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King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third-oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, receiving its royal charter in the same year.[6][7][8] In 1836 King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London.[9][10] Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard King's is organised into nine Schools of Study, spread across four Thames-side campuses in central London and another inDenmark Hill, South London.[11] It is one of the largest centres for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research in Europe; it is home to six Medical Research Council centres, Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard the most of any British university,[12]and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre. King's has around 18,600 full-time students and 5,030 staff and had a total income of £524.1 million in 2010/11, of which £147.1 million was from research grants and contracts.[1] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard King's is ranked 68th in the world (and 19th in Europe) in the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities,[13] 26th in the world (and 7th in Europe) in the 2012 QS World University Rankings,[14] and 56th in the world (and 12th in Europe) in the 2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[15] There are currently 10 Nobel Prize laureates amongst King's alumni and current and former faculty.[16] In September 2010, The Sunday Times selected King's as its "University of the Year".[17]Compaq Presario C727US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King's is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the Russell Groupand Universities UK. It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[18]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ35B/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King's, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the founding of "London University", latterly known as University College London, in 1826.[19] UCL was founded, with the backing of Jews, Utilitarians and non-Anglican Christians, as a secular institution, HP Pavilion dv5-1250us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later".[20] The need for such an institution was a result of the religious nature of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which then educated solely the sons of wealthy Anglicans.[21] The foundation of UCL met with the disapproval of the establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained".[22] SONY Vaio VGN-FE33B/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Revd Dr George D'Oyly, rector of Lambeth and governor of Wilson's School in Camberwell, opposing the secular nature of the college, published an open letter proposing the formation of a competing institution. This would be of a religious, and more particularly Anglican, nature, one which would instil, "the services of religion performed as directed in our National Church".[20] This prompted Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Toshiba Satellite U405D-S2874 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the then Prime Minister to chair a public meeting which launched King's on 21 June 1828. His simultaneous support for the Anglican college and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, which was to lead to the granting of almost full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea in early 1829. The result was a duel in Battersea Fields on 21 March that year.[23] Deliberately off-target shots were fired by both and neither was hurt.[23] "Duel Day" is still celebrated on the first Thursday after 21 March every year, marked by various events throughout the College.[24]HP Pavilion dv6907ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King's opened in 1831, very much in a similar academic guise to Oxford. Despite the intentions of its founders and the chapel at the heart of its buildings, the initial prospectus permitted, "nonconformists of all sorts to enter the college freely".[25] Chemistry, English literature and Commerce were among the subjects offered.[21] At this time, neither King's, nor "London University" had the ability to confer degrees, a particular problem for medical students who wished to practise. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4487 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Amending this situation was aided by the appointment ofHenry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux as Lord Chancellor, who was chairman of the governors of "London University". In this position he automatically became a governor of King's. In the understanding that the government was unlikely to grant degree-awarding powers on two institutions in London, negotiations led to the colleges federating as the "University of London" in 1836, "London University" thus being changed to University College.[21]Toshiba Satellite Pro M15-S405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King's professors played a part in scientific and social advances of the nineteenth century, through extending higher education to women, the working class, and by offering evening classes. One of the most famous pieces of scientific research performed at King's was the work by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin that was the basis of the elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA. HP Pavilion dv5-1260er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During World War II King's was evacuated out of London to Bristol University. The first qualification issued by King's was the Associateship of King's College, or AKC. The course, which concerns questions of ethics and theology, is still awarded today to students (and staff) who take an optional three year course alongside their standarddegree. Successful completion entitles the graduate to bear the letters AKC after their name.  HP Pavilion dv6-3046eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The College today is the product of mergers with a number of other institutions over the years, including Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology in 1985, and with the Institute of Psychiatry and the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals. Florence Nightingale's original training school for nurses is now incorporated as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. Today, there are nine schools of study (see below).  Gateway MT6730 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King's College School was created as King's Junior Department at the time of the College's founding. Originally situated in the basement of the Strand campus, the School relocated to Wimbledon in 1897. King's College School is no longer associated with King's College London. HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 2001 to present In 2003 the College was granted degree-awarding powers in its own right, (as opposed to through the University of London) by the Privy Council. This power remained unexercised until 2007, when the College announced that all students starting courses from September 2007 onwards would be awarded degrees conferred by King's itself, rather than by the University of London. The new certificates however still make reference to the fact that King's is a constituent college of the University of London.[26]HP Pavilion dv6-2130ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan All current students with at least one year of study remaining were in August 2007 offered the option of choosing to be awarded aUniversity of London degree or a King's degree. In 2007, for the second consecutive year, students from the King's College London School of Law won the national round of the Jessup International Law Moot Court. The Jessup moot is the biggest international mooting competition in the world. The King's team went on to represent the UK as national champions.[27]HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard The Strand Campus is the founding campus of King's. Located on the Strand in the City of Westminster, sharing its frontage along theRiver Thames. Most of the Schools of Arts & Humanities, Law, Social Science & Public Policy and Natural & Mathematical Sciences(formerly Physical Sciences & Engineering) are housed here. DELL JVT97 Laptop Keyboard The campus combines the Grade I listed King's Building of 1831 designed by Sir Robert Smirke, and the Byzantine Gothic College Chapel, redesigned in 1864 by Sir George Gilbert Scott with the more modern Strand Building, completed in 1972. The Chesham Building in Surrey Street was purchased after the Second World War. The Macadam Building of 1975 houses King's College London Students Union's activities and is named after King's alumnus Sir Ivison Macadam, first President of NUS. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard On February 2012, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened Somerset House East Wing, the new front door to King’s College London, Strand Campus. The official launch of Somerset House East Wing comes after 18 months of restoration, which began when King’s secured a 78 year lease for the building in 2009. The building is the home for Dickson Poon School of Law. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard A National Trust-protected Roman Bath is situated on the site of the Strand Campus and can be accessed via the Surrey Street entrance. Hidden by surrounding College buildings, the Baths were mentioned by Charles Dickens in chapter thirty-five of David Copperfield. Moreover Aldwych tube station, a well-preserved but disused London Underground station, is integrated as part of the King's Strand campus. A Rifle Range is located on the site of a platform taken out of public service in 1917. (Nearest underground stations: Temple, Charing Cross, Covent Garden)  COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard Guy's Hospital in the London Borough of Southwark, established in 1726, houses parts of King's College London School of Medicine. The founder and benefactor of the hospital, Thomas Guy, was a wealthy bookseller and a governor of St Thomas' Hospital. He lies buried in the vault beneath the 18th-century chapel at Guy's. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard Silk-merchant William Hunt was a later benefactor who gave money in the early nineteenth century to build Hunt's House. Today this is the site of New Hunt's House. The Henriette Raphael building, constructed in 1903, and the Gordon Museum are also located here. In addition, the Hodgkin building, Shepherd's House and Guy's chapel are prominent buildings within the campus. Guy's KCLSU centre is situated in Boland House. (Nearest underground stations:London Bridge, Borough) HP Pavilion dv4-1160tx Laptop Keyboard Across Waterloo Bridge from the Strand Campus, the Waterloo Campus near the South Bank Centre in the London Borough of Lambethconsists of the James Clerk Maxwell Building and the Franklin-Wilkins Building, which was originally constructed between 1912 and 1915 as His Majesty's Stationery Office, but in 1915, the building was requisitioned for use as a hospital. It became the King George Military Hospital, and accommodated about 1,800 patients on 63 wards.[28] SONY 81-31105002-04 Laptop Keyboard King's acquired the building in the 1980s. The James Clerk Maxwell Building houses the Principal's Office, most of the central administrative offices of the College and part of the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery. The Franklin-Wilkins Building is home to the School of Health & Life Sciences that includes Pharmacy, the Department of Education and to part of the School of Nursing & Midwifery. (Nearest underground station:Waterloo) ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Across Waterloo Bridge from the Strand Campus, the Waterloo Campus near the South Bank Centre in the London Borough of Lambethconsists of the James Clerk Maxwell Building and the Franklin-Wilkins Building, which was originally constructed between 1912 and 1915 as His Majesty's Stationery Office, but in 1915, the building was requisitioned for use as a hospital. It became the King George Military Hospital, and accommodated about 1,800 patients on 63 wards.[28] HP Mini 110-1212NR Laptop Keyboard King's acquired the building in the 1980s. The James Clerk Maxwell Building houses the Principal's Office, most of the central administrative offices of the College and part of the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery. The Franklin-Wilkins Building is home to the School of Health & Life Sciences that includes Pharmacy, the Department of Education and to part of the School of Nursing & Midwifery. (Nearest underground station:Waterloo) SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard King's is the largest centre for healthcare education in Europe.[40] King's College London School of Medicine has over 2,000 undergraduate students, over 1,400 teachers, four main teaching hospitals – Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital, St Thomas' Hospital and University Hospital Lewisham – and 17 associated district general hospitals.[41] King’s College London Dental Institute is the largest dental school in Europe.[42] The Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery is the oldest professional school of nursing in the world.[43]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard King's is a major centre for biomedical research. It is a founding member of King's Health Partners, one of the largest academic health sciences centres in Europe with a turnover of over £2 billion and approximately 25,000 employees.[40] It also is home to sixMedical Research Council centres, the most of any British university,[44]SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard and is part of two of the twelve biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England – the Guy's & St Thomas'/King's College London Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre and the South London and Maudsley/KCL Institute of Psychiatry Biomedical Research Centre.[45]Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard King's Drug Control Centre currently holds the official UK contract for running doping tests on UK athletes, and will likely continue to do so for the 2012 Olympics, to be held in London.[46]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard、 King's largest library is The Maughan Library, housed in the Grade II* listed 19th century gothic former Public Record Officebuilding situated on Chancery Lane near the Strand Campus. The building was designed by Sir James Pennethorne and is home to the books and journals of the School's of Humanities, Law, HP 412374-001 Laptop Keyboard Physical Sciences & Engineering, and Social Science & Public Policy. It also houses the Special Collections and rare books. Inside the Library is the octagonal Round Reading Room, inspired by the reading room of the British Museum, and the former Rolls Chapel (renamed the Weston Room following a donation from the Garfield Weston Foundation) with its stained glass windows, mosaic floor and monuments, including an important Renaissance terracotta figure byPietro Torrigiano of Dr Yonge, Master of the Rolls, who died in 1516. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard King's other libraries include: compilers, having been placed between 27th by the 2011 QS World University Rankings[63] and 56th worldwide by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[64] SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard According to the 2009 Times Good University Guide, several subjects taught at King’s, including Law, History, European Studies andWar Studies (both ranked under Politics), Classics, Spanish, Portuguese, Music, Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing and Food Science are among the top five in the country.[65]SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E Laptop Keyboard According to the 2010 Complete University guide, many subjects at King's, including Classics, English, French, Geography, German, History, Music, Philosophy and Theology, rank within the Top 10 nationally. The College has had 24 of its subject-areas awarded the highest rating of 5 or 5* for research quality,[29] and in 2007 it received a good result in its audit by the Quality Assurance Agency.[29] It is in the top tier for research earnings. In September 2010, the Sunday Times selected King's as the "University of the Year 2010/11" taking the position from last year's winner Oxford University.[citation needed]FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard King's College London Students' Union (KCLSU) is the oldest student union in London, founded just before University College London Union, and provides a wide range of activities and services, including over 50 sports clubs (including the Boat Club which rows on the River Thames and the Rifle Club which uses the College's shooting range located at the disused Aldwych tube station beneath the Strand Campus), 60 societies, a wide range of volunteering opportunities, HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard two bars, two nightclubs, shops, eating places and a gym. A former President of KCLSU, Sir Ivison Macadam (after whom the Students' Union building on the Strand Campus has since been named) went on to be elected as the first President of the National Union of Students, and KCLSU has played an active role there and in the University of London Union ever since. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Roar! is KCLSU's monthly newspaper. It carries stories, reviews and features on a range of topics, reporting on Students' Union events, campaigns, clubs and societies, as well as coverage of the arts, books and fashion. ACER Aspire 4510 Laptop Keyboard KCLSU's official mascot is Reggie the Lion. There are three "Reggies" in existence: the original, on display in KCLSU's Student Centre at the Strand Campus, apapier-mâché Reggie outside the Great Hall at the Strand Campus (pictured above), and a small sterling silver incarnation displayed during Graduation ceremonies. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Competition within the University of London is most intense between King's and University College London, the two oldest institutions. In the early twentieth century, King's College London and UCL rivalry was centred on their respective mascots.[66]University College's was Phineas Maclino, a wooden tobacconist's sign of a kilted Jacobite Highlander purloined from outside a shop in Tottenham Court Road during the celebrations of the relief of Ladysmith in 1900.  HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard King's later addition was a giant beer bottle representing "bottled youth". In 1923 it was replaced by a new mascot to rival Phineas – Reggie the Lion, who made his debut at a King's-UCL sporting rag in December 1923, protected by a lifeguard of engineering students armed with T-squares. Thereafter, Reggie formed the centrepiece of annual freshers' processions by King's students aroundAldwych in which new students were typically flour bombed. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Although riots between respective College students occurred in central London well into the 1950s, rivalry is now limited to the rugby union pitch and skulduggery over mascots, with an annual Varsity match taking place between King's College London RFC and University College London RFC.[67]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Tensions between King's and the London School of Economics (LSE) were ignited on 2 December 2005 when at least 200 students from LSE (across the road from the Strand campus) diverted off from the annual "barrel run" and caused an estimated £32,000 (The Beaver, LSE, 26 September 2006) of damage to the English department at King's.[68] SONY VAIO VGN-CR23/W Laptop Keyboard Principal Rick Trainor called for no retaliation and LSE Students' Union were forced to issue an apology as well as foot the bill for the damage repair. While LSE officially condemned the action, a photograph was published in the Beaver (the LSE SU Student Newspaper) which was later picked up by the Times  SONY VAIO VGN-CR23/W Laptop Keyboard that showed LSE Director Sir Howard Davies drinking with members of the LSE Students' Union shortly before the barrel run – and the "rampage" – began. King's appears to have been targeted, however, principally owing to its close proximity to LSE rather than by any ill-feeling. There is also somewhat of a sporting rivalry between the two institutions, albeit to a lesser extent than with UCL. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard King's has educated numerous foreign Heads of State and Government including Tassos Papadopoulos, president of Cyprus from 2003 to 2008 who graduated from King's with a degree in Law in 1955,[70] and his predecessorGlafkos Klerides who served as president of Cyprus from 1993 to 2003 and graduated with a Law degree in 1948.[71] SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard Former Prime Minister of Jordan, Marouf al-Bakhit, graduated from King's with a PhD in War Studiesin 1990,[72] France-Albert René president of the Seychelles from 1977 to 2004 studied Law at King's,[73] Sir Lynden Pindling prime minister of the Bahamas from 1967 to 1992 graduated with a Law degree in 1952,[74]DELL Inspiron 1520 Laptop Keyboard Godfrey Binaisa president of Uganda from 1979 to 1980 graduated with a Law degree in 1955,[75] Abd ar-Rahman al-Bazzaz prime minister of Iraq from 1965 to 1966 graduated from King's,[76] Sir Lee Moore, prime minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis from 1979 to 1980, graduated with a degree in Law and Theology,[77] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard and Sir Shridath Ramphal, former Secretary General of the Commonwealth, graduated with a Law degree in 1952.[78]Sarojini Naidu, the first woman President of the Indian National Congress and an architect of the Indian freedom movement, also studied at King's, while Prince Eugene Louis Napoléon, the ill-fated scion of the Bonaparte Dynasty, studied physics and mathematics from 1871 to 1872[79][80][81]Lenovo 3000 N500 Laptop Keyboard Notable King's alumni to have held senior positions in British and Irish politics include the British Foreign Secretary David Owen, Baron Owen, two Speakers of the House of Commons in Horace King, Baron Maybray-King (English) and James Lowther, 1st Viscount Ullswater, Leader of the House of Commons John MacGregor, Baron MacGregor of Pulham Market (Law, 1962), and Irish Republican & revolutionary leader Michael Collins. HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard As of the current Parliament there are 14 King's graduates in the House of Commons, and 15 King's graduates in the House of Lords. In Law King's alumni include current Lord Justice of Appeal Sir Jeremy Sullivan (Law, 1967);[82] two incumbent High Court judges, Sir David Penry-Davey (Law, 1964)[83] and Sir David Foskett (Law, 1970);[84] current Judge of theInternational Court of Justice, Abdul Koroma (International Law, 1976);[85] and the current Chief Justice of Western Australia Wayne Martin (Law, 1975).  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard King's alumni in religion include the Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town Desmond Tutu(Theology, 1966),[86] the preceding Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey, Baron Carey of Clifton (Theology, 1962),[87]and the current Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth Jonathan Sacks, Baron Sacks (Theology & Religious Studies, 1981).[88] King's is also the alma mater of the current head of The Salvation Army Shaw Clifton (Law & Theology, 1967),[89] and at least 16 current Bishops. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Notable King's alumni in poetry and literature include the poet John Keats (Medicine), and the writers Thomas Hardy(French), Sir Arthur C. Clarke (Mathematics & Physics), W. Somerset Maugham, Alain de Botton (Philosophy), C.S. Forester, B. S. Johnson (English), Charles Kingsley, Virginia Woolf, John Ruskin, Radclyffe Hall, Hanif Kureishi(Philosophy), Anita Brookner (History), Michael Morpurgo (French & English) and Sir Leslie Stephen. In addition, the dramatist Sir W. S. Gilbert of Gilbert and Sullivan graduated from King's. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard King's alumni in the sciences include Nobel laureates Max Theiler and Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins;[90][91] polymath Sir Francis Galton; pathologist Thomas Hodgkin; pioneer of in vitro fertilization Patrick Steptoe; botanist David Bellamy;[92] and the noted theoretical physicist Peter Higgs. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard King's is also the alma mater of the founder of Bentley Motors, Walter Bentley; Hollywood actress Greer Garson (BA in French, 1923),[93] satirist Rory Bremner(Modern Languages, 1984);[94] journalist Martin Bashir (Religious History, 1985);[95] Queen bassist John Deacon;[96] and former head of the British Army Lord Harding. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard The Sunday Times is the best-selling national Sunday broadsheet newspaper in the United Kingdom. It is published byTimes Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International, which is in turn owned by News Corporation. Times Newspapers also owns The Times. The two papers were founded independently and have been under common ownership only since 1966. They were bought by Rupert Murdoch's News International in 1981. HP Pavilion DV6-1210sv Laptop Keyboard The Sunday Times occupies a dominant position in the quality Sunday market; its circulation of just under one million equals that of its main rivals, the The Sunday TelegraphThe Observer and The Independent on Sunday combined.[2] While some other national newspapers moved to a tabloid format in the early 2000s, The Sunday Times has retained the largerbroadsheet format and has said that it will continue to do so. It sells more than twice as many copies as its sister paper,The Times, which is published Monday to Saturday. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI Laptop Keyboard The Sunday Times has acquired a reputation for the strength of its investigative reporting – much of it by its award-winning Insight team – and also for its wide-ranging foreign coverage. It has a number of popular writers, columnists and commentators including Jeremy Clarkson, AA Gill and Bryan Appleyard. It was Britain’s first multi-section newspaper and remains substantially larger than its rivals. A typical edition contains the equivalent of 450-500 tabloid pages. DELL Vostro 3350 Laptop Keyboard Besides the main News section, it has standalone News Review, Business, Sport, Money and Appointments sections – all broadsheet. There are three magazines (The Sunday Times Magazine, Culture and Style) and three tabloid supplements (Travel, Home and Driving). It has a website and a separate iPad edition, both of which offer video clips, extra features and photographs and other material not found in the printed version of the newspaper. SONY VAIO PCG-F23/BP2 Laptop Keyboard The paper publishes The Sunday Times Rich List, an annual survey of the wealthiest people in Britain and Ireland, equivalent to the Forbes 400 list in the USA, and a series of league tables with reviews of private British companies, in particular the Sunday Times Fast Track 100. The paper also produces an annual league table of British universities and a similar one for Irish universities. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard It publishes the Sunday Times Bestseller List of best-selling books in Britain, and a list of the “100 Best Companies to Work For”, focusing on UK companies. It also organises The Sunday Times Oxford Literary Festival, held annually, and The Sunday Times Festival of Education, which takes place every year at Wellington College in Berkshire. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The paper began publication on 18 February 1821 as The New Observer, but from 21 April its title was changed to the Independent Observer. Its founder, Henry White, chose the name in an apparent attempt to take advantage of the success of the The Observer newspaper, which had been founded in 1791, although there was no connection between the two papers. On 20 October 1822 it was reborn as The Sunday Times, although it had no relationship with The Times.[3] In January 1823, White sold the paper to Daniel Whittle Harvey, a radical politician. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Under its new owner, The Sunday Times notched up several firsts: a wood engraving it published of the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 was the largest illustration to have appeared in a British newspaper;[4] in 1841, it became one of the first papers to serialise a novel: William Harrison Ainsworth’s Old St Paul’s.[5]ASUS A8E Laptop Keyboard The paper was bought in 1887 by Alice Cornwell, who had made her fortune in mining in Australia.[6] She then sold it in 1893 to Frederick Beer, who already owned the Observer. Beer appointed his wife, Rachel Beer (née Sassoon) as editor. She was already editor of the Observer – the first woman to run a national newspaper – and continued to edit both titles until 1901.[7]HP G42-358TU Laptop Keyboard There was a further change of ownership in 1903, and then in 1915 the paper was bought by William Berry and his brother, Gomer Berry, later ennobled as Lord Camrose and Viscount Kemsley respectively. Under their ownership, The Sunday Times continued its reputation for innovation: on 23 November 1930, it became the first Sunday newspaper to publish a 40-page issue and on 21 January 1940, news replaced advertising on the front page.[8]HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1943, the Kemsley Newspapers Group was established, with The Sunday Times becoming its flagship paper. At this time, Kemsley was the largest newspaper group in Britain.  HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard On 12 November 1945, Ian Fleming, who later created James Bond, joined the paper as foreign manager (foreign editor) and special writer. The following month, circulation reached 500,000.[9] On 28 September 1958 the paper launched a separate Review section, becoming the first newspaper to publish two sections regularly.[10] HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1959 the Kemsley group was bought by Lord Thomson, and in October 1960 circulation hit one million for the first time.[11] In another first, on 4 February 1962 the editor, Denis Hamilton, launched The Sunday Times Magazine. (At the insistence of newsagents, worried at the impact on sales of standalone magazines, HP G71-447US Laptop Keyboard it was initially called the “colour section” and did not take the name The Sunday Times Magazine until 9 August 1964.) The cover picture of the first issue was of Jean Shrimpton wearing a Mary Quant outfit and was taken by David Bailey. The magazine got off to a slow start, but the advertising soon began to pick up, and, over time, other newspapers launched magazines of their own. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard In 1963, the Insight investigative team was established under Clive Irving. On 27 September 1964, the Business section was launched, making The Sunday TimesBritain’s first regular three-section newspaper. In September 1966, Thomson bought The Times, to form Times Newspapers Ltd (TNL). It was the first time bothThe Sunday Times and The Times had been brought under the same ownership. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Harold Evans, editor from 1967 until 1981, established The Sunday Times as a leading campaigning and investigative newspaper. On 19 May 1968, the paper published its first major investigative report into the drug Thalidomide, which was published in a four-page Insight special investigation, entitled The Thalidomide File, in the Weekly Review section. A compensation settlement for the UK victims was eventually reached with Distillers Company (now part ofDiageo), which had distributed the drug in the UK. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard TNL was plagued by a series of industrial disputes at its plant at Gray’s Inn Road in London, with the print unions resisting attempts to replace the old-fashioned hot-metal and labour-intensive Linotype method with technology that would allow the papers to be composed electronically. Thomson offered to invest millions of pounds to buy out obstructive practices and overmanning, but the unions rejected every proposal. As a result, publication of The Sunday Times and other titles in the group was suspended in November 1978. It did not resume until November 1979. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard Although journalists at The Times had been on full pay during the suspension, they went on strike demanding more money after production was resumed. Kenneth Thomson, the head of the company, felt betrayed and decided to sell. Evans tried to organise a management buyout of The Sunday Times, but Thomson decided instead to sell to Rupert Murdoch, who he thought had a better chance of dealing with the trade unions. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The Murdoch years (1981 to present)

Murdoch’s News International acquired the group in February 1981. Murdoch, an Australian who in 1985 became a naturalised American citizen, already owned The Sun and the News of the World, but the Conservative government decided not to refer the deal to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS530B Laptop Keyboard citing a clause in theFair Trading Act that exempted uneconomic businesses from referral. The Thomson Corporation had threatened to close the papers down if they were not taken over by someone else within an allotted time, and it was feared that any legal delay to Murdoch's takeover might lead to the two titles' demise. In return, Murdoch provided legally binding guarantees to preserve the titles’ editorial independence. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard Evans was appointed editor of The Times in February 1981 and was replaced at The Sunday Times by Frank Giles. In 1983, the newspaper published the faked Hitler Diaries, thinking them to be genuine after they were authenticated by Hugh Trevor-Roper, the historian and author of The Last Days of Hitler. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard Under Andrew Neil, editor from 1983 until 1994, The Sunday Times took a strongly Thatcherite slant that contrasted with the traditional paternalisticconservatism expounded by Peregrine Worsthorne at the rival Sunday Telegraph. It also built on its reputation for investigations.  HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard Its scoops included the revelation in 1986 that Israel had manufactured more than 100 nuclear warheads[12] and the publication in 1992 of extracts from Andrew Morton’s book, Diana: Her True Story in Her Own Words. In the early 1990s, the paper courted controversy with a series of articles in which it rejected the role of HIV in causing AIDS. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In January 1986, after the announcement of a strike by print workers, production of The Sunday Times, along with other newspapers in the group, was shifted to a new plant in Wapping, and the strikers were dismissed. The plant, which allowed journalists to input copy directly, was activated with the help of theElectrical, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Electronic, Telecommunications and Plumbing Union (EETPU). The print unions posted pickets and organised demonstrations outside the new plant to try to dissuade journalists and others from working there, in what became known as the Wapping Dispute. The demonstrations sometimes turned violent. The protest ended in failure in February 1987. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard During Neil’s editorship, a number of new sections were added: the annual The Sunday Times Rich List and the Funday Times, in 1989, (the latter stopped appearing in print and was relaunched as a standalone website in March 2006 but was later closed); Style & Travel, News Review and Arts in 1990, and Culture in 1992. In September 1994, Style and Travel became two separate sections. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard John Witherow, who became editor at the end of 1994 (after several months as acting editor), continued the newspaper’s expansion. A website was launched in 1996 and new print sections added: Home in 2001, and Driving in 2002, which in 2006 was renamed InGear, expanding to include technology coverage. (It reverted to the name Driving from 7 October 2012, to coincide with the launch of a new standalone website, Sunday Times Driving.)  HP G62-b50EB Laptop Keyboard John Witherow oversaw a rise in circulation to 1.3 million[13] and reconfirmed The Sunday Times’s reputation for publishing hard-hitting news stories – such asCash for Questions in 1994 and Cash for Honours in 2006 and revelations of corruption at Fifa in 2010.[14] The newspaper’s foreign coverage has been especially strong, and its reporters, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31Z Laptop Keyboard Marie Colvin, Jon Swain, Hala Jaber, Mark Franchetti and Christina Lamb have dominated the Foreign Reporter of the Year category at the British Press Awards since 2000.[citation needed] Marie Colvin, who worked for the paper from 1985, was killed in February 2012 by Syrian forces while covering the siege of Homs during that country’s civil war.[15]IBM ThinkPad T41P Laptop Keyboard In common with other newspapers, The Sunday Times has been hit by a fall in circulation, which has declined from a peak of 1.3 million to just over 900,000. It has a growing number of digital-only subscribers, which had reached 125,000 by September 2012.[1]DELL Inspiron N5030 Laptop Keyboard The Sunday Times has its own website. It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites to reflect their distinct brand identities. Since July 2010, the sites have charged for access. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard An iPad edition was launched in December 2010, and an Android version in August 2011. Since July 2012, the digital version of the paper has been available on Apple's Newsstand platform, allowing automated downloading of the news section. With over 500MB of content every week, it is the biggest newspaper app in the world. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The Sunday Times iPad app was named newspaper app of the year at the 2011 Newspaper Awards and has twice been ranked best newspaper or magazine app in the world by iMonitor. Various subscription packages exist, giving access to both the print and digital versions of the paper. DELL Latitude D631 Laptop Keyboard On 2 October 2012, The Sunday Times launched Sunday Times Driving, a separate classified advertising site for premium vehicles that also includes editorial content from the newspaper as well as specially commissioned articles. It can be accessed without cost. HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he family moved to the south of England when he was one year old.[5] In 1964 he appeared briefly in his mother's film The Peaches. Gill was educated at the progressive independent St Christopher School in Hertfordshire and would later recall his experiences at the school for his book The Angry Island. Toshiba Satellite M70-354 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After St Christopher, he moved to London to study at the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and the Slade School of Art, nurturing ambitions to be an artist. Following art school Gill spent six years "signing on, trying to paint, until one day he realised he wasn't any good".[3] At 30, having abandoned his ambitions in art, he spent several years working in restaurants and teaching cookery. HP Pavilion dv6-2106eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His feud with the Isle of Man started in 2006 with a review of Ciappelli's restaurant in Douglas. Gill wrote that the island: managed to slip through a crack in the space-time continuum... fallen off the back of the history lorry to lie amnesiac in the road to progress ...its main industry is money (laundering, pressing, altering and mending)... everyone you actually see is Benny from Crossroads or Benny in drag.... The weather’s foul, the food’s medieval, it’s covered in suicidal motorists and folk who believe in fairies.[15] HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This sparked off a minor diplomatic incident, the review being attacked in Tynwald with House of Keys member David Cannan demanding an apology for this "unacceptable and scurrilous attack", whilst Tourism Minister David Cretney said it would harm the island's tourism. HP Pavilion G61-409CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gill made more comments regarding the Isle of Man continued in his Sunday Times column on 23 May 2010,[16] when he described its citizens as falling into two types: "hopeless, inbred mouth-breathers known as Bennies" and "retired, small arms dealers and accountants who deal in rainforest futures". His comments were made in the aftermath of Mick Jagger's suggestion that drugs should be legalised in the Isle of Man.[17] Gill added that "If... they become a hopelessly addicted, criminal cesspit, who’d care? Indeed, who could tell the difference?" Toshiba Portege R400 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In September 2010, the Press Complaints Commission (PCC) made a formal judgement against Gill for referring to the sexuality of the BBC Sport presenter Clare Balding in "a demeaning and gratuitous way".[18]SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Reviewing Mary Beard's BBC television series Meet the Romans in April 2012, Gill wrote that the academic "should be kept away from cameras altogether."[19] Beard in response accused him of being "frightened of smart women".[20]ACER TravelMate 5623WLMi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was once ejected from one of Gordon Ramsay's restaurants, along with his dining partner Joan Collins.[2] Ramsay stated that "personal attacks and insulting my staff is something I'm not putting up with [from Gill] ... I have made it quite clear that he is not welcome at my restaurant."[21] Gill in turn described Ramsay as "a wonderful chef, just a really second-rate human being".[22]Toshiba Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In a November 2012 interview with the New Zealand Weekend Herald, comic/writer/presenter Michael Palin made his apparent great dislike for Gill clear when asked if he read any of the journalist's work, Palin frowning at the mention of Gill's name and saying "I would not go out of my way to do so" in an atypically curt manner. SONY Vaio VPC-EA3S1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gill's first wife was the author Cressida Connolly, daughter of the writer Cyril Connolly. They later divorced. His second wife, whom he married in 1990,[3] wasAmber Rudd, a financial journalist and Conservative MP for Hastings and Rye, who appeared in his column as "The Silver-spoon".[23] They have two children, Flora and Alasdair.[24] HP Pavilion dv7-1070ev Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He now has a long-term relationship with Nicola Formby, editor-at-large of the Tatler, for whom he left Rudd in 1995,[3] and who appears in his column as "The Blonde".[24][25] They have twins, Edith and Isaac, born in March 2007.[26] He is a recovered alcoholic who drank until the age of 30.[5]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard north of Camberwell Green it becomes Camberwell Road; south of Red Post Hill it becomes Herne Hill. Its postcode is SE5. Nearby streets whose names refer to different aspects of the same topographical feature include Dog Kennel Hill, Champion Hill and Red Post Hill. It marks the edge of the Thames valley plain in this area — from here to the river the land is flat. There are good views across central London from vantage points (e.g. top storey windows) on the top of the hill to the north and neighbouring Dulwich to the south. On a clear day one can read the time on the Big Ben clockface. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard In John Cary's map of 1786 the area is shown as Dulwich Hill. The only building apparent is the "Fox under the Hill". The present "Fox on the Hill" pub is situated a hundred yards or so further up, on top of the hill, adjacent to a triangular patch of land rumoured to be a "plague pit" or burial ground. The name of the area was changed to Denmark Hill in honour of the husband of Queen Anne, Prince George of Denmark, who lived there.  HP pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard The area is home of the Maudsley Hospital and King's College Hospital, and also of Ruskin Park, named after John Ruskinwho once lived nearby. The Institute of Psychiatry is based behind the Maudsley Hospital, a school of King's College London (University of London). The college also has a hall of residence in Champion Hill. HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard The Salvation Army's William Booth Memorial Training College on Champion Park, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, was completed in 1932: it towers over South London. It has a similar monumental impressiveness to Gilbert Scott's other South London buildings, Battersea Power Station and the Tate Modern, although its simplicity is partly the result of repeated budget cuts during its construction: much more detail, including carved Gothic stonework surrounding the windows, was originally planned. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboardcollegiate university (also federal university or affiliating university) is a university in which governing authority and functions are divided between a central administration and a number of constituent colleges. Often, the division of powers in a collegiate university is realized in the form of afederation, analogous to the geopolitical arrangement in which a country comprises member regions (provinces, states, etc.) and a central federal government. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard A collegiate university differs from a centralized university in that its colleges are not just halls of residence; rather, they have a substantial amount of responsibility and autonomy in the running of the university. The actual level of self-governance exercised by the colleges varies greatly among institutions, ranging from nearly autonomous colleges to dependent colleges that are integrated with the central administration itself. Often, but not always, colleges within collegiate universities have their own specific students' unions. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Some colleges are part of loose federations that allow them to exercise nearly complete self-governance. In the United Kingdom, the colleges of the University of London and the University of Wales perform almost all the duties of a university with the exception of the awarding of degrees (although some of the larger colleges of the University of London, such as University College London, DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard King's College London and the London School of Economics, have recently begun to award their own degrees). In the United States, many state university systems consist of campuses that are almost independent, spread out across different parts of the state. Examples of such institutions include the University of California, the State University of New York, the University of Michigan and the University of Texas. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Over time, loosely federated schools may formally end their relations with the parent university to become degree-awarding universities. Examples include Cardiff University (formerly named the University of Wales, Cardiff) and Imperial College London. The National University of Ireland was a federation of three constituent colleges and other recognised colleges until 1997 when the colleges, along with Maynooth, a recognised college, became constituent universities. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard University of Wales, Lampeter (formerly St David's College, Lampeter), ceased to confer its own degrees when it joined the University of Wales, but retains the right to confer degrees and other qualifications, and still awards the Licence in Theology (LTh) in its own right. University of Wales, Trinity Saint David came into existence in July 2010, comprising two colleges the Saint David's Campus (formerly known as University of Wales, Lampeter and Saint David's College, Lampeter and Trinity Campus (formerly known as Trinity University College andTrinity College, Carmarthen). HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard Historically, the University of Dundee and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne were colleges of the University of St Andrews and th

e University of Durham, respectively, before they became independent.  SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard At some universities, the colleges enjoy a significant degree of independence, but the central administration also has an active role in institutional affairs. Often, the binding conditions of federation, affiliation or incorporation outline fixed responsibilities of individual colleges and the university. In some cases, the university may own a part share of the controlling entity. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard Independent colleges vary in the level of teaching that they provide, but they may create positions independently from the university and may provide their own funding for research. They also tend to play a large role in deciding admissions. Students become members of the University through membership in their particular college, HP Mini 311-1033CA Laptop Keyboard and matriculationis often done through, or at the behest of, the colleges. At the undergraduate level, independent colleges usually provide most, if not all accommodation and bursaries. They often have their own halls for meals, libraries, sports teams and societies. This fosters loyalty to the college among its students—an undergraduate might state the name of his or her college before the name of the university when asked where he or she studied. This spirit is often maintained through college-based alumni organizations. DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard The two ancient universities of England, Oxford and Cambridge (collectively termed Oxbridge), are federations of autonomous colleges. The University of Oxfordhas 38 colleges and 6 Permanent Private Halls, which exist autonomously and run independent, supplementary academic programmes. The university requires all teaching staff and students to be members of one or other of these institutions. The University of Cambridge has 31 colleges, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard which have a significant role in providing independent supplementary tuition and are governed autonomously. These institutions represent a significant financial interest, having combined fixed assets of approximately £3.4 billion, in contrast to the university's central assets, which total approximately £1.9 billion.[1][2]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard Of the 17 colleges at Durham University, St Chad's College and St John's College and Ushaw College are separately incorporated and independently governed, with their own supplementary academic support and academic staff. All four of Roehampton University's constituent colleges, Whitelands College, Southlands College,Digby Stuart College and Froebel College, are independently owned, although the university holds a number of relevant long-term leases.[3][4]HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard In the Americas, the University of Toronto has a collegiate system that took form in the 19th century, modeled after Oxford.[5] The independent colleges include Knox College, Regis College, Wycliffe College, Massey College, St. Michael's College, Trinity College, Emmanuel College and Victoria College. The Claremont Colleges in California operate a hybrid federal-constituent system[citation needed]. All 7 colleges are independently governed: Pomona College, Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU Laptop Keyboard Scripps College,Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College as undergraduate colleges as well as Claremont Graduate University and Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences as graduate universities. Their founding model was based on that of the University of Oxford and they are linked through the Claremont University Consortium, HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard though, unlike other constituent college systems, degrees are conferred separately by the seven constituent institutions and they exist asuniversities and liberal arts colleges in their own right. The colleges are spread over a square mile site and share certain departmental, library and research facilities.  ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard In New Zealand, the University of Otago has 14 colleges, 5 are independently owned and governed: Selwyn College, Knox College, St Margaret's College, Salmond College and City College. Both dependent and independent colleges provide their own supplementary academic programmes Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Some universities have built colleges that do not provide teaching but still perform much of the housing and social duties, allowing students to develop loyalty towards their college. However, such colleges are planned, built and funded entirely by the central administration and are thus dependent on it. HP G72-b10SW Laptop Keyboard Examples include the colleges of the Stanford University, Harvard University, Princeton University, Yale University, the University of York, Lancaster University, the University of Kent, The University of Melbourne and the University of Durham (at Durham, most of the colleges are not independent of the parent university, as many of them were established later in the 20th century, without the endowment funds needed to be independent). SONY VGN-FE28B Laptop Keyboard The Chinese University of Hong Kong was founded as a loose federation of three colleges, but the founding colleges had later become dependent on the central administration, and new colleges were established as dependent colleges. The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 700 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004. SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard The QS rankings were originally published in publication with Times Higher Education from 2004 to 2009 as the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings. In 2010, Times Higher Education and QS ended their collaboration. QS assumed sole publication of the existing methodology, while Times Higher Education created a new ranking methodology with Thomson Reuters, published as Times Higher Education World University Rankings. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard The QS World University Rankings is regarded to be one of the three most influential and widely observed international university rankings, along with the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities.[1][2][3] Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard The need for an international ranking of universities was highlighted in December 2003 in Richard Lambert’s review of university-industry collaboration in Britain[4] for HM Treasury, the finance ministry of the United Kingdom. Amongst its recommendations were world university rankings, which Lambert said would help the UK to gauge the global standing of its universities. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The idea for the rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World,[5] to then-editor of Times Higher Education (THE), John O'Leary. THE chose to partner with educational and careers advice company Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to supply the data, appointing Martin Ince,[6] formerly deputy editor and later a contractor to THE, to manage the project. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Between 2004 and 2009, QS produced the rankings in partnership with THE. In 2009, THE announced they would produce their own rankings, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, in partnership with Thomson Reuters. THE cited a weakness in the methodology of the original rankings,[7] as well as a perceived favoritism in the existing methodology for science over the humanities,[8] as one of the key reasons for the decision to split with QS. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard QS retained the intellectual property in the Rankings and the methodology used to compile them[citation needed] and continues to produce the rankings, now called the QS World University Rankings.[9] THE created a new methodology with Thomson Reuters, published as the Times Higher Education World University Rankings in September 2010. ASUS Z99Jc Laptop Keyboard QS publishes the results of the original methodology in key media around the world, including US News & World Report in the United States and Chosun Ilbo in Korea. The first rankings produced by QS independently of THE, and using QS's consistent and original methodology, were released on September 8, 2010, with the second appearing on September 6, 2011. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The most controversial part of the QS World University Rankings is their use of an opinion survey referred to as the Academic Peer Review. Using a combination of purchased mailing lists and applications and suggestions, this survey asks active academicians across the world about the top universities in fields they know about. QS has published the job titles and geographical distribution of the participants. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard The 2011 rankings made use of responses from 33,744 people from over 140 nations in its Academic Peer Review, including votes from the previous two years rolled forward provided there was no more recent information available from the same individual. Participants can nominate up to 30 universities but are not able to vote for their own. They tend to nominate a median of about 20, which means that this survey includes over 500,000 data points. More here [1]. SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard In 2004, when the rankings first appeared, academic peer review accounted for half of a university's possible score. In 2005, its share was cut to 40 per cent because of the introduction of the Recruiter Review.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Citations of published research are among the most widely used inputs to national and global university rankings. The QS World University Rankings used citations data from Thomson (now Thomson Reuters) from 2004 to 2007, and since then uses data from Scopus, part of Elsevier. The total number of citations for a five-year period is divided by the number of academicians in a university to yield the score for this measure, which accounts for 20 per cent of a university’s possible score in the Rankings. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard QS has explained that it uses this approach, rather than the citations per paper preferred for other systems, because it reduces the effect of biomedical science on the overall picture – bio-medicine has a ferocious “publish or perish” culture. Instead QS attempts to measure the density of research-active staff at each institution. But issues still remain about the use of citations in ranking systems, especially the fact that the arts and humanities generate comparatively few citations. More here [3]. HP G42-161LA Laptop Keyboard QS has conceded the presence of some data collection errors regarding citations per faculty in previous years' rankings.[10] One interesting issue is the difference between the Scopus and Thomson Reuters databases. For major world universities, the two systems capture more or less the same publications and citations. For less mainstream institutions, Scopus has more non-English language and smaller-circulation journals in its database. But as the papers there are less heavily cited, this can also mean fewer citations per paper for the universities that publish in them. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard More on this at [4] This area has been criticized for undermining universities which do not use English as their primary language.[11] Citations and publications in a language different from English are harder to come across. The English language is the most internationalized language and therefore the most popular when citing.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard different system was used whereby the top university for any measure was scaled as 100 and the others received a score reflecting their comparative performance. According to QS, this method was dropped because it gives too much weight to some exceptional outliers, such as the very high faculty/student ratio of theCalifornia HP Pavilion dv6736nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Institute of Technology. In 2006, the last year before the Z score system was introduced, Caltech was top of the citations per faculty score, receiving 100 on this indicator, because of its highly research and science-oriented approach. The next two institutions on this measure, Harvard and Stanford, each scored 55. In other words, 45 per cent of the possible difference between the world's universities was between the top university and the next one (in fact two) on the list, leaving every other university on Earth to fight over the remaining 55 per cent. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ43CN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Likewise in 2005, Harvard was top university and MIT was second with 86.9, so that 13 per cent of the total difference between all the world's universities was between first and second place. In 2011, the University of Cambridge was top and the second institution, Harvard, got 99.34. So the Z score system allows the full range of available difference to be used in a more informative way. 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