verne became wealthy and famous. According to the Unesco Index Translationum, Jules Verne regularly places among the top five most translated authors in the world. ACER Aspire 7735Z Laptop Keyboard On March 9, 1886, as Verne was coming home, his twenty-five-year-old nephew, Gaston, shot at him twice with a pistol. The first bullet missed, but the second one entered Verne's left leg, giving him a permanent limp that could not be overcome. This incident was hushed up in the media, but Gaston spent the rest of his life in a mental asylum.  HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop Keyboard After the deaths of Hetzel and his beloved mother Sophie Henriette Allotte de la Fruye in 1887, Jules began writing darker works. This may partly be due to changes in his personality, but an important factor is the fact that Hetzel's son, who took over his father's business, was not as rigorous in his corrections as Hetzel had been. In 1888, Jules Verne entered politics and was elected town councillor of Amiens, SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard where he championed several improvements and served for fifteen years. In 1905, while ill with diabetes, Verne died at his home, 44 Boulevard Longueville (now Boulevard Jules-Verne). SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard Michel oversaw publication of his novels Invasion of the Sea and The Lighthouse at the End of the World. The "Voyages extraordinaires" series continued for several years afterwards in the same rhythm of two volumes a year. It has later been discovered that Michel Verne had made extensive changes in these stories, and the original versions were published at the end of the 20th century. SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard In 1863, Jules Verne wrote a novel called Paris in the Twentieth Century about a young man who lives in a world of glass skyscrapers, high-speed trains, gas-powered automobiles, calculators, and a worldwide communications network, yet cannot find happiness and comes to a tragic end. Hetzel thought the novel's pessimism would damage Verne's then-booming career,  ACER Aspire 5552 Laptop Keyboard and suggested he wait 20 years to publish it. Verne put the manuscript in a safe, where it was discovered by his great-grandson in 1989. It was published in 1994, and around the same time many other Verne novels and short stories were also published for the first time, and these too are gradually appearing in English translation.  HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard


A longtime resident of Amiens, many places are named after Verne such as the Cirque Jules Verne. Amiens is the place where he is buried. The house where Verne lived is now a museum. A restaurant built into the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France is named Le Jules Verne.[10] In June 1989, the Jules Verne Food Court opened at the Merry Hill Shopping Centre in the West Midlands of England; however, it had closed by the mid 1990s due to disappointing trade.[11]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Hetzel substantially influenced the writings of Verne, who was so happy to finally find a willing publisher that he agreed to almost all changes that Hetzel suggested. Hetzel rejected at least one novel (Paris in the Twentieth Century) and asked Verne to significantly change his other drafts. One of the most important changes Hetzel enforced on Verne was the adoption of optimism in his novels. SONY VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Laptop Keyboard Verne was in fact not an enthusiast of technological and human progress, as can be seen in his works created before he met Hetzel and after Hetzel's death. Hetzel's demand for optimistic texts proved correct. For example, The Mysterious Island originally ended with all the survivors returning to the mainland but then always feeling nostalgic about their island. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Hetzel decided that these men should live happily ever after, so in the revised novel, they use their fortunes to build a replica of the island. Also, to not offend France's military ally of the time, DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard the Russian Empire, the origins and past of the submariner Captain Nemo were widely changed from those of a Polishrefugee avenging the partitions of Poland, and the death of his family during the repressions of the January Uprising, to those of an Indian prince fighting from beneath the seas against the British Empire following the Indian Rebellion of 1857SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard

Hugo Gernsback

Born in the Bonnevoie neighborhood of Luxembourg City, Gernsback emigrated to the United States in 1905 and later became anaturalized citizen.[2] He married three times: to Rose Harvey in 1906, Dorothy Kantrowitz in 1921, and Mary Hancher in 1951. In 1925, Hugo founded radio station WRNY which broadcast from the 18th floor of The Roosevelt Hotel in New York City and was involved in the first television broadcasts. He is also considered a pioneer in amateur radio. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Before helping to create science fiction, Gernsback was an entrepreneur in the electronics industry, importing radio parts from Europe to the United States and helping to popularize amateur "wireless." In April 1908 he founded Modern Electrics, the world's first magazine about both electronics and radio, called "wireless" at the time.  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard While the cover of the magazine itself contends it was a catalog, most historians note that it contained articles, features, and plotlines, qualifying it as a magazine.[3] Under its auspices, TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard in January 1909, he founded the Wireless Association of America, which had 10,000 members within a year. In 1912, Gernsback said that he estimated 400,000 people in the U.S. were involved in amateur radio. In 1913, he founded a similar magazine, The Electrical Experimenter, which became Science and Invention in 1920. It was in these magazines that he began including scientific fiction stories alongside science journalism. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Gernsback started the modern genre of science fiction by founding the first magazine dedicated to it, Amazing Stories, in 1926. He said he became interested in the concept after reading a translation of the work of Percival Lowell as a child. His idea of a perfect science fiction story was "75 percent literature interwoven with 25 percent science". He also played a key role in starting science fiction fandom, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard by publishing the addresses of people who wrote letters to his magazines. So, the science fiction fans began to organize, and became aware of themselves as a movement, a social force; this was probably decisive for the subsequent history of the genre. He also created the term “science fiction”, though he preferred the term "scientifiction".SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard In 1929, he lost ownership of his first magazines after a bankruptcy lawsuit. There is some debate about whether this process was genuine, manipulated by publisher Bernarr Macfadden, or was a Gernsback scheme to begin another company. After losing control of Amazing Stories, Gernsback founded two new science fiction magazines, HP G61-420CA Laptop Keyboard Science Wonder Stories and Air Wonder Stories. A year later, due to Depression-era financial troubles, the two were merged into Wonder Stories, which Gernsback continued to publish until 1936, when it was sold to Thrilling Publications and renamed Thrilling Wonder Stories. Gernsback returned in 1952-53 with Science-Fiction Plus. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Gernsback was noted for sharp (and sometimes shady[5]) business practices,[6] and for paying his writers extremely low fees[7] or not paying them at all.[8] H. P. Lovecraft and Clark Ashton Smith referred to him as "Hugo the Rat."[9]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard As Barry Malzberg has said, "Gernsback's venality and corruption, his sleaziness and his utter disregard for the financial rights of authors, have been so well documented and discussed in critical and fan literature. That the founder of genre science fiction who gave his name to the field's most prestigious award and who was the Guest of Honor at the 1952 Worldcon was pretty much a crook (and a contemptuous crook who stiffed his writers but paid himself $100K a year as President of Gernsback Publications) has been clearly established."[10]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Gernsback wrote fiction, including the novel Ralph 124C 41+ in 1911; the title is a pun on the phrase "one to foresee for many"("one plus"). Even though Ralph 124C 41+ is one of the most influential science fiction stories of all time,[11] and filled with numerous science fiction ideas, few people still read the story.[12] TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Brian Aldiss has called the story a "tawdry illiterate tale" and a "sorry concoction" while Lester del Rey called it "simply dreadful."[13] While most other modern critics have little positive to say about the story's writing, Ralph 124C 41+ is still considered an "essential text for all studies of science fiction."[14]HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Gernsback's second (and final) novel, written c.1958, was not published until 1971. Lester del Rey described it simply as "a bad book," marked more by routine social commentary than by scientific insight or extrapolation.[15]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Gernsback combined his fiction and science into Everyday Science and Mechanics magazine, serving as the editor in the 1930s. Gernsback made significant contributions to the growth of early broadcasting, mostly through his efforts as a publisher. He originated the industry of specialized publications for radio with Modern Electrics and the Electrical Experimenter first. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Later on, and more influentially, he published Radio News, which would have the largest readership among radio magazines in radio broadcasting’s formative years. Gernsback, who edited Radio News until 1929, made use of the magazine to promote his own interests, including having his radio station’s call letters on the cover starting in 1925. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201i Laptop Keyboard WRNY and Radio News were used to cross-promote each other, with programs on his station often used to discuss articles he had published, and articles in the magazine often covering program activities at WRNY. But he also advocated for future directions in innovation and regulation of radio. The magazine contained many drawings and diagrams, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard encouraging radio listeners of the 1920s to experiment themselves to improve the technology. WRNY, was often used as a laboratory to see if various radio inventions were worthwhile. HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard Articles that were published about television were also tested in this manner when the radio station was used to send pictures to experimental television receivers in August 1928. The technology, however, was primitive and required sending the sight and sound one after the other rather than sending both at the same time. Such experiments were expensive, and eventually contributed to Gernsback’s Experimenter Publishing Company going into bankruptcy in 1929.[18]SONY 148084721 Laptop Keyboard The Science Fiction Achievement awards, given to various works each year by vote of the members of the World Science Fiction Society, are named the "Hugos." He was one of 1996's inaugural inductees into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame.[16] In 1960 he received a special Hugo Award as "The Father of Magazine Science Fiction."[17] DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard Herbert George "H.G." Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946)[1] was an English author, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many other genres, TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary, even writing text books and rules for war games. Together with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback, Wells has been referred to as "The Father of Science Fiction".[2]SONY VAIO VGN-AW2XRY Laptop Keyboard Wells's earliest specialised training was in biology, and his thinking on ethical matters took place in a specifically and fundamentally Darwinian context.[3] He was also from an early date an outspoken socialist, HP Pavilion dv6-3135eo Laptop Keyboard often (but not always, as the beginning of the First World War) sympathising with pacifist views. His later works became increasingly political anddidactic, and he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of "Journalist."[4] Most of his novels had nothing to do with science fiction. Some described lower-middle class life (KippsThe History of Mr Polly),  Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard leading him to be touted as a worthy successor to Charles Dickens,[5] but Wells described a range of social strata and even attempted, in Tono-Bungay (1909), a diagnosis of English society as a whole. Wells also wrote abundantly about the "New Woman" and the Suffragettes (Ann Veronica).  APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard

Early life

Herbert George Wells was born at Atlas House, 46 High Street, Bromley, in the county of Kent,[6] on 21 September 1866.[1]Called "Bertie" in the family, he was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells (a former domestic gardener, and at the time a shopkeeper and professional cricketer) and his wife Sarah Neal (a former domestic servant). DELL XPS M1710 Laptop Keyboard An inheritance had allowed the family to acquire a shop in which they sold china and sporting goods, although it failed to prosper: the stock was old and worn out, and the location was poor. Joseph Wells managed to earn a meagre income, but little of it came from the shop; Joseph received an unsteady amount of money from playing professional cricket for the Kent county team.[7] FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Payment for skilled bowlers and batsmen came from voluntary donations afterwards, or from small payments from the clubs where matches were played. A defining incident of young Wells's life was an accident he had in 1874, which left him bedridden with a broken leg.[1] To pass the time he started reading books from the local library, HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard brought to him by his father. He soon became devoted to the other worlds and lives to which books gave him access; they also stimulated his desire to write. Later that year he entered Thomas Morley's Commercial Academy, a private school founded in 1849 following the bankruptcy of Morley's earlier school. The teaching was erratic, the curriculum mostly focused, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard Wells later said, on producing copperplate handwriting and doing the sort of sums useful to tradesmen. Wells continued at Morley's Academy until 1880. In 1877, his father, Joseph Wells, fractured his thigh. The accident effectively put an end to Joseph's career as a cricketer, and his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary source of family income. HP G42-472LA Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard No longer able to support themselves financially, the family instead sought to place their sons as apprentices in various occupations. From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium, Hyde's.[8] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard His experiences at Hyde's, where he worked a thirteen-hour day and slept in a dormitory with other apprentices,[6] were later used as inspiration for some of his novel material The Wheels of Chance and Kipps,[9] which delve into the life of a draper's apprentice as well as providing a critique of the world's distribution of wealth. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Herbert's parents' marriage was a turbulent relationship: due primarily to his mother being a Protestant and his father a self-confessed freethinker. When his mother returned to work as a lady's maid (at Uppark, a country house in Sussex), one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living space for her husband and children.  HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Laptop Keyboard Thereafter, she and Joseph lived separate lives: though they never divorced and neither ever developed extramarital liaisons. As a consequence, Herbert's personal troubles increased as he subsequently failed as a draper and also, later, as a chemist's assistant. After each failure, he would arrive at Uppark—"the bad shilling back again!" SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard as he said—and stay there until a fresh start could be arranged for him. Fortunately for Herbert, Uppark had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself, reading many classic works, including Plato's Republic, and More's Utopia. This would be the beginning of Herbert George Wells's venture into literature. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard In October 1879 Wells's mother arranged through a distant relative, Arthur Williams, for him to join the National School atWookey in Somerset as a pupil-teacher, a senior pupil who acted as a teacher of younger children.[8] In December that year, however, Williams was dismissed for irregularities in his qualifications and Wells was returned to Uppark. After a short apprenticeship at a chemist in nearby Midhurst, FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard and an even shorter stay as a boarder at Midhurst Grammar School, he signed his apprenticeship papers at Hyde's. In 1883 Wells persuaded his parents to release him from the apprenticeship, taking an opportunity offered by Midhurst Grammar School again to become a pupil-teacher; his proficiency in Latin and science during his previous, short stay had been remembered.[7][8]HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard The years he spent in Southsea had been the most miserable of his life to that point, but his good fortune at securing a position at Midhurst Grammar School meant that Wells could continue his self-education in earnest.[7] The following year, Wells won a scholarship to the Normal School of Science (later the Royal College of Science in South Kensington, now part ofImperial College London) in London, studying biology under Thomas Henry Huxley.  HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard As an alumnus, he later helped to set up the Royal College of Science Association, of which he became the first president in 1909. Wells studied in his new school until 1887 with a weekly allowance of twenty-one shillings (a guinea) thanks to his scholarship. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard This ought to have been a comfortable sum of money (at the time many working-class families had "round about a pound a week" as their entire household income)[10] yet in hisExperiment in Autobiography, Wells speaks of constantly being hungry, and indeed, photographs of him at the time show a youth very thin and malnourished. SONY VAIO VGN-FS715 Laptop Keyboard He soon entered the Debating Society of the school. These years mark the beginning of his interest in a possible reformation of society. At first approaching the subject through The Republic by Plato, he soon turned to contemporary ideas of socialism as expressed by the recently formed Fabian Society and free lectures delivered at Kelmscott House, DELL Inspiron 1420 Laptop Keyboard the home of William Morris. He was also among the founders of The Science School Journal, a school magazine which allowed him to express his views on literature and society, as well as trying his hand at fiction: the first version of his novel The Time Machine was published in the journal under the title, The Chronic Argonauts. SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard The school year 1886–1887 was the last year of his studies. In spite of having previously passed his exams in both biology and physics, his lack of interest in geology resulted in his failure to pass and the subsequent loss of his scholarship.  APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard After teaching for some time, Wells found it necessary to supplement his knowledge relating to educational principles and methodology and entered the College of Preceptors (College of Teachers). SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard He later received his Licentiate and Fellowship FCPdiplomas from the College. It was not until 1890 that Wells earned a Bachelor of Science degree in zoology from the University of London External Programme. In 1889–90 he managed to find a post as a teacher at Henley House School where he taught A. A. Milne.[11][12]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard Upon leaving the Normal School of Science, Wells was left without a source of income. His aunt Mary—his father's sister-in-law—invited him to stay with her for a while, which solved his immediate problem of accommodation. During his stay at his aunt's residence, he grew increasingly interested in her daughter, Isabel. He would later go on to court her. HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard In 1891, Wells married his cousin Isabel Mary Wells; the couple agreed to separate in 1894 when he fell in love with one of his students, Amy Catherine Robbins (known as Jane), whom he married in 1895.[14] Poor health took him to Sandgate, near Folkestone, where in 1901 he constructed a large family home: Spade House. He had two sons with Jane: George Philip (known as "Gip") in 1901 (d.1985) and Frank Richard in 1903. The marriage lasted until her death in 1927.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard With his wife's agreement, Wells had affairs with a number of women, including the American birth control activist Margaret Sangerand novelist Elizabeth von Arnim.[15] In 1909 he had a daughter, Anna-Jane, with the writer Amber Reeves,[16] whose parents, Williamand Maud Pember Reeves, he had met through the Fabian Society; and in 1914, a son, Anthony West (1914–1987), by the novelist andfeminist Rebecca West, twenty-six years his junior.[17]Lenovo 42T3403 Laptop Keyboard


One of the most interesting ways that Wells expressed himself was through his drawings and sketches. One common location for these was the endpapers and title pages of his own diaries, and they covered a wide variety of topics, from political commentary to his feelings toward his literary contemporaries and his current romantic interests. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard During his marriage to Amy Catherine, whom he nicknamed Jane, he penned a considerable number of pictures, many of them being overt comments on their marriage. It was during this period, and this period only, that he called these pictures "picshuas".[18] These picshuas have been the topic of study by Wells scholars for many years, and recently a book was published on the subject.[19]DELL Vostro 1500 Laptop Keyboard Wells's first non-fiction bestseller was Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought (1901). When originally serialised in a magazine it was subtitled, "HP 550 Laptop Keyboard An Experiment in Prophecy", and is considered his most explicitly futuristic work. It offered the immediate political message of the privileged sections of society continuing to bar capable men from other classes from advancement until war would force a need to employ those most able, rather than the traditional upper classes, as leaders. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Anticipating what the world would be like in the year 2000, the book is interesting both for its hits (trains and cars resulting in the dispersion of population from cities to suburbs; TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard moral restrictions declining as men and women seek greater sexual freedom; the defeat of German militarism, and the existence of a European Union) and its misses (he did not expect successful aircraft before 1950, and averred that "my imagination refuses to see any sort of submarine doing anything but suffocate its crew and founder at sea").[20][21]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Some of his early novels, called "scientific romances", invented a number of themes now classic in science fiction in such works asThe Time MachineThe Island of Doctor MoreauThe Invisible ManThe War of the WorldsWhen the Sleeper Wakes, and The First Men in the Moon. He also wrote other, non-fantastic novels that have received critical acclaim including Kipps and the satire on Edwardian advertising, Tono-Bungay. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Wells also wrote dozens of short stories and novellas, the best known of which is "The Country of the Blind" (1904). His short story "The New Accelerator" was the inspiration for the Star Trek episode Wink of an Eye.[22]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard Though Tono-Bungay was not a science-fiction novel, radioactive decay plays a small but consequential role in it. Radioactive decay plays a much larger role in The World Set Free (1914). This book contains what is surely his biggest prophetic "hit". Scientists of the day were well aware that the natural decay of radium releases energy at a slow rate over thousands of years. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The rate of release is too slow to have practical utility, but the total amount released is huge. Wells's novel revolves around an (unspecified) invention that accelerates the process of radioactive decay, producing bombs that explode with no more than the force of ordinary high explosive—but which "continue to explode" for days on end. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240D Laptop Keyboard "Nothing could have been more obvious to the people of the earlier twentieth century", he wrote, "than the rapidity with which war was becoming impossible... [but] they did not see it until the atomic bombs burst in their fumbling hands". In 1932, the physicist and conceiver of nuclear chain reaction Leó Szilárd read The World Set Free, a book which he said made a great impression on him.[23]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Wells also wrote nonfiction. His bestselling three-volume work, The Outline of History (1920), began a new era of popularised world history. It received a mixed critical response from professional historians.[24] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard Many other authors followed with "Outlines" of their own in other subjects. Wells reprised his Outline in 1922 with a much shorter popular work, A Short History of the World,[25] and two long efforts, DELL 9J.N0H82.K01 Laptop Keyboard The Science of Life (1930) and The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind (1931). The "Outlines" became sufficiently common for James Thurber to parody the trend in his humorous essay, "An Outline of Scientists"—indeed, Wells's Outline of History remains in print with a new 2005 edition, while A Short History of the World has been recently reedited (2006). ASUS X53K Laptop Keyboard From quite early in his career, he sought a better way to organise society, and wrote a number of Utopian novels. The first of these was A Modern Utopia (1905), which shows a worldwide utopia with "no imports but meteorites, and no exports at all";[26] two travellers from our world fall into its alternate history.  lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard The others usually begin with the world rushing to catastrophe, until people realise a better way of living: whether by mysterious gases from a comet causing people to behave rationally and abandoning a European war (In the Days of the Comet (1906)), or a world council of scientists taking over, as in The Shape of Things to Come (1933, APPLE PowerBook G3 Laptop Keyboard which he later adapted for the 1936 Alexander Korda film, Things to Come). This depicted, all too accurately, the impending World War, with cities being destroyed by aerial bombs. He also portrayed the rise of fascist dictators in The Autocracy of Mr Parham (1930) and The Holy Terror (1939). Men Like Gods(1923) is also a utopian novel. ASUS F6 Laptop Keyboard Wells contemplates the ideas of nature versus nurture and questions humanity in books such as The Island of Doctor Moreau. Not all his scientific romances ended in a happy Utopia, and in fact, Wells also wrote the first dystopian novel, When the Sleeper Wakes(1899, rewritten as The Sleeper Awakes, 1910), which pictures a future society where the classes have become more and more separated, HP G61 Laptop Keyboard leading to a revolt of the masses against the rulers. The Island of Doctor Moreau is even darker. The narrator, having been trapped on an island of animals vivisected (unsuccessfully) into human beings, eventually returns to England; like Gulliver on his return from the Houyhnhnms, he finds himself unable to shake off the perceptions of his fellow humans as barely civilised beasts, slowly reverting to their animal natures. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard Wells also wrote the preface for the first edition of W. N. P. Barbellion's diaries, The Journal of a Disappointed Man, published in 1919. Since "Barbellion" was the real author's pen name, many reviewers believed Wells to have been the true author of the Journal; Wells always denied this, despite being full of praise for the diaries, but the rumours persisted until Barbellion's death later that year.  ACER Aspire 7741Z Laptop Keyboard In 1927, Florence Deeks sued Wells for plagiarism, claiming that he had stolen much of the content of The Outline of History from a work, The Web, she had submitted to the Canadian Macmillan Company, Lenovo Thinkpad T520i Laptop Keyboard but who held onto the manuscript for eight months before rejecting it. Despite numerous similarities in phrasing and factual errors, the court found the evidence inadequate and dismissed the case. A Privy Council report added that, as Deek's work had not been printed, there were no legal grounds at all for the action.[27]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard In 1933 Wells predicted in The Shape of Things to Come that the world war he feared would begin January 1940,[28] a prediction which ultimately came true just four months early, when the Second World War broke out in September 1939.[29]HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard In 1936, before the Royal Institution, Wells called for the compilation of a constantly growing and changing World Encyclopaedia, to be reviewed by outstanding authorities and made accessible to every human being. In 1938, he published a collection of essays on the future organisation of knowledge and education, World Brain, including the essay, "The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia". SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Near the end of the Second World War, Allied forces discovered that the SS had compiled lists of people slated for immediate arrest during the invasion of Britain in the abandoned Operation Sea Lion, and Wells was included in the alphabetical list on the same page of "The Black Book" as Rebecca West.[30] HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard Wells, as president of the International PEN (Poets, Essayists, Novelists), had already angered the Nazis by overseeing the expulsion of the German PEN club from the international body in 1934 following the German PEN's refusal to admit non-Aryan writers to its membership. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Seeking a more structured way to play war games, Wells also wrote Floor Games (1911) followed by Little Wars (1913). Little Wars is recognised today as the first recreational wargame and Wells is regarded by gamers and hobbyists as "the Father of Miniature War Gaming".[31]SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard He supported Britain in the First World War, despite his many criticisms of British policy, and opposed, in 1916, moves for an early peace.[35] In an essay published that year he acknowledged that he could not understand those British pacifists who were reconciled to "handing over great blocks of the black and coloured races to the [German Empire] to exploit and experiment upon" COMPAQ Presario CQ60-220EC Laptop Keyboard and that the extent of his own pacifism depended in the first instance upon an armed peace, with "England keep[ing] to England and Germany to Germany". State boundaries would be established according to natural ethnic affinities, rather than by planners in distant imperial capitals, and overseen by his envisaged world alliance of states.[36]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard In his book In the Fourth Year published in 1918 he suggested how each nation of the world would elect, "upon democratic lines" by proportional representation,  ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard an electoral college in the manner of the United States of America, in turn to select its delegate to the proposed League of Nations.[37] This international body he contrasted with imperialism, not only the imperialism of Germany, against which the war was being fought, but also the imperialism, which he considered more benign, of Britain and France.[38] DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard The leadership of Joseph Stalin led to a change in his view of the Soviet Union even though his initial impression of Stalin himself was mixed. He disliked what he saw as a narrow orthodoxy and obdurance to the facts in Stalin. However, he did give him some praise saying in an article in the left-leaning New Statesmanmagazine, "HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard I have never met a man more fair, candid, and honest" and making it clear that he felt the "sinister" image of Stalin was unfair or simply false. Nevertheless he judged Stalin's rule to be far too rigid, restrictive of independent thought, and blinkered to lead toward the Cosmopolis he hoped for.[40] In the course of his visit to the Soviet Union in 1934, he debated the merits of reformist socialism over Marxism-Leninism with Stalin.[41]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard


Wells believed in the theory of eugenics. In 1904 he discussed a survey paper by Francis Galton, co-founder of eugenics, saying "I believe ... It is in the sterilisation of failure, and not in the selection of successes for breeding, that the possibility of an improvement of the human stock lies". Some contemporary supporters even suggested connections between the "degenerate" man-creatures portrayed in The Time Machine and Wells's eugenic beliefs.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H Laptop Keyboard For example, the economist Irving Fisher said in a 1912 address to the Eugenics Research Association: "The Nordic race will ... vanish or lose its dominance if, in fact, the whole human race does not sink so low as to become the prey, as H. G. Wells images, of some less degenerate animal!"[42]ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard  HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Wells had given some moderate, unenthusiastic support for Territorialism before the First World War, but later became a bitter opponent of the Zionist movement in general. He saw Zionism as an exclusive and separatist movement which challenged the collective solidarity he advocated in his vision of a world state. No supporter of Jewish identity in general, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Wells had in his utopian writings predicted the ultimate assimilation of the Jewish people.[43][44][45] In notes to accompany his biographical novel A Man of Parts David Lodge describes how Wells came to regret his attitudes to the Jews as he became more aware of the extent of the Nazi atrocities. This included a letter of apology written to Chaim Weizmann for earlier statements he had made.[46]IBM Thinkpad T61 Laptop Keyboard Wells brought his interest in Art & Design and politics together when he and other notables signed a memorandum to the Permanent Secretaries of the Board of Trade, among others. The November 1914 memorandum expressed the signatories concerns about British industrial design in the face of foreign competition. The suggestions were accepted, leading to the foundation of the Design and Industries Association.[47]IBM Thinkpad T61P Laptop Keyboard In the end his contemporary political impact was limited. His efforts regarding the League of Nations became a disappointment as the organisation turned out to be a weak one unable to prevent World War II. The war itself increased the pessimistic side of his nature. In his last book Mind at the End of its Tether (1945) he considered the idea that humanity being replaced by another species might not be a bad idea. He also came to call the era "The Age of Frustration".ACER TravelMate 250P Laptop Keyboard Wells wrote in his book God the Invisible King that his idea of God did not draw upon the traditional religions of the world: "This book sets out as forcibly and exactly as possible the religious belief of the writer. [Which] is a profound belief in a personal and intimate God".[48] Later in the work he aligns himself with a "renascent or modern religion ... neither atheist nor Buddhist nor Mohammedan nor Christian ... [that] he has found growing up in himself".[49]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard Of Christianity he has this to say: "... it is not now true for me ... Every believing Christian is, I am sure, my spiritual brother ... but if systemically I called myself a Christian I feel that to most men I should imply too much and so tell a lie." Of other world religions he writes: "All these religions are true for me as Canterbury Cathedral is a true thing and as a Swiss chalet is a true thing. There they are, and they have served a purpose, they have worked. Only they are not true for me to live in them ... They do not work for me."[50]SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard、 n his final years he began to be particularly outspoken in his criticism of the Catholic Church.[51] Wells's literary reputation declined as he spent his later years promoting causes that were rejected by most of his contemporaries. G. K. Chesterton quipped: "Mr. Wells is a born storyteller who has sold his birthright for a pot of message."[52] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard Wells was a diabetic,[53] and a co-founder in 1934 of what is now Diabetes UK, the leading charity for people living with diabetes in the UK. On 28 October 1940 Wells was interviewed by Orson Welles, who two years previous had performed an infamous radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds, on KTSA radio in San Antonio, Texas. In the interview, Wells admitted his surprise at the widespread panic that resulted from the broadcast, but acknowledged his debt to Welles for increasing sales of one of his "more obscure" titles.[54]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard He died of unspecified causes on 13 August 1946 at his home at 13 Hanover Terrace, Regent's Park, London, aged 79.[55][56] Some reports also say he died of a heart attack at the flat of a friend in London. In his preface to the 1941 edition of The War in the Air, Wells had stated that his epitaph should be: "I told you so. You damned fools."[57] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard He was cremated at Golders Green Crematoriumon 16 August 1946 and his ashes were scattered at sea.[58] A commemorative blue plaque in his honour was installed at his home in Regent's Park. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard H.G. Wells has had a great impact on history. His bo

ok, Outline of History was read by José Figueres Ferrer in 1920 while at MIT, the Costa Rican revolutionary and 3-time president, who took to heart his novel, and permanently abolished the military of Costa Rica in 1948, and banned the military in the Constitution. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Despite opposing the United States in favour of the Sandanistas on the country's northern border, stern warnings against the US Bay of Pigs invasion, along with repelling Nicaraguan dictator Somoza's invasion after turning to the Organization of American States, and border disputes with Nicaragua, Costa Rica has held firmly to its belief against ever having a military. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Panama, after suffering from the combined effects of Manuel Noriega's dictatorship and the US invasion of Panama in 1990, subsequently abolished its military and constitutionally banned it in 1994, no doubt influenced by its neighbour Costa Rica. These two nations to this day have attained the highest Human Development Indexes within Central America in a traditionally unstable and impoverished region.  HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard Tono-Bungay is narrated by George Ponderevo, who is persuaded by his uncle to help develop the business of selling Tono-Bungay, a patent medicine created by his ambitious uncle Edward. George devotes seven years to organizing the production and manufacture of a product which he believes to be "a damned swindle."[2] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard He then quits day-to-day involvement with the enterprise in favor of aeronautics, but remains associated with his uncle Edward and his affairs. His uncle becomes a financier of the first order and is on the verge of achieving social as well as economic dominance when his business empire collapses. George tries to rescue his uncle's failing finances by stealing quantities of a radioactive compound called "quap" from an island on the coast of West Africa,  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard but the expedition is unsuccessful. His nephew engineers his uncle's escape from England in an experimental aircraft he has built, but the ruined entrepreneur turned financier catches pneumonia on the flight and dies in a French village near Bordeaux, despite George's efforts to save him. The novel ends with George finding a new occupation: designing destroyers for the highest bidder.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

English society

Edward Ponderevo's business career offers the occasion for a satirical portrait of late-Victorian and Edwardian England, arguably the main theme of the novel. As a Bildungsroman, however, Tono-Bungay explored the development of the narrator's emotional life. Three sexual relationships (his unsuccessful marriage to Marion, his affair with the liberated Effie, SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard and his doomed relationship with the Beatrice Normandy, a belle dame sans merci whom he has known since childhood and who loves but refuses to marry him) are analyzed, and also his frustrated love for his stern, austere mother, a domestic servant, and his powerful attachment to his aunt Susan, a character whose depiction is in part a portrait of Wells's second wife, Amy Catherine Robbins (known as Jane).[8]DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard The protagonist of the novel is George Ponderevo, whose most intimate life the reader shares; his uncle Edward, on the other hand, remains a somewhat flat character whose chief function is to symbolize the "wasting aimless fever of trade and money-making and pleasure-seeking"[9] that became, in Wells's view, the most important social forces in late-Victorian and Edwardian England. England is interpreted in the novel as a "social organism." IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard The country estate of Bladesover, "up on the Kentish Downs," epitomizes a "seventeenth-century system" which offers "the clue to all England. . . . There have been no revolutions, no deliberate restatements or abandonments of opinion in England since the days of the fine gentry, since 1688 or thereabouts, the days when Bladesover was built; there have been changes, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard dissolving forces, replacing forces, if you will; but then it was that the broad lines of the English system set firmly. . . . The fine gentry may have gone; they have indeed largely gone, I think; rich merchants may have replaced them, financial adventurers or what not. That does not matter; the shape is still Bladesover."[10]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard But this society has fallen prey to the shabby forces of greed and acquisition embodied by Edward Ponderevo, whose idealizes Napoleon and muses superficially about "[t]his Overman idee, Nietzsche—all that stuff."[11] The trashy emptiness of Edward's ideal of life is expressed in his absurd attempt to build a vast mansion at Crest Hill.  HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard George struggles with ennui after breaking with Marion. "I suffered, I suppose, from a sort of ennui of the imagination. I found myself without an object to hold my will together. I sought. I read restlessly and discursively. . . . it seems to me as if in those days of disgust and abandoned aims I discovered myself for the first time. Before that I had seen only the world and things in it, HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard had sought them self-forgetful of all but my impulse. Now I found myself GROUPED with a system of appetites and satisfactions, with much work to do—and no desire, it seemed, left in me. There were moments when I thought of suicide." George only partially resolves this moral crisis by, as he says, "idealiz[ing] Science."[7]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard So powerful have corrupting social forces become that they overcome and denature George's life, for while in his youth he was capable of virtue, love, and creativity, he finds no ideal to which he can devote himself. Instead, he becomes the fabricator of powerful machines whose destructive potential can only be guessed at: TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard such is the portent suggested by the remarkable concluding chapter, entitled "Night and the Open Sea," in which, during a test run of the "X 2," the destroyer that George has designed and built is known, the vessel becomes a symbol of a metaphysical "something" that "drives," that "is at once human achievement and the most inhuman of all existing things."[12]HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard With KippsThe History of Mr Polly, and Tono-Bungay, his biographer David C. Smith has written, H.G. Wells "is able to claim a permanent place in English fiction, close to Dickens because of the extraordinary humanity of some of his characters, but also because of his ability to invoke a place, a class, a social scene. These novels are very personal as well, treating aspects of Wells's own life, matters which would come under attack later, but only after he added his sexual and extramarital views to the personal side of his work."[13]HP Pavilion dv6-3140sa Laptop Keyboard While initial reviews were mixed (it was criticized by Hubert Bland and Robertson Nicoll), the Daily Telegraph praised it as "a masterpiece." Gilbert Murraypraised the book in three separate letters to the author, ACER Aspire 5553G Laptop Keyboard comparing Wells to Leo Tolstoy.."[14] Biographer Vincent Brome has written that "Tono-Bungay came fresh and vivid to men and women of Wells' generation. These great questionings, the challenge to one eternal verity after another, shook their world and their way of life, and it was all tremendously exciting."[15] HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Laptop Keyboard Wells himself was "disposed to regard Tono-Bungay as the finest and most finished novel upon the accepted lines" that he had "written or was ever likely to write."[16]Kent County Cricket Club is one of the 18 first class county county cricket clubs which make up the English and Welshnational cricket structure, representing the historic county of Kent. The club's limited overs team is called the KentSpitfires.  DELL Inspiron n7110 Laptop Keyboard The club plays most of its home matches at the St Lawrence Ground, Canterbury, but also plays some home matches at TheCounty Cricket Ground, Beckenham within the Beckenham area of Bromley in southeast London, and the Nevill Ground, Royal Tunbridge Wells where they host the Tunbridge Wells Cricket Week. SONY VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Laptop Keyboard In the 2006 season, Kent finished fifth in Division One of the County Championship while the Spitfires were fifth in the NatWest Pro40 League Division Two. On 4 August 2007, Kent won the Twenty20 Cup for the first time, defeating co-favourites Sussex in the semi-finals, captainRob Key hitting 68 not out. In the final they defeated Gloucestershire in a see-saw game where in the final over, chasing 148, they required 13 off the last over, before making it home with 2 balls to spare, Matthew Walker hitting 45 and Darren Stevens hitting 30 not out to see the Spitfires home. Earlier in the final, Ryan McLaren got a hat-trick. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard On 27 September 2008, Kent were relegated from the First to the Second Division of the County Championship for the first time. The 'John Player Special League' was launched, in 1969, as the second one-day competition in England and Wales alongside the Gillette Cup. The 17 counties played each other in a league format on Sundays afternoons throughout the season. These matches were concise enough to be shown on television and BBC 2 broadcast one match each week in full until 1980s and then as part of the Sunday Grandstand multi-sport programme. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard For close finishes for the title, cameras appeared at the grounds where the contenders for the title were competing and the trophy presentation to the victorious team would be on film. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard 'Refuge Assurance' became the new sponsors of the competition in 1987 and then in 1988 started an end of season play-off competition known as the 'Refuge Assurance Cup'. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The top four teams of the season qualified with the top team playing the fourth placed team and the second and third place teams playing each other. The winners of each match met in a final at a neutral venue. This competition lasted until 1991. Somerset played Lancashire at Taunton on Friday 5 July 1991 to make the first Sunday League game not to be played on a Sunday.[1] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The Sunday League was not sponsored in 1992, but in 1993 'AXA Equity and Law' became the sponsor. The matches this season were 50 overs per innings. The first round of matches that took place on May 9, 1993 were the first official matches played in coloured clothing and a white ball in England. The following season the competition reverted back to 40 overs per innings. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard On Wednesday 23 July 1997 Warwickshire played Somerset at Edgbaston. This game was the first competitive county game to played under floodlights.[2] The National League was launched in 1999 with the 18 first-class counties split into two divisions with three teams promoted and relegated from each. The matches were played over 45 overs and the competition was sponsored by 'Norwich Union'. Matches were spread over the week rather than Sundays only. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard The counties incorporated nicknames into their official names for the National League, from 2002. For example, Kent became the 'Spitfires', Middlesex the 'Crusaders' and Lancashire were the 'Lightning'. The following season the Scotland Saltires took part in the League until 2005. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The C & G Trophy was restructured, in 2006, from a knock-out competition to a round-robin league format, which took up the early part of the season. The National League was renamed the 'NatWest Pro40' and was played in the later part of the season with the teams playing each other once. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Also, two teams instead of three were promoted to the first division and two relegated to the second division. A third promotion/relegation spot is determined in a play-off game between the team third from top in the second division and third from bottom team in the first. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 2008, it was decided that the league would be disbanded from 2010, in order to make way for a new Twenty20 tournament; the 'English Premier League'. However the proposed 'English Premier League' extra Twenty20 idea was abandoned in favour for an expanded Twenty20 Cup competition 'P20'.[3]HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard The ECB announced, on August 27, 2009, that in 2010 there will be a 40-overs per innings tournament replacing both the Pro40 and the Friends Provident Trophy. This along with the English County Championship and the Twenty20 Cup will be English cricket's three domestic competitions.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

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