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Louis de Funès Louis de Funès (French pronunciation: [lwi də fy.nɛs] ; 31 July 1914 – 27 January 1983), born Louis Germain David de Funès de Galarza, was a popular French actor of Spanish origin, who is one of the giants of French comedy alongside André Bourvil and Fernandel. His acting style is remembered for its high energy performance, a wide range of facial expressions and an engaging, snappy impatience. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard He was enormously successful in several countries for many years, but remained almost unknown in the English-speaking world. He was only noted in the United States in 1974 with the release of The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob. In a 1968 poll, he was voted France's favourite actor. In a personal statement, he claimed to be interested only in films that would draw an audience of at least 5,000,000. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Louis de Funès was born in Courbevoie, Hauts-de-Seine to parents from Seville, Spain. His father, Carlos Luis de Funès de Galarza had been a lawyer in Spain, but became a diamond cutter upon arriving in France. His mother, Leonor Soto Reguera was of Spanish and Portuguese extraction. Since the couple's families opposed their marriage, they settled in France in 1904. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Known to friends and intimates as "Fufu", de Funès spoke French, Spanish and English well. As a youth, he was fond of drawing and piano playing. He was an alumnus of the lycée Condorcet in Paris, a distinction he shared with Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Valéry, Paul Verlaine, Marcel Proust, Jean Cocteau, Serge Gainsbourg, and Claude Lévi-Straussamongst others. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard He later dropped out, and was not successful in his early life; as a youth and young adult, de Funès held modest jobs, from which he was repeatedly fired. He became a pianist, working mostly as a jazz pianist at Pigalle, famous for being a touristic red-light district. There he made his customers laugh each time he made a grimace. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard He studied acting for one year at the Simon acting school. There he made some useful contacts, including Daniel Gélin among others. In 1936, he married Germaine Louise Elodie Carroyer with whom he had one child, a son named Daniel; they were subsequently divorced in late 1942. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard During the occupation of Paris in the Second World War, he continued his piano studies at a music school, where he fell in love with a secretary, Jeanne Barthelémy de Maupassant, a grandniece of the famous author Guy de Maupassant. She had fallen in love with "the young man who played jazz like god"; they married in 1943 and remained together for forty years, until de Funès' death in 1983. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard They had two sons: Patrick (born on 27 January 1944) and Olivier (born on 11 August 1947). Patrick became a doctor who now practices in Saint-Germain en Laye. Olivier became an actor for a brief while. He became known for the roles he had in his father's films (Les Grandes VacancesFantômas se déchaineLe Grand RestaurantHibernatus are the most famous). At the time, he was an aviator for Air France Europe. HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Laptop Keyboard Through the early 1940s, Funès continued playing piano at clubs, thinking there wasn't much call for a short, balding, skinny actor. His wife and Daniel Gelin encouraged him until he managed to overcome his fear of rejection. His wife supported him in the most difficult moments, while helping him to efficiently manage his career. HP G61-321NR Laptop Keyboard

Film career

In 1945, thanks to his contact with Daniel Gélin, he made his film debut at the age of 31 with a bit part in Jean Stelli's La Tentation de Barbizon ("The Temptation of Barbizon").[2] De Funès appeared on screen for 40 seconds in the role of the porter of the cabaret Le Paradis. De Funès accepts the character of Jérôme Chambon at the entrance of the cabaret and invites him to enter inside by "C'est par ici Monsieur" ("This way please, Sir"). HP MP-10N63US-920 Laptop Keyboard Chambon declines the invitation, wanting to try to enter through the front door of the room instead, but the door is closed. De Funès then says: "Ben, il a son compte celui-là, aujourd'hui" ("Well that one's had enough today").[3]HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard He went on to perform in 130 film roles over the next 20 years. However, he played minor roles in over 80 films before he got his first leading roles. During this period, De Funès developed a pattern of daily activities: in the morning he did dubbing for recognized artists such as Totò, an Italian comic from this era, during the afternoon he worked in film, and in the theater in the evening. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard From 1945-1955 he appeared in 50 films, usually as an extra or walk-on. A break came in 1956, when he appeared as the black-market pork butcher Jambier (another small role) in Claude Autant-Lara's well-known film World War II comedy, La Traversée de Paris. He achieved stardom in 1963 with Jean Girault's film, Pouic-Pouic. This success film guaranteed de Funès top billing in all of his subsequent films. At the age of 49, SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard De Funès unexpectedly became a major star of international celebrity with the success of Le gendarme de Saint-Tropez. After their first successful collaboration, director Jean Girault had perceived de Funès as the ideal actor to play the part of the accident prone gendarme. The first film lead to a series of six 'Gendarme' films. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Funès's collaboration with director Gérard Oury produced a memorable tandem of Funès with Bourvil, another great comic actor, in the 1964 film, Le Corniaud. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard The success de Funès-Bourvil partnership was repeated two years later in La Grande Vadrouille, one of the most successful and the largest grossing film ever made in France, drawing an audience of 17,27 million. It remains his greatest success.[4] Oury envisaged a further reunion of the two comics in his film La Folie des grandeurs, but Bourvil's death in 1970 led to the unlikely pairing of de Funès with Yves Montand in this film.  HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard Eventually he became France's leading comic actor. Between 1964 and 1979, he topped France's box-office of the year's most successful movies seven times. His most popular movie ever was La Grande Vadrouille (1966). He went on to star in such films as Ah! Les belles bacchantes and The Sheep Has Five Legs. He co-starred with many of the major French actors of his time, including Jean Marais and Mylène Demongeot in the Fantomas trilogy, and also Jean Gabin, Fernandel,Coluche, Annie Girardot,  SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard and Yves Montand. He also worked with Jean Girault in the famous 'Gendarmes' series. In a departure from the Gendarme image, Funès collaborated with Claude Zidi, HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard who wrote for him a new character full of nuances and frankness in L'aile ou la cuisse (1976), which is arguably the best of his roles. Later De Funès' considerable musical abilities were showcased in films such as Le Corniaud and Le Grand Restaurant. In 1964 he debuted in the first of the Fantômas series, which launched him into superstardom. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard In 1975, Gérard Oury had to turn again with Louis de Funès in a film called Le Crocodile, or the actor should play the role of a South American dictator. but in March 1975, de Funès was hospitalized for heart problems and forced to take a rest from acting. Le Crocodile project is canceled. After his recovery, he appeared opposite another comic genius, Coluche, in L'Aile ou la cuisse. In 1980, de Funès realised a long-standing dream to make a film version of Molière's play, L'Avare. HP MP-10N63US-920 Laptop Keyboard Unlike the characters he played, de Funès was said to be a very shy person in real life. Capable of an extremely rich and rapidly changing range of facial expressiveness, de Funès was nicknamed "the man with forty faces per minute". In many of his films, he played the role of a humorously excitable, cranky, middle-aged or mature man with a propensity to hyperactivity, DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard bad faith, and uncontrolled fits of anger. Along with his short height, (he measured 5 ft 4 in (1.63 m)) and his facial contortions, this hyperactivity produced a highly comic effect. This was particularly visible when he was paired with Bourvil, who was always given roles of calm, slightly naive, good-humoured men. In de Funès' successful lead role in a cinematic version of Molière's The Miser (L'Avare), these characteristics are greatly muted, percolating just beneath the surface. DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard In the later part of his life, De Funès achieved great prosperity and success. He became a knight of France's Légion d'honneur in 1973. He resided in theChâteau de Clermont, a 17th-century monument, located in the commune of Le Cellier, which is situated 27 kilometers (17 mi) from Nantes in France. This castle, overlooking the Loire River, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard was inherited by his wife, a descendant of the Maupassant family. De Funès was an aficionado of roses. He planted a rose garden on the château grounds and a variety of rose has been named for him (the Louis de Funès rose). A monument honoring him was erected in the rose garden of his wife's castle. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard In his later years, he suffered from a heart condition after having suffered a heart attack caused by straining himself too much with his stage antics. Louis de Funès died of a massive stroke on 27 January 1983, a few months after making his final film. He was laid to rest in the Cimetière du Cellier, the cemetery situated in the grounds of the château. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard One of his sons, Olivier de Funès, pursued an acting career alongside him (often playing the son of Louis's character) before becoming an Air France pilot. Another son, Patric de Funès, became a medical doctor.  HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

De Funès' legacy

Louis de Funès is portrayed on a postage stamp issued on 3 October 1998 by the French Post Office. He is the uncle of actress Isabelle De Funès. He was portrayed as a gambler in the "The One-Armed Bandit" issue of the cult comic book series Lucky Luke. The character "Skinner" in Ratatouille (2007) was loosely based on him. HP Pavilion dv6-2108ea Laptop Keyboard Remaining legacy is open case of the so called "LE GENDARME À WATERLOO" (Gendarme/Policeman at Waterloo) . Before the death of director and Louis de Funès there were plans, that after Le gendarme series 1980s rebirth, next film would be something related to Napoleon Bonaparte. Of course Louis de Funès played in 1950s film as a soldier of the Napoleon, SONY VAIO VGN-FS625B Laptop Keyboard however the non-stopping popularity of Napoleon (and both internationally known) topics in the France was treated as a possible success of film. To achieve the film series integrity, the usage of time machine was proposed. Despite the death of both creator, and main actor of the Gendarme series, there are a teasers of this film.  SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard One of the possibilities is the computer generated image made of famous actor. 21st century had some examples of "live concerts" years ago died artists, which moving and image was created by power of computers, sometimes connected with 3dholography moving and walking models. Even the film industry is now generally using computer processed images, to create older/younger looking actors, or animals, beasts and background. [5][6]HP Mini 210-1135LA Laptop Keyboard Prince Antonio Focas Flavio Angelo Ducas Comneno De Curtis di Bisanzio Gagliardi, best known by his stage nameTotò (15 February 1898–15 April 1967) or as Antonio De Curtis, and nicknamed il principe della risata ("the prince of laughter"), was an Italian comedian, film and theatre actor, writer, singer and songwriter. He is widely considered one of the greatest Italian artists of the 20th century.[1] Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard While he first gained his popularity as a comic actor, his dramatic roles, his poetry, and his songs are all deemed to be outstanding; his style and a number of his recurring jokes and gestures have become universally known memes in Italy. Writer and philosopher Umberto Eco has thus commented on the importance of Totò in Italian culture: HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop Keyboard In this globalized universe where it seems that everybody's watching the same movies and eating the same food, there are still abysmal and overwhelming fractures separating one culture from another. How can two peoples, one of which unknowing of Totò, truly understand each other?  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Mario Monicelli, who directed some of the most appreciated of Totò's movies, thus described his artistic value: With Totò, we got it all wrong. He was a genius, not just a grandiose actor. And we constrained him, reduced him, forced him into a common human being, and thus clipped his wings. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard As a comic actor, Totò is classified as an heir of the Commedia dell'Arte tradition, and has been compared to such figures as Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin.[3] He starred in about one hundred movies; while many of them were low profile, box-office driven productions, they tend to be all appreciated by the critics, at the very least, for Totò's performances. HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard Those that had an explicit artistic intent, such as Pier Paolo Pasolini's The Hawks and the Sparrows, classify as masterpieces of Italian cinema. Prominent Italian directors and actors that have worked with Totò include Mario Monicelli,Alberto Lattuada, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Eduardo De Filippo, Peppino de Filippo, Aldo Fabrizi, Vittorio De Sica, Sophia Loren, Claudia Cardinale, Marcello Mastroianni, and Alberto Sordi. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard  HP G62-b25SA Laptop Keyboard

Early life

Totò was born Antonio Clemente on February 15, 1898, in the Rione Sanità, a poor district of Naples, the illegitimate son of Anna Clemente from Sicily and Marquis Giuseppe De Curtis from Naples, who nevertheless did not legally recognize him until 1937. Totò much regretted growing up without a father, to the point that at the age of 35,  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard when he was already very popular, managed to have Marquis Francesco Maria Gagliardi Focas adopt him in exchange for a life annuity.[4] As a consequence, when Marquis de Curtis recognized him, Totò had become an heir of two noble families, hence claiming an impressive slew of titles. In 1946, when the Consulta Araldica—TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard the body that advised the Kingdom of Italy on matters of nobility—ceased operations, the Tribunal of Naples recognized his numerous titles, so his complete name was changed from Antonio Clemente to ‘'Antonio Griffo Focas Flavio Ducas Komnenos Gagliardi de Curtis of Byzantium, His Imperial Highness, Palatine Count, Knight of the Holy Roman Empire, Exarch of Ravenna, Duke of Macedonia and Illyria, Prince of Constantinople, DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Cilicia, Thessaly,Pontus, Moldavia, Dardania, Peloponnesus, Count of Cyprus and Epirus, Count and Duke of Drivasto and Durazzo". For someone born and raised in one of the poorest Neapolitan neighbourhoods this must have been quite an achievement, but in claiming the titles (at the time they had become meaningless) the comedian also mocked them for their intrinsic worthlessness. In fact, when he was not using his stage name "Totò", he mostly referred to himself simply as "Antonio De Curtis".[4]HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard Totò's mother wanted him to become a priest, but as soon as 1913, at the age of 15, he was already acting as a comedian in small theatres, under pseudonym "Clerment". His early repertoire mostly consisted in imitations of Gustavo De Marco's characters.[4] In the minor venues when he performed, Totò had the chance to meet famous artists like Eduardo De Filippo, ACER Aspire 7741Z Laptop Keyboard Peppino De Filippo and Carlo Scarpetta. He served in the army during World War I and then went back to acting. He learned the art of the guitti, the Neapolitan scriptless comedians, heirs to the tradition of the Commedia dell'Arte, and began developing the trademarks of his style, including a puppet-like, disjointed gesticulation, emphasized facial expressions, and an extreme, sometimes surrealistic, sense of humor, largely based on the emphatization of primitive urges such as hunger and sexual desire.[5]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard In 1922, he moved to Rome to perform in bigger theatres. He performed in the genre of avanspettacolo, a vaudevillian mixture of music, ballet and comedy preceding the main act (hence its name, which roughly translates as "before show"). He became adept at these shows, (also known as riviste – Revue) and in the 1930s he had his own company, with which he travelled across Italy. HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In 1937, he appeared in his first movie Fermo con le mani, and later starred in other 96 films, many of which are still frequently broadcast on Italian television. As the vast majority of his movies where essentially meant to showcase his performances, many have his name "Totò" in the title. Some of his best-known films are Fifa e ArenaTotò al Giro d'ItaliaTotò SceiccoGuardie e ladriTotò e le donneTotò TarzanTotò terzo uomoTotò a colori (the first Italian color movie, 1952, in Ferraniacolor), I soliti ignotiTotò, Peppino e la malafemminaSONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard La legge è legge. In Pierpaolo Pasolini's The Hawks and the Sparrows and the episode Che cosa sono le nuvole from Capriccio all'italiana (released after his death), he displayed his dramatic skills. These roles gave him the artistic acknowledgment that had eluded him so far by more stringent critics, who only began to recognize his talent after his death. HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard In his vast cinematographic career, Totò had the opportunity to act side by side with virtually all major Italian actors of the time. With some of them he paired in several films, the most renowned and successful teams being established with Aldo Fabrizi and Peppino De Filippo. De Filippo was one of the few actors to have his name appear in movie titles along with that of Totò, for example in Totò, Peppino e la malafemmina and Totò e Peppino divisi a Berlino. Lenovo Thinkpad X220i Laptop Keyboard Totò's unmistakable figure, with his peculiarly irregular face (due to an accident in his teen years), and his unique trademark ability to disarticulate his body like a marionette, soon became very popular and his comic gags became part of the Italian culture. His typical character is ineducated, poor, vain, snobbish, selfish, naive, opportunist, edonist, SAMSUNG Q30 Laptop Keyboard lascivious and generally immoral, although fundamentally good-hearted. Partly because of the radical, naive immorality of his roles, some of his most spicy gags raised much controversy in a society that was both strictly Catholic and ruled by the conservativeDemocrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy) party. For example, Totò's 1960 movie Che fine ha fatto Totò Baby? Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard ("What ever happened to Totò Baby?", a parody ofWhat Ever Happened to Baby Jane?) included a cheeky and gross celebration of cannabis, in an era when drugs were perceived by the Italian audience as something as exotic as depraved and dangerous. Nevertheless, such controversies never affected the love of the Italian audience for him. SONY VGN-FE39VP Laptop Keyboard

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln i/ˈeɪbrəhæm ˈlɪŋkən/ (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln successfully led his country through its greatest constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union while ending slavery, SONY VGN-FE28B Laptop Keyboard and promoting economic and financial modernization. Reared in a poor family on the western frontier, Lincoln was mostly self-educated, and became a country lawyer, a Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator during the 1830s, and a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives during the 1840s.  Packard Bell EasyNote W3451 Laptop Keyboard After a series of debates in 1858 that gave national visibility to his opposition to the expansion of slavery, Lincoln lost a Senate race to his arch-rival, Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state, secured the Republican Party nomination. With almost no support in the South, Lincoln swept the North and was elected president in 1860. HP Pavilion dv6-2190ep Laptop Keyboard His election was the signal for seven southern slave states to declare their secession from the Union and form the Confederacy. The departure of the Southerners gave Lincoln's party firm control of Congress, but no formula for compromise or reconciliation was found, and the war came. HP G62-a11SA Laptop Keyboard When the North enthusiastically rallied behind the national flag after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war effort. His goal was now to reunify the nation. As the South was in a state of insurrection, Lincoln exercised his authority to suspend habeas corpus in that situation TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Laptop Keyboard arresting and detaining thousands of suspected secessionists without their trials. Lincoln prevented British recognition of the Confederacy by skillfully handling the Trent affair in late 1861. His efforts toward the abolition of slavery include issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, encouraging the border states to outlaw slavery, and helping push through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard which finally freed all the black slaves nationwide in December 1865. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including commanding general Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln brought leaders of various factions of his party into his cabinet and pressured them to cooperate. Under Lincoln's leadership, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard the Union set up a naval blockade that shut down the South's normal trade, took control of the border slave states at the start of the war, gained control of communications with gunboats on the southern river systems, and tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. Each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another until finally Grant succeeded in 1865.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard An exceptionally astute politician deeply involved with power issues in each state, he reached out to War Democrats and managed his own re-election in the 1864 presidential election. As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican party, Lincoln found his policies and personality were "blasted from all sides": HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard Radical Republicans demanded harsher treatment of the South, War Democrats desired more compromise, Copperheads despised him, and irreconcilable secessionists plotted his death.[3] Politically, Lincoln fought back with patronage, by pitting his opponents against each other, and by appealing to the American people with his powers of oratory.[4TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard ] His Gettysburg Address of 1863 became the most quoted speech in American history.[5] It was an iconic statement of America's dedication to the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. At the close of the war, Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to reunite the nation speedily through a policy of generous reconciliation in the face of lingering and bitter divisiveness. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Six days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, however, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln's assassination was the first assassination of a U.S. president and sent the nation into mourning. Lincoln has been consistently ranked by scholars and the public as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents.[6][7]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809, the second child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Lincoln (née Hanks), in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farmin Hardin County, Kentucky,[8] (now LaRue County). Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Abraham, had moved his family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky,[9][10] where he was ambushed and killed in an Indian raid in 1786, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard with his children, including Lincoln's father Thomas, looking on.[10] Thomas was left to make his own way on the frontier.[11] Lincoln's mother, Nancy, was the daughter of Lucy Hanks, and was born in what is now Mineral County, West Virginia, then part of Virginia. Lucy moved with Nancy to Kentucky. Nancy Hanks married Thomas, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard who became a respected citizen. He bought and sold several farms, includingKnob Creek Farm. The family attended a Separate Baptists church, which had restrictive moral standards and opposed alcohol, dancing, and slavery.[12] Thomas enjoyed considerable status in Kentucky—where he sat on juries, appraised estates, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard served on country slave patrols, and guarded prisoners. By the time his son Abraham was born, Thomas owned two 600-acre (240 ha) farms, several town lots, livestock, and horses. He was among the richest men in the county.[9][13] However, in 1816, Thomas lost all of his land in court cases because of faulty property titles.[14]HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard The family moved north across the Ohio River to free (i.e., non-slave) territory and made a new start in what was then Perry Countybut is now Spencer County, Indiana. Lincoln later noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery" but mainly due to land title difficulties.[14] In Indiana, when Lincoln was nine, his mother Nancy died of milk sickness in 1818.[15] HP 550 Laptop Keyboard After the death of Lincoln's mother, his older sister, Sarah, took charge of caring for him until their father remarried in 1819; Sarah later died in her 20s while giving birth to a stillborn son.[16]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Thomas Lincoln's new wife was the widow Sarah Bush Johnston, the mother of three children. Lincoln became very close to his stepmother, and referred to her as "Mother".[17] As a pre-teen, he did not like the hard labor associated with frontier life. Some in his family, and in the neighborhood, for a time considered him to be lazy.[18][19]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP0E Laptop Keyboard As he grew into his teens, he willingly took responsibility for all chores expected of him as one of the boys in the household and became an adept axeman in his work building rail fences. He attained a reputation for brawn and audacity after a very competitive wrestling match to which he was challenged by the renowned leader of a group of ruffians, ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard "the Clary's Grove boys".[20] Lincoln also agreed with the customary obligation of a son to give his father all earnings from work done outside the home until age 21.[15] In later years, HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Lincoln occasionally loaned his father money.[21] Lincoln became increasingly distant from his father, in part because of his father's lack of education. While young Lincoln's formal elementary education consisted approximately of a year's worth of classes from several itinerant teachers, he was mostly self-educated and was an avid reader.[22]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In 1830, fearing a milk sickness outbreak along the Ohio River, the Lincoln family moved west, where they settled on public land in Macon County, Illinois, another free, non-slave state.[23] In 1831, Thomas relocated the family to a new homestead in Coles County, Illinois. It was then that, as an ambitious 22-year-old, Lincoln decided to seek a better life and struck out on his own. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Canoeing down the Sangamon River, Lincoln ended up in the village of New Salem in Sangamon County.[24] In the spring of 1831, hired by New Salem businessman Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took goods by flatboat from New Salem to New Orleans via the Sangamon, Illinois, and Mississippi rivers. After arriving in New Orleans—and witnessing slavery firsthand—he walked back home.[25]HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard Marriage and children Lincoln's first romantic interest was Ann Rutledge, whom he met when he first moved to New Salem; by 1835, they were in a relationship but not formally engaged. She died on August 25, most likely of typhoid fever.[26]In the early 1830s, he met Mary Owens from Kentucky when she was visiting her sister. Late in 1836ACER Aspire 5538 Laptop Keyboard , Lincoln agreed to a match with Mary if she returned to New Salem. Mary did return in November 1836, and Lincoln courted her for a time; however, they both had second thoughts about their relationship. On August 16, 1837, Lincoln wrote Mary a letter suggesting he would not blame her if she ended the relationship. She never replied and the courtship was over.[27]ACER Aspire 7735Z Laptop Keyboard In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, who was from a wealthy slave-holding family in Lexington, Kentucky.[28] They met in Springfield, Illinois, in December 1839[29] and were engaged the following December.[30]COMPAQ Presario C725BR Laptop Keyboard A wedding set for January 1, 1841, was canceled when the two broke off their engagement at Lincoln's initiative.[29][31] They later met again at a party and married on November 4, 1842, in the Springfield mansion of Mary's married sister.[32] While preparing for the nuptials and feeling anxiety again, Lincoln, when asked where he was going, replied, "To hell, I suppose."[33]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard In 1844, the couple bought a house in Springfield near Lincoln's law office. Mary Todd Lincoln kept house, often with the help of a relative or hired servant girl.[34] Robert Todd Lincoln was born in 1843 and Edward Baker Lincoln (Eddie) in 1846. Lincoln "was remarkably fond of children",[35] and the Lincolns were not considered to be strict with their children.[36]ASUS X53 Laptop Keyboard Edward died on February 1, 1850, in Springfield, likely of tuberculosis. "Willie" Lincoln was born on December 21, 1850, and died on February 20, 1862. The Lincolns' fourth son, Thomas "Tad" Lincoln, was born on April 4, 1853, and died of heart failure at the age of 18 on July 16, 1871.[37] Robert was the only child to live to adulthood and have children. His last descendant, grandson Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, died in 1985.[38]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard The deaths of their sons had profound effects on both parents. Later in life, Mary struggled with the stresses of losing her husband and sons, and Robert Lincoln committed her temporarily to a mental health asylum in 1875.[39] Abraham Lincoln suffered from "melancholy", a condition which now is referred to as clinical depression.[40]ASUS X53 Laptop Keyboard Lincoln's father-in-law was based in Lexington, Kentucky; he and others of the Todd family were either slave owners or slave traders. Lincoln was close to the Todds, and he and his family occasionally visited the Todd estate in Lexington.[41] He was an affectionate, though often absent, husband and father of four children. ACER Aspire 7735Z Laptop Keyboard

Early career and militia service

In 1832, at age 23, Lincoln and a partner bought a small general store on credit in New Salem, Illinois. Although the economy was booming in the region, the business struggled and Lincoln eventually sold his share. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard That March he began his political career with his first campaign for the Illinois General Assembly. He had attained local popularity and could draw crowds as a natural raconteur in New Salem, though he lacked an education, powerful friends, and money, which may be why he lost. He advocated navigational improvements on the Sangamon River.[42]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard Before the election Lincoln served as a captain in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War.[43] Following his return, Lincoln continued his campaign for the August 6 election for the Illinois General Assembly. At 6 feet 4 inches (193 cm),[44HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard ] he was tall and "strong enough to intimidate any rival". At his first speech, when he saw a supporter in the crowd being attacked, Lincoln grabbed the assailant by his "neck and the seat of his trousers" and threw him.[45] Lincoln finished eighth out of 13 candidates (the top four were elected), though he received 277 of the 300 votes cast in the New Salem precinct.[46]HP Mini 110-3549tu Laptop Keyboard Lincoln served as New Salem's postmaster and later as county surveyor, all the while reading voraciously. He then decided to become a lawyer and began teaching himself law by reading Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and other law books. Of his learning method, Lincoln stated: "I studied with nobody".[47]  TOSHIBA NSK-TN0SV Laptop Keyboard His second campaign in 1834 was successful. He won election to the state legislature; though he ran as a Whig, many Democrats favored him over a more powerful Whig opponent.[48] Admitted to the bar in 1836,[49] he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law under John T. Stuart, Mary Todd's cousin.[50] DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard Lincoln became an able and successful lawyer with a reputation as a formidable adversary during cross-examinations and closing arguments. He partnered with Stephen T. Logan from 1841 until 1844, when he began his practice with William Herndon, whom Lincoln thought "a studious young man".[51] He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a Whig representative from Sangamon County.[52]Acer eMachines E440 Laptop Keyboard In the 1835–1836 legislative session, he voted to expand suffrage to white males, whether landowners or not.[53] He was known for his "free soil" stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism. He first articulated this in 1837, saying, "Institution of slavery is founded on both injustice and bad policy, but the promulgation of abolition doctrines tends rather to increase than abate its evils."[54]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard He closely followed Henry Clay in supporting the American Colonization Society program of making the abolition of slavery practical by helping the freed slaves to settle in Liberia in Africa.[55]HP G62-a23EE Laptop Keyboard Congressman Lincoln From the early 1830s, Lincoln was a steadfast Whig and professed to friends in 1861 to be, "an old line Whig, a disciple of Henry Clay".[56] The party, including Lincoln, favored economic modernization in banking, protective tariffs to fund internal improvements including railroads, and espoused urbanization as well.[57]TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5988 Laptop Keyboard In 1846, Lincoln was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served one two-year term. He was the only Whig in the Illinois delegation, but he showed his party loyalty by participating in almost all votes and making speeches that echoed the party line.[58] Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ61 Laptop Keyboard Giddings, wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture fugitive slaves, and a popular vote on the matter. He abandoned the bill when it failed to garner sufficient Whig supporters.[59] On foreign and military policy, Lincoln spoke out against the Mexican–American War,  HP G62-450SZ Laptop Keyboard which he attributed to President Polk's desire for "military glory—that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood".[60] Lincoln also supported the Wilmot Proviso, which, if it had been adopted, would have banned slavery in any U.S. territory won from Mexico.[61]HP Pavilion dv6-2151cl Laptop Keyboard Lincoln emphasized his opposition to Polk by drafting and introducing his Spot Resolutions. The war had begun with a Mexican slaughter of American soldiers in territory disputed by Mexico and the US; Polk insisted that Mexican soldiers had "invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil".[62][63] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed and prove that the spot was on American soil.[63] Congress never enacted the resolution or even debated it, the national papers ignored it, and it resulted in a loss of political support for Lincoln in his district. One Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him "spotty Lincoln".[64][65][66] Lincoln later regretted some of his statements, especially his attack on the presidential war-making powers.[67]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard Realizing Clay was unlikely to win the presidency, Lincoln, who had pledged in 1846 to serve only one term in the House, supported General Zachary Taylor for the Whig nomination in the 1848 presidential election.[68] Taylor won and Lincoln hoped to be appointed Commissioner of the General Land Office, but that lucrative patronage job went to an Illinois rival, TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Justin Butterfield, considered by the administration to be a highly skilled lawyer, but in Lincoln's view, an "old fossil".[69] The administration offered him the consolation prize of secretary or governor of the Oregon Territory. This distant territory was a Democratic stronghold, and acceptance of the post would have effectively ended his legal and political career in Illinois, so he declined and resumed his law practice.[70]HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard Prairie lawyer Lincoln returned to practicing law in Springfield, handling "every kind of business that could come before a prairie lawyer".[71]Twice a year for 16 years, 10 weeks at a time, he appeared in county seats in the midstate region when the county courts were in session.[72] Lincoln handled many transportation cases in the midst of the nation's western expansion, particularly the conflicts arising from the operation of river barges under the many new railroad bridges. HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard As a riverboat man, Lincoln initially favored those interests, but ultimately represented whoever hired him.[73] His reputation grew, and he appeared before the Supreme Court of the United States, arguing a case involving a canal boat that sank after hitting a bridge.[74] In 1849, he received a patent for a flotation device for the movement of boats in shallow water. The idea was never commercialized, but Lincoln is the only president to hold a patent.[75][76]HP G42-366TX Laptop Keyboard In 1851, he represented Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barret, who had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to buy shares in the railroad on the grounds that the company had changed its original train route.[77][78]Lincoln successfully argued that the railroad company was not bound by its original charter in existence at the time of Barret's pledge; HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard the charter was amended in the public interest to provide a newer, superior, and less expensive route, and the corporation retained the right to demand Barret's payment. The decision by the Illinois Supreme Court has been cited by numerous other courts in the nation.[77] Lincoln appeared before the Illinois Supreme Court in 175 cases, in 51 as sole counsel, of which 31 were decided in his favor.[79] From 1853 to 1860, another of Lincoln's largest clients was the Illinois Central Railroad.[80]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard Lincoln's most notable criminal trial occurred in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" Armstrong, who was on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker.[81] The case is famous for Lincoln's use of a fact established by judicial notice in order to challenge the credibility of an eyewitness. After an opposing witness testified seeing the crime in the moonlight, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Lincoln produced a Farmers' Almanac showing the moon was at a low angle, drastically reducing visibility. Based on this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.[81] Lincoln rarely raised objections in the courtroom; but in an 1859 case, where he defended a cousin Peachy Harrison, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard who was accused of stabbing another to death, Lincoln angrily protested the judge's decision to exclude evidence favorable to his client. Instead of holding Lincoln in contempt of court as was expected, the judge, a Democrat, reversed his ruling, allowing the evidence and acquitting Harrison.[81][82] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard By the 1850s, slavery was still legal in the southern United States, but had been generally outlawed in the northern states, such as Illinois.[83] Lincoln disapproved of slavery, and the spread of slavery to new U.S. territory in the west.[84] He returned to politics to oppose the pro-slavery Kansas–Nebraska Act(1854); this law repealed the slavery-restricting Missouri Compromise (1820). HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard Senior Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois had incorporated popular sovereigntyinto the Act. Douglas' provision, which Lincoln opposed, specified settlers had the right to determine locally whether to allow slavery in new U.S. territory, rather than have such a decision restricted by the national Congress.[85] Foner (2010) contrasts the abolitionists and anti-slavery Radical Republicans of the Northeast who saw slavery as a sin, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard with the conservative Republicans who thought it was bad because it hurt white people and blocked progress. Foner argues that Lincoln was a moderate in the middle, opposing slavery primarily because it violated the republicanism principles of the Founding Fathers, especially the equality of all men and democratic self-government as expressed in the Declaration of Independence.[86]HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard On October 16, 1854, in his "Peoria Speech", Lincoln declared his opposition to slavery, which he repeated en route to the presidency.[87] Speaking in his Kentucky accent, with a very powerful voice,[88] he said the Kansas Act had a "declared indifference, but as I must think, a covert real zeal for the spread of slavery. I cannot but hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world..."[89]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard In late 1854, Lincoln ran as a Whig for the U.S. Senate seat from Illinois. At that time, senators were elected by the state legislature.[90] After leading in the first six rounds of voting in the Illinois assembly, his support began to dwindle, and Lincoln instructed his backers to vote for Lyman Trumbull, who defeated opponent Joel Aldrich Matteson.[91TOSHIBA Satellite C650-01T Laptop Keyboard The Whigs had been irreparably split by the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Lincoln wrote, "I think I am a Whig, but others say there are no Whigs, and that I am an abolitionist, even though I do no more than oppose the extension of slavery."[92] Drawing on remnants of the old Whig party, and on disenchanted Free Soil, Liberty, and Democratic party members, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard he was instrumental in forging the shape of the new Republican Party.[93] At the 1856 Republican National Convention, Lincoln placed second in the contest to become the party's candidate for vice president.[94]ACER TravelMate 3250 Laptop Keyboard In 1857–58, Douglas broke with President James Buchanan, leading to a fight for control of the Democratic Party. Some eastern Republicans even favored the reelection of Douglas for the Senate in 1858, since he had led the opposition to the Lecompton Constitution, which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state.[95] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard In March 1857, the Supreme Court issued its decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford; Chief Justice Roger B. Taney opined that blacks were not citizens, and derived no rights from the Constitution. Lincoln denounced the decision, alleging it was the product of a conspiracy of Democrats to support the Slave Power[96] Lincoln argued, "DELL Latitude C510 Laptop Keyboard The authors of the Declaration of Independence never intended 'to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral developments, or social capacity', but they 'did consider all men created equal—equal in certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness'."[97] HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard After the state Republican party convention nominated him for the U.S. Senate in 1858, Lincoln delivered his House Divided Speech, drawing on Mark 3:25: "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard It will become all one thing, or all the other."[98] The speech created an evocative image of the danger of disunion caused by the slavery debate, and rallied Republicans across the North.[99] The stage was then set for the campaign for statewide election of the Illinois legislature which would, in turn, select Lincoln or Douglas as its U.S. senator.[100]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard

Lincoln–Douglas debates and Cooper Union speech

The 1858 senate campaign featured the seven Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858, the most famous political debates in American history.[101] The principals stood in stark contrast both physically and politically. Lincoln warned that "The Slave Power" was threatening the values of republicanism, and accused Douglas of distorting the values of the Founding Fathers that all men are created equal, DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard while Douglas emphasized his Freeport Doctrine, that local settlers were free to choose whether to allow slavery or not, and accused Lincoln of having joined the abolitionists.[102] SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard The debates had an atmosphere of a prize fight and drew crowds in the thousands. Lincoln stated Douglas's popular sovereignty theory was a threat to the nation's morality and that Douglas represented a conspiracy to extend slavery to free states. Douglas said that Lincoln was defying the authority of the U.S. Supreme Court and the Dred S

cott decision.[103]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature re-elected Douglas to the Senate. Despite the bitterness of the defeat for Lincoln, his articulation of the issues gave him a national political reputation.[104] In May 1859, Lincoln purchased the Illinois Staats-Anzeiger, SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard a German-language newspaper which was consistently supportive; most of the state's 130,000 German Americans voted Democratic but there was Republican support that a German-language paper could mobilize.[105] ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard On February 27, 1860, New York party leaders invited Lincoln to give a speech at Cooper Union to a group of powerful Republicans. Lincoln argued that the Founding Fathers had little use for popular sovereignty and had repeatedly sought to restrict slavery. Lincoln insisted the moral foundation of the Republicans required opposition to slavery, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard and rejected any "groping for some middle ground between the right and the wrong".[106] Despite his inelegant appearance—many in the audience thought him awkward and even ugly[107]—Lincoln demonstrated an intellectual leadership that brought him into the front ranks of the party and into contention for the Republican presidential nomination. Journalist Noah Brooks reported, SONY VAIO VGN-FS215E Laptop Keyboard "No man ever before made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York audience."[108][109] Historian Donald described the speech as a "superb political move for an unannounced candidate, to appear in one rival's (William H. Seward) own state at an event sponsored by the second rival's (Salmon P. Chase) loyalists, while not mentioning either by name during its delivery."[110] In response to an inquiry about his presidential intentions, Lincoln said, "The taste is in my mouth a little."[111]SONY VAIO VGN-CS31ST/V Laptop Keyboard

1860 Presidential nomination and campaign

On May 9–10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur.[112] Lincoln's followers organized a campaign team led by David Davis, Norman Judd, Leonard Swett, and Jesse DuBois, and Lincoln received his first endorsement to run for the presidency.[113] Exploiting the embellished legend of his frontier days with his father, SONY VAIO VGN-FS415B Laptop Keyboard Lincoln's supporters adopted the label of "The Rail Candidate".[114] On May 18, at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Lincoln's friends promised and manipulated and won the nomination on the third ballot, beating candidates such as William H. Seward and Salmon P. Chase. A former Democrat Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nominated for Vice President to balance the ticket. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard Lincoln's success depended on his reputation as a moderate on the slavery issue, and his strong support for Whiggish programs of internal improvements and the protective tariff.[115] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard On the third ballot Pennsylvania put him over the top. Pennsylvania iron interests were reassured by his support for protective tariffs.[116] Lincoln's managers had been adroitly focused on this delegation as well as the others, while following Lincoln's strong dictate to "Make no contracts that bind me".[117]SONY VAIO VGN-FS620P/W Laptop Keyboard Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party, as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government with the Dred Scott decision and the presidency of James Buchanan. Throughout the 1850s, Lincoln doubted the prospects of civil war, and his supporters rejected claims that his election would incite secession.[118] Meanwhile,  HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Douglas was selected as the candidate of the Northern Democrats, with Herschel Vespasian Johnson as the vice-presidential candidate. Delegates from 11 slave states walked out of the Democratic convention, disagreeing with Douglas's position on popular sovereignty, and ultimately selected John C. Breckinridge as their candidate.[119]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard As Douglas and the other candidates went through with their campaigns, Lincoln was the only one of them who gave no speeches. Instead, he monitored the campaign closely and relied on the enthusiasm of the Republican Party. The party did the leg work that produced majorities across the North, and produced an abundance of campaign posters, leaflets, and newspaper editorials.  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard There were thousands of Republican speakers who focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, emphasizing his childhood poverty. The goal was to demonstrate the superior power of "free labor", whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts.[120] The Republican Party's production of campaign literature dwarfed the combined opposition; a Chicago Tribune writer produced a pamphlet that detailed Lincoln's life, and sold 100,000 to 200,000 copies.[121]HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States, beating Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the new Constitutional Union Party. He was the first president from the Republican Party. Winning entirely on the strength of his support in the North and West, ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 Southern slave states, and he won only two of 996 counties in all the Southern states.[122] Lincoln received 1,866,452 votes, Douglas 1,376,957 votes, Breckinridge 849,781 votes, and Bell 588,789 votes. Turnout was 82.2 percent, with Lincoln winning the free Northern states, HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx Laptop Keyboard as well as California and Oregon. Douglas won Missouri, and split New Jersey with Lincoln.[123] Bell won Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and Breckinridge won the rest of the South.[124] Although Lincoln won only a plurality of the popular vote, his victory in theelectoral college was decisive: Lincoln had 180 and his opponents added together had only 123. SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard There were fusion tickets in which all of Lincoln's opponents combined to support the same slate of Electors in New York, New Jersey, and Rhode Island, but even if the anti-Lincoln vote had been combined in every state, Lincoln still would have won a majority in the Electoral College.[125]Compaq Presario CQ71-210EG Laptop Keyboard As Lincoln's election became evident, secessionists made clear their intent to leave the Union before he took office the next March.[126] On December 20, 1860, South Carolina took the lead by adopting an ordinance of secession; by February 1, 1861, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed.[127][128] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18E Laptop Keyboard Six of these states then adopted a constitution and declared themselves to be a sovereign nation, the Confederate States of America.[127] The upper South and border states (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, SONY VAIO VGN-CS140F/W Laptop Keyboard North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to, but initially rejected, the secessionist appeal.[129] President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy, declaring secession illegal.[130] The Confederacy selected Jefferson Davis as its provisional President on February 9, 1861.[131]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard There were attempts at compromise. The Crittenden Compromise would have extended the Missouri Compromise line of 1820, dividing the territories into slave and free, contrary to the Republican Party's free-soil platform.[132] Lincoln rejected the idea, saying, "I will suffer death before I consent ... to any concession or compromise which looks like buying the privilege to take possession of this government to which we have a constitutional right."[133] HP Pavilion ze2060ea Laptop Keyboard Lincoln, however, did support the Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had passed in Congress and protected slavery in those states where it already existed.[134] A few weeks before the war, he went so far as to pen a letter to every governor asking for their support in ratifying the Corwin Amendment as a means to avoid secession.[135] HP G56-115SA Laptop Keyboard En route to his inauguration by train, Lincoln addressed crowds and legislatures across the North.[136] The president-elect then evaded possible assassins in Baltimore, who were uncovered by Lincoln's head of security, Allan Pinkerton. On February 23, 1861, he arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C., which was placed under substantial military guard.[137] Lincoln directed his inaugural address to the South, proclaiming once again that he had no intention, or inclination, to abolish slavery in the Southern states:  HP 432976-001 Laptop Keyboard Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you.  HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so."  HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard —First inaugural address, 4 March 1861[138] The President ended his address with an appeal to the people of the South: "We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies ... The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature."[139] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The failure of the Peace Conference of 1861 signaled that legislative compromise was implausible. By March 1861, no leaders of the insurrection had proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. Meanwhile, Lincoln and nearly every Republican leader agreed that the dismantling of the Union could not be tolerated.[140]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard The commander of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, Major Robert Anderson sent a request for provisions to Washington, and the execution of Lincoln's order to meet that request was seen by the secessionists as an act of war. On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces fired on Union troops at Fort Sumter, forcing them to surrender, HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard and began the war. Historian Allan Nevins argued that the newly inaugurated Lincoln made three miscalculations: underestimating the gravity of the crisis, exaggerating the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South, and not realizing the Southern Unionists were insisting there be no invasion.[141] William Tecumseh Shermantalked to Lincoln during inauguration week and was "sadly disappointed" at his failure to realize that FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard "the country was sleeping on a volcano" and that the South was preparing for war.[142] Donald concludes that, "His repeated efforts to avoid collision in the months between inauguration and the firing on Ft. Sumter showed he adhered to his vow not to be the first to shed fraternal blood. But he also vowed not to surrender the forts. The only resolution of these contradictory positions was for the confederates to fire the first shot; they did just that."[143] HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard On April 15, Lincoln called on all the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect Washington, and "preserve the Union", which, in his view, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. This call forced the states to choose sides. Virginia declared its secession and was rewarded with the Confederate capital, despite the exposed position of Richmond so close to Union lines. North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas also voted for secession over the next two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky tried to be neutral.[144]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Troops headed south towards Washington to protect the capital in response to Lincoln's call. On April 19, secessionist mobs in Baltimore that controlled the rail links attacked Union troops traveling to the capital. George William Brown, the Mayor of Baltimore, and other suspect Maryland politicians were arrested and imprisoned, without a warrant, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard as Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus.[145] John Merryman, a leader in the secessionist group in Maryland, petitioned Chief Justice Roger B. Taney to issue a writ of habeas corpus, saying holding Merryman without a hearing was unlawful. Taney issued the writ, thereby ordering Merryman's release, but Lincoln ignored it. Then and throughout the war, Lincoln came under heavy, often vituperative attack from antiwar Democrats, calledCopperheads.[146] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Assuming command for the Union in the war

After the fall of Fort Sumter, Lincoln realized the importance of taking immediate executive control of the war and making an overall strategy to put down the rebellion. Lincoln encountered an unprecedented political and military crisis, and he responded as commander-in-chief, using unprecedented powers. He expanded his war powers,  IBM Thinkpad T61P Laptop Keyboard and imposed a blockade on all the Confederate shipping ports, disbursed funds before appropriation by Congress, and after suspending habeas corpus, arrested and imprisoned thousands of suspected Confederate sympathizers. Lincoln was supported by Congress and the northern public for these actions. In addition, Lincoln had to contend with reinforcing strong Union sympathies in the border slave states and keeping the war from becoming an international conflict.[147]SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop Keyboard The war effort was the source of continued disparagement of Lincoln, and dominated his time and attention. From the start, it was clear that bipartisan support would be essential to success in the war effort, and any manner of compromise alienated factions on both sides of the aisle, such as the appointment of Republicans and Democrats to command positions in the Union Army. Compaq Presario CQ62-220SA Laptop Keyboard Copperheads criticized Lincoln for refusing to compromise on the slavery issue. Conversely, the Radical Republicans criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery.[148] On August 6, 1861, Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act that authorized judiciary proceedings to confiscate and free slaves who were used to support the Confederate war effort. In practice the law had little effect, but it did signal political support for abolishing slavery in the Confederacy[149]Dell Latitude D400 Laptop Keyboard In late August 1861, General John C. Frémont, the 1856 Republican presidential nominee, issued, without consulting Washington, a proclamation of martial law in Missouri. He declared that any citizen found bearing arms could be court-martialed and shot, and that slaves of persons aiding the rebellion would be freed. Frémont was already under a cloud with charges of negligence in his command of the Department of the  TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1CN Laptop Keyboard West compounded with allegations of fraud and corruption. Lincoln overruled Frémont's proclamation. Lincoln believed that Fremont's emancipation was political; neither militarily necessary nor legal.[150] Union enlistments from Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri increased by over 40,000 troops.[151]HP Mini 210-2030ez Laptop Keyboard The Trent Affair of late 1861 threatened war with Great Britain. The U.S. Navy illegally intercepted a British merchant ship the Trent on the high seas and seized two Confederate envoys; Britain protested vehemently while the U.S. cheered. Lincoln resolved the issue by releasing the two men and war was successfully averted with Britain.[152] DELL Latitude E6410 Laptop Keyboard Lincoln's foreign policy approach had been initially hands off, due to his inexperience; he left most diplomacy appointments and other foreign policy matters to his Secretary of State, William Seward. Seward's initial reaction to the Trent affair, however, was too bellicose, so Lincoln also turned to Senator Charles Sumner, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and an expert in British diplomacy.[153]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard To learn technical military terms, Lincoln borrowed and studied Henry Halleck's book, Elements of Military Art and Science from the Library of Congress.[154]Lincoln painstakingly monitored the telegraphic reports coming in to the War Department in Washington, D.C. He kept close tabs on all phases of the military effort, consulted with governors, SONY VGN-FE31H Laptop Keyboard and selected generals based on their past success (as well as their state and party). In January 1862, after many complaints of inefficiency and profiteering in the War Department, Lincoln replaced Simon Cameron with Edwin Stanton as War Secretary. Stanton was one of many conservative Democrats (he supported Breckenridge in the 1860 election) who became anti-slavery Republicans under Lincoln's leadership.[155] HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard In terms of war strategy, Lincoln articulated two priorities: to ensure that Washington was well-defended, and to conduct an aggressive war effort that would satisfy the demand in the North for prompt, decisive victory; major Northern newspaper editors expected victory within 90 days.[156] Twice a week, Lincoln would meet with his cabinet in the afternoon, HP Pavilion dv6-2135eo Laptop Keyboard and occasionally Mary Lincoln would force him to take a carriage ride because she was concerned he was working too hard.[157] Lincoln learned from his chief of staff General Henry Halleck, a student of the European strategist Jomini, of the critical need to control strategic points, such as the Mississippi River;[158] he also knew well the importance of Vicksburg and understood the necessity of defeating the enemy's army, rather than simply capturing territory.[159]SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG X25 Laptop Keyboard

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