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The earliest known inhabitants of the area were Khoisan hunter-gatherers. They were largely replaced by Wasja-speaking[clarification needed] tribes during Bantu migrations. The Sotho-Tswana people colonized the general region of South Africa between the third and 11th centuries.  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

The present Lesotho, then called Basutoland, emerged as a single polity under king Moshoeshoe I in 1822. Moshoeshoe, a son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli lineage, formed his own clan and became a chief around 1804. Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain, HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

joining with former adversaries in resistance against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828.[citation needed]

Subsequent evolution of the state hinged on conflicts between British and Dutch colonists leaving the Cape Colonyfollowing its seizure from the French-allied Dutch by the British in 1795, and subsequently associated with theOrange River Sovereignty and subsequent Orange Free State. GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset (fr), Eugène Casalis (fr) and Constant Gosselin (fr) from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, placed at Morija, developed orthography and printed works in the Sotho language between 1837 and 1855. Casalis, acting as translator and providing advice on foreign affairs,  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

helped to set up diplomatic channels and acquire guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the Griqua people.[citation needed]

Trekboers from the Cape Colony showed up on the western borders of Basutoland and claimed land rights, beginning withJan de Winnaar,  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

who settled in the Matlakeng area in May–June 1838. As more Boers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers, even north of the Caledon, claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Moshoeshoe subsequently signed a treaty with the British Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir George Thomas Napier that annexed the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled. These outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish in 1848. In 1851 a British force was defeated by the Sotho army at Kolonyama, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

touching off an embarrassing war for the British. After repulsing another British attack in 1852, Moshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that settled the dispute diplomatically, then defeated the Tlokoa in 1853.[citation needed]  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

In 1854 the British pulled out of the region, and in 1858 Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with the Boers in theFree State-Basotho War, losing a great portion of the western lowlands. The last war in 1867 ended when Moshoeshoe appealed to Queen Victoria, who agreed to make Basutoland a British protectorate in 1868. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

In 1869, the British signed a treaty at Aliwal North with the Boers that defined the boundaries of Basutoland, and later Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories effectively reduced Moshoeshoe's kingdom to half its previous size.[citation needed] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

Following the cession in 1869, the British initially transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in Thaba Bosiuto a police camp on the northwest border, Maseru, until administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony in 1871. Moshoeshoe died on 11 March 1870, marking the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the colonial era, HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

and was buried at Thaba Bosiu. During their rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to territories that had been forcefully annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho.[7] This led to the Gun War in 1881.[8] In 1884, Basutoland was restored its status as a protectorate, with Maseru again its capital, but remained under direct rule by a governor, though effective internal power was wielded by traditional chiefs. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

Basutoland gained its independence from Britain and became the Kingdom of Lesotho in 1966.[9]

In January 1970, the ruling Basotho National Party (BNP) lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36.  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party (BCP), declared himself Tona Kholo (Sesotho translation of prime minister),[citation needed] and imprisoned the BCP leadership. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

BCP began a rebellion and then received training in Libya for its Lesotho Liberation Army (LLA) under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) soldiers of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Deprived of arms and supplies by the Sibeko faction of the PAC in 1978, the 178-strong LLA was rescued from their Tanzanian base by the financial assistance of a Maoist PAC officer, but they launched the guerrilla war with only a handful of old weapons. The main force was defeated in northern Lesotho, DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

and later guerrillas launched sporadic but usually ineffectual attacks. The campaign was severely compromised when BCP's leader, Ntsu Mokhehle, went to Pretoria. In the early 1980s, several Basotho who sympathized with the exiled BCP were threatened with death and attacked by the government of Leabua Jonathan. In September 1981, the family of Benjamin Masilo was attacked. A few days later, Edgar Mahlomola Motubawas taken from his home and murdered.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The BNP ruled from 1966 till January 1970. What later ensued was a de facto government led by Dr Leabua Jonathan until 1986 when a military coup forced it out of office. The Transitional Military Council that came to power granted executive powers to King Moshoeshoe II, who was until then a ceremonial monarch. SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

But in 1987 the King was forced into exile after coming up with a six-page memorandum on how he wanted the Lesotho's constitution to be, which would have given him more executive powers had the military government agreed. His son was installed as King Letsie III.  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

The chairman of the military junta, Major General Justin Metsing Lekhanya, was ousted in 1991 and replaced by Major General Elias Phisoana Ramaema, who handed over power to a democratically elected government of the BCP in 1993. Moshoeshoe II returned from exile in 1992 as an ordinary citizen. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

After the return to democratic government, King Letsie III tried unsuccessfully to persuade the BCP government to reinstate his father (Moshoeshoe II) as head of state.

In August 1994, Letsie III staged a military-backed coup that deposed the BCP government, after the BCP government refused to reinstate his father, Moshoeshoe II, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

according to Lesotho's constitution. The new government did not receive full international recognition. Member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) engaged in negotiations to reinstate the BCP government. One of the conditions Letsie III put forward for this was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

After protracted negotiations, the BCP government was reinstated and Letsie III abdicated in favor of his father in 1995, but he ascended the throne again when Moshoeshoe II died at the age of fifty-seven in a supposed road accident, when his car plunged off a mountain road during the early hours of 15 January 1996. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

According to a government statement, Moshoeshoe had set out at 1 am to visit hiscattle at Matsieng and was returning to Maseru through the Maluti Mountains when his car left the road.[10] HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

In 1997, the ruling BCP split over leadership disputes. Prime Minister Ntsu Mokhehle formed a new party, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD), and was followed by a majority of members of parliament, which enabled him to form a new government. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

Pakalitha Mosisili succeeded Mokhehle as party leader and the LCD won the general elections in 1998. Although the elections were pronounced free and fair by local and international observers and a subsequent special commission appointed by SADC, the opposition political parties rejected the results.  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

Opposition protests in the country intensified, culminating in a peaceful demonstration outside the royal palace in August 1998. Exact details of what followed are greatly disputed, both in Lesotho and South Africa. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

While the Botswana Defence Force troops were welcomed, tensions with South African National Defence Force troops were high, resulting in fighting. Incidences of sporadic riotingintensified when South African troops hoisted a South African flag over the Royal Palace. By the time the SADC forces withdrew in May 1999, ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

much of the capital of Maseru lay in ruins, and the southern provincial capital towns of Mafeteng and Mohale's Hoek had seen the loss of over a third of their commercial real estate. A number of South Africans and Basotho also died in the fighting. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

An Interim Political Authority (IPA), charged with reviewing the electoral structure in the country, was created in December 1998. The IPA devised a proportional electoral system to ensure that the opposition would be represented in the National Assembly. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

The new system retained the existing 80 elected Assembly seats, but added 40 seats to be filled on a proportional basis. Elections were held under this new system in May 2002, and the LCD won again, gaining 54% of the vote. But for the first time, opposition political parties won significant numbers of seats, and despite some irregularities and threats of violence from Major General Lekhanya, HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

Lesotho experienced its first peaceful election. Nine opposition parties now hold all 40 of the proportional seats, with the BNP having the largest share (21). The LCD has 79 of the 80 constituency-based seats. Although its elected members participate in the National Assembly, the BNP has launched several legal challenges to the elections, including a recount; none has been successful. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The Lesotho Government is a parliamentary or constitutional monarchy. The Prime Minister, Tom Motsoahae Thabane, is head of government and has executive authority. The king serves a largely ceremonial function; he no longer possesses any executive authority and is prohibited from actively participating in political initiatives. SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard

The All Basotho Convention (ABC) leads a coalition government in the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament.

The upper house of parliament, called the Senate, is composed of twenty-two principal chiefs whose membership is hereditary, and eleven appointees of the king, acting on the advice of the prime minister. HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

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The constitution provides for an independent judicial system, made up of the High Court, the Court of Appeal, Magistrate's Courts, and traditional courts that exist predominantly in rural areas. All but one of the Justices on the Court of Appeal are South African jurists. There is no trial by jury; rather, judges make rulings alone, or, in the case of criminal trials, with two other judges as observers. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

The constitution also protects basic civil liberties, including freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of the press, freedom of peaceful assemblyand freedom of religion. Lesotho was ranked 12th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries in the 2008 Ibrahim Index of African Governance.[11] TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

However there is a growing movement, the People's Charter Movement, calling for the practical annexation of the country by South Africa due to the AIDS epidemic which infects a third of the population. The country faces high unemployment, economic collapse, a weak currency and poor travel documents restricting their movement. HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

An African Union report called for economic integration of Lesotho with South Africa but stopped short of suggesting annexation. In May 2010 the Charter Movement delivered a petition to the South African High Commission requesting integration. South Africa's home affairs spokesman Ronnie Mamoepa rejected the idea that Lesotho should be treated as a special case. "It is a sovereign country like South Africa. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

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We sent envoys to our neighbours – Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and Lesotho – before we enforced the passport rule. When you travel from Britain to South Africa, don't you expect to use a passport?"[12] HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

Lesotho's geographic location makes it extremely vulnerable to political and economic developments in South Africa. It is a member of many regional economic organizations, including the Southern African Development Community (SADC),[13] and theSouthern African Customs Union (SACU).[14] It is also active in the United Nations (UN), DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth, and many other international organizations.[citation needed]

Prince Seeiso Hirohr Seeiso is the present High Commissioner of the Kingdom of Lesotho to the Court of St. James's. The UN is represented by a resident mission as well, including UNDP, UNICEF, WHO, FAO, WFP, and UNAIDS. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

Lesotho also has maintained ties with the United Kingdom (Wales in particular), Germany, the United States and other Western states. Although in 1990 it broke relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and re-established relations with theRepublic of China (Taiwan), it later restored ties with the PRC. SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

Lesotho also recognizes the State of Palestine.[15] In the past, it was a strong public opponen

Lesotho does not have a single code containing its laws; it draws them from a variety of sources including: Constitution, Legislation, Common Law, Judicial precedent, Customary Law, and Authoritative texts.[16]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The Constitution of Lesotho came into force after the publication of the Commencement Order. Constitutionally, legislation refers to laws that have been passed by both houses of parliament and have been assented to by the King (section 78(1)). HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

Subordinate legislation refers to laws passed by other bodies to which parliament has by virtue of section 70(2) of the Constitution validly delegated such legislative powers. These include government gazettes, ministerial orders, ministerial regulations and municipal bye-laws. HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

Although Lesotho shares with South Africa, Botswana, Swaziland, Namibia and Zimbabwe a mixed general legal system which resulted from the interaction between the Roman-Dutch Civilian law and the English Common Law, its general law operates independently. Lesotho also applies the common law, SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

which refers to unwritten law or law from non-statutory sources, but excludes customary law. Decisions from South African courts are only persuasive, and courts refer to them in formulating their decisions. Decisions from similar jurisdictions can also be cited for their persuasive value. Magistrates’ courts decisions do not become precedent since these are lower courts. HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

They are however bound by decisions of the High Court and the Court of Appeal. At the apex of the Lesotho justice system is the Court of Appeal, which is the final appellate forum on all matters. It has a supervisory and review jurisdiction over all the courts of Lesotho. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

Lesotho has a dual legal system consisting of customary and general laws operating side by side. Customary law is made up of the customs of the Basotho, written and codified in the Laws of Lerotholi whereas general law consists of Roman Dutch Law imported from the Cape and the Lesotho statutes. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

The codification of customary law came about after a council was appointed in 1903 to advise the British Resident Commissioner on what was best for the Basotho in terms of laws that would govern them. Until this time, the Basotho customs and laws were passed down from generation to generation through oral tradition. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

The council was then given the task of codifying them, came up with the Laws of Lerotholi which are applied by customary courts today (local courts). Written works of eminent authors have persuasive value in the courts of Lesotho. These include writings of the old authorities as well as contemporary writers from similar jurisdictions. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard

Lesotho is geographically surrounded by South Africa and economically integrated with it as well. The economy of Lesotho is based on agriculture, livestock, manufacturing and mining, and depends heavily on inflows of workers’ remittances and receipts from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).[17][18] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

The majority of households subsist on farming. The formal sector employment consist of mainly the female workers in the apparel sector, the male migrant labor, primarily miners in South Africa for 3 to 9 months and employment in the Government of Lesotho (GOL). The western lowlands form the main agricultural zone. Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

Almost 50% of the population earn income through informal crop cultivation or animal husbandry with nearly two-thirds of the country's income coming from the agricultural sector. The percentage of the population living below USDPurchasing Power Parity (PPP) US$1.25/day fell from 48 percent to 44 percent between 1995 and 2003.[17] SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard

The country is still among the "Low Human Development" countries (rank 160 of 187 on the Human Development Index) as classified by the UNDP, with 48.2 years of life expectancy at birth.[19] However, adult literacy is very high – 82% and children under weight aged under 5 is only 20%.[20] Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

Lesotho has taken advantage of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) to become the largest exporter of garments to the US from sub-Saharan Africa.[21] American Brands and retailers sourcing from Lesotho include: Foot Locker, Gap, Gloria Vanderbilt, JCPenny, Levi Strauss, Saks, Sears, Timberland and Wal-Mart.[22] DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

In mid-2004 its employment reached over 50,000 mainly female workers, marking the first time that manufacturing sector workers outnumbered government employees. In 2008 it exported goods worth 487 million dollars mainly to the U.S.A. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

Since 2004 employment in the sector was somehow reduced to about 45,000, in mid-2011, due to intense international competition in the garment sector. It was the largest formal sector employer in Lesotho in 2011.[23] In 2007, the average earnings of an employee in the textile sector were $103 per month, and the official minimum wage for a general textile worker was $93 per month. The average gross national income per capita in 2008 was $83 per month.[23] GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

The sector initiated a major program to fight HIV/AIDS called Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight AIDS (ALAFA). It is an industry-wide program providing prevention and treatment for the workers. (see below HIV)[24] HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

Water and diamonds are Lesotho's significant natural resources.[17] Water is utilized through the 21-year, multi-billion-dollar Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP), under the authority of the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

The project commenced in 1986.[25] The LHWP is designed to capture, store, and transfer water from the Orange River system to South Africa's Free State and greater Johannesburg area, which features a large concentration of South African industry, population,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

and agriculture. Completion of the first phase of the project has made Lesotho almost completely self-sufficient in the production of electricity and generated approximately $70 million in 2010 from the sale of electricity and water to South Africa.[26] The World Bank, African Development Bank, European Investment Bank, and many other bilateral donors financed the project. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Diamonds are produced in Letseng, Mothae, Liqhobong and Kao mines. The sector suffered a set back in 2008 as the result of the world recession but rebounded in 2010 and 2011. Export of diamonds reached $230 million in 2010/11.[27] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

In 1957, a South African adventurer, colonel Jack Scott, accompanied by a young man named Keith Whitelock, set out prospecting for diamonds. They found their diamond mine at 3,100 m altitude, on top of the Maluti Mountains in northeastern Lesotho, TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

 some 70 km from Mokhotlong at Letseng. In 1967, a 601-carat (120 g) diamond (Lesotho Brown) was discovered in the mountains by a Mosotho woman. In August 2006, a 603-carat (121 g) white diamond (Lesotho Promise) was discovered at the Letseng-la-Terae mine. Another 478-carat (96 g) diamond was discovered at the same location in 2008.[28] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

Lesotho’s progress in moving from a predominantly subsistence-oriented economy to a lower middle income economy exporting natural resources and manufacturing goods. The exporting sectors have brought higher and more secure incomes to a significant portion of the population.[17] SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

The global economic crisis hit the Lesotho economy hard through: the loss of textile exports and jobs in the sector due largely to the economic slowdown in the United States which is a major export destination; reduced diamond mining and exports, IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

including weak prices for diamonds; drop in SACU revenues due to the economic slowdown in the South African economy; and reduction in worker remittances due to weakening of the South African economy and contraction of the mining sector and related job losses in South Africa. In 2009, GDP growth slowed to 0.9 percent.[17] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The official currency is the loti (plural: maloti), but can be used interchangeably with the South African rand. Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, and South Africa also form a common currency and exchange control area known as the Common Monetary Area (CMA). The loti is at par with the rand. One hundred lisente equal one loti. GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

Lesotho is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), in which tariffs have been eliminated on the trade of goods between other member countriesBotswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

Lesotho has received economic aid from a variety of sources, including the United States, the World Bank, Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, the European Union, and Germany.

An estimated 85% of the population 15 and over is literate, according to recent estimates. As such, Lesotho holds one of the highest literacy rates in Africa,[29] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

in part because Lesotho invests over 12% of its GDP in education.[31] Contrary to most countries, in Lesotho female literacy (94.5%) is higher than male literacy. According to a study by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality in 2000, 37% of grade 6 pupils in Lesotho (average age 14 years) are at or above reading level 4, "Reading for Meaning."[32]  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

A pupil at this level of literacy can read ahead or backwards through various parts of text to link and interpret information. Although education is not compulsory, the Government of Lesotho is incrementally implementing a program for free primary education.[33] Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

Despite having a highly literate population, Lesotho's residents struggle for access to vital services, such as healthcare, travel, and educational resources, as according to the International Telecommunication Union, only 3.4% of the population use the Internet. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

A service from Econet Telecom Lesotho expanded the country's access to email through entry level, low-end mobile phones and consequently improved access to educational information. The African Library Project works to establish school and village libraries in partnership with US Peace Corps Lesotho[34] and the Butha Buthe District of Education. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

Lesotho is severely afflicted by HIV/AIDS. According to 2009 estimates, the prevalence is about 23.6%, one of the highest in the world.[37] In urban areas, about 50% of women under 40 have HIV. The UNDP stated that in 2006 life expectancy in Lesotho was estimated at 42 years for men and women.[20] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

The country regards HIV as one of its most important development issues, and the Government is addressing the pandemic through its HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plan. Coverage of some key HIV/AIDS interventions has improved, including prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

Prevention of mother to child transmission coverage increased from about 5 percent in 2005, to 31 percent in 2007. The roll-out of antiretroviral therapy has made good progress, with 38,586 people receiving treatment by 2008.[17] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The "Know Your Status" campaign boosted the number of people being tested for HIV to 229,092 by the end of 2007, 12 percent of the population and three times the number tested in 2005. The program is funded by the Clinton Foundation and started in June 2006. Bill Clinton and Microsoft chairman Bill Gates visited Lesotho in July 2006 to assess its fight against AIDS.[38] Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

As a result, the annual rate at which adults in the population who are HIV-negative become HIV-positive declined from 2.9 percent in 2005 to 2.3 percent in 2007, lowering the estimated annual number of new infections from 26,000 to 21,560. These are the first signs of a decline in the HIV epidemic.[17] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

The Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight AIDS (ALAFA) is an industry-wide program providing prevention and treatment, including ARVs when these are necessary, for the 46,000 mainly women workers in the Lesotho apparel industry. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

It was launched in May 2006. The program is helping to combat two of the key drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: poverty and gender inequality. Surveys within the industry by ALAFA show that 43% of the employees have HIV.[24] HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a given country.[1]In practice, ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

like the definition of poverty, the official or common understanding of the poverty line is significantly higher in developed countries than in developing countries.[2][3] The common international poverty line has in the past been roughly $1 a day.[4] In 2008, the World Bank came out with a revised figure of $1.25 at 2005 purchasing-power parity (PPP).[5] ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the essential resources that an average human adult consumes in one year.[6] The largest of these expenses is typically the rent required to live in an apartment, ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

so historically, economists have paid particular attention to the real estate market and housing prices as a strong poverty line affector. Individual factors are often used to account for various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly, a child, married, etc. The poverty threshold may be adjusted annually. TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Charles Booth, a pioneering investigator of poverty in London at the turn of the 20th century, popularised the idea of a poverty line, a concept originally conceived by the London School Board.[7] Booth set the line at 10 to 20 shillings, which he considered to be the minimum amount necessary for a family of 4 or 5 people to subsist.[8] Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree (1871–1954), a TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

British sociological researcher, social reformer and industrialist, surveyed rich families in York and drew a poverty line in terms of a minimum weekly sum of money "necessary to enable families ... to secure the necessaries of a healthy life", which included fuel and light, rent, food, clothing, and household and personal items. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

Based on data from leading nutritionists of the period he calculated the cheapest price for the minimum calorific intake and nutritional balance necessary before people got ill or lost weight. He considered this amount to set his poverty line and concluded that 27.84 percent of the total population of York lived below this poverty line.[9] TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

This result corresponded with that from Charles Booth's study of poverty in London and so challenged the view, commonly held at the time, that abject poverty was a problem particular to London and was not widespread in the rest of Britain. Rowntree distinguished between primary poverty, those who lacking in income and secondary poverty, those who had enough income but spent it elsewhere (1901:295-6).[9]  SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

Absolute poverty is a level of poverty as defined in terms of the minimal requirements necessary to afford minimal standards of food, clothing, health care and shelter.[10] For the measure to be absolute, the line must be the same in different countries, SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

cultures, and technological levels. Such an absolute measure should look only at the individual's power to consume and it should be independent of any changes in income distribution. The intuition behind an absolute measure is  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

that mere survival takes essentially the same amount of resources across the world and that everybody should be subject to the same standards if meaningful comparisons of policies and progress are to be made. Notice that if everyone's real income in an economy increases, and the income distribution does not change, absolute poverty will decline. ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

Measuring poverty by an absolute threshold has the advantage of applying the same standard across different locations and time periods: it makes comparisons easier. On the other hand, it suffers from the disadvantage that any absolute poverty threshold is to some extent arbitrary; TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

the amount of wealth required for survival is not the same in all places and time periods. For example, a person living in far northern Scandinavia requires a source of heat during colder months, while a person living on a tropical island does not. HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

This type of measure is often contrasted with measures of relative poverty (see below), which classify individuals or families as "poor" not by comparing them to a fixed cutoff point, but by comparing them to others in the population under study. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

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The term absolute poverty is also sometimes used as a synonym for extreme poverty. Absolute poverty is the absence of enough resources (such as money) to secure basic life necessities.

According to a UN declaration that resulted from the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995, HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

absolute poverty is "a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services."[11] ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

David Gordon's paper, "Indicators of Poverty & Hunger", for the United Nations, further defines absolute poverty as the absence of any two of the following eight basic needs:[11] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Relative poverty is the "most useful measure for ascertaining poverty rates in wealthy developed nations".[12][13][14][15][16] Relative poverty measure is used by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Canadian poverty researchers.[12][13][14][15][16]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

In the European Union, the "relative poverty measure is the most prominent and most–quoted of the EU social inclusion indicators."[17]

"[R]elative poverty reflects better the cost of social inclusion and equality of opportunity in a specific time and space."[18] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

"Once economic development has progressed beyond a certain minimum level, the rub of the poverty problem – from the point of view of both the poor individual and of the societies in which they live – is not so much the effects of poverty in any absolute form but the effects of the contrast, daily perceived, between the lives of the poor and the lives of those around them. HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

For practical purposes, the problem of poverty in the industrialized nations today is a problem of relative poverty (page 9)."[19][18] SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

In 1776 Adam Smith in the Wealth of Nations argued that poverty is the inability to afford, "not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without."[20][21] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

In 1958 J. K. Galbraith argued that, "People are poverty stricken when their income, even if adequate for survival, falls markedly behind that of their community."[22][21]  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

In 1964 in a joint committee economic President's report in the United States, Republicans endorsed the concept of relative poverty. ”No objective definition of poverty exists.... The definition varies from place to place and time to time. In America as our standard of living rises, so does our idea of what is substandard."[23][21] SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

In 1965 Rose Friedman argued for the use of relative poverty claiming that the definition of poverty changes with general living standards. Those labelled as poor in 1995, would have had "a higher standard of living than many labelled not poor" in 1965.[24][21]  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

In 1979, British sociologist, Peter Townsend published his famous definition, "individuals [...] can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities and have the living conditions and amenities which are customary, or are at least widely encouraged or approved, in the societies to which they belong (page 31)."[25] ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

Brian Nolan and Christopher T. Whelan of the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) in Ireland explained that, "[P]overty has to be seen in terms of the standard of living of the society in question."[26] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Relative poverty measures are used as official poverty rates by the European Union, UNICEF and the OEDC. The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is based on "economic distance", a level of income set at 60% of the median household income.[27] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

A measure of relative poverty defines "poverty" as being below some relative poverty threshold. For example, the statement that "those individuals who are employed and whose household equivalised disposable income is below 60% of national median equivalised income are poor" uses a relative measure to define poverty.[28] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

 Using this definition, if everyone's real income in an economy increases, but the income distribution stays the same, then the rate of relative poverty will also stay the same.

This means, by its very nature, that there will always be a family living in (relative) poverty, even if they have a very high living standard, unless everyone has almost exactly the same income. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Relative poverty measurements can sometimes produce odd results, especially in small populations. For example, if the median household in a wealthy neighborhood earns US$1 million each year, then a family that earns US$100,000 would be considered poor on the relative poverty scale, SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

even though such a family could meet all of its basic needs and much more. At the other end of the scale, if the median household in a very poor neighborhood earned only 50% of what it needs to buy food, then a person who earned the median income would not be considered poor on a relative poverty scale, even though the person is clearly poor on an absolute poverty scale.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Measures of relative poverty are almost the same as measuring income inequality: If a society gets a more equal income distribution, relative poverty will fall. They point out that if society changed in a way that hurt high earners more than low ones, then relative poverty would decrease, but every citizen of the society would be worse off. Likewise in the reverse direction: it is possible to reduce absolute poverty while increasing relative poverty. SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

The term relative poverty can also be used in a different sense to mean "moderate poverty" – for example, a standard of living or level of income that is high enough to satisfy basic needs (like water, food, clothing, shelter, and basic health care), but still significantly lower than that of the majority of the population under consideration[29]. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries. It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well-being, usually in terms of consumption goods. SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard

The poverty line is then defined as the amount of incomerequired to satisfy those needs. The 'basic needs' approach was introduced by the International Labour Organization's World Employment Conference in 1976.[30][31] TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

"Perhaps the high point of the WEP was the World Employment Conference of 1976, which proposed the satisfaction of basic human needs as the overriding objective of national and international development policy. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

The basic needs approach to development was endorsed by governments and workers’ and employers’ organizations from all over the world. It influenced the programmes and policies of major multilateral and bilateral development agencies, and was the precursor to the human development approach."[30][31] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

A traditional list of immediate "basic needs" is food (including water), shelter and clothing.[32] Many modern lists emphasize the minimum level of consumption of 'basic needs' of not just food, water, and shelter, but also sanitation, education, and health care. Different agencies use different lists.  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

In 1978 Ghai investigated the literature that criticized the basic needs approach. Critics argued that the basic needs approach lacked scientific rigour; it was consumption-oriented and anti-growth. Some considered it to be "a recipe for perpetuating economic backwardness" and for giving the impression "that poverty elimination is all too easy".[33] Amartya Sen focused on 'capabilities' rather than consumption. IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

In the development discourse, the basic needs model focuses on the measurement of what is believed to be an eradicable level of poverty.

Professor Chris Sarlo, an economist at Nipissing University in North Bay, Canada, and a senior fellow of the Fraser Institute, HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

used Statistics Canada's socio-economic databases, particularly the Survey of Household Spending to determine the cost of a list of household necessities. The list includes food, shelter,clothing, health care, personal care, essential furnishings, transportation and communication, laundry, home insurance, and miscellaneous; HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

it assumes that education is provided freely to all residents of Canada. This is calculated for various communities across Canada and adjusted for family size. With this information, he determines the proportion of Canadian households that have insufficient income to afford those necessities.  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

Sarlo introduced his basic needs approach in 1992 in his book entitled Poverty in Canada published by the Fraser Institute. Sarlos argued that Statistics Canada’s Low Income Cutoff (LICO), which uses a relative poverty line threshold was inadequate. Sarlos' basic needs poverty measure for Canada was updated in 2001 Sarlos' to reflect ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

"new developments in the literature, external critiques of the approach, and better (and more comprehensive) data". For example it included out-of-pocket health-care costs. According to the Sarlo, "the basic-needs approach is partly absolute (the list [of necessities] is limited to items required for long-term physical well-being) and partly relative, HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

reflecting the standards that apply in the individual's own society at the present time." It was updated again in 2006. [34] The Fraser Institute's list of necessities for living creditably in Canada includes not only food, shelter, clothing, and health care, but also personal care,furniture, transportation, communication, laundry, and home insurance.  HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

It is criticized for not including any entertainment items like cable television, daily newspapers, and tickets to movies or sporting events.[34][35][36][36] Based on his basic needs poverty threshold, the poverty rate in Canada, the poverty rate has declined from about 12% of Canadian households to about 5% since the 1970s.[37] ACER TravelMate 8215WLMi laptop keyboard

This is in sharp contrast to Statistic Canada, the Conference Board of Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and UNESCO reports on poverty in Canada. They used the relative poverty measure considered to the most useful for advanced industrial nations like Canada, which Sarlo rejects.  HP Pavilion dv6-2165tx laptop keyboard

According to a 2008 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the rate of poverty in Canada, is among the highest of the OECD member nations, the world's wealthiest industrialized nations.[14]  SONY VAIO VGN NR298E laptop keyboard

There is no official government definition and therefore, measure, for poverty in Canada. However, Raphael Dennis, author of Poverty in Canada: Implications for Health and Quality of Life[38][39] reported that the United Nations Development Program(UNDP), SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Canadian poverty researchers[notes 1][16]find that relative poverty is the "most useful measure for ascertaining poverty rates in wealthy developed nations such as Canada".[12][13][14][15][40] SONY VAIO PCG-FR415S laptop keyboard

National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys. Definitions of the poverty line may vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Thus, the numbers are not comparable among countries.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

In 2010, in the United States, the poverty threshold for one person under 65 was US$11,344 (annual income); the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was US$22,133.[41][42] According to the U.S. Census Bureau data released on September 13, 2011, the nation's poverty rate rose to 15.1 percent in 2010. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 laptop keyboard

In the UK, "more than five million people – over a fifth (23 percent) of all employees – were paid less than £6.67 an hour in April 2006. This is based on a low pay rate of 60 percent of full-time median earnings, equivalent to a little over £12,000 a year for a 35-hour working week. In April 2006, a 35-hour week would have earned someone £9,191 a year – before tax or National Insurance".[43][44] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

India's official poverty level, on the other hand, is split according to rural vs. urban thresholds. For urban dwellers, the poverty line is defined as living on less than 538.60 rupees (approximately USD $12) per month, whereas for rural dwellers, it is defined as living on less than 356.35 rupees per month (approximately USD $7.50).[45] HP G72-227WM laptop keyboard

Maseru was founded by the British as a small police camp in 1869, following the conclusion of the Free State-Basotho Wars when Basutoland became a British

protectorate.[2][3] Maseru is located at the edge of the " TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 Laptop Keyboard

conquered territories" relinquished to the Orange Free State (now the Free State province of South Africa) as part of the peace terms. It was located 24 kilometres (15 mi) west of Basotho King Moshoeshoe I's stronghold of Thaba Bosiu, the previous de factocapital. A bustling market town soon grew around the area.[4] HP AEAT8TPU017 Laptop Keyboard

Maseru initially functioned as the state's administrative capital between 1869 and 1871, before administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony. During their rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to territories that had been forcefully annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho.[5]  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

This led to the Gun War in 1881 and the burning of many buildings in Maseru.[1] In 1884, Basutoland was restored its status as a Crown colony, and Maseru was again made capital. When Basutoland gained its independence and became the Kingdom of Lesotho in 1966, Maseru remained the country's capital.[3] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Prior to Lesotho's independence, Maseru had remained relatively small; it was contained within well-defined colonial boundaries and had little room for growth, while the British had little interest in developing the city. After 1966 Maseru experienced rapid expansion: its area increased around sevenfold, from around 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi) SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

to the current area of 138 square kilometres (53 sq mi), due to incorporation of nearby peri-urban villages to the city proper.[1][3] The annual population growth rates remained around 7% for several decades, before tapering off to around 3.5% between 1986 and 1996.[3] HP G42T-200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

After the 1998 parliamentary elections in Lesotho led to suspicions of vote fraud and a military intervention by South Africa, much of the city was damaged by riots and pillaging. [6] The cost of repairing the damage done to the city was estimated at around two billion rand (350 million $US),[7] and after nearly a decade, HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard

the effects of the riots could still be seen within the city.[8]

and serve as major employment centres. The western business district holds larger office buildings, department stores and several banks. The eastern business district hosts mainly smaller businesses, markets and street vendors.[1] The central business districts are the largest employment centers within the city.[1] HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard

Maseru's economy is one that is growing at a very rapid speed which is notable particularly in terms of foreign investment and tourism since independence from Britain and economic ruin when political violence broke out in 1998. Since then the people of the city have been working hard to undo the damage caused. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Maseru's industry is split into two main areas. The one to the north of the central business districts along Moshoeshoe Road holds flour mills and other major companies. The other industrial sector lies to the south of the central business districts, at the Thetsane district, and houses mainly textile and footwear companies.[1]  HP G62-a20SQ laptop keyboard

Up until 2004 Maseru had a growing textile industry supported by and invested in by Chinese manufactures. Since the expiration of the Multi Fibre Arrangementthe textile industry in Lesotho has rather diminished .[15] The city's manufactures once included candles, carpets and mohair products but these have been overshadowed by South African industry. TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

Most of the traditional thatched-roof mud-brick houses, called rondavels, have been replaced with modern housing and office blocks which have a tint of traditional architecture. There have recently been some new buildings in the center of the city, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

particularly the building across LNDC center which now houses Good times cafe, a Vodacom shop, and offices and the new building of the Ministry of Health which was completed in late 2007.

Buildings destroyed in the 1998 political uprising have been rebuilt and have shops like Fruits and Veg City, Woolworths and Mr Price to name a few. The New Lehakoe National sports center, SONY VAIO VGN-FS115ZR laptop keyboard

which is in between the central Bank of Lesotho and the colonial parliament building is equipped with tennis courts, swimming pools, conference centers, bars and gymnasiums. In November 2009 Pioneer Mall opened, providing Maseru with a South African style shopping mall, with many stores, a four-screen cinema and restaurants. Further such malls are under construction in Maseru. Packard Bell Easynote LM82 laptop keyboard

There are some colonial era buildings around the center of the city, most notably the Cathedral of Our Lady of Victories of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maseru, and the Anglican St. John's Church.[1] Other sights include the Royal Palace, the Parliament building and the State House.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

Maseru has a total of six hotels, two of which, the Lesotho Sun and the Maseru Sun, have casinos.[17][18] During the 1960s, prior to the relaxation of South Africa's gambling laws, the casinos were popular attractions among South African visitors, but the interest in them has since waned.[18] The Basotho Hat shop at the city's entrance is a popular source for souvenirs.[4] COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

The main tourist attractions of Lesotho, Lancer's Gap, Sani Pass, Afri-Ski resort, Katse dam, Thaba Bosiu and the Maluti Mountains are located a short distance from Maseru. However, distances are deceiving in Lesotho as even a 120 km trip can take over 3 hours due to the rugged terrain. HP 590527-001 laptop keyboard

Lesotho's national stadium, the multi-purpose Setsoto Stadium, is located in Maseru. It has a capacity of between 20,000 and 25,000 people. The stadium is mostly used for football matches and houses the Lesotho national football team, but also holds events in athletics.[19] TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-12L laptop keyboard

12 out of 16 of the teams currently playing in the Lesotho Premier League reside in Maseru.[20] As of 2008, 32 out of the 38 championships contested in the league have gone to Maseru-based teams. Most successful of these have been Matlama FC and the football team of the Royal Lesotho Defense Force, with eight championships each. ASUS K030662M2 laptop keyboard

Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. 1787 – c. 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka[2] Zulu (Zulu: [ˈʃaːɠa]), was the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom.

He is widely credited with uniting many of the Northern Nguni people, specifically the Mtetwa Paramountcy and theNdwandwe into the Zulu Kingdom,  HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard

the beginnings of a nation that held sway over the portion of southern Africa between thePhongolo and Mzimkhulu Rivers, and his statesmanship and vigour marked him as one of the greatest Zulu kings.[3] He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, and condemned for the brutality of his reign.[4][5] HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

Other historians debate about Shaka's role as a uniter, versus a usurper of traditional Zulu ruling prerogatives, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

and the notion of the Zulu state as a unique construction, divorced from the localised culture and the previous systems built by his predecessor Dingiswayo.[6] Research continues into the character and methods of the Zulu warrior king, whose reign still greatly influences South African culture. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

Shaka was the first son of the chieftain Senzangakhona and Nandi, a daughter of Bhebhe, the past chief of the Elangeni tribe, born near present day Melmoth,KwaZulu-Natal Province. He was conceived out of wedlock somewhere between 1781 and 1787.[citation needed] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Shaka spent his childhood in his mother's settlements. He is recorded as having been initiated there and inducted into an ibutho lempi (fighting unit). In his early days, Shaka served as a warrior under the sway of local chieftain Dingiswayo and the Mthethwa, to whom the Zulu were then paying tribute.[citation needed][7] HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

Dingiswayo called up the emDlatsheni iNtanga (age-group), of which Shaka was part, and incorporated it in the Izichwe regiment. Shaka served as a Mthethwa warrior for perhaps as long as ten years, and distinguished himself with his courage, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

though he did not rise, as legend has it, to a great position. Dingiswayo had been exiled after a failed attempt to oust his father. There were a number of other groups in the region (including Mabhudu, Dlamini, Mkhize, Qwabe, SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

andNdwandwe). Along with them, Dingiswayo helped develop new ideas of military and social organisation, in particular the ibutho, sometimes translated as "regiment" or "troop". They were probably responding to slaving pressures from southern Mozambique. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The ibutho was rather an age-based labour gang (cohort) which included some better refined military activities, but by no means exclusively. Most battles before this time were to settle disputes, and while the appearance of ibutho lempi (fighting unit) dramatically changed warfare at times, it largely remained an instrument for seasonal raiding and political persuasion rather than outright slaughter.  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

Shaka granted permission to Europeans to enter Zulu territory on rare occasions. Henry Francis Fynn provided medical treatment to the king after an assassination attempt from a rival tribe member hidden in a crowd (see account of Nathaniel Isaacs).  Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

To show his gratitude, Shaka permitted European settlers to enter and operate in the Zulu kingdom. This would open the door for future British incursions into the Zulu kingdom that were not so peaceful. Shaka observed several demonstrations of European technology and knowledge, but held that the Zulu way was superior to that of the foreigners.[5] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

On the death of Senzangakona, Dingiswayo aided Shaka to defeat his brother and assume leadership ca. 1816. Shaka began to further refine the ibutho system used by Dingiswayo and others and, with Mthethwa's support over the next several years, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

forged alliances with his smaller neighbours, to counter the growing threat from Ndwandwe raiding from the north. The initial Zulu manoeuvres were primarily defensive in nature, as Shaka preferred to intervene or apply pressure diplomatically, ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

aided by occasional judicious assassinations. His changes to local society built on existing structures. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he also engaged in a number of battles, as the Zulu sources make clear.[5]  HP Pavilion tx2532la laptop keyboard

When Dingiswayo was murdered by Zwide, a powerful chief of the Ndwandwe (Nxumalo) clan, Shaka sought to avenge his death. At some point Zwide barely escaped Shaka, though the exact details are not known. In that encounter Zwide's mother Ntombazi,  SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

a Sangoma (Zulu seer or shaman), was killed by Shaka. Shaka chose a particularly gruesome revenge on her, locking her in a house and placing jackals or hyenas inside: they devoured her and, in the morning, Shaka burned the house to the ground. Despite carrying out this revenge, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

It was not until around 1825 that the two great military men would meet, near Phongola, in what would be their final meeting. Phongola is near the present day border of KwaZulu-Natal, a province in South Africa. Shaka was victorious in battle, although his forces sustained heavy casualties, which included his head military commander, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. TOSHIBA PK13CW10200 laptop keyboard

In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, and he operated under Dingiswayo's aegis until the latter's death at the hands of Zwide's Ndwandwe. At this point, HP Pavilion dv6-2143ez laptop keyboard

Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capitalBulawayo in Qwabe territory; he never did move back into the traditional Zulu heartland. In Qwabe, Shaka may have intervened in an existing succession dispute to help his own choice, Nqetho, into power; Nqetho then ruled as a proxy chieftain for Shaka.[citation needed] SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

As Shaka became more respected by his people, he was able to spread his ideas with greater ease. Because of his background as a soldier, Shaka taught the Zulus that the most effective way of becoming powerful quickly was by conquering and controlling other tribes. His teachings greatly influenced the social outlook of the Zulu people. The Zulu tribe soon developed a "warrior" mindset, which Shaka turned to his advantage. HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

Shaka's hegemony was primarily based on military might, smashing rivals and incorporating scattered remnants into his own army. He supplemented this with a mixture of diplomacy and patronage, incorporating friendly chieftains, DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 laptop keyboard

including Zihlandlo of the Mkhize, Jobe of the Sithole, and Mathubane of the Thuli. These peoples were never defeated in battle by the Zulu; they did not have to be. Shaka won them over by subtler tactics, such as patronage and reward. SONY VAIO VGN-CR12GH laptop keyboard

As for the ruling Qwabe, they began re-inventing their genealogies to give the impression that Qwabe and Zulu were closely related in the past.[citation needed] In this way a greater sense of cohesion was created, though it never became complete, as subsequent civil wars attest.  Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

His half-brother, Sigujana, who had been destined to become Zulu Chief, was killed.[clarification needed] The coup was relatively bloodless and accepted by the Zulu. Shaka still recognised Dingiswayo and his larger Mthethwa clan as overlord after he returned to the Zulu but, some years later, HP SG-46100-XUA laptop keyboard

Dingiswayo was ambushed by Zwide's amaNdwandwe and killed. There is no evidence to suggest that Shaka betrayed Dingiswayo. Indeed, the core Zulu had to retreat before several Ndwandwe incursions; the Ndwandwe was clearly the most aggressive grouping in the sub-region. Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

Shaka was able to form an alliance with the leaderless Mthethwa clan and was able to establish himself amongst the Qwabe, after Phakathwayo was overthrown with relative ease. With Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize support, Shaka was finally able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe (of the Nxumalo clan). HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

Historian Donald Morris states that Shaka's first major battle against Zwide, of the Ndwandwe, was the Battle of Gqokli Hill, on the Mfolozi river. Shaka's troops maintained a strong position on the crest of the hill. A frontal assault by their opponents failed to dislodge them and Shaka sealed the victory by sending his reserve forces in a sweep around the hill to attack the enemy's rear. Losses were high overall but the efficacy of the new Shakan innovations was proved. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S6959 laptop keyboard

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