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Kyoto University Kyoto University (京都大学 Kyōto daigaku?), or Kyodai (京大 Kyōdai?) is a national university located in Kyoto, Japan. It is the second oldest Japanese university,[4] one of the highest ranked universities in Asia and formerly one of Japan'sImperial Universities. One of Asia’s leading research-oriented institutions, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Kyoto University is famed for producing world-class researchers, including eight Nobel Prize laureates, two Fields medalists and one Gauss Prize. The university has been consistently ranked the second best institute in Japan since 2008 in various independent university ranking schemes. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard The forerunner of the Kyoto University was the Chemistry School (舎密局 Seimi-kyoku?) founded in Osaka in 1869, which, despite its name, taught physics as well. (舎密 is a transcription of a Dutch word chemie.) Later, the Third Higher School (第三髙等學校 Daisan-kōtō-gakkō?) was established in the place of Seimi-kyoku in 1886, it then transferred to the university's present main campus in the same year. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Kyoto Imperial University (京都帝國大學 Kyōto-teikoku-daigaku?) as a part of the Imperial University system was established on June 18, 1897,[4] using the Third Higher School's buildings. The higher school moved to a patch of land just across the street, where the Yoshida South Campus stands today. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In the same year of the university's establishment, the College of Science and Technology was founded. The College of Law and the College of Medicine were founded in 1899, the College of Letters in 1906, expanding the university's activities to areas outside natural science. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard After World War II, the current Kyoto University was established by merging the imperial university and the Third Higher School, which assumed the duty of teaching liberal arts as the Faculty of Liberal Arts (教養部 Kyōyō-bu?). The faculty was dissolved with the foundation of the Faculty of Integrated Human Studies (総合人間学部 Sōgō-ningen-gakubu?) in 1992. Acer eMachines E732 Laptop Keyboard Kyoto University has since 2004 been incorporated as a national university corporation under a new law which applies to all national universities. HP Pavilion dv2910tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Despite the incorporation which has led to increased financial independence and autonomy, Kyoto University is still partly controlled by the Japanese Ministry of Education (文部科学省 Monbu-kagaku-shō?). The University's Department of Geophysics and their Disaster Prevention Research Institute are both represented on the national Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction.[5]HP Pavilion dv6-2147es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kyoto University's academic style is characterized by free-thinking, self-reliance and dialogue. Many students take the initiative to pursue study and research based on their own personal interests and concerns, and researchers are challenging uncharted frontiers and achieving innovative results. Among its alumni, Toshiba Satellite P300-18M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the university counts eight Nobel Prize laureates in fundamental natural science fields. In addition to their major fields of study, international students at Kyoto University are provided with excellent opportunities to study Japanese language and culture, and deepen their understanding of the East Asian region as a whole. FUJITSU Lifebook B3020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kyoto is a city where the ancient and modern intermingle, and a unique balance is achieved between tradition and innovation. Considered by many to be the "heart of Japan," Kyoto is a city of striking natural beauty, numerous historical sites, and one in which many aspects of traditional culture continue to flourish. Far from being a mere stagnant stronghold of tradition, however, Kyoto has an open and forward-looking spirit, FUJITSU LifeBook P8110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which has been embraced by the many successful international businesses that are based there. The combined influences of the city's contemplative traditional culture and stimulating progressive attitude provide an ideal environment in which students of all disciplines can thrive. SONY Vaio VPC-EB37FGW Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kyodai is usually considered as one of the top research institution in Japan. In fact, the 2nd largest amount of investment from Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, which is the national grants program for research institutions. Toshiba Satellite A100-849 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This financial support from the Japanese government has a direct effect on Kyodai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Kyodai is the 1st best research university in Japan.[10] Its research excellence is especially distinctive in Chemistry (1st in Japan, 4th in the world), Biology & Biochemistry (2nd in Japan, 23rd in the world), Pharmacology & Toxicology (2nd in Japan,30 in the world), Immunology (3rd in Japan, 25th in the world), Material Science (4th in Japan, 22nd in the world), and Physics (4th in Japan, 25th in the world).[33]Toshiba Satellite A135-S4727 Laptop CPU Cooling Fanr In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to the heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers. Kyodai was placed in the 10th position (research planning ability 6th) in this ranking.[34]SONY Vaio VPC-EB26FGP Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kyodai also has a high research standard in Social Sciences & Humanities. Repec in January 2011 ranked Kyodai's Institute of Economic Research as Japan's 3rd best economic research institution.[35] Kyodai has provided 6 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association in its 42 year history, which is the 3rd largest number.[36]Compaq Presario C783TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Kyodai was ranked 6th for the period between 2005 and 2009.[20] Kyodai alumni are distinctively successful in Japanese industries such as shown below. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings, graduates from Kyodai have the 10th best employment rate in 400 major companies in Japan.[40] However, it has to be noted that this lower ranking position is because of the large number of alumni who become government bureaucrats, which is 2nd largest among Japanese universities.[41] In fact, alumni of Kyodai's average salary is the 5th best in Japan, according to the PRESIDENT.[42]SONY VAIO VGN-AR850E Laptop Keyboard École des Mines de Paris ranks Kyodai as 5th in the world in 2011 in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies.[19] The university is also ranked 5th in Japan for the number of alumni holding the position of executive in the listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is the 4th best.[33][43]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Although archaeological evidence places the first human settlement on the islands of Japan to approximately 10,000 BC, relatively little is known about human activity in the area before the 6th century AD, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established. During the 8th century, TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, the Emperor chose to relocate the capital to a region far from the Buddhist influence. Emperor Kammu selected the village of Uda, at the time in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province, for this honour.[2] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The new city, Heian-kyō (平安京, "tranquility and peace capital"), a scaled replica of the then Tang capital Chang'an,[3] became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto (Muromachi shogunate) TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard or in other cities such as Kamakura (Kamakura shogunate) and Edo (Tokugawa shogunate), Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration. (Some believe that it is still a legal capital: see Capital of Japan.) SONY VAIO VGN-AR825E Laptop Keyboard The city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467-1477, and did not really recover until the mid-16th century. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility (kuge) and religious factions as well. Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi restructured the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called Odoi (御土居?) circulating the city.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo. Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard The Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city, and the subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy. The modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 is one measure taken to revive the city. The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932.[4]TOSHIBA V000130390 Laptop Keyboard There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with anatomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population "better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon."[5] In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki. The city was largely spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard As a result, Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyoto Station complex. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol on greenhouse gas emissions that bears the city's name.  HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard In Japanese, the city has been called Kyō (京), Miyako (都) or Kyō no Miyako (京の都). In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto ("capital city"), after the Chinese word for capital city, jingdu (京都).[6] After Edo was renamed Tokyo(meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868, Kyoto was known for a short time as Saikyō (西京, meaning "Western Capital").TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard An obsolete spelling for the city's name is Kioto; it was formerly known to the West as Meaco (/miːækoʊ/; Japanese: 都; miyako, meaning "the seat of Imperial palace" or "capital".). Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi (京師), meaning "metropolis" or "capital".ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro (or Kyoto) Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard This interior positioning results in hot summers and cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, and theKamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 km².Compaq Presario C727US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shuifollowing the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). TheImperial Palace faced south, resulting in Ukyō (the right sector of the capital) being on the west while Sakyō (the left sector) is on the east. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, and Kamigyō still follow a grid pattern. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ35B/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a far greener feel. Surrounding areas do not follow the same grid pattern as the center of the city, though streets throughout Kyoto share the distinction of having names. HP Pavilion dv5-1250us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kyoto sits atop a large natural water table that provides the city with ample freshwater wells. Due to large scale urbanization, the amount of rain draining into the table is dwindling and wells across the area are drying at an increasing rate. SONY Vaio VGN-FE33B/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Historically Kyoto was the largest city in Japan, later surpassed by Osaka and Edo (Tokyo) towards the end of the 16th century. In the prewar years, Kyoto traded places with Kobe and Nagoya ranking as the 4th and 5th largest city. In 1947, it went back to being 3rd, but its population has gradually declined ever since. By 1960 it had fallen to 5th again, and by 1990 it had fallen to 7th, in 2012 it is now 8th. If current trends continue it could fall to 9th after Kawasaki. Toshiba Satellite U405D-S2874 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although ravaged by wars, fires, and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was spared from much of the destruction of World War II. It was removed from the atomic bomb target list (which it had headed) by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center which he knew from his honeymoon and later diplomatic visits.[7][8]HP Pavilion dv6907ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With its 2000 religious places- 1600 Buddhist temples and 400 Shinto shrines, as well as palaces, gardens and architecture intact, it is one of the best preserved cities in Japan. Among the most famous temples in Japan areKiyomizu-dera, a magnificent wooden temple supported by pillars off the slope of a mountain; Toshiba Satellite A135-S4487 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kinkaku-ji, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion; Ginkaku-ji, the Temple of the Silver Pavilion; and Ryōan-ji, famous for its rock garden. The Heian Jingū is a Shinto shrine, built in 1895, celebrating the Imperial family and commemorating the first and last emperors to reside in Kyoto. Toshiba Satellite Pro M15-S405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Three special sites have connections to the imperial family: the Kyoto Gyoen area including the Kyoto Imperial Palace and Sento Imperial Palace, homes of the Emperors of Japan for many centuries; Katsura Imperial Villa, one of the nation's finest architectural treasures; and Shugaku-in Imperial Villa, one of its best Japanese gardens. In addition, the temple of Sennyu-ji houses the tombs of the emperors from Shijō to Kōmei. HP Pavilion dv5-1260er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Other sites in Kyoto include Arashiyama, the Gion and Pontochō geisha quarters, the Philosopher's Walk, and the canals which line some of the older streets.  HP Pavilion dv6-3046eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto" are listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. These include the Kamo Shrines (Kami and Shimo), Kyō-ō-Gokokuji (Tō-ji), Kiyomizu-dera, Daigo-ji,Ninna-ji, Saihō-ji (Kokedera), Tenryū-ji, Rokuon-ji (Kinkaku-ji), Jishō-ji (Ginkaku-ji), Ryōan-ji, Hongan-ji, Kōzan-ji and the Nijo Castle, primarily built by the Tokugawa shoguns. Other sites outside the city are also on the list.  Gateway MT6730 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kyoto is renowned for its abundance of delicious Japanese foods and cuisine. The special circumstances of Kyoto as a city away from the sea and home to many Buddhist temples resulted in the development of a variety of vegetables peculiar to the Kyoto area (kyōyasai, 京野菜). HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Japan's television and film industry has its center in Kyoto. Many jidaigeki, action films featuring samurai, were shot at Toei Uzumasa Eigamura.[9] A film set and theme park in one, Eigamura features replicas of traditional Japanese buildings which are used for jidaigeki. Among the sets are a replica of the old Nihonbashi (the bridge at the entry to Edo), a traditional courthouse, a Meiji Period police boxand part of the former Yoshiwara red-light district. Actual film shooting takes place occasionally, and visitors are welcome to observe the action. HP Pavilion dv6-2130ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The dialect spoken in Kyoto is known as Kyō-kotoba or Kyōto-ben, a constituent dialect of the Kansai dialect. When Kyoto was the capital of Japan, Kyoto dialect was the de facto standard Japanese and influenced on development of Tokyo dialect, the modern standard Japanese. Famous Kyoto expressions are a polite copula dosu, a honorific verb ending -haru and etc. HP Mini 110-3530nr Laptop Keyboard Kyoto International Manga Museum is also situated in Kyoto. For an entrance fee visitors are able to view exhibitions and read as much manga as they desire. The museum is making an attempt to acquire every manga ever published and so far houses approximately 200,000 titles. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard The key industry of Kyoto is information technology and electronics: the city is home to the headquarters of Nintendo,Intelligent Systems, TOSE, OMRON, Kyocera, Shimadzu Corp., Rohm, Horiba, Nidec Corporation, Nichicon, GS Yuasa and Murata Machinery and the headquarters of Murata Manufacturing are located in the suburbs of Kyoto in the city of Nagaokakyō. DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard Tourism also forms a large base of Kyoto's economy. The city's cultural heritages are constantly visited by school groups from across Japan, and many foreign tourists also stop in Kyoto. In 2007, the city government announced that a record number of tourists had visited Kyoto for the sixth year in a row.,[10] and it was chosen as the second most attractive city in Japan, in a regional brand survey.[11]HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard Traditional Japanese crafts are also major industry of Kyoto, most of which are run by artisans in small plants. Kyoto'skimono weavers are particularly renowned, and the city remains the premier center of kimono manufacturing. Such businesses, vibrant in past centuries, have declined in recent years as sales of traditional goods stagnate. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Sake brewing is Kyoto's traditional industry. Gekkeikan and Takara Holdings are major sake brewers headquartered in Kyoto. Other businesses headquartered in Kyoto include the apparel company Wacoal, the delivery transportation company Sagawa Express and the garage kits maker Volks. ACER Aspire 4510 Laptop Keyboard Home to 37 institutions of higher education, Kyoto is one of the academic centers of the country. Kyoto University, one of Japan's national universities, is considered to be one of the top universities in Japan. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement top-ranking university, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Kyoto University is ranked the second university in Japan and 25th in the world.[12] The Kyoto Institute of Technology is also among the most famous universities in Japan and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture and design in the country. Doshisha University and Ritsumeikan University are popular private universities in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.  HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Kyoto also has a unique higher education network called the Consortium of Universities in Kyoto, which consists of three national, five public (prefectural and municipal), and 41 private universities, as well as the city and four other organizations. The consortium does not offer a degree, but offers the courses as part of a degree at participating universities.[13]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard As well as more than 30 Japanese universities and colleges, American universities find the city as an important place for education and research. Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies (KCJS) is a consortium of 14 American universities that sponsors a rigorous, two-semester academic program for undergraduates who wish to do advanced work in Japanese language and cultural studies. In addition, Stanford University has its own Japan Center in Kyoto.[14]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Kyoto Station is the center for transportation in the city. The second-largest in Japan, it houses a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities all under one fifteen-story roof. The Tōkaidō Shinkansen Line (see below) as well as all conventional rail lines operated by JR West connect here.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR23/W Laptop Keyboard The Keihan, Hankyu, Kintetsu, and other rail networks also offer frequent service to other cities in the Kansai region. JR West and Kintetsu connect at Kyoto Station. Hankyu has a terminal at the intersection of Shijō Kawaramachi, Kyoto's most thriving shopping and amusement district. Keihan has a station at Sanjō Keihan which is not far from Shijō Kawaramachi. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard DELL JVT97 Laptop Keyboard The Karasuma Line is colored green, and its stations are given numbers following the letter K. The line has following stations, from north to south: Kokusaikaikan (terminal) and Matsugasaki in Sakyō-ku; Kitayama andKitaōji in Kita-ku; Kuramaguchi and Imadegawa in Kamigyō-ku; Marutamachi and Karasuma Oike in Nakagyō-ku; Shijō, Gojō andKyōto in Shimogyō-ku; Kujō and Jūjō in Minami-ku; and Kuinabashi and Takeda (terminal) in Fushimi-ku. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard Between Kitaōji and Jūjō, trains run beneath the north-south Karasuma Street (ja:烏丸通 Karasuma-dori?), hence the name. They link to the other subway line, the Tozai Line, at Karasuma Oike. They also connect to the JR lines at Kyoto Station and theHankyu Kyoto Line running cross-town beneath Shijō Street at the intersection of Shijō Karasuma, Kyoto's central business district. At Shijō Karasuma, the subway station is named Shijō, whereas Hankyu's station is called Karasuma. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The Transportation Bureau and Kintetsu Corporation jointly operate through services, which continue to the Kintetsu Kyoto Line to Kintetsu Nara Station in Nara. The Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line connect at Kyoto and Takeda. All the stations are located in the city proper. DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard The Tōzai Line is coloured vermilion, and its stations are given numbers following the letter T. This line runs from the southeastern area of the city, then east to west (i.e. tōzai in Japanese) through the Kyoto downtown area where trains run beneath the three east-west streets: Sanjō Street (ja:三条通 Sanjō-dori?), Oike Street (ja:御池通 Oike-dori?) and Oshikōji Street (ja:押小路通 Oshikōji-dori?).  COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard The line has following stations, from east to west: Rokujizō (terminal) in Uji; Ishida and Daigo in Fushimi-ku; Ono,Nagitsuji, Higashino, Yamashina and Misasagi in Yamashina-ku; Keage, Higashiyama and Sanjō Keihan in Higashiyama-ku; Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae, Karasuma Oike, Nijōjō-mae, Nijō and Nishiōji Oike in Nakagyō-ku; and Uzumasa Tenjingawa (terminal) in Ukyō-ku. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard The Keihan Keishin Line has been integrated into this line, and thus Keihan provides through services from Hamaōtsu in the neighbouring city of Ōtsu, the capital of Shiga Prefecture. HP Pavilion dv4-1160tx Laptop Keyboard The Tōzai Line connects to the Keihan lines at Rokujizō, Yamashina, Misasagi and Sanjō Keihan, to the JR lines at Nijō,Yamashina and Rokujizō, and to the Keifuku Electric Railroad at Uzumasa Tenjingawa. All the stations except Rokujizō are located in Kyoto. SONY 81-31105002-04 Laptop Keyboard Although Kyoto does not have its own airport, travelers can get to the city via Kansai International Airport and Itami Airport in Osaka Prefecture. The Haruka Express operated by JR West carries passengers from Kansai Airport to Kyoto Stationin 73 minutes. JR-WEST: Travel Information > Access to Kansai AirportACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Osaka Airport Transport buses connect Itami Airport and Kyoto Station Hachijo Exit in an hour and cost 1,280 yen for a one-way trip. Some buses go further, make stops at major hotels and intersections in downtown, and get to Nijō Station or theWestin Miyako Hotel Kyoto near Keage Station of Municipal Subway Tozai Line. HP Mini 110-1212NR Laptop Keyboard

Buses

Kyoto's municipal bus network is extensive. Private carriers also operate within the city. Many tourists join commuters on the public buses, or take tour buses. Kyoto's buses have announcements in English and electronic signs with stops written in the Latin alphabet. SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard Most city buses have a fixed fare. A one-day bus pass and a combined unlimited train and bus pass are also available. These are especially useful for visiting many different points of interest within Kyoto. The bus information center just outside the central station handles tickets and passes. The municipal transport company publishes a very useful leaflet called "Bus Navi." It contains a route map for the bus lines to most sights and fare information. This too is available at the information center in front of the main station. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Buses operating on routes within the city, the region, and the nation stop at Kyoto Station. In addition to Kyoto Station, bus transfer is available at the intersections of Shijō Kawaramachi and Sanjō Keihan. The intersection of Karasuma Kitaōji to the north of downtown has a major bus terminal serving passengers who take the Karasuma Line running beneath Karasuma Street, Kyoto's main north-south street. SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard The city is connected with other part of Japan by the Meishin Expressway, which has two interchanges in the city: Kyoto Higashi (Kyoto East) in Yamashina-ku and Kyoto Minami (Kyoto South) in Fushimi-ku. The Kyoto Jūkan Expressway connects the city to northern regions of Kyoto Prefecture. The Daini Keihan Road is a new bypass (completed in 2010) to Osaka. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard Unlike other metropolitan cities of Japan, Kyoto has poor network of intra-city expressways. As of 2010, only 8.2 km of the Hanshin Expressway Kyoto Route is in operation.[15] Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (文部科学省 Monbu-kagaku-shō?), also known as MEXTMonka-shō or Monbushō, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard The Meiji government created the first Ministry of Education in 1871.[1] The Japanese government centralises education, and it is managed by a state bureaucracy that regulates almost every aspect of the education process. The School Education Law requires schools around the country to use textbooks that follow the curriculum guideline set by the ministry, though there are some exceptions.  ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard In January 2001, the former Monbu-shō and the former Science and Technology Agency (科学技術庁 Kagaku-gijutsu-chō?)merged to become the present MEXT. MEXT is led by a Minister, who is a member of the Cabinet and is chosen by the Prime Minister, typically from the members of the Diet. The post is currently held by Masaharu Nakagawa. Lenovo 3000 N500 Laptop Keyboard MEXT is one of three ministries that run the JET Programme. It also offers the Monbukagakusho Scholarship, also known as the MEXT or Monbu-shō scholarship. The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 700 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004. HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard The QS rankings were originally published in publication with Times Higher Education from 2004 to 2009 as the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings. In 2010, Times Higher Education and QS ended their collaboration. QS assumed sole publication of the existing methodology, while Times Higher Education created a new ranking methodology with Thomson Reuters, published as Times Higher Education World University Rankings.  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The QS World University Rankings is regarded to be one of the three most influential and widely observed international university rankings, along with the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities.[1][2][3]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard The need for an international ranking of universities was highlighted in December 2003 in Richard Lambert’s review of university-industry collaboration in Britain[4] for HM Treasury, the finance ministry of the United Kingdom. Amongst its recommendations were world university rankings, which Lambert said would help the UK to gauge the global standing of its universities. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard The idea for the rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World,[5] to then-editor of Times Higher Education (THE), John O'Leary. THE chose to partner with educational and careers advice company Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to supply the data, appointing Martin Ince,[6] formerly deputy editor and later a contractor to THE, to manage the project. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard Between 2004 and 2009, QS produced the rankings in partnership with THE. In 2009, THE announced they would produce their own rankings, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, in partnership with Thomson Reuters. THE cited a weakness in the methodology of the original rankings,[7] as well as a perceived favoritism in the existing methodology for science over the humanities,[8] as one of the key reasons for the decision to split with QS. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard QS retained the intellectual property in the Rankings and the methodology used to compile them[citation needed] and continues to produce the rankings, now called the QS World University Rankings.[9] THE created a new methodology with Thomson Reuters, published as the Times Higher Education World University Rankings in September 2010. HP Pavilion DV6-1210sv Laptop Keyboard QS publishes the results of the original methodology in key media around the world, including US News & World Report in the United States and Chosun Ilbo in Korea. The first rankings produced by QS independently of THE, and using QS's consistent and original methodology, were released on September 8, 2010, with the second appearing on September 6, 2011. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI Laptop Keyboard Academic peer review (40%) The most controversial part of the QS World University Rankings is their use of an opinion survey referred to as the Academic Peer Review. Using a combination of purchased mailing lists and applications and suggestions, this survey asks active academicians across the world about the top universities in fields they know about. QS has published the job titles and geographical distribution of the participants. DELL Vostro 3350 Laptop Keyboard The 2011 rankings made use of responses from 33,744 people from over 140 nations in its Academic Peer Review, including votes from the previous two years rolled forward provided there was no more recent information available from the same individual. Participants can nominate up to 30 universities but are not able to vote for their own. They tend to nominate a median of about 20, which means that this survey includes over 500,000 data points. More here [1]. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard In 2004, when the rankings first appeared, academic peer review accounted for half of a university's possible score. In 2005, its share was cut to 40 per cent because of the introduction of the Recruiter Review. Citations of published research are among the most widely used inputs to national and global university rankings. The QS World University Rankings used citations data from Thomson (now Thomson Reuters) from 2004 to 2007, and since then uses data from Scopus, part of Elsevier. The total number of citations for a five-year period is divided by the number of academicians in a university to yield the score for this measure, which accounts for 20 per cent of a university’s possible score in the Rankings. HP 412374-001 Laptop Keyboard QS has explained that it uses this approach, rather than the citations per paper preferred for other systems, because it reduces the effect of biomedical science on the overall picture – bio-medicine has a ferocious “publish or perish” culture. Instead QS attempts to measure the density of research-active staff at each institution. But issues still remain about the use of citations in ranking systems, especially the fact that the arts and humanities generate comparatively few citations. More here [3]. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard QS has conceded the presence of some data collection errors regarding citations per faculty in previous years' rankings.[10] One interesting issue is the difference between the Scopus and Thomson Reuters databases. For major world universities, the two systems capture more or less the same publications and citations. For less mainstream institutions, Scopus has more non-English language and smaller-circulation journals in its database. But as the papers there are less heavily cited, this can also mean fewer citations per paper for the universities that publish in them.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard More on this at [4] This area has been criticized for undermining universities which do not use English as their primary language.[11] Citations and publications in a language different from English are harder to come across. The English language is the most internationalized language and therefore the most popular when citing. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E Laptop Keyboard The data are aggregated into columns according to its Z score, an indicator of how far removed any institution is from the average. Between 2004 and 2007 a different system was used whereby the top university for any measure was scaled as 100 and the others received a score reflecting their comparative performance. FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard According to QS, this method was dropped because it gives too much weight to some exceptional outliers, such as the very high faculty/student ratio of theCalifornia Institute of Technology. In 2006, the last year before the Z score system was introduced, Caltech was top of the citations per faculty score, HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard receiving 100 on this indicator, because of its highly research and science-oriented approach. The next two institutions on this measure, Harvard and Stanford, each scored 55. In other words, 45 per cent of the possible difference between the world's universities was between the top university and the next one (in fact two) on the list, leaving every other university on Earth to fight over the remaining 55 per cent. HP G42-358TU Laptop Keyboard Likewise in 2005, Harvard was top university and MIT was second with 86.9, so that 13 per cent of the total difference between all the world's universities was between first and second place. In 2011, the University of Cambridge was top and the second institution, Harvard, got 99.34. So the Z score system allows the full range of available difference to be used in a more informative way. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard QS publishes a simple analysis of the top 400 institutions in each of the five faculty-level areas mentioned above: natural sciences, technology, biology and medicine, social sciences and the arts and humanities. These five tables list universities in order of their Academic Peer Review score. They also give the citations per paper for each institution, but the two data sets are not aggregated.  HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard QS uses citations per paper rather than per person partly because it does not hold details of the academic staff in each subject area, and partly because the number of citations per paper should be a consistent indicator of impact within a specific field with a defined publishing culture.  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard The 2011 QS World University Rankings ranked the University of Cambridge first in the world for the second year in succession. Harvard University remained in second place, ahead of its neighbour MIT in third place. Yale remained in fourth place, ahead of the University of Oxford in fifth. HP G71-447US Laptop Keyboard The rankings covered 712 institutions out of 2,919 on which QS held data. There were universities from 32 nations in the top 200 and from 50 in the top 500. The average age of the top 200 universities was 187.3 years. The newest top 10 university, Chicago, was founded in 1890. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard The 2011 rankings list the top 400 universities in rank order, followed by institutions 401-600 in bands of 50 and a further 112 grouped as "601+." In 2009, Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) launched a department of the QS Asian University Rankings in partnership with The Chosun Ilbo newspaper in Korea. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard They release an independent list of rankings each time, different to that of the QS World University Rankings. These rankings use some of the same criteria as the World University Rankings but they use other measures, such as incoming and outgoing exchange students as well. As the criteria and their weightings are different, the QS World university rankings and the QS Asian University rankings released in the same academic year may be different. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard For example, the University of Hong Kong being 22th in the world was regarded as the best in Asia in the QS World University Rankings (2012) but the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology was at the top of the list of the QS Asian University Rankings (2012). ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The QS Latin American University Rankings [7] were launched in 2011. They use academic opinion (30 per cent), employer opinion (20 per cent), publications per faculty member, citations per paper, academic staff with a PhD, faculty/student ratio and web visibility (10 per cent each) as measures. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard These criteria were developed in consultation with experts in Latin America, and the web visibility data come from Webometrics [8]. This ranking showed that the University of São Paulo in Brazil is the region's top institution, top in the first and second editions in 2011 and 2012 respectively. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard

Commentary

In September 2012 the British newspaper The Independent described the QS World University Rankings as being "widely recognised throughout higher education as the most trusted international tables".[21] Several universities in the UK and the Asia-Pacific region have commented on the rankings positively. SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard Vice-Chancellor of New Zealand's Massey University, Professor Judith Kinnear, says that the Times Higher Education-QS ranking is a "wonderful external acknowledgement of several University attributes, including the quality of its research, research training, teaching and employability." She says the rankings are a true measure of a university's ability to fly high internationally: DELL Inspiron 1520 Laptop Keyboard "The Times Higher Education ranking provides a rather more and more sophisticated, robust and well rounded measure of international and national ranking than either New Zealand's Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF) measure or the Shanghai rankings."[22]SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard Martin Ince,[23] chair of the Advisory Board for the Rankings, points out that their volatility has been reduced since 2007 by the introduction of the Z-score calculation method and that over time, the quality of QS's data gathering has improved to reduce anomalies. In addition, HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard the academic and employer review are now so big that even modestly ranked universities receive a statistically valid number of votes. QS has published extensive data [24] on who the respondents are, where they are, and the subjects and industries to which the academicians and employers respectively belong.  HP G62-b50EB Laptop Keyboard The QS World University rankings, like other college and university rankings, have received a variety of criticism. Main arguments are listed below. Many are concerned with the use of survey data. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31Z Laptop Keyboard Since the split from Times Higher Education, further concerns about the methodology QS uses for its rankings have been brought up by several experts. Simon Marginson, professor of higher education at University of Melbourne, in the article "Improving Latin American universities' global ranking" for University World News on 10 June 2012, said: "I will not discuss the QS ranking because the methodology is not sufficiently robust to provide data valid as social science." [25]IBM ThinkPad T41P Laptop Keyboard In an article for the New Statesman entitled "The QS World University Rankings are a load of old baloney", David Blanchflower, a leading labour economist, said: "This ranking is complete rubbish and nobody should place any credence in it. The results are based on an entirely flawed methodology that underweights the quality of research and overweights fluff... The QS is a flawed index and should be ignored." [26]DELL Inspiron N5030 Laptop Keyboard In an article titled The Globalisation of College and University Rankings and appearing in the January/February 2012 issue of Change magazine, Philip Altbach, professor of higher education at Boston College, said: “The QS World University Rankings are the most problematical. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard From the beginning, the QS has relied on reputational indicators for half of its analysis … it[clarification needed] probably accounts for the significant variability in the QS rankings over the years. In addition, QS queries employers, introducing even more variability and unreliability into the mix. Whether the QS rankings should be taken seriously by the higher education community is questionable."[27]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The QS World University Rankings have been criticised by many for placing too much emphasis on peer review, which receives 40 percent of the overall score. Some people have expressed concern about the manner in which the peer review has been carried out.[28] In a report,[29] Peter Wills from the University of Auckland, New Zealand wrote of the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings: DELL Latitude D631 Laptop Keyboard But we note also that this survey establishes its rankings by appealing to university staff, even offering financial enticements to participate (see Appendix II). Staff are likely to feel it is in their greatest interest to rank their own institution more highly than others. This means the results of the survey and any apparent change in ranking are highly questionable, and that a high ranking has no real intrinsic value in any case. We are vehemently opposed to the evaluation of the University according to the outcome of such PR competitions. SONY VAIO PCG-F23/BP2 Laptop Keyboard Note that QS denies that any survey participant has been offered a financial incentive to respondents, who cannot in any case vote for their own institution. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard THES-QS introduced several changes in methodology in 2007 which were aimed at addressing some of the above criticisms,[30] the ranking has continued to attract criticisms. In an article[31] in the peer-reviewed BMC Medicine authored by several scientists from the US and Greece, it was pointed out: HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard If properly performed, most scientists would consider peer review to have very good construct validity; many may even consider it the gold standard for appraising excellence. However, even peers need some standardized input data to peer review. The Times simply asks each expert to list the 30 universities they regard as top institutions of their area without offering input data on any performance indicators. Research products may occasionally be more visible to outsiders, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard but it is unlikely that any expert possesses a global view of the inner workings of teaching at institutions worldwide. Moreover, the expert selection process of The Times is entirely unclear. The survey response rate among the selected experts was only <1% in 2006 (1,600 of 190,000 contacted). In the absence of any guarantee for protection from selection biases, measurement validity can be very problematic. ASUS A8E Laptop Keyboard Alex Usher, vice president of Higher Education Strategy Associates in Canada, commented: Most people in the rankings business think that the main problem with The Times is the opaque way it constructs its sample for its reputational rankings - a not-unimportant question given that reputation makes up 50% of the sample. Moreover, Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard this year's switch from using raw reputation scores to using normalized Z-scores has really shaken things up at the top-end of the rankings by reducing the advantage held by really top universities -University of British Columbia (UBC) for instance, is now functionally equivalent to Harvard in the Peer Review score, which, no disrespect to UBC, is ludicrous. I'll be honest and say that at the moment the THES Rankings are an inferior product to the Shanghai Jiao Tong’s Academic Ranking of World Universities. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Academicians have also been critical of the use of the citation database, arguing that it undervalues institutions who excel in the social sciences. Ian Diamond, former chief executive of the Economic and Social Research Council and now vice-chancellor of the University of Aberdeen wrote to Times Higher Education in 2007, saying:[32] HP

pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard The use of a citation database must have an impact because such databases do not have as wide a cover of the social sciences (or arts and humanities) as the natural sciences. Hence the low position of the London School of Economics, caused primarily by its citations score, is a result not of the output of an outstanding institution but the database and the fact that the LSE does not have the counterweight of a large natural science base. HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard The most recent criticism of the old system came from Fred L. Bookstein, Horst Seidler, Martin Fieder and Georg Winckler in the journal Scientomentrics for the unreliability of QS's methods: TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard Several individual indicators from the Times Higher Education Survey (THES) data base the overall score, the reported staff-to-student ratio, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard and the peer ratings—demonstrate unacceptably high fluctuation from year to year. The inappropriateness of the summary tabulations for assessing the majority of the “top 200” universities would be apparent purely for reason of this obvious statistical instability regardless of other grounds of criticism. There are far too many anomalies in the change scores of the various indices for them to be of use in the course of university  SONY VAIO VGN-FS530B Laptop Keyboard The QS subject rankings have been dismissed as unreliable by some critics, including most notably Brian Leiter, who points out that programs which are known to be high quality, and which rank highly in the Blackwell rankings (e.g., the University of Pittsburgh) fare poorly in the QS ranking for reasons that are not at all clear [9] [10]. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard In other areas, QS has highly ranked programs which do not exist [11], as in Geography, in which 5 of the top 10 did not actually have graduate programs in geography. In Linguistics, the QS rankings are entirely out of step with the most recent NRC rankings; NRC ranks the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the University of Maryland at College Park among the very best the world (tied for #3 in S-Rank), while QS ranks them 29th and 49th, respectively [12].  HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard Kyodai is usually considered as one of the top research institution in Japan. In fact, the 2nd largest amount of investment from Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, which is the national grants program for research institutions. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard This financial support from the Japanese government has a direct effect on Kyodai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Kyodai is the 1st best research university in Japan.[10] Its research excellence is especially distinctive in Chemistry (1st in Japan, 4th in the world), Biology & Biochemistry (2nd in Japan, 23rd in the world), Pharmacology & Toxicology (2nd in Japan,30 in the world), Immunology (3rd in Japan, 25th in the world), Material Science (4th in Japan, 22nd in the world), and Physics (4th in Japan, 25th in the world).[33]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to the heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers. Kyodai was placed in the 10th position (research planning ability 6th) in this ranking.[34]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard Kyodai also has a high research standard in Social Sciences & Humanities. Repec in January 2011 ranked Kyodai's Institute of Economic Research as Japan's 3rd best economic research institution.[35] Kyodai has provided 6 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association in its 42 year history, which is the 3rd largest number.[36]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Kyodai was ranked 6th for the period between 2005 and 2009.[20] Kyodai alumni are distinctively successful in Japanese industries such as shown below. HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings, graduates from Kyodai have the 10th best employment rate in 400 major companies in Japan.[40] However, it has to be noted that this lower ranking position is because of the large number of alumni who become government bureaucrats, which is 2nd largest among Japanese universities.[41] In fact, alumni of Kyodai's average salary is the 5th best in Japan, according to the PRESIDENT.[42]Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU Laptop Keyboard École des Mines de Paris ranks Kyodai as 5th in the world in 2011 in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies.[19] The university is also ranked 5th in Japan for the number of alumni holding the position of executive in the listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is the 4th best.[33][43]HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to 24, 2008.[a] A total of 11,028 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (a total of one event more than the schedule of the 2004 Games). China became the 22nd nation to host the Olympic Games and the 18th to hold a Summer Olympic Games.  ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard It was the third time that the Summer Olympic Games were held in Asia, after Tokyo, Japan, in 1964 and Seoul, South Korea, in 1988. The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making it the third time the events of the same olympics were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs[b], while sailing was contested in Qingdao, and football events took place in several different cities. HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Beijing was awarded the Games over four competitors on July 13, 2001, having won an absolute majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting.[2] The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems. Toshiba Satellite M70-354 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including 12 constructed specifically for use at the Games. The official logo of these Olympic Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylised calligraphic character jīng (京, meaning capital), referring to the host city. Media outlets reported unprecedented audience interest in the Games, and these Olympics had the largest television audience in Olympic history.[3] HP Pavilion dv6-2106eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some politicians and non-governmental organizations criticized the choice of China as Olympic host because of the country's human rights record,[4][5] and protests by pro-Tibetan independence activists and critics of China's human rights record marred the international portion of the Olympic torch relay.  HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There were 43 new world records and 132 new Olympic records set at the 2008 Summer Olympics. An unprecedented 86 countries won at least one medal during the Games. Chinese athletes won the most gold medals, with 51, and 100 medals altogether, while the United States had the most total medals with 110. American swimmer Michael Phelps broke the records for most gold medals in one Olympics and for most career gold medals for an Olympian by winning eight swimming events.[6]HP Pavilion G61-409CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection, especially from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums. The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, Toshiba Portege R400 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision.[8] Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round.[9]SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested that the selection might lead to improvements in human rights in China. In addition, a number of IOC delegates who had formerly been athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application.[8]Toshiba Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Costs The centrepiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics was the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed "The Bird's Nest" because of its nest-like skeletal structure. The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the athletics competition.[17] Construction of the venue began on December 24, 2003. ACER TravelMate 5623WLMi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in 2001 to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing.[18] In 2001, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. Several criteria were required of each design, including flexibility for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs.[19] The entry list was narrowed to thirteen final designs.[20] SONY Vaio VPC-EA3S1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The bird's nest model submitted by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron in collaboration with Li Xinggang of China Architecture Design and Research Group (CADG) was selected as the top design by both a professional panel and by a broader audience during a public exhibition.  HP Pavilion dv7-1070ev Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The selection of the design became official in April 2003.[19] Construction of the stadium was a joint venture among the original designers, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and a group of CADG architects led by Li Xinggang. Its $423 million cost was funded by the state-owned corporate conglomerate CITIC and the Beijing State-Owned Assets Management Company.[19][21]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The 2008 Summer Olympics emblem was known as Dancing Beijing. The emblem combined a traditional Chinese red seal and a representation of thecalligraphic character jīng (京, "national capital", also the second character of Beijing's Chinese name) with athletic features. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolised the invitation from China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, "Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people."[27] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The official motto for the 2008 Olympics was "One World, One Dream" (同一个世界 同一个梦想). Following the announcement of the motto, the phrase was subsequently used by international advocates of Tibetan secession. Banners reading "One World, One Dream, Free Tibet" were unfurled from various structures around the globe in the lead up to the Beijing Olympics, such as from the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge and the Sydney Opera House in Australia.[28] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The motto called upon the whole world to join in the Olympic spirit and build a better future for humanity. It was chosen from over 210,000 entries submitted from around the world.[29] The mascots of Beijing 2008 were the five Fuwa,[30] each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines (for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released).[31][32] This set of sport icons was named the beauty of seal characters, because of each pictogram's likeness to Chinese seal script.[32]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard

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