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Latin America and the Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, became supportive. As it developed the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

It also provided manpower in the World Wars.[2]

It became a moral mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity and French culture. In 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races." IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Full citizenship rights - assimilation - were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding [and] the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens."[3]France sent large numbers of settlers to North Africa, and they in turn became a powerful political force in Paris. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. However after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. France fought and lost bitter wars in Vietnam and Algeria in the

Its settlers and many local supporters relocated to France. 1950s. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

Nearly all of France's colonies gained independence by 1960, but France retained great financial and diplomatic influence. The remaining small territories were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories. These now total altogether 123,150 km² (47,548 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2011. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion.[4] But Spain's jealous protection of its foreign monopoly, ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

and the further distractions caused in France itself in the later 16th century by the French Wars of Religion, prevented any constant efforts by France to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in 1612 at São Luís ("France Équinoxiale"), and inBrazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro ("France Antarctique") and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562) were not successful, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance.

The story of France's colonial empire truly began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony ofAcadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain foundedQuebec, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada). New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism.[

Although, through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies. It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

But there was relatively little interest in colonialism in France, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of its history, New France was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.[ HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through theGreat Lakes, was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centred in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies. Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625 (the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was ceded outright). HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia by (1650). The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on theAfrican slave trade. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660.[

France's most important Caribbean colonial possession was established in 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue(today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. ASUS A8H CPU Fan

In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The eastern half of Hispaniola (today's Dominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795.

French colonial expansion wasn't limited to the New World. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624. In 1664, the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east. With the decay of the Ottoman Empire, in 1830 the French seized Algiers, thus beginning the colonization ofFrench North Africa.

During the First World War, after France had suffered heavy casualties on the Western Front, they began to recruit soldiers from their African empire. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

By 1917, France had recruited 270,000 African soldiers.[5] Their most decorated regiments came from Morocco, but due to the pacification going on at the time they were only able to recruit 23,000 Moroccans. African soldiers had success in the battle of Verdun and failure in the offensive of Nivelle, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

but in general regardless of their usefulness French generals did not think highly of their African troops.[5]

After the First World War, France's African war aims were not being decided by her cabinet or the official mind of the colonial ministry, but rather the leaders of the colonial movement in French Africa. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The first occasion of this occurring happened in 1915-1916, when Francois Georges-Picot (both a diplomat and part of a colonial dynasty) met with the British to discuss the division of Cameroon.[5] Picot proceeded with negotiations with neither the oversight of the French president nor the cabinet. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

What resulted was Britain giving nine tenths of Cameroon to the French in where Picot emphasized the demands of the French colonist over the French cabinet. This policy of French colonial leaders determining France's African war aims can be seen throughout much of France's empire.[6] SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Colonies were established in India in Chandernagore (1673) and Pondichéry in the south east (1674), and later at Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739) (see French India). Colonies were also founded in the Indian Ocean, on the Île de Bourbon (Réunion, 1664), Isle de France (Mauritius, 1718), and the Seychelles(1756). HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

In the middle of the 18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and Britain, which ultimately resulted in the destruction of most of the first French colonial empire and the near complete expulsion of France from the Americas. These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1744–1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

the War of the American Revolution (1778–1783), the French Revolutionary Wars (1793–1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. This cyclic conflict is known as the Second Hundred Years' War. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Although the War of the Austrian Succession was indecisive – despite French successes in India under the French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix and Europe under Marshal Saxe – the Seven Years' War, after early French successes in Minorca and North America, saw a French defeat, HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

with the numerically superior British (over one million to about 50 thousand French settlers) conquering not only New France (excluding the small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon), but also most of France's West Indian (Caribbean) colonies, and all of the French Indian outposts. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost – most of New France was taken by Britain (also referred to as British North America, except Louisiana, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

which France ceded to Spain as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war (and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida). Also ceded to the British were Grenada and Saint Lucia in the West Indies. Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant to France, and immoral.

Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in 1791 when Saint Domingue (the Western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola), France's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of 1789. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint Louverture and then, following his capture by the French in 1801, by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, held their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Empire of Haiti in 1804 (Haiti became the first black republic in the world,[ Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

much earlier than any of the future African nations although it was not until the 19th century that Europeans began establishing colonies in Africa).

In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

These were restored at the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, but when war resumed in 1803, the British soon recaptured them. France's repurchase of Louisiana in 1800 came to nothing, as the final success of theHaitian revolt convinced Bonaparte that holding Louisiana would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States in 1803 (the Louisiana Purchase). HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

The French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 1798–1801 was not successful.

At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe andMartinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions; though Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Isle de France (now Mauritius). In 1825 Charles X sent an expedition to Haïti, resulting in the Haiti indemnity controversy.[7]

The true beginnings of the second French colonial empire, however, Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

were laid in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria, which was conquered over the next 17 years. During the Second Empire, Emperor Napoleon III tried to create a puppet state in Mexico, but it was a disaster. The United States in 1865, after winning its Civil War, sent a large combat army to the border and France had to withdraw. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Its puppet emperor was executed. This French intervention in Mexico lasted from 1861 to 1867.

In southeast Asia Napoleon III was more successful in establishing control one slice at a time. He took overCochinchina (the southernmost part of modern Vietnam including Saigon) in 1867 and 1874, as well as a protectorate overCambodia in 1863. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

Additionally, France had a sphere of influence during the 19th century and early 20th century in southern China, including a naval base at Kuangchow Bay (Guangzhouwan).

It was only after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and the founding of the Third Republic (1871–1940) that most of France's later colonial possessions were acquired. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

From their base in Cochinchina, the French took over Tonkin (in modernnorthern Vietnam) and Annam (in modern central Vietnam) in 1884–1885. These, together with Cambodia and Cochinchina, formedFrench Indochina in 1887 (to which Laos was added in 1893, and Kwang-Chou-Wan[10] in 1900). Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

In 1849, the French concession in Shanghai was established, lasting until 1946.

In China proper, French leased Guangzhouwan (in 1898), and had enclaves (concessions) in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hankou (now part of Wuhan).[12]

Influence was also expanded in North Africa, establishing a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (Bardo Treaty). SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

Gradually, French control was established over much of Northern, Western, and Central Africa around the start of the 20th century (including the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Benin, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo), and the east African coastal enclave of Djibouti (French Somaliland). SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

The explorer Colonel Parfait-Louis Monteil traveled from Senegal to Lake Chad in 1890–1892, signing treaties of friendship and protection with the rulers of several of the countries he passed through, and gaining much knowledge of the geography and politics of the region.[13]

The Voulet–Chanoine Mission, a military expedition, was sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively. With the death of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad in 1900, the Voulet-Chanoine Mission had accomplished all its goals. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

The ruthlessness of the mission provoked a scandal in Paris.

As a part of the Scramble for Africa, France had the establishment of a continuous west-east axis of the continent as an objective, in contrast with the British north-south axis. This resulted in the Fashoda Incident, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

where an expedition led byJean-Baptiste Marchand was opposed by forces under Lord Kitchener's command. The resolution of the crisis had a part in the bringing forth of the Entente Cordiale. During the Agadir Crisis in 1911, Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

At this time, the French also established colonies in the South Pacific, including New Caledonia, the various island groups which make up French Polynesia (including the Society Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotus), and established joint control of the New Hebrides with Britain.The French made their last major colonial gains after World War I, Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

when they gained mandates over the former Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire that make up what is nowSyria and Lebanon, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon.

A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the civilising mission(mission civilisatrice), HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

the principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilisation to benighted peoples.[14] As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanisation in French colonies, most notably French West Africa and Madagascar. During the 19th. century, French citizenship along with the right to elect a deputy to the French Chamber of Deputies was granted to the four old colonies of Guadeloupe, HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

Martinique, Guyanne and Réunion as well as to the residents of the "Four Communes" in Senegal. In most cases, the elected deputies were white Frenchmen, although there were some blacks, such as the Senegalese Blaise Diagne, who was elected in 1914.[15] Elsewhere, in the largest and most populous colonies, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

a strict separation between "sujets français" (all the natives) and "citoyens français" (all males of European extraction) with different rights and duties was maintained until 1946. As was pointed out in a 1927 treatise on French colonial law, the granting of French citizenship to natives "was not a right, but rather a privilege".[16] Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

Two 1912 decrees dealing with French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa enumerated the conditions that a native had to meet in order to be granted French citizenship (they included speaking and writing French, earning a decent living and displaying good moral standards). From 1830 to 1946, anywhere from 3,000 to 6,000 natives Algerians only were granted French citizenship. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

In French West Africa, ouside of the Four Communes, there were 2,500 "citoyens indigènes" out of a total population of 15 million.[17]

French conservatives had been denouncing the assimilationist policies as products of a dangerous liberal fantasy. In the Protectorate of Morocco, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

the French administration attempted to use urban planning and colonial education to prevent cultural mixing and to uphold the traditional society upon which the French depended for collaboration, with mixed results. After World War II, the segregationist approach modeled in Morocco had been discredited by its connections to Vichyism, and assimilationism enjoyed a brief renaissance.[15] HP G60-230us CPU Fan

In 1905, the French abolished slavery in most of French West Africa.[18] David P. Forsythe wrote: "From Senegal and Mauritania in the west to Niger in the east (what became French Africa), there was a parallel series of ruinous wars, resulting in tremendous numbers of people being violently enslaved. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

At the beginning of the twentieth century there may have been between 3 and 3.5 million slaves, representing over 30 percent of the total population, within this sparsely populated region."[19]

Critics of French colonialism gained an international audience in the 1920s, and often used documentary reportage and access to agencies such as the League of Nations and the International Labor Organisation to make their protests heard. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

The main criticism was the high level of violence and suffering among the natives. Major critics included Albert Londres, Félicien Challaye, and Paul Monet, whose books and articles were widely read.[20]

While the first stages of a takeover often involved the destruction of historic buildings in order to use the site for French headquarters, COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

archaeologists and art historians soon engaged in systematic effort to identify, map and preserve historic sites, especially temples such as Angkor Wat, Champa ruins and the temples of Luang Prabang.[21] Many French museums have collections of colonial materials. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Since the 1980s the French government has opened new museums of colonial artifacts including the Musée du Quai Branly and the Cité Nationale de l’Histoire de l’Immigration, in Paris; the Centre Culturel Tjibaou in New Caledonia; and the Maison des Civilisations et de l’Unité Réunionnaise in Réunion. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

The French colonial empire began to fall during the Second World War, when various parts were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the United States and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The French Union, included in the 1946 Constitution of 1946, replaced the former colonial Empire.

France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonisation movement. Paul Ramadier's (SFIO) cabinet repressed the Malagasy Uprising in 1947. In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the First Indochina War. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed.

When the Indochina War ended with defeat and withdrawal in 1954, France became almost immediately involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in Algeria, the oldest major colony. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalised after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army.

The Algerian War started in 1954. Algeria was particularly problematic, Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

due to the large number of European settlers (orpieds-noirs) who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule. Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to the independence of Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. The Suez crisis in 1956 also displayed the limitations of French power, Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

as its attempt to retake the canal along with the British was stymied when the United States did not back the plan.

The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution of 1958 by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part in the new colonial organisation. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midst of the Algerian War; almost all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the status of overseas départements (territories). Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Critics of neocolonialism claimed that theFrançafrique had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties with the help ofJacques Foccart, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Nigerian Civil War during the late 1960s. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of theHuguenots in British or Dutch colonies. France generally had close to the slowest natural population growth in Europe, and emigration pressures were therefore quite small. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

A small but significant emigration, numbering only in the tens of thousands, of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the provinces of Acadia, Canada and Louisiana, both (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

In New France, Huguenots were banned from settling in the territory, and Quebec was one of the most staunchly Catholic areas in the world until the Quiet Revolution. The current French Canadian population, which numbers in the millions, is descended almost entirely from New France's small settler population. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

On 31 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots settled in South Africa. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France only had a population of some 65,000.[25]

From 1713 to 1787, 30,000 colonists immigrated from France to the St. Domingue. In 1804 Dessalines, the first ruler of an independent Haiti (St. Domingue), ordered the massacre of whites remaining on the island.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Out of the 40,000 inhabitants onGuadeloupe, at the end of the 17th century, there were more than 26,000 blacks and 9,000 whites.[27] Bill Marshall wrote, "The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly when tropical diseases and climate killed all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers."[28] HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

French law made it easy for thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and West Africa, India and Indochina to live in mainland France. It is estimated that 20,000 colons were living in Saigon in 1945. 1.6 million European pieds noirs migrated from Algeria, Tunisia andMorocco.[29] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French Algerians left Algeria in the largest relocation of population in Europe since World War II.[ In the 1970s, over 30,000 French colons left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

In November 2004, several thousand of the estimated 14,000 French nationals in Ivory Coast left country after days of anti-white violence.[30]

Apart from French-Canadians (Québécois and Acadians), Cajuns, and Métis other populations of French ancestry outside metropolitan France include the Caldochesof New Caledonia, the so-called ZoreillesHP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Petits-blancs with the Franco-Mauritian of various Indian Ocean islands and the Beke people of the French West Indies.

The number of Francophones (French language speakers) in the world has been rising substantially since the 1980s. In 1985, there were 106 million Francophones around the world. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

That number quickly rose to 173.2 million in 1997, 200 million in 2005, and reached 220 million in 2010 (+10% from 2007).[1] Forecasts expect that the number of French speakers in Africa alone to reach 400 million in 2025 and 715 million in 2050.[2] By 2050, the worldwide French speaking population will be multiplied by a factor of 4 whereas the world population would only be multiplied by a factor of 1.5. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

Francization is also a designator applied to a number of ethnic assimilation policies implemented by French authorities from the French Revolution to present. These policies aimed to impose or to maintain the dominance of French language and culture by encouraging or compelling people of other ethnic groups to adopt them, and thereby developing a French identity, HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

at the expense of the existing identity. Coupled with this policy was deliberate suppression of minority languages.

The term can be applied to the Francization of the German-speaking inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine after this region was annexed by France following the First World War, HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

to the Flemings in French Flanders, to the Occitans in Occitania, as well as to Basques, Bretons,Catalans, Corsicans and Niçards.

It began with the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts under King Francis I of France, that prescribed the official use of the French language in all the documents. Other tongues, such as Occitan, began to disappear as written languages. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

Everything was Francized step by step, starting with surnames and place names. Presently, it still continues, but some change their names to bretonize(replacement of 'Le' by 'Ar' for instance Le Bras becomes Ar Braz 'the tall') or occitanize it again. City signs for example, might be spelled in French, but the local authorities are now allowed to add the historic version. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

The Government of Quebec has francization policies intended to establish French as the primary language of business and commerce. All businesses are required to provide written communications and schedules in French, and may not make knowledge of a language other than French a condition of hiring unless this is justified by the nature of the duties. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

Businesses with more than fifty employees are required to register with the Quebec Office of the French language in order to become eligible for a francization certificate, which is granted if the linguistic requirements are met. If not, employers are required to adopt a francization programme, which includes having employees, HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

especially ones in managerial positions, who do not speak French or whose grasp of French is weak attend French-language training.[4]

As part of the francization programme, the Quebec government provides free language courses for recent immigrants (from other countries or other provinces) who do not speak French or whose command of French is weak. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

The government also provides financial assistance for those who are unable to find employment due to being unable to speak French.[5]Another aspect of francization in Quebec regards the quality of the French used in Quebec. The Quebec Office of the French language has, since its formation, undertaken to discourage anglicisms and to promote high standards of French language education in schools.[6] HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

The francization programmes have been considered a great success, since 1977 (date of the vote on the Charter of the French Language.) the number of English speakers decreased from 14% in 1970 to less than 6.7% in 2006, also in the 70s the French language was understood by only native French speakers, (80%) of the population of Quebec, Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

in 2001, French was understood by more than 94% of the population.[7] Also the number of immigrants choosing English schools for their children fell from 80% in 1970 to less than 4% in 2006.French is also becoming increasingly attractive to foreign speakers suggesting that the francization programmes have been successful.[ HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Montreal is a particular case, because unlike the rest of Quebec, the French-speaking proportion of the population diminished however this does not mean that the francization programmes failed, as the level of English speakers diminished too; it seems more likely that the decrease was caused by the fact that 93% of new immigrants choose to settle in Montreal,[8] Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

with a corresponding rise in languages other than English and French. The government of Quebec estimate that the next 20 years will see the French-Speaker proportion of Montreal going back up.[9]

But those estimations seems to underestimate the Francization of Montreal for some experts because statistics shows that the proportion has already risen from 55.6% (1996) to 56.4% (2001)[10] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

The success of the Francization of Quebec can also be seen over the borders of its territory, in Ontario the proportion of English speakers dropped from 70.5% in 2001 to 68% in 2006[11][12] while the proportion of French speakers went up from 4.06% (488 815) in 2006 to 4.80%(580 000) in 2009. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

However, this statistic must be examined in conjunction with the effects of Quebec francophone out-migration. Interprovincial migration, especially to Ontario, results in a net loss of population in Quebec. The numbers of French-speaking Quebecers leaving the province tend to be similar to the number entering, while immigrants to Quebec tend to leave.[13] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

None of the Quebec statistics are adjusted to compensate for the percentage - approximately 20% - of Anglophones who departed the province by the mid-1980s as a consequence of linguistic nationalism.[14] By 2001, over 60% of the 1971 population of Quebec Anglophones had left the province.[15] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The policy has been even more successful in New-Brunswick, where entire cities became French-speaking, for example: the city of Edmundston, which went from 89% of French speakers in 1996 to 93.4% in 2006, the city of Moncton (from 30.4% in 1996 to 33% in 2006), Dalhousie (from 42.5% to 49.5%) and Dieppe (from 71.1% in 1996 to 74.2% en 2006). HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Some cities even passed over the 50% of French speakers between 1991 to 2006 like Bathurst, which passed from 44.6% of French speakers in 1996 to 50.5% in 2006, or Campbellton, (from 47% in 1996 to 55% in 2006).[16][17][18]

The Charter of the French Language has been a complete success according to Hervé Lavenir de Buffon (general secretary of the «HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

Comité international pour le français, langue européenne »), who said in 2006 : "Before the Bill 101, Montreal looked like an American city, now Montreal looks like a French-speaking city, that proves how well the Bill 101 worked!"[19]

Rates of francization may be established for any group by comparing the number of people who usually speak French to the total number of people in the minority language group. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

See Calvin Veltman's Language Shift in the United States (1983) for a discussion.

In the last two centuries, Brussels transformed from an exclusively Dutch-speaking city to a bilingual city with French as the majority language and lingua franca. The language shift began in the 18th century and accelerated as Belgium became independent and Brussels expanded beyond its original city boundaries.[20][21] SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

From 1880 on, more and more Dutch-speaking people became bilingual, resulting in a rise of monolingual French-speakers after 1910. Halfway through the 20th century the number of monolingual French-speakers carried the day over the (mostly) bilingual Flemish inhabitants.[22] HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

Only since the 1960s, after the fixation of the Belgian language border and the socio-economic development of Flanders was in full effect, could Dutch stem the tide of increasing French use.[23] The francisation of the Flemish periphery around Brussels still continues because of the continued immigration of French-speakers, coming from Wallonia and Brussels. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

However, the process is limited by the refusal of the French Government, on the basis of the French Constitution's line "The language of the Republic of France is French," to recognize minority languages in France. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan,IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan,SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

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