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In a sudden general election in October 1974, Powell returned to Parliament as Ulster Unionist MP for South Down, having rejected an offer to stand as a candidate for the National Front. He repeated his call to vote Labour due to their policy on the EEC.[5]:732–3HP Mini 210-1120SW Keyboard 

Since 1968, Powell had been an increasingly frequent visitor to Northern Ireland, and in keeping with his general British nationalist viewpoint, he sided strongly with the Ulster Unionists in their desire to remain a constituent part of the United Kingdom. HP Mini 210-1120TU Keyboard

From early 1971, he opposed, with increasing vehemence, Heath's approach to Northern Ireland, the greatest breach with his party coming over the imposition of direct rule in 1972. He strongly believed that it would survive only if the Unionists strove to integrate completely with the United Kingdom by abandoning devolved rule in Northern Ireland. HP Mini 210-1121EJ Keyboard

He refused to join the Orange Institution, the first Ulster Unionist MP at Westminster never to be a member (and, to date, only one of three, the others being Ken Maginnis and Sylvia Hermon), and he was an outspoken opponent of the more extremist Unionism espoused by the Reverend Ian Paisley and his supporters. HP Mini 210-1121EK Keyboard

In the aftermath of the Birmingham pub bombings by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) on 21 November 1974, the government passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act. During its second reading, Powell warned of passing legislation "in haste and under the immediate pressure of indignation on matters which touch the fundamental liberties of the subject; HP Mini 210-1121TU Keyboard

for both haste and anger are ill counsellors, especially when one is legislating for the rights of the subject". He said terrorism was a form of warfare that could not be prevented by laws and punishments but by the aggressor's certainty that the war was impossible to win.[5]:742HP Mini 210-1122TU Keyboard

When Heath called a leadership election at the end of 1974, Powell claimed they would have to find someone who was not a member of the Cabinet that "without a single resignation or public dissent, not merely swallowed but advocated every single reversal of election pledge or party principle".[5]:745HP Mini 210-1124TU Keyboard

During February 1975, after winning the leadership election, Margaret Thatcher refused to offer Powell a Shadow Cabinet place because "he turned his back on his own people" by leaving the Conservative Party exactly 12 months earlier and telling the electorate to vote Labour. HP Mini 210-1125TU Keyboard

Powell replied she was correct to exclude him: "In the first place I am not a member of the Conservative Party and secondly, until the Conservative Party has worked its passage a very long way it will not be rejoining me".[5]:747 Powell also attributed Thatcher's success to luck, saying that she was faced with "supremely unattractive opponents at the time".[29] HP Mini 210-1126TU Keyboard

During the 1975 referendum on British membership of the EEC, Powell campaigned for a 'No' vote. However, the electorate voted 'Yes' by a margin of more than two to one. Powell was the second most prominent supporter of the 'No' camp, after Tony Benn.[30] HP Mini 210-1127TU Keyboard

On 23 March 1977, in a vote of confidence against the minority Labour government, Powell, along with a few other Ulster Unionists, abstained. The government won by 322 votes to 298, and remained in power for another two years. HP Mini 210-1128TU Keyboard

Powell claimed that the only way to stop the PIRA was for Northern Ireland to be an integral part of the United Kingdom, treated the same as any other of its constituent parts. He claimed the ambiguous nature of the province's status, with its own parliament and prime minister, gave hope to the PIRA that it could be detached from the rest of the UK: HP Mini 210-1129LA Keyboard

Every word or act which holds out the prospect that their unity with the rest of the United Kingdom might be negotiable is itself, consciously or unconsciously, a contributory cause to the continuation of violence in Northern Ireland.[5]:543HP Mini 210-1129TU Keyboard

Nonetheless, in the 1987 general election that he lost, Powell campaigned in Bangor for James Kilfedder, the devolutionist North Down Popular Unionist Party MP and against Robert McCartney, who was standing as a Real Unionist on a policy of integration and equal citizenship for Northern Ireland.[31] HP Mini 210-1130ER Keyboard

In Powell's later career as an Ulster Unionist MP he continued to criticise the United States and claimed that the Americans were trying to persuade the British to surrender Northern Ireland into an all-Irish state because the condition for Irish membership of NATO, HP Mini 210-1130ET Keyboard

Powell claimed, was Northern Ireland. The Americans wanted to close the 'yawning gap' in NATO defence that was the southern Irish coast to northern Spain. Powell had a copy of a State Department Policy Statement[32] from 15 August 1950, HP Mini 210-1130EZ Keyboard

in which the American government said that the "agitation" caused by partition in Ireland "lessens the usefulness of Ireland in international organisations and complicates strategic planning for Europe". HP Mini 210-1130LA Keyboard

"It is desirable", the document continued, "that Ireland should be integrated into the defence planning of the North Atlantic area, for its strategic position and present lack of defensive capacity are matters of significance.[5]:635HP Mini 210-1130SB Keyboard

Though he voted with the Conservatives in a vote of confidence that brought down the Labour government on 28 March, Powell did not welcome the victory of Margaret Thatcher in the May 1979 election. "Grim" was Powell's response when he was asked what he thought of Thatcher's victory, HP Mini 210-1130SS Keyboard

because he believed she would renege like Heath did in 1972. During the election campaign, Thatcher, when questioned, again repeated her vow that there would be no position for Powell in her cabinet if the Conservatives won the forthcoming general election. HP Mini 210-1131SS Keyboard

After a riot in Bristol in 1980, Powell claimed the media of ignoring similar events in south London and Birmingham and claimed, HP Mini 210-1131TU Keyboard

"Far less than the foreseeable New Commonwealth and Pakistan ethnic proportion would be sufficient to constitute a dominant political force in the United Kingdom able to extract from a government and the main parties terms calculated to render its influence still more impregnable. HP Mini 210-1132TU Keyboard

Far less than this proportion would provide the bases and citadels for urban terrorism, which would in turn reinforce the overt political leverage of simple numbers". HP Mini 210-1133TU Keyboard

He attacked "the false nostrums and promises of those who apparently monopolise the channels of communication. Who then is likely to listen, let alone to respond, to the proof that nothing short of major movements of population can shift the lines along which we are being carried towards disaster?"[33] HP Mini 210-1134TU Keyboard

In 1980, Powell described the boycott of the Moscow Olympics, following the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, as 'pathetic to the point of farce'.[34] In the 1980s Powell began espousing the policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament. In a debate on the nuclear deterrent on 3 March 1981. HP Mini 210-1135LA Keyboard

Powell claimed that the debate was now more political than military; that Britain did not possess an independent deterrent and that through NATO Britain was tied to the nuclear deterrence theory of the United States.[5]:843 In the debate on the address shortly after the general election of 1983, HP Mini 210-1135TU Keyboard

Powell picked up on Thatcher's willingness, when asked, to use nuclear weapons as a "last resort". Powell presented a scenario of what he thought the last resort would be, namely that the Soviet Union would be ready to invade Britain and had used a nuclear weapon on somewhere such as Rockall to demonstrate their willingness to use it: HP Mini 210-1139TU Keyboard

What would the United Kingdom do? Would it discharge Polaris, Trident or whatever against the main centres of population of the Continent of Europe or in European Russia? If so, what would be the consequence? The consequence would not be that we should survive, HP Mini 210-1140ER Keyboard

that we should repel our antagonist-–nor would it be that we should escape defeat. The consequence would be that we would make certain, as far as is humanly possible, the virtual destruction and elimination of the hope of the future in these islands.... I would much sooner that the power to use it was not in the hands of any individual in this country at all.[5]:876–7HP Mini 210-1140EZ Keyboard

Powell went on to say that if the Soviet invasion had already begun and Britain resorted to a retaliatory strike the results would be the same, "We should be condemning, not merely to death, but as near as may be the non-existence of our population". HP Mini 210-1140LA Keyboard

To Powell, an invasion would take place with or without Britain's nuclear weapons and therefore there was no point in retaining them. He said that after years of consideration, HP Mini 210-1140SW Keyboard

he had come to the conclusion that there were no "rational grounds on which the deformation of our defence preparations in the United Kingdom by our determination to maintain a current independent nuclear deterrent can be justified".[5]:877HP Mini 210-1140TU Keyboard

On 28 March 1981 Powell gave a speech to Ashton-under-Lyne Young Conservatives where he attacked the "conspiracy of silence" between the government and the opposition over the prospective growth through births of the immigration population and added, HP Mini 210-1142CL Keyboard

"'We have seen nothing yet' is a phrase that we could with advantage repeat to ourselves whenever we try to form a picture of that future". He also criticised those who believed it was "too late to do anything" and that "there lies the certainty of violence on a scale which can only adequately be described as civil war".[35]HP Mini 210-1144TU Keyboard

He also said that the solution was "a reduction in prospective numbers as would represent re-emigration hardly less massive than the immigration which occurred in the first place". The Shadow Home Secretary, Labour MP Roy Hattersley, criticised Powell for using "Munich beer-hall language".[5]:845HP Mini 210-1145SA Keyboard

Then on 11 April, was a riot in Brixton and when on 13 April Thatcher was quoted Powell's remark that "We have seen nothing yet" by an interviewer she replied: "I heard him say that and I thought it was a very very alarming remark. And I hope with all my heart that it isn't true".[5]:845HP Mini 210-1145TU Keyboard

In July,, a riot took place in Toxteth, Liverpool. On 16 July, Powell gave a speech in the Commons in which he said the riots could not be understood unless one takes into consideration the fact that in some large cities between a quarter and a half of those under 25 were immigrant or descended from immigrants. HP Mini 210-1146TU Keyboard

He read out a letter he had received from a member of the public about immigration which included the line: "As they continue to multiply and as we can't retreat further there must be conflict". A Labour MP Martin Flanneryintervened, HP Mini 210-1150CA Keyboard

saying Powell was making "a National Front speech". Powell predicted "inner London becoming ungovernable or violence which could only effectively be described as civil war" and Flannery intervened again to ask what Powell knew about inner cities. HP Mini 210-1150EC Keyboard

He replied: "I was a Member for Wolverhampton for a quarter of a century. What I saw in those early years of the development of this problem in Wolverhampton has made it impossible for me ever to dissociate myself from this gigantic and tragic problem".HP Mini 210-1150ER Keyboard

He also criticised the view that the causes of the riots were economic: "Are we seriously saying that so long as there is poverty, unemployment and deprivation our cities will be torn to pieces, that the police in them will be the objects of attack and that we shall destroy our own environment? Of course not".HP Mini 210-1150EZ Keyboard

Dame Judith Hart attacked his speech as "an evil incitement to riot". Powell replied: "I am within the judgment of the House, as I am within the judgment of the people of this country, and I am content to stand before either tribunal".[5]:846HP Mini 210-1150NR Keyboard

After the Scarman Report on the riots was published, Powell gave a speech on 10 December in the Commons. Powell disagreed with Scarman when he said that the black community was alienated because it was economically disadvantaged: the black community was alienated because it was alien. HP Mini 210-1150SW Keyboard

He claimed tensions would worsen because the nonwhite population was growing: whereas in Lambeth it was 25%, of those of secondary school age it was 40%. Powell said that the government should be honest to the people by telling them in thirty years' time, the black population of Lambeth would have doubled in size.[5]:851HP Mini 210-1151SS Keyboard

John Casey records an exchange between Powell and Thatcher during a meeting of the Conservative Philosophy Group: HP Mini 210-1155DX Keyboard

Edward Norman (then Dean of Peterhouse) had attempted to mount a Christian argument for nuclear weapons. The discussion moved on to 'Western values'. Mrs Thatcher said (in effect) that Norman had shown that the Bomb was necessary for the defence of our values. HP Mini 210-1156SA Keyboard

Powell: 'No, we do not fight for values. I would fight for this country even if it had a communist government.' Thatcher (it was just before the Argentinian invasion of the Falklands): ‘Nonsense, Enoch. If I send British troops abroad, it will be to defend our values.'HP Mini 210-1160CA Keyboard

'No, Prime Minister, values exist in a transcendental realm, beyond space and time. They can neither be fought for, nor destroyed.' Mrs Thatcher looked utterly baffled. She had just been presented with the difference between Toryism and American Republicanism.[36] HP Mini 210-1160NR Keyboard

When Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands in April 1982, Powell was given secret briefings on Privy Councillor terms on behalf of his party. On 3 April, Powell said in the Commons that the time for inquests on the government's failure to protect the Falkland Islands would come later and that although it was right to put the issue before the United Nations, HP Mini 210-1160SA Keyboard

Britain should not wait upon that organisation to deliberate but use forceful action now. He then turned to face Thatcher: "The Prime Minister, shortly after she came into office, received a sobriquet as the "Iron Lady". It arose in the context of remarks which she made about defence against the Soviet Union and its allies; HP Mini 210-1161EZ Keyboard

but there was no reason to suppose that the right hon. Lady did not welcome and, indeed, take pride in that description. In the next week or two this House, the nation and the right hon. Lady herself will learn of what metal she is made".[37] According to Thatcher's friends this had a "devastating impact" on her and encouraged her resolve.[5]:856HP Mini 210-1165SA Keyboard

On 14 April, in the Commons, Powell claimed "it is difficult to fault the military and especially the naval measures which the Government have taken". He added: "We are in some danger of resting our position too exclusively upon the existence, the nature and the wishes of the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands... HP Mini 210-1170CA Keyboard

if the population of the Falkland Islands did not desire to be British, the principle that the Queen wishes no unwilling subjects would long ago have prevailed; but we should create great difficulties for ourselves in other contexts, as well as in this context, HP Mini 210-1170NR Keyboard

if we rested our action purely and exclusively on the notion of restoring tolerable, acceptable conditions and self-determination to our fellow Britons on the Falkland Islands.... I do not think that we need be too nice about saying that we defend our territory as well as our people. HP Mini 210-1170SA Keyboard

There is nothing irrational, nothing to be ashamed of, in doing that. Indeed, it is impossible in the last resort to distinguish between the defence of territory and the defence of people".HP Mini 210-1170SS Keyboard

Powell also criticised the United Nations Security Council's resolution calling for a "peaceful solution". He said whilst he wanted a peaceful solution, the resolution's meaning "seems to be of a negotiated settlement or compromise between two incompatible positions-—HP Mini 210-1171SS Keyboard

between the position which exists in international law, that the Falkland Islands and their dependencies are British sovereign territory and some other position altogether... It cannot be meant that one country has only to seize the territory of another country for the nations of the world to say that some middle position must be found.... If that were the meaning of the resolution of the Security Council, HP Mini 210-1175CA Keyboard

the charter of the United Nations would not be a charter of peace; it would be a pirates' charter. It would mean that any claim anywhere in the world had only to be pursued by force, and points would immediately be gained and a bargaining position established by the aggressor".[38] HP Mini 210-1175NR Keyboard

On 28 April, Powell spoke in the Commons against the Northern Ireland Secretary's (Jim Prior) plans for devolution to a power-sharing assembly in Northern Ireland: "We assured the people of the Falkland Islands that there should be no change in their status without their agreement. HP Mini 210-1175SA Keyboard

Yet at the very same time that those assurances were being repeated, the actions of the Government and their representatives elsewhere were belying or contradicting those assurances and showing that part at any rate of the Government was looking to a very different outcome that could not be approved by the people of the islands. HP Mini 210-1180CA Keyboard

Essentially, exactly the same has happened over the years to Northern Ireland". He further claimed that power-sharing was a negation of democracy.[39] HP Mini 210-1180NR Keyboard

The next day Powell, disagreed with the Labour Party leader Michael Foot's claim that the British government was acting under the authority of the United Nations: HP Mini 210-1180SA Keyboard

"The right of self-defence—-to repel aggression and to expel an invader from one's territory and one's people whom he has occupied and taken captive-—is, as the Government have said, an inherent right. It is one which existed before the United Nations was dreamt of".[40] HP Mini 210-1180SP Keyboard

On 13 May Powell, said the task force was sent "to repossess the Falkland Islands, to restore British administration of the islands and to ensure that the decisive factor in the future of the islands should be the wishes of the inhabitants" but the Foreign Secretary (Francis Pym) desired an "interim agreement":HP Mini 210-1180SS Keyboard

"So far as I understand that interim agreement, it is in breach, if not in contradiction, of each of the three objects with which the task force was dispatched to the South Atlantic. There was to be a complete and supervised withdrawal of Argentine forces... HP Mini 210-1185SA Keyboard

matched by corresponding withdrawal of British forces. There is no withdrawal of British force that 'corresponds' to the withdrawal from the territory of the islands of those who have unlawfully occupied them. We have a right to be there; HP Mini 210-1190CA Keyboard

those are our waters, the territory is ours and we have the right to sail the oceans with our fleets whenever we think fit. So the whole notion of a 'corresponding withdrawal', HP Mini 210-1190NR Keyboard

a withdrawal of the only force which can possibly restore the position, which can possibly ensure any of the objectives which have been talked about on either side of the House, is in contradiction of the determination to repossess the Falklands".[41] HP Mini 210-1191NR Keyboard

After British forces successfully recaptured the Falklands, Powell asked Thatcher in the Commons on 17 June, recalling his statement to her of 3 April: "Is the right hon. Lady aware that the report has now been received from the public analyst on a certain substance recently subjected to analysis and that I have obtained a copy of the report? HP Mini 210-1195EA Keyboard

It shows that the substance under test consisted of ferrous matter of the highest quality, that it is of exceptional tensile strength, is highly resistant to wear and tear and to stress, and may be used with advantage for all national purposes?" She replied, HP Mini 210-1199DX Keyboard

"I think that I am very grateful indeed to the right hon. Gentleman. I agree with every word that he said".[42] Their mutual friend Ian Gow printed and framed this and the original question and presented it to Thatcher, who hung it in her office.[5]:861HP Mini 210-2000 CTO Keyboard

Powell wrote an article for The Times on 29 June, in which he said: "The Falklands have brought to he surface of the British mind our latent perception of ourselves as a sea animal.... No assault on a landward possession would have evoked the same automatic defiance, HP Mini 210-2000eh Keyboard

tinged with a touch of that self sufficiency which belongs to all nations". The United States' response was "very different but just as deep an instinctual reaction... the United States have an almost neurotic sense of vulnerability... its two coastlines, HP Mini 210-2000er Keyboard

its two theatres, its two navies are separated by the entire length of the New World... she lives with... the nightmare of having one day to fight a decisive sea battle without the benefit of concentration, the perpetual spectre of naval 'war on two fronts'." HP Mini 210-2000ev Keyboard

Powell added: "The Panama Canal from 1914 onwards could never quite exorcise the spectre.... It was the position of the Falkland Islands in relation to that route which gave and gives them their significance—-for the United States above all. HP Mini 210-2000ew Keyboard

The British people have become uneasily aware that their American allies would prefer the Falkland Islands to pass out of Britain's possession into hands which, if not wholly American, might be amenable to American control. In fact, the American struggle to wrest the islands from Britain has only commenced in earnest now that the fighting is over". HP Mini 210-2000sg Keyboard

Powell then said there was "the Hispanic factor": "If we could gather together all the anxieties for the future which in Britain cluster around race relations... and then attribute them, translated into Hispanic terms, to the Americans, we would have something of the phobias which haunt the United States and addressed itself to the aftermath of the Falklands campaign".[43] HP Mini 210-2000sj Keyboard

Writing in The Guardian on 18 October, Powell asserted that due to the Falklands War, "Britain no longer looked upon itself and the world through American spectacles" and the view was "more rational; and it was more congenial; for, after all, it was our own view".HP Mini 210-2000sm Keyboard

He quoted an observation that Americans thought their country was "a unique society... where God has put together all nationalities, races and interests of the globe for one purpose-–to show the rest of the world how to live". He denounced the "manic exaltation of the American illusion" and compared it to the "American nightmare". HP Mini 210-2000st Keyboard

Powell also disliked the American belief that "they are authorised, possibly by the deity, to intervene, openly or covertly, in the internal affairs of other countries anywhere in the world". Britain should dissociate herself from American intervention in the Lebanon: HP Mini 210-2000sv Keyboard

"It is not in Britain's self-interest alone that Britain should once again assert her own position. A world in which the American myth and the American nightmare go unchallenged by question or by contradiction is not a world as safe or as peaceable as human reason, prudence and realism can make it".[5]:861–2HP Mini 210-2001er Keyboard

Speaking to the Aldershot and North Hants Conservative Association on 4 February 1983, Powell blamed the United Nations for the Falklands War by the General Assembly resolution of December 1967 that stated "its gratitude for the continuous efforts made by the Government of Argentina to facilitate the process of decolonisation" and further called on Britain and Argentina to negotiate. HP Mini 210-2001sa Keyboard

Powell said that "it would be difficult to imagine a more cynically wicked or criminally absurd or insultingly provocative action". As 102 had voted for this resolution, with only Britain voting against it (with 32 abstentions), HP Mini 210-2001sd Keyboard

he claimed it was not surprising that Argentina had continually threatened Britain until this threatening turned into aggression: "It is with the United Nations that the guilt lies for the breach of the peace and the bloodshed". The UN knew that no international forum had ruled against British possession of the Falklands but had voted its gratitude to Argentina who wanted to annexe the Islands from their rightful owners. HP Mini 210-2001sg Keyboard

It was therefore "disgraceful" for Britain to belong to such a body that engaged in "pure spite for spite's sake against the United Kingdom": "We were, and are, the victims of our own insincerity. For over thirty years we have sanctimoniously and dishonestly pretended respect, HP Mini 210-2001sl Keyboard

if not awe, for an organisation which all the time we knew was a monstrous and farcical humbug.... The moral is to cease to engage in humbug, which almost all have happily and self-righteously engaged in for a generation".[44] HP Mini 210-2001tu Keyboard

In an article for the Sunday Telegraph on 3 April Powell expressed his opposition to the Labour Party's manifesto pledge to outlaw fox hunting. He claimed that angling was much crueler and that it was just as logical to ban the boiling of live lobsters or eating live oysters. HP Mini 210-2001xx Keyboard

The ceremonial part of fox hunting was "a side of our national character which is deeply anti-pathetic to the Labour party".[5]:871 In the 1983 general election, Powell had to face a DUP candidate in his constituency and Ian Paisley denounced Powell as "a foreigner and an Anglo-Catholic".[5]:872HP Mini 210-2002ed Keyboard

On 31 May Powell gave a speech at Downpatrick against nuclear weapons. Powell claimed that war could not banished because "War is implicit in the human condition". The "true case against the nuclear weapon is the nightmarish unreality and criminal levity of the grounds upon which its acquisition and multiplication are advocated and defended". HP Mini 210-2002er Keyboard

Thatcher had claimed nuclear weapons were our defence "of last resort". Powell said he supposed this to mean "that the Soviet Union, which seems always to be assumed to be the enemy in question, proved so victorious in a war of aggression in Europe as to stand upon the verge of invading these islands.... HP Mini 210-2002sa Keyboard

Suppose further, because this is necessary to the alleged case for our nuclear weapon as the defence of last resort, that, as in 1940, the United States was standing aloof from the contest but that, in contrast with 1940, Britain and the Warsaw Pact respectively possessed the nuclear weaponry which they do today. HP Mini 210-2002sg Keyboard

Such must surely be the sort of scene in which the Prime Minister is asserting that Britain would be saved by possession of her present nuclear armament. I can only say: 'One must be mad to think it'." Powell pointed out that Britain's nuclear weaponry "is negligible in comparison with that of Russia: HP Mini 210-2002sl Keyboard

if we could destroy 16 Russian cities she could destroy practically every vestige of life on these islands several times over. For us to use the weapon would therefore be equivalent to more than suicide: it would be genocide-–the extinction of our race--HP Mini 210-2002tu Keyboard

in the literal and precise meaning of that much abused expression. Would anybody in their senses contemplate that this ought to be our choice or would be our choice?" HP Mini 210-2003ed Keyboard

Powell further stated that the continental nations held the nuclear weapon in such esteem that they had conventional forces "manifestly inadequate to impose more than brief delay upon an assault from the East. The theory of nuclear deterrence states that, HP Mini 210-2003er Keyboard

should Warsaw Pact forces score substantial military successes or make substantial advances this side of the Iron Curtain, the United States would initiate the suicidal duel of strategic nuclear exchanges with the Soviet Union. One can only greet this idea with an even more emphatic 'One must be mad to think of it'. HP Mini 210-2003sa Keyboard

That a nation staring ultimate military defeat in the face would choose self-extermination is unbelievable enough; but that the United States, separated from Europe by theAtlantic Ocean, would regard the loss of the first pawn in the long game as necessitating harakiri is not describable by the ordinary resources of language". HP Mini 210-2003sg Keyboard

The reason why governments, including in the US, supported nuclear weapons was that "enormous economic and financial interests are vested in the continuation and elaboration of nuclear armaments. I believe, however, that the crucial explanation lies in another direction: HP Mini 210-2003sl Keyboard

the nuclear hypothesis provides governments with an excuse for not doing what they have no intention of doing anyhow, but for reasons which they find it inconvenient to specify".[45] HP Mini 210-2003tu Keyboard

On 2 June, Powell spoke against the stationing of American Cruise missiles in Britain and claimed the United States had an obsessive sense of mission and a hallucinatory view of international relations: "The American nation, as we have watched their proceedings during these last 25 years, HP Mini 210-2004ed Keyboard

will not, when another Atlantic crisis, another Middle East crisis or another European crisis comes, wait upon the deliberations of the British Cabinet, whose point of view and appreciation of the situation will be so different from their own".[46] HP Mini 210-2004sa Keyboard

In 1983, his local agent was Jeffrey Donaldson, later an Ulster Unionist MP before defecting to the DUP.

In 1984, Powell claimed that the Central Intelligence Agency had murdered Earl Mountbatten of Burma and that the deaths of the MPs Airey Neave and Robert Bradford were carried out by the USA in order to stop Neave's policy of integration for Northern Ireland.[5]:881HP Mini 210-2004sl Keyboard

Then, in 1986, he again argued that Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) had not killed Neave but that "MI6 and their friends" were responsible instead, claiming to have been told so by Royal Ulster Constabulary officers.[5]:906 Margaret Thatcher however, rejected and dismissed these claims. HP Mini 210-2004tu Keyboard

In autumn 1985, riots broke out in London and Birmingham, and Powell repeated his belief that civil war would be the result of immigration and called for massive repatriation. Hattersley in response called him "theAlf Garnett of British politics".HP Mini 210-2005sa Keyboard

At a meeting of the Monday Club Powell said when someone compared him to Garnett, "Garnett, Alf Garnett? Who's he? One of the new ministers?"[5]:893HP Mini 210-2005sl Keyboard

Powell later came into conflict with Thatcher during November 1985 because of her support for the Anglo-Irish Agreement. On the day it was signed, 14 November, Powell asked her in the Commons:

lang="en-us" xml:lang="en-us">HP Mini 210-2005tu Keyboard

"Does the right hon. Lady understand—-if she does not yet understand she soon will—-that the penalty for treachery is to fall into public contempt?" Thatcher replied that she found his remarks "deeply offensive".[47] HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard

Along with other Unionist MPs, Powell resigned his seat in protest and then narrowly regaining it at theensuing by-election.

In 1987 Thatcher, visited the Soviet Union, which signified to Powell a "radical transformation which is in progress in both the foreign policy and the defence policy of the United Kingdom".[48] HP Mini 210-2006sl Keyboard

In a speech in the Commons on 7 April, Powell claimed the nuclear hypothesis had been shaken by two events. The first was the Strategic Defense Initiative or "Star Wars": "Star wars raised the terrible prospect that there might be an effective means of neutralising the inter-continental ballistic missile, HP Mini 210-2007sl Keyboard

whereby the two great giants who held what had become to be seen as the balance of terror would contract out of the game altogether: the deterrent would be switched off by the invulnerability of the two providers of the mutual terror".HP Mini 210-2010ee Keyboard

America's "European allies were brought along to acquiesce in the United States engaging in the rational activity of discovering whether there was after all some defence against nuclear attack... by the apparent assurance obtained from the United States that it was only engaged in experiment and research, HP Mini 210-2010eh Keyboard

and that, if there were any danger of effective protection being devised, of course the United States would not avail itself of that protection without the agreement of its European allies. That was the first recent event which shook to its foundations the nuclear deterrent with which we had lived these last 30 years". HP Mini 210-2010ei Keyboard

The second event wasMikhail Gorbachev's offer of both the Soviet Union and the United States agreeing to abolish intermediate ballistic missiles. Powell said that Thatcher's "most significant point was when she went on to say that we must aim at a conventional forces balance. HP Mini 210-2010eo Keyboard

So, after all our journeys of the last 30 or 40 years, the disappearance of the intermediate range ballistic missile revived the old question of the supposed conventional imbalance between the Russian alliance and the North Atlantic Alliance".HP Mini 210-2010ew Keyboard

Powell further claimed that even if nuclear weapons had not existed, the Russians would still not have invaded Western Europe: "What has prevented that from happening was... the fact that the Soviet Union knew... that such an action on its part would have led to a third world war-—a long war, HP Mini 210-2010sj Keyboard

bitterly fought, a war which in the end the Soviet Union would have been likely to lose on the same basis and in the same way as the corresponding war was lost by Napoleon, by the Emperor Wilhelm and by Adolf Hitler. It was that fear, that caution, HP Mini 210-2010sm Keyboard

that understanding, that perception on the part of Russia and its leaders that was the real deterrent against Russia committing the utterly irrational and suicidal act of plunging into a third world war in which the Soviet Union would be likely to find itself confronting a combination of the greatest industrial and economic powers in the world".HP Mini 210-2010so Keyboard

Powell said, "In the minds of the Russians the inevitable commitment of the United States in such a war would have come not directly or necessarily from the stationing of American marines in Germany, but, as it came in the previous two struggles, HP Mini 210-2010sq Keyboard

from the ultimate involvement of the United States in any war determining the future of Europe". Thatcher's belief in the nuclear hypothesis "in the context of the use of American bases in Britain to launch an aggressive attack on Libya, that it was 'inconceivable' that we could have refused a demand placed upon this country by the United States. HP Mini 210-2010st Keyboard

The Prime Minister supplied the reason why: she said it was because we depend for our liberty and freedom upon the United States. Once let the nuclear hypothesis be questioned or destroyed, once allow it to break down, and from that moment the American imperative in this country's policies disappears with it".[49] HP Mini 210-2010sw Keyboard

At the start of 1987 general election, Powell claimed the Conservatives' prospects did not look good: "I have the feeling of 1945".[5]:909 During the final weekend of the election campaign Powell gave a speech in London reiterating his opposition to the nuclear hypothesis, HP Mini 210-2010tu Keyboard

calling it "barmy", and advocating a vote for the Labour Party, which had unilateral nuclear disarmament as a policy. He claimed that Chernobyl had strengthened "a growing impulse to escape from the nightmare of peace being dependent upon the contemplation of horrific and mutual carnage. HP Mini 210-2011ee Keyboard

Events have now so developed that this aspiration can at last be rationally, logically and–-I dare to add-–patriotically seized by the people of the United Kingdom if they will use their votes to do so".[10]:496HP Mini 210-2011ek Keyboard

However, Powell lost his seat in the election by 731 votes to the Social Democratic and Labour Party's Eddie McGrady, mainly due to demographic and boundary changes that resulted in there being many more Irish Nationalists in the constituency than before. HP Mini 210-2011eo Keyboard

Ironically, the boundary changes had arisen due to his own campaign for the number of MPs representing Northern Ireland to be increased to the equivalent proportion for the rest of the United Kingdom, as part of the steps towards greater integration. HP Mini 210-2011so Keyboard

McGrady paid tribute to Powell, recognising the respect he was held by both Unionists and Nationalists in the constituency. Powell said, "For the rest of my life when I look back on the 13 years I shall be filled with affection for the Province and its people, and their fortunes will never be out of my heart".HP Mini 210-2011sq Keyboard

He received a warm ovation from the mostly Nationalist audience and as he walked off the platform, he said the words Edmund Burke used on the death of candidate Richard Coombe: "What shadows we are, what shadows we pursue". When a BBC reporter asked Powell to explain his defeat, he replied: "My opponent polled more votes than me".[5]:911HP Mini 210-2011tu Keyboard

He was offered a life peerage, which was regarded as his right as a former cabinet minister but declined it. He argued that, as he had opposed the Life Peerages Act 1958, HP Mini 210-2012ee Keyboard

it would be hypocritical for him to take one, but even if he was willing to accept a hereditary peerage (which would have been extinct upon his death as he had no male heir), Thatcher was unwilling to court the controversy that might have arisen as a result. HP Mini 210-2012eo Keyboard

Post-parliamentary life

He was critical of the Special Air Service (SAS) shootings of three unarmed IRA members in Gibraltar in March 1988.[5]:918HP Mini 210-2012so Keyboard

Powell claimed in an article for The Guardian on 7 December 1988 that the new Western-friendly foreign policy of Russia under Mikhail Gorbachev heralded "the death and burial of the American empire". ChancellorHelmut Kohl of West Germany had decided to visit Moscow to negotiate German reunification, HP Mini 210-2012sq Keyboard

signalling to Powell that the last gasp of American power in Europe to be replaced by a new balance of power not resting on military force but on the "recognition of the restraints which the ultimate certainty of failure places upon the ambitions of the respective national states.[5]:922HP Mini 210-2012tu Keyboard

In an interview for the Sunday People the same month, he claimed the Conservative Party was "rejoining Enoch" on the European Community but repeated his warning of civil war as the consequence of immigration: HP Mini 210-2013ee Keyboard

"I still cannot forsee how a country can be peaceably governed in which the composition of the population is progressively going to change. I am talking about violence on a scale which can only be described as civil war. I cannot see there can be any other outcome".HP Mini 210-2013ek Keyboard

It would not be a race war but "about people who revolt against being trapped in a situation where they feel at the mercy of a built-in racial majority, whatever its colour" and claimed that the government had made contingency plans for such an event. HP Mini 210-2013eo Keyboard

The solution he claimed was repatriation on a large scale and the cost of doing this in welfare payments and pensions was well worth paying.[5]:922HP Mini 210-2013so Keyboard

In spring 1989, he made a programme (broadcast in July) on his visit to Russia and his impressions on that country. The BBC originally wanted him to do a programme on India but the Indian high commission inLondon refused him a visa. HP Mini 210-2013tu Keyboard

When he visited Russia, Powell went to the graves of 600,000 people who died during the siege of Leningrad and saying that he could not believe a people who had suffered so much would willingly start another war. HP Mini 210-2014tu Keyboard

He also went to a veterans' parade (wearing his own medals) and talked with Russian soldiers with the aid of an interpreter. However, the programme was criticised by those who believed that Powell had dismissed the Soviet Union's threat to the West since 1945 and that he had been too impressed with Russia's sense of national identity.[5]:925HP Mini 210-2015eq Keyboard

When German reunification was on the agenda in summer 1989, Powell claimed that Britain urgently needed to create an alliance with the Soviet Union in view of Germany's effect on the balance of power in Europe.[5]:925HP Mini 210-2015la Keyboard

HP Mini 210-2015tu Keyboard

After Thatcher's Bruges speech[50] in September 1988 and her increasing hostility to a European currency in the last years of her premiership, Powell made many speeches publicly supporting her attitude to Europe. When Heath attacked Thatcher's speech in May 1989 Powell called him "the old virtuoso of the U-turn".[5]:925HP Mini 210-2016tu Keyboard

When inflation crept up that year, he condemned the Chancellor Nigel Lawson's policy of printing money so sterling would shadow the German deutschmark and said that it was for the UK to join theEuropean Monetary System.[5]:926HP Mini 210-2017tu Keyboard

In early September 1989, a collection of Powell's speeches on Europe was published titled Enoch Powell on 1992 (1992 being the year set for the creation of the Single Market by the Single European Act of 1986). In a speech at Chatham House for the launch of the book on 6 September, HP Mini 210-2018tu Keyboard

he advised Thatcher to fight the next general election on a nationalist theme as many Eastern European nations previously under Russian rule were gaining their freedom.[5]:927 At the Conservative Party conference in October, he told a fringe meeting, HP Mini 210-2019tu Keyboard

"I find myself today less on the fringe of that party than I have done for 20 years".[5]:927 After Thatcher resisted further European integration at a meeting at Strasbourg in November Powell asked her parliamentary private secretary Mark Lennox-Boyd to pass to her "my respectful congratulations on her stand... HP Mini 210-2020eh Keyboard

she both spoke for Britain and gave a lead to Europe–-in the line of succession of Winston Churchill and William Pitt. Those who lead are always out in front, alone". Thatcher replied, "I am deeply touched by your words. They give me the greatest possible encouragement".[5]:927HP Mini 210-2020ev Keyboard

On 5 January 1990, addressing Conservatives in Liverpool, Powell claimed that if the Conservatives played the "British card" at the next general election, they could win; the new mood in Britain for "self-determination" had given the newly independent nations of Eastern Europe a "beacon",HP Mini 210-2020ew Keyboard

adding that Britain should stand alone, if necessary, for European freedom, adding: "We are taunted–-by the French, by the Italians, by the Spaniards -–for refusing to worship at the shrine of a common government superimposed upon them all... HP Mini 210-2020sp Keyboard

where were the European unity merchants in 1940? I will tell you. They were either writhing under a hideous oppression or they were aiding and abetting that oppression. Lucky for Europe that Britain was alone in 1940".HP Mini 210-2020ss Keyboard

The Conservative Party would have to, preferably at the next election, ask: "Do you intend still to control the laws which you obey, the taxes you pay and the policies of your government?"[5]:928 Five days after this speech, in an interview for The Daily Telegraph, HP Mini 210-2020st Keyboard

Thatcher praised Powell: "I have always read Enoch Powell's speeches and articles very carefully.... I always think it was a tragedy that he left. He is a very, very able politician. I say that even though he has sometimes said vitriolic things against me".[5]:928HP Mini 210-2020sw Keyboard

On the day of the Mid-Staffordshire by-election, Powell claimed that the government should admit that the community charge was "a disaster" and that what mattered most to the people of Mid-Staffordshire was the question of who should govern Britain and that only the Conservative Party was advocating that the British should govern themselves. HP Mini 210-2020tu Keyboard

Thatcher had been labelled "dictatorial" for wanting to "go it alone" in Europe: "Well, I do not mind somebody being dictatorial in defending my own rights and those of my fellow countrymen... lose self-government, and I have lost everything, and for good". HP Mini 210-2021sp Keyboard

This was the first election since 1970 that Powell was advocating a vote for the Conservative Party.[5]:929 However, the Labour Party won the seat from the Conservative Party, mainly because of the community charge. HP Mini 210-2021tu Keyboard

After Iraq invaded Kuwait on 2 August 1990, Powell claimed that since Britain was not an ally of Kuwait in the "formal sense" and because the balance of power in the Middle East had ceased to be a British concern after the end of the British Empire, Britain should not go to war. HP Mini 210-2022sp Keyboard

Powell claimed that "Saddam Hussein has a long way to go yet before his troops come storming up the beaches of Kent or Sussex". On 21 October, he wrote, "The world is full of evil men engaged in doing evil things. That does not make us policemen to round them up nor judges to find them guilty and to sentence them. HP Mini 210-2022tu Keyboard

What is so special about the ruler of Iraq that we suddenly discover that we are to be his jailers and his judges?... we as a nation have no interest in the existence or non-existence of Kuwait or, for that matter, Saudi Arabia as an independent state. I sometimes wonder if, when we shed our power, we omitted to shed our arrogance".[5]:933HP Mini 210-2023tu Keyboard

When Thatcher was challenged by Michael Heseltine for the leadership of the Conservative Party during November 1990, Powell said he would rejoin the party, which he had left in February 1974 over the issue of Europe, if Thatcher won, HP Mini 210-2025tu Keyboard

and would urge the public to support both her and, in Powell's view, national independence. He wrote to one of Thatcher's supporters, Norman Tebbit, on 16 November telling, him Thatcher was entitled to use his name and his support in any way she saw fit. HP Mini 210-2027ez Keyboard

Since she resigned on 22 November, Powell never rejoined the Conservatives. Powell wrote the following Sunday: "Good news is seldom so good, nor bad news so bad, as at first sight it appears".HP Mini 210-2028tu Keyboard

Her downfall was due to having so few like-minded people on European integration amongst her colleagues and that as she had adopted a line that would improve her party's popularity, it was foolish of them to force her out. However he added, HP Mini 210-2029tu Keyboard

"The battle has been lost, but not the war. The fact abides that, outside the magic circle at the top, a deep rooted opposition has been disclosed in Britain to surrendering to others the right to make our laws, fix our taxes, or decide our policies. HP Mini 210-2030ew Keyboard

Running deep beneath the overlay of years of indifference is still the attachment of the British public to their tradition of democracy. Their resentment on learning that their own decisions can be overruled from outside remains as obstinate as ever". HP Mini 210-2030ez Keyboard

Thatcher had relit the flame of independence and "what has happened once can happen again... sooner or later those who aspire to govern... will have to listen".[5]:934HP Mini 210-2030st Keyboard

In December 1991, Powell claimed that "Whether Yugoslavia dissolves into two states or half a dozen states or does not dissolve at all makes no difference to the safety and well being of the United Kingdom". Britain's national interests determined that the country should have "HP Mini 210-2030sw Keyboard

a foreign policy which befits the sole insular and oceanic state in Europe".[5]:936 During the 1992 general election Powell spoke for Nicholas Budgen in his old seat of Wolverhampton South West UK Parliament constituency. He praised Budgen for his opposition to the Maastricht Treaty and condemned the rest of the Conservative Party for supporting it.[5]:936–7HP Mini 210-2030tu Keyboard

Later life and death

In the autumn of 1992, at 80, Powell was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. In 1994, he published The Evolution of the Gospel, A New Translation of the First Gospel with Commentary and Introductory Essay. On 5 November, the European printed an article by Powell in which he said he did not expect the European Communities Act 1972 to be amended or repealed but added, HP Mini 210-2031tu Keyboard

"Still, something has happened. There has been an explosion. Politicians, political parties, the public itself have looked into the abyss... the British people, somehow or other, will not be parted from their right to govern themselves in parliament".[5]:939HP Mini 210-2032tu Keyboard

The next year, twenty-fifth anniversary of Powell's "Rivers of Blood" speech, Powell wrote an article for The Times, in which he claimed the concentration of immigrant communities in inner cities would lead to "communalism", which would have grave effects on the electoral system: HP Mini 210-2033tu Keyboard

"communalism and democracy, as the experience of India demonstrates, are incompatible". In May he spoke for Alan Sked of the Anti-Federalist League (the forerunner of the United Kingdom Independence Party) who was standing at the Newbury by-election. HP Mini 210-2035br Keyboard

sked went on to lose his deposit in the by-election, polling only 601 votes (1.0%). At Michael Portillo's fortieth birthday party the same month, Thatcher greeted him enthusiastically and asked him: "Enoch, I haven't seen you since your eightieth-birthday dinner. HP Mini 210-2035la Keyboard

How are you?" Powell replied, "I'm eighty-one". Powell's opinion of Thatcher had declined after she endorsed John Major at the 1992 election, which he believed to be a repudiation of her fight against European integration after the Bruges speech.[5]:939–40HP Mini 210-2035tu Keyboard

On 16 May 1994, Powell spoke at the Bruges Group and said Europe had "destroyed one Prime Minister and will destroy another Prime Minister yet" and demanded powers surrendered to the European Court of Justiceto be repatriated. HP Mini 210-2036tu Keyboard

In June, he wrote an article for the Daily Mail, where he stated that "Britain is waking from the nightmare of being part of the continental bloc, to rediscover that these offshore islands belong to the outside world and lie open to its oceans". Innovations in contemporary society did not worry him: HP Mini 210-2037la Keyboard

"When exploration has run its course, we shall revert to the normal type of living to which nature and instinct predispose us. the decline will not have been permanent. The deterioration will not have been irreversible".[5]:943HP Mini 210-2037tu Keyboard

After his death, Powell's friend Richard Ritchie recorded in 1998 that "during one of the habitual coal crises of recent years he told me that he had no objection to supporting the coal industry, either through the restriction of cheap coal imports or subsidy, if it were the country's wish to preserve local coal communities".[51] HP Mini 210-2038tu Keyboard

In April 1995, he claimed in an interview that for the Conservatives "defeat [at the next election] would help. It helps one to change one's tune". The party was just "slithering around". The same month, he took part at a debate on Europe at the Cambridge Union and won. HP Mini 210-2039tu Keyboard

In July 1995 was a leadership election for the Conservative Party, in which Major resigned as leader of the party and stood in the election. Powell wrote, "He says to the Sovereign: I no longer am leader of the majority party in the House of Commons; but I am carrying on as your Prime Minister. HP Mini 210-2040br Keyboard

Now I don't think anybody can say that-–at least without inflicting damage on the constitution". To seek to offer advice to the Queen whilst unable to feel they could command a majority in the Commons was "tantamount to treating the monarch herself with disrespect and denying the very principle in which our parliamentary democracy is founded". HP Mini 210-2040ef Keyboard

After Major's challenger, John Redwood, was defeated, Powell wrote to him, "Dear Redwood, you will never regret the events of the last week or two. Patience will evidently have to be exercised–and patience is the greatest of the political virtues-–by those of us who want to keep Britain independent and self-governed".[5]:945–6HP Mini 210-2040ez Keyboard

During the final years of his life, he managed occasional pieces of journalism and co-operated in a BBCdocumentary about his life in 1995 (Odd Man Out was broadcast on 11 November). In April 1996, he wrote an article for the Daily Express where he said: HP Mini 210-2040la Keyboard

"Those who consented to the surrender made in 1972 will have to think again. Thinking again means that activity most unthinkable for politicians–-unsaying what has been said. The surrender... HP Mini 210-2040sf Keyboard

we have made is not irrevocable. Parliament still has the power (thank God) to reclaim what has been surrendered by treaty. It is time we told the other European nations what we mean by being self-governed".[5]:948–9 In October, he gave his last interview, to Matthew d'Ancona in the Sunday Telegraph. HP Mini 210-2040tu Keyboard

He said: "I have lived into an age in which my ideas are now part of common intuition, part of a common fashion. It has been a great experience, having given up so much to find that there is now this range of opinion in all classes, that an agreement with the EEC is totally incompatible with normal parliamentary government.... HP Mini 210-2041la Keyboard

The nation has returned to haunt us".[5]:949 When Labour won the 1997 general election, Powell told his wife, Pamela Wilson, "They have voted to break up the United Kingdom." She rejoined the Conservative Party the next day, but he did not.[5]:950 By then, Powell had been hospitalised several times as a result of a succession of falls. HP Mini 210-2041tu Keyboard

Powell began but did not complete work on a study of the Gospel of John. It was unfinished at the time of his death, aged 85, at 4:30 a.m., on 8 February 1998 at the King Edward VII Hospital for Officers in the City of Westminster, London. HP Mini 210-2042ef Keyboard

Powell's final words were a few hours after being admitted to hospital, he asked where his lunch was. On being told that he was being fed intravenously, he remarked, "I don't call that much of a lunch".HP Mini 210-2042sf Keyboard

Dressed in his brigadier's uniform, Enoch Powell was buried in his regiment's plot in Warwick Cemetery,Warwickshire, ten days later, after a family funeral service at Westminster Abbey and a public service at St. Margaret's, Westminster. He was survived by his wife and two daughters.[52] HP Mini 210-2042tu Keyboard

HP Mini 210-2043tu Keyboard

HP Mini 210-2044ef Keyboard

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