Lund University Lund University (Swedish: Lunds universitet) is one of Europe's most prestigious universities andScandinavia's largest institutions for education and research, consistently ranked among the world's top 100 universities. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Sweden, traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, arguably making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studium generales in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. The current university was however not founded until 1666 after Sweden had won Scania in the 1658 peace agreement with Denmark.Packard Bell Easynote TK83 Laptop Keyboard Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 47,000 students in more than 280 different programmes and around 2,250 separate courses. The University has some 680 partner universities in over 50 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universitiesas well as the global Universitas 21 network.Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard Two major facilities for materials research are currently under construction in Lund: MAX IV, which will be a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory and European Spallation Source (ESS), a European facility that will be home to the world’s most powerful neutron source. HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard The university traditionally centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in town, but mostly concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the Scanian lands came under the possession of the Swedish Crown, which quickly founded the Lund University in 1666 as a means of Swedification. It was the fifth university under the Swedish king, after Uppsala University (1477), the University of Tartu (1632, now in Estonia), the Academy of Åbo (1640, now inFinland), and the University of Greifswald (founded 1456; Swedish 1648–1815, now in Germany). It is the second-oldest university on Swedish ground today. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard The university was named Academia Carolina after Charles X Gustav of Sweden. The name was in some formal use until the late 19th century, when Lund University became the widespread denomination. SONY Vaio VGN-N385E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university was at its founding granted four faculties: law, theological, medicine and philosophy. They were the cornerstones, and for more than 200 years this system was in effect. Towards the end of the 17th century, the number of students hovered around 100. Some notable professors in the early days were Samuel Pufendorf, a juridical historian; and Canutus Hahn and Kristian Papke in philosophy. ACER Aspire 5553NWXCi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Scanian War in 1676 led to a shut-down, which lasted until 1682. The university was re-opened largely due to regional patriots, but the university was not to enjoy a high status until well into the 19th century. Lecturing rooms were few, and lectures were held in the Lund Cathedral and its adjacent chapel. The professors were underpaid. HP Envy 17-1188el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1713, Charles XII of Sweden entered Lund. He stayed in Lund for three years, in between his warlike expeditions. The town of Lund and the university attracted a temporary attention boost. The most notable lecturer during this time wasAndreas Rydelius. HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Peace was finally restored with the death of Charles XII in 1718, and during the first half of the 18th century the university was granted added funds. The number of students was now well around 500. Despite not being on par with Uppsala University, it had still built a solid reputation and managed to attract prominent professors. SONY Vaio VPC-EE41FX/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Around 1760 the university reputation dropped as the number of students fell below 200, most of whom hailed from around the province. However, by 1780 its reputation was largely restored, and continued to rise through the 1820s. This was largely owing to popular and well-educated lecturers particularly in philology; Gateway M-2414U Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the prominent professor Esaias Tegnér was a particularly notable character with widespread authority. He, in turn, attracted others towards Lund. One of these was the young theological student C. G. Brunius, who studied ancient languages under Tegnér and were later to become professor of Greek. With time he was to devote himself to architectures and he redesigned several of Lund's buildings, as well as churches of the province. SONY Vaio VGN-N250FH Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 20th century, the university had a student population as small as one thousand, consisting largely of upper-class pupils training to become civil servants, lawyers and doctors. In the coming decades it started to grow significantly, until it became one of the country's largest. In 1964 the social sciences were split from the Faculty of Humanities. Lund Institute of Technology was established in 1961 but was merged with Lund University eight years later. HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In recent years, Lund University has been very popular among applicants to Swedish higher education institutions, both nationally and internationally. For studies starting in autumn 2012, Lund received 11,160 foreign master's applications from 152 countries, which was roughly one third of all international applications to Swedish universities. Gateway NV55C03U Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university's facilities are mainly located in the small city of Lund in Scania, about 15 km away from central Malmöand 50 km from Copenhagen. The university's prominence and large student population have much impact on the city, effectively making it a university town. Over a hundred university buildings ACER Aspire 5552 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan scatter around town, most of them in an area covering more than 1 km², stretching towards the north-east from Lundagård park in the very centre of town. Buildings in and around Lundagård include the main building, Kungshuset, the Historical Museum and the Academic Society's headquarters. The main library building is located in a park 400 meters to the north, followed by the large hospital complex. Compaq Presario C506TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Lund University has a satellite campus in nearby Malmö, Sweden's third largest city. The Faculty of Fine and Perforning Arts' three academies: Malmö Art Academy, Malmö Academy of Music and Malmö Theatre Academy, are all located in Malmö. The city is also the location of Skåne University Hospital, where Lund University performs a considerable amount of research and medical training. DELL XPS M1720 Laptop Keyboard Campus Helsingborg is, as the name suggests, located in the city of Helsingborg, almost 50 km from Lund. Opened in 2000, it consists of a building in the city centre, right next to the central train station and the harbour. Nearly 3,000 students are based on the campus. The Department of Service Management and the Department of Communication and Media are among those located at the campus in Helsingborg. HP 431414-001 Laptop Keyboard Teaching and training at the School of Aviation (LUSA) takes place at an airfield next to the town of Ljungbyhed, about 40 km away from Lund. Lund University library was established in 1666 at the same time as the university and is one of Sweden's oldest and largest. Since 1698 it has received legal deposit copies of everything printed in the country. HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard Today six Swedish libraries receive legal deposit copies, but only Lund and the Royal Library in Stockholm are required to keep everything for posterity. Swedish imprints make up half of the collections, which amount to 170,000 linear metres of shelving (2006). The library serves 620,000 loans per year, the staff is 200 full-time equivalents, and the 33 branch libraries house 2600 reading room desks.HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard The current main building at Helgonabacken opened in 1907. Before that, the old building was Liberiet close to the city's cathedral. Liberiet was built as a library in the 15th century, but now serves as a cafe. TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4697 Laptop Keyboard Hospital Education and research in the health sciences at the university is operated in cooperation with Skåne University Hospital, located in both Lund and Malmö. Medical education takes place in the Biomedical Centre, next to the hospital in lund. Nursing and occupational therapy are taught in the Health Sciences Centre nearby. The university also operates the Clinical Research Centre in Malmö, featuring many specialized laboratories. HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard Lund University is among the most renowned institutions of higher learning in the Nordic countries and is rarely ranked below 100 in the world by the most influential ranking agencies. In 2012, it ranked 1st among comprehensive universities in Scandinavia and 82th in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, it was in the 101-150 category. Lund was ranked 71st in the world in the 2012 QS World University Rankings and the University Ranking by Academic Performance Research Laboratory ranked Lund 62nd in the world in 2011. HP Pavilion dv5-1008ea Laptop Keyboard In 2011, Times Higher Education compiled a special world ranking based exclusively on reputation for teaching and research, where Lund University appeared in the 71-80 category. In the same year, QS issued world university rankings by subject, placing Lund within the top 50 in environmental sciences, geography and area studies, physical sciences and civil and structural engineering. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Approximately 27,700 students study within one of the 274 educational programs, the eightyfive international master's programmes or the 2000 free-standing courses. Around five hundred courses are, or can be, held in English for the benefit of international exchange students. There are several programmes allowing foreign students to study abroad at the University. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0111ORL Laptop Keyboard Notable exchangees include United States Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who spent time at Lund University in the 1960s conducting research. The university offers 9 out of the 20 most sought after programmes in Sweden. The master's programme inInternational Marketing is the most popular choice in the country, with almost a thousand applications yearly. SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Laptop Keyboard The nations in Lund are a central part of the university's history, initially serving as residential colleges for students, organized by geographic origin. Östgöta Nation, the oldest nation, was established in 1668, two years after the university was founded. While the nations still offer limited housing, today they are best described as student societies. ACER Aspire 2010WLMi Laptop Keyboard Today students may enroll in any nation, although the nations still preserve their geographic names. In most cases it does not matter what nation one enrolls in, but different nations offer different activities for interested students. ACER Aspire 2001WLCi Laptop Keyboard Each nation has student housing, but the accommodations in no way meet demand, and they are usually appointed according to a queue system. Each nation has at least one pub evening per week, with a following night club. The solemn peak event in the course of an activity year is the organization of student balls once a year. HP Mini 110-3101tu Laptop Keyboard Most well known of the nation balls (as opposed to balls organized by student unions) is the ball hosted by Göteborgs Nation - called the "Gustaf II Adolf Ball" (also known as the "GA-Ball"). Most nations also host at least one banquet per week, where a three course dinner is served. Each nation also has different activities for students interested in sports, arts, or partying. All activities within the nations are voluntary. HP Mini 110-3101tu Laptop Keyboard In 1830, Professor Carl Adolph Agardh formed Akademiska Föreningen (The Academic Society), commonly referred to as AF, with the goal of "developing and cultivating the academic life" by bringing students and faculty from all departments and student nations together in one organization. Prince Oscar I, then Sweden's Chancellor of Education, donated 2000 Kronor to help found the society. In 1848, construction began on AF-Borgen (the AF Fortress), Toshiba Satellite A100-849 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which is located opposite the Main Building in Lundagård. To this day, AF is the center of student life in Lund, featuring many theater companies, a prize-winning student radio (Radio AF), and organizing the enormous Lundakarnevalen (the Lund Carnival) every four years. "AF Bostäder", an independent foundation with close ties to Akademiska Föreningen, maintains over 5,700 student residences in Lund.Toshiba Satellite A135-S4727 Laptop CPU Cooling Fanr The student unions represent students in various decision-making boards within the university and council students regarding their rights, housing and career options. There are nine student unions, one for each faculty and an additional union for doctoral students. Lund's Doctoral Student Union is further divided into councils, one for each faculty except for the faculties of engineering and fine and performing arts.SONY Vaio VPC-EB26FGP Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The unions are incorporated into the Association of Lund University Student Unions (LUS). It has two full-time representatives who go to weakly meetings with the vice-chancellor and other organizational university bodies. The student union association runs services such as loan institute, a day-care centre and a website with housing information. It also publishes the monthly Lundagård magazine. Compaq Presario C783TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and his uninterrupted tenure of 23 years as head of government is a record for parliamentary democracies, with the popular expression "Sweden's longest Prime Minister" referring to both his physical stature and tenure (the Swedish word lång meaning both long andtall).Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Ascending to the World War II coalition government in 1944, Erlander rose unexpectedly to leadership upon the death of Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson in October 1946, cementing the position of the Social Democratic Party as the virtual government of Sweden. Known for his moderation, pragmatism and self-irony, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Erlander constantly sought approval from the liberal-conservative opposition for his policies, de facto dropping all pretences of wide-scale nationalizations whilst introducing reforms such as universal health insurance, pension additions and a growing public sector while stopping short of raising tax levels above the average OECD levels at the time. In 1951-1957, he espoused a coalition government withPeasants' League chairman Gunnar Hedlund in order to secure majority and stability, led by himself. HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard In foreign policy, he initially sought an alliance of Nordic countries, but without success, instead maintaining strict neutrality while building up among the most impressive armed forces in the world (surpassed only by the United States, theSoviet Union and Israel in terms of per-capita spending), making the Swedish Air Force the third largest in the world, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard while ultimately rejecting nuclear capability, signing the nuclear non-proliferation treaty in 1968. Erlander's mandate coincided with the post-World War II economic expansion, in Sweden known as the record years, in which Sweden saw its economy grow to one of the ten strongest in the world, and subsequently joined of the G10. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Resigning after the Swedish general election, 1968, his seventh and most successful election in which the Social Democrats surpassed all four opposition parties in terms of seats, Erlander was succeeded, in the midst of constitutional reforms, by his long-time novice and friend Olof Palme. Dying on June 21, 1985 at age 84, Erlander's funeral procession crossed the country from Stockholm to his home town of Ransäter in triumph for his final interment. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard Biography He was born in Ransäter, Värmland County as son of the school teacher Erik Gustaf Erlander (1859–1936). His mother was Alma Nilsson (1869–1961). As a student at Lund University he was heavily involved in student politics and met many radical students. He graduated in political science and economics in 1928. Erlander was a member of the editorial staff of the encyclopedia Svensk Upplagsbok from 1929 to 1938. In 1930 he married Aina Andersson, who became Aina Erlander. DELL Latitude D600 Laptop Keyboard Tage Erlander was elected to the municipal council in Lund in 1930 and became a member of parliament in 1932, and was appointed a State Secretary at the Ministry of Social Affairs in 1938. As State Secretary at the Ministry of Social Affairs, Erlander was one of the most senior officials responsible for the establishment of internment camps in Swedenduring World War II. In the camps, which were kept secret to the Swedish public, people from various ethnic minorities as well as political dissidents were interned, particularly Communists and Soviet Union sympathisers.HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1942, State Secretary Erlander together with then Minister for Social Affairs Gustav Möller initiated a nation-wide registration of the Swedish Travellers, a branch of the Romani people that has been resident in Sweden for 500 years. The purpose of the registration was, according to a newspaper article, to make the base for "radical measures" against this "bottom layer of the Swedish population". In Norway, similar lists were established that were handed over to the Nazis during the German occupation of Norway.HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard Erlander ascended to the cabinet in 1944 as minister without Portfolio, a post he held to the next year, when he became Minister for Education. When Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson suddenly died in 1946, Erlander was unexpectedly chosen as the successor and subsequently also as the leader of the party. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard Retaining the positions of the Social Democrats from a potent Liberal opposition under Bertil Ohlin in his first election, he later formed a coalition with theCentre Party, at the time the Peasants' League between 1951 and 1957. His working relationship with the party's leader, Gunnar Hedlund (Minister for Home Affairs in the coalition government), is known to have been good. HP Mini 210-2090nr Laptop Keyboard Erlander coined the phrase "the strong society", describing a society with a growing public sector taking care of the growing demand on many services that an affluent society creates. The public sector, particularly its welfare state institutions grew considerably during his tenure as Prime Minister, while nationalizations were rare. HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard In order to maintain employment for his vast electorate and Swedish sovereignty as a non-NATO member, the armed forces was greatly expanded, reaching an impressive level by the 1960s, while nuclear capability was ultimately dropped after outcries, not least from the Social Democratic Women's League. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard The question of nuclear weapons as a means to deter a possible attack remained a divisive factor in Swedish society and among Social Democrats and prompted diplomatic agreements with the United States guaranteeing intervention in that case of an invasion. Sweden signed the nuclear non-proliferation treaty in 1968, dropping all pretences of developing a nuclear weapon. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard Resigning at 68 in 1969, with an absolute majority for the Social Democrats in the second chamber since 1968, Erlander was succeeded by 42-year old Olof Palme, who, although more radical, had in many ways been Erlander's student and protege. From 1972 to 1982 Erlander published his memoirs in six volumes. He died on 21 June 1985 in Stockholm and, after a ceremony, was returned to Ransäter, Värmland in a triumphant procession for the final rest. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard He was the father of the mathematician Sven Erlander, who, since 2001, has published his father's diaries.
Hörmander was born in Mjällby, a village in Blekinge in southern Sweden where his father was a teacher. Like his older brothers and sisters before him, he attended the realskola (elementary school), in a nearby town to which he commuted by train, and the gymnasium (high school) in Lund from which he graduated in 1948. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard At the time when he entered the gymnasium, the principal had instituted an experiment of reducing the period of the education from three to two years, and the daily activities to three hours. This freedom to work on his own, "[greater] than the universities offer in Sweden today", suited Hörmander "very well". He was also positively influenced by his enthusiastic mathematics teacher, a docent at Lund University who encouraged him to study university level mathematics. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard After proceeding to receive a Master's degree from Lund University in 1950, Hörmander began his graduate studies underMarcel Riesz (who had also been the advisor for Hörmander's gymnasium teacher). He made his first research attempts inclassical function theory and harmonic analysis, which "did not amount to much" but were "an excellent preparation for working in the theory of partial differential equations." He turned to partial differential equations when Riesz retired and Lars Gårding who worked actively in that area was appointed professor. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Hörmander took a one-year break for military service from 1953 to 1954, but due to his position in defense research was able to proceed with his studies even during that time. His Ph.D. thesis On the theory of general partial differential operators was finished in 1955, inspired by the nearly concurrent Ph.D. work of Bernard Malgrange and techniques for hyperbolic differential operators developed by Lars Gårding and Jean Leray. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard
Fields Medal and years in the U.S.
Hörmander applied for professorship at Stockholm University, but temporarily left for the United States while the request was examined. He spent quarters from winter to fall in respective order at the University of Chicago, the University of Kansas, the University of Minnesota, and finally at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York. These locations offered "much to learn" in partial differential equations, with the exception of Chicago of which he however notes the Antoni Zygmund seminar held by Elias Stein and Guido Weiss to have strengthened his familiarity with harmonic analysis. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard In the theory of linear differential operators, "many people have contributed but the deepest and most significant results are due to Hörmander", according to Hörmander's doctoral advisor, Lars Gårding.Acer eMachines E732 Laptop Keyboard Hörmander was given a position as part time professor at Stanford in 1963, but was soon thereafter offered full professorship at the Institute for Advance Study. He first wished not to leave Sweden, but attempts to find a research professorship in Sweden failed and "the opportunity to do research full time in a mathematically very active environment was hard to resist"HP Pavilion dv2910tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan , so he accepted the offer and resigned from both Stanford and Stockholm and began at the Institute in the fall of 1964. Within two years of "hard work", he felt that the environment at the Institute was too demanding, and in 1967 decided to return to Lund. Incidentally, he notes that his best work at the Institute was done during the remaining year. HP Pavilion dv6-2147es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hörmander mostly remained at Lund University as professor after 1968, but made several visits to the United States during the two next decades. He visited the Courant Institute in 1970, and also the Institute for Advanced Study in 1971 and during the academic year 1977-1978 when a special year in microlocal analysiswas held. He also visited Stanford in 1971, 1977 and 1982, and the University of California, San Diego in the winter 1990. Toshiba Satellite P300-18M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was briefly director of theMittag-Leffler Institute in Stockholm between 1984 and 1986, but only accepted a two year appointment as he "suspected that the administrative duties would not agree well" with him, and found that "the hunch was right". He also served as vice president of the International Mathematical Union between 1987 and 1990. Hörmander retired emeritus in Lund in January 1996. In 2006 he was honored with the Leroy P. Steele Prize from the American Mathematical Society. FUJITSU Lifebook B3020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was made a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1968. In 1970 he gave a plenary address (Linear Differential Operators) at the ICM in Nice. FUJITSU LifeBook P8110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He received the 1988 Wolf Prize "for fundamental work in modern analysis, in particular, the application of pseudo differential and Fourier integral operators to linear partial differential equations".SONY Vaio VPC-EB37FGW Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Broman studerade musik i Prag 1921–1923. Efter en filosofie kandidatexamen i musik- och konsthistoria vid Lunds universitet 1925 studerade Broman medeltidens musikhistoria i Schweiz och Tyskland. Han ägnade sig åt den klassiska musiken och spelade själv altfiol. Han var också musikanmälare iSydsvenska Dagbladet 1923–1967. År 1927 tog han licentiatexamen i Lund men lyckades inte nå doktorsgraden. Den 16 november 1961 invaldes han som ledamot nummer 697 av Kungliga musikaliska akademien.DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard Mest känd blev han som karismatisk programledare för tv-programmet Musikfrågan Kontrapunkt 1964–1980, där han genom sin kunnighet, sin entusiasm och sin humor spred intresset för klassisk musik till människor som tidigare inte kommit i kontakt med den eller känt sig främmande för den. HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard Broman var också känd för sina specialsydda kostymer (som han själv designade), färgglada slipsar och ogenerade elakheter. Den typ av tredelad kostym han nästan alltid sågs i, som bland annat bestod av en högt skuren väst och kavaj innehållande få fickor, formgav han redan på 1920-talet. Han sägs också ha avskytt dragspel. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard Broman gillade avantgardistisk kammarmusik och var medlem i Internationella Sällskapet för Nutida Musik (ISCM) som han var med om att bilda 1923. Han komponerade själv en del kammarmusik samt under 1960- och 1970-talen även nio symfonier. Till hans mer lättillgängliga verk hör filmmusik, bland annat till filmen Ett svårskött pastorat (1958), som han även medverkade i, en ouvertyr till spexet Uarda och hans tonsättningar för manskör avFalstaff, fakirs parodiska kärleksdikter Laura och Dolly. SONY VAIO VGN-AR850E Laptop Keyboard SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Broman bibehöll livet igenom ett starkt engagemang i Lunds studentikosa liv och saknades aldrig vid en Lundakarneval. Han var medförfattare till åtskilliga spex, och 1958 grundade han Uarda-akademien, en akademi med syfte att värna om den lundensiska spextraditionen, vars præses han också var till sin död. Han var vidare mångårig stormästare i Sällskapet CC. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard Tillsammans med författaren Fritiof Nilsson Piraten och hovtraktören Tore Wretman grundade han 1958 den Gastronomiska akademien, av Broman kallad ”De sjudderton”. Han utgav 1961 sin enda roman, Farväl kött, som fick mycket dålig kritik. Han uppfattades av vissa som en rapsod. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Han gifte sig 1933 med den danska dansösen Esther Rung och fick med henne sonen Erik. Äktenskapet slutade med skilsmässa. Han var även gift 1949–1952 med Eivor Engelbrektsson. Under omkring femton år, fram till 1979, hade han en relation med Gunilla af Halmstad.TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard Following the assassination of Olof Palme in 1986 Ingvar Carlsson became the new Prime Minister or Statsminister and party leader. Together withMinister for Finance Kjell-Olof Feldt, the government turned a budget deficit of 90 billions SEK to a surplus of a few hundred billion SEK, which led to large investments and record low unemployment. SONY VAIO VGN-AR825E Laptop Keyboard As Prime Minister he also carried out a comprehensive reform of the tax system. But Sweden's economy would start deteriorate more in the early 1990s. In 1990 the Carlsson cabinet resigned after failing to gain majority for economic reforms, but was reinstated immediately with a slightly changed agenda. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The Social Democrats lost the elections in 1991, but Carlsson returned to power after the elections in 1994. After three years of an bourgeois government and an election victory in 1994 elections, Carlsson could re-form a government. This government put focus on cleaning up the Swedish Government finances, and it was assigned to the newly appointed Minister for Finance Göran Persson. The government period was tough and it was strongly criticized by trade unions and party members for all savings and tax increases that were made. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In August 1995, Ingvar Carlsson announced that he would resign as party leader and Swedish Prime Minister. His successor was long considered to be the then Minister for Equality and Deputy Prime Minister Mona Sahlin. However, due to the so-called Toblerone Affair, she took back her candidacy and also later resigned from the government. On December 5, 1995, Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard the nomination committee proposed Minister for Finance Göran Perssonas the new party leader candidate. He was elected on March 15, the following year on the Social Democratic Party Congress to the Social Democratic party leader and on March 22, 1996 he was elected Prime Minister. TOSHIBA V000130390 Laptop Keyboard Malmö (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈmalːˈmøː] ( listen)), in the southernmost province of Scania, is Sweden's third largest cityby population after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and is one of the largest cities in Scandinavia. HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County. The administrative entity for most of the city is Malmö Municipality which, as of January 2012, has 302,835 inhabitants in eight different localities. Malmö is also a bimunicipal locality, as part of it is formally situated in Burlöv Municipality. The total population of the urban area was 280,415 in December 2010.APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Greater Malmö is one of Sweden's three officially recognized Metropolitan areas (storstadsområden) and since 2005 is defined as the municipality of Malmö and 11 other municipalities in the southwestern corner of Scania. On 31 March 2012, its population was recorded to be 664,428. Compaq Presario C727US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The region covers an area of 2,521.92 square kilometres (973.72 sq mi). The municipalities included, apart from Malmö, are Burlöv, Eslöv, Höör, Kävlinge, Lomma, Lund, Skurup,Staffanstorp, Svedala, Trelleborg and Vellinge. Lund, with a municipal population of over 100,000 and home to one ofScandinavia's major universities, is together with Malmö the region's economic and education hub. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ35B/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation topost-industrialism. Since the construction of the Öresund bridge, Malmö has undergone a major transformation with impressive architectural developments, attracting new biotech and IT companies, HP Pavilion dv5-1250us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and particularly students through Malmö University College. The city contains many historic buildings and parks, and is also a commercial centre for the western part of Scania. During the last few years a university college has been established and the city is now trying to focus on education, arts and culture. Malmö was ranked #4 in Grist Magazine's "15 Green Cities" list in 2007.SONY Vaio VGN-FE33B/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are movements for considering Malmö as part of the Copenhagen metropolitan area or an even larger metropolitan area, which would be called Örestad in Swedish and Øresundsregionen in Danish, since it would consist of all the towns around the Sound. Toshiba Satellite U405D-S2874 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 15th century, Malmö became one of Denmark's largest and most frequented cities, reaching a population of approximately 5,000 inhabitants. It became the most important city around the Øresund, with the German Hanseatic League frequenting it as a marketplace, notable for its flourishing herring fishing. During that time, the city arms were granted in 1437 by King Eric of Pomerania. It was based on Eric's own arms from Pomerania: an argent with a griffin gules. It gave the griffin's head to Malmö, eventually this extended to the entire province of Scania. HP Pavilion dv6907ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1434, a new citadel was constructed at the beach south of the town. This fortress, known today as Malmöhus, did not get its current appearance until the mid-16th century. Several other fortifications were constructed, making Malmö Sweden's most fortified city, but only Malmöhus remains. Lutheran teachings became popular during the 16th century, and Malmö was one of the first cities in Scandinavia to fully convert (1527–29). Toshiba Satellite A135-S4487 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 17th century, Malmö and the Scanian region (Skåneland) came into Swedish possession. This happened following theTreaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658. Fighting was not yet over, however; in June 1677, 14,000 Danish troops laid siege to Malmö for a month, but were unable to conquer the Swedish troops holding it. By the dawn of the 18th century, Toshiba Satellite Pro M15-S405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Malmö had about 2,300 inhabitants. However, due to the wars of Charles XII of Swedenand bubonic plague epidemics, the population dropped to 1,500 by 1727. The population did not grow much until the modern harbour was constructed by the late 18th century. The city started to expand, and in 1800 had 38,054 inhabitants.HP Pavilion dv5-1260er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1840, the Kockums shipyard was founded and it eventually became one of the largest shipyards in the world. Between 1856 and 1864 the Southern Main Line was built and enabled Malmö to become a center of manufacture, with big textile and mechanical industries. In 1870, Malmö overtook Norrköping to become Sweden's third most populous city and by 1900 Malmö had strengthened this position with 60,000 HP Pavilion dv6-3046eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan inhabitants. Malmö continued to grow through the first half of the 20th century. The population had swiftly increased to 100,000 by 1915 and to 200,000 by 1952. By 1971, Malmö reached 265,000 inhabitants, but this was the peak which would stand for more than 30 years. Gateway MT6730 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the mid 1970s, Sweden experienced a recession that struck especially hard on the industrial sector; shipyards and manufacturing industries were hard hit, which led to high unemployment in many cities of Scania. Kockums shipyard had become a symbol of Malmö as its greatest employer and when the shipbuilding ceased in 1986 the reassurance for the future of Malmö plummeted among politicians and the public. HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In addition, many middle-class families moved into one-family houses in surrounding municipalities such as Vellinge Municipality, Lomma Municipality and Staffanstorp Municipality which profiled themselves as the suburbs of the upper middle class. By 1985, Malmö had lost 35,000 inhabitants and was down to 229,000. HP Pavilion dv6-2130ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Swedish financial crises of the early 1990s exacerbated Malmö's decline as an industrial city; between 1990–95, Malmö lost about 27,000 jobs and its economy was seriously strained. However, from 1994 and under the leadership of the new mayor Ilmar Reepalu, the city of Malmö started to re-conceptualize itself as a center of culture and knowledge. HP Mini 110-3530nr Laptop Keyboard Malmö reached bottom in 1995 and the same year marked the commencement of the massive Øresund Bridge project. A new university college (Swedish: högskola), Malmö University College, was opened in 1998 on Kockums' former dockside and further redevelopment of the now disused south-western harbor followed; a city architecture exposition (Bo01) was held in the area in 2001 and its buildings and villas forms the core of a new city district, aimed at the urban middle-class and with attractive waterfront vistas. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Since 1974 the Kockums Crane had been a landmark in Malmö and a symbol of the city's manufacturing industry, but in 2002 it was disassembled and moved to South Korea. In 2005 Malmö got a new landmark with completion of Turning Torso, the tallest skyscraper in Scandinavia. Although the transformation from a city with its economic base in manufacturing has returned growth to Malmö, DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard it has largely benefited the already somewhat well-off. Malmö has the highest proportion of individuals of non-Scandinavian extraction of any Swedish city. And while the inner city are being gentrified and the upper-middle class have inhabited the Western Harbor, little have changed for the inhabitants of in the districts of the Million Programme; Malmö remains a city of sharp social divide and high unemployment. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard Malmö, like the rest of southern Sweden, has an oceanic climate. Despite its northern location, the climate is relatively mild compared to other locations in similar latitudes, or even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the Gulf Stream. Because of its northern latitude, daylight extends 17 hours in midsummer, to only around 7 hours in midwinter. HP Pavilion dv4-1160tx Laptop Keyboard Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 20 to 21 °C (68 to 70 °F) and lows of around 11 to 13 °C (52 to 55 °F), but temperatures do sometimes exceed 25 °C(77 °F) and occasional heat waves are common during the summer. Winters are fairly cold, with temperatures steady between -3 to 4 °C (27 to 39 °F), but it rarely drops below −10 °C(14 °F). SONY 81-31105002-04 Laptop Keyboard Rainfall is light to moderate throughout the year with 169 wet days. Snowfall occurs mainly in December through March, but snow covers do not remain for a long time, and some winters are virtually free of snow. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Oresundtrains cross Øresund Bridge every 20 minutes (every 10 minutes during rush hour) connecting Malmö to Copenhagen, and theCopenhagen Airport. Also some of the X 2000 and Intercity trains to Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Kalmar cross the bridge, stopping at Copenhagen Airport. In March 2005, HP Mini 110-1212NR Laptop Keyboard digging began on a new railway connection called the City Tunnel, which opened for traffic on December 4, 2010. The tunnel runs from under Malmö Central Station to Triangeln continuing to Hyllievång (Hyllie Meadow), where it emerges to connect with the Øresund Bridge, effectively changing Malmö Central from being a terminus to being a transit station. SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard Besides the Copenhagen Airport, Malmö has an airport of its own, Malmö Airport, today chiefly used for low-cost carriers,charter flight routes, and domestic Swedish destinations. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The motorway system has been incorporated with the Øresund Bridge; the European route E20 goes over the bridge and then, together with the European route E6 follows the Swedish west coast from Malmö–Helsingborg to Gothenburg. E6 goes further north along the west coast and through Norway to the Norwegian town Kirkenes at Barents Sea. The European route toJönköping–Stockholm (E4) starts at Helsingborg. Main roads in direction of Växjö–Kalmar, Kristianstad–Karlskrona, Ystad(E65), and Trelleborg start as freeways. SONY VAIO PCG-FR285M Laptop Keyboard Malmö has 410 kilometres (250 mi) of bike paths and approximately 40% of all commuting is done by bicycle. Malmö has 2 industrial harbours; one is still in active use and is the biggest Nordic port for car importation. Also, there are two marinas: the publicly owned Limhamn Marina (55°35′N 12°55′E) and the private Lagunen (55°35′N 12°56′E), both offering a limited number of guest docks. Free marine chartsare available. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard 41% have a foreign background. 30% of the population has been born abroad and another 11% of the population was Swedish-born with foreign-born parents. The Middle East, South-East Asia, Ex-Yugoslavia and Denmark are the main sources of migration. Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard Malmö has also the highest percentage of Muslims in Scandinavia, with (25%) or 75,000 people originating from Islamic countries. After 1971, Malmö had 265,000 inhabitants, the population then dropped to 229,000 by 1985. It then began to rise again, and had passed the previous record by the 1 January 2003 census, when it had 265,481 inhabitants.Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard 40.79% (or 123,531 people) of Malmö's inhabitants have a migration background. 30.45% (92,228) are born abroad and 10.34% (31 303) are born to 2 foreign-born parents ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard The economy of Malmö was traditionally based on shipbuilding (Kockums) and construction related industries, such as concrete factories. The region's leading university, along with its associated hi-tech and pharmaceutical industries, is located inLund about 16 km to the north-east. As a result, Malmö had a troubled economic situation following the mid-1970s. Between 1990-1995, 27,000 jobs were lost, and the budget deficit was more than one billion Swedish krona. In 1995, Malmö had Sweden's highest unemployment rate SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard However, during the last few years there has been a revival. The main contributing factor has been the economic integration with Denmark brought about by the Øresund Bridge. Almost 10% of the population in Malmö works in Copenhagen. Also the university college founded in 1998 and the effects of integration into the European Union have contributed. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E Laptop Keyboard In 2004, the rate of wage-earners was 63%, compared to 74% in Stockholm and 71% in Gothenburg. This in turn led to Malmö municipality in 2007 having the 9th lowest median income in Sweden, ranked far below the other larger Swedish cities Stockholm (31st) and Gothenburg (94th). FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard In 1944, one of the city's most enduring cultural hubs was inaugurated, Malmö Stadsteater (Malmö Municipal Theatre) with a repertory embracing both stage theatre, opera, musical, ballet, musical recitals and theatrical experiments. In 1993 it was split into three separate units, Dramatiska Teater (Dramatical Theatre), Malmö Musikteater (Music Theatre) and Skånes Dansteater (Scanian Dance Theatre) and the name was abandon. When the ownership of the last two where transferred to Region Skåne in 2006 Dramatiska Teatern retained its old name. HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard In the 1950s Ingmar Bergman was the Director and Chief Stage Director of Malmö Stadsteater and many of his actors, like Max von Sydow and Ingrid Thulin were brought to stardom through his films. Later stage directors includeStaffan Valdemar Holm and Göran Stangertz. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Malmö Musikteater were renamed Malmö Operan and plays operas and musicals, classics as newly composed, on one of Scandinavia's largest opera scenes with 1,511 seats. Skånes dansteater is also active and plays contemporary dance repertory and present works by Swedish and international choreographers in their house in Malmö harbour.ACER Aspire 4510 Laptop Keyboard Since the 1970s the city has also been home to a rich, if fluctuating, array of independent theatre groups and some show/musical companies. It also hosts a rich rock/dance/dub culture; in the 1960s The Rolling Stones played the Klubb Bongo, and in recent years stars like Morrissey, Nick Cave, B.B. King and Pat Methenyhave made repeated visits. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard The Cardigans made their start in Malmö and recorded their albums there. On 7 January 2009 CNN Travel broadcasted a segment called "MyCity_MyLife" featuringNina Persson taking the camera to some of the sites in Malmö that she enjoys. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The Rooseum Centre for Contemporary Art, founded in 1988 by the Swedish art collector and financier Fredrik Roos and housed in a former power station which had been built in 1900, was one of the foremost centres for contemporary art in Europe during the 1980s and 1990s. By 2006, most of the collection had been sold off and the museum was on a time-out; by 2010 Rooseum had been dismantled and a subsidiary of the national Museum of Modern Design inaugurated in its place. SONY VAIO VGN-CR23/W Laptop Keyboard Malmö's oldest building is St Peter's Church. It was built in the early 14th century in Baltic Brick Gothic probably after St Mary's Church in Lübeck. The church is built with a nave, two aisles, a transept and a tower. Its exterior is characterized above all by the flying buttresses spanning its airy arches over the aisles andambulatory. The tower, which fell down twice during the 15th century, got its current look in 1890.HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard Another old building is Tunneln, 300 metres (1,000 ft) to the west of St Peter's church, which also dates back to around 1300. The oldest parts of Malmö were built between 1300-1600 during its first major period of expansion.The central city's layout as well as some of its oldest buildings are from this time. Many of the smaller buildings from this time are typical Scanian: two story urban houses that show a strong Danish influence.DELL JVT97 Laptop Keyboard Recession followed in the e
In the third week of August each year a festival, Malmöfestivalen, fills the streets of Malmö with different kinds of cuisines and events. BUFF, the International Children and Young People's Film Festival in Malmö, takes place every year in March. In 1914 the Baltic Exhibition was held in Malmö which consisted of exhibitions about industry, art and crafts from Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Russia. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard In 1992 Malmö was the host of the Eurovision Song Contest 1992 after Sweden won it the previous year, 1991 in Rome, Italy. Malmö will host the contest in 2013 at Malmö Arena, after Swedish singer Loreen's victory in at Eurovision Song Contest 2012,in Baku, Azerbaijan. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard The Nordic Games Conference, one of the most important[according to whom?] events in the game development industry, takes place in Malmö every April/May.The event consists of conference itself, recruitment expo and game expo and attracts hundreds of gamedev professionals every year. HP Pavilion DV6-1210sv Laptop Keyboard Malmö hosts many other different types of contests and special events in Entré, inside the city centre. These include the events such as the Swedish version of Oktoberfest, modelling catwalk contests showing the latest fashion to jackets and coats, to lingerie and garments. Malmö also known to host other 3rd party events that cater to all communities that reside in Malmö, including religious and political celebrations. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI Laptop Keyboard Sports in southern Sweden is dominated by football. Over the years the city's best football team has been Malmö FF who play in the top level Allsvenskan. They had their most successful periods in the 1970s and 1980s, when they won the league several times. In 1979, they advanced to the final of the European Cup defeating AS Monaco, DELL Vostro 3350 Laptop Keyboard Dynamo Kiew, Wisla Krakow and Austria Vienna but lost in the final at the Munich Olympic Stadium against Nottingham Forest by a single goal just before half time scored by Trevor Francis. To date, they are the only Swedish football club to have reached the final of the competition. Malmö FF is the club where Zlatan Ibrahimović began his professional football career. A second football team, IFK Malmö played in Sweden's top flight for about 20 years and the club's quarterfinal in the European Cup is the club's greatest achievement in its history. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard Today, the club resides in the sixth tier of the Swedish league system. Examples of other Malmö based clubs are IF Limhamn Bunkeflo and FC Rosengård. Both in Division 1 South, the third tier. Held in Sweden, Malmö was one of the four cities to host the 2009 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship and hosted the final. HP 412374-001 Laptop Keyboard The most notable other sports team is the ice hockey team Malmö Redhawks. They were the creation of millionaire Percy Nilsson and quickly rose to the highest rank in the early to mid-1990s and won two Swedish championships, but for a number of years have found themselves residing outside of the top flight. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard Malmö also has teams that play first division handball HK Malmö, baseball, American football and Australian football. Of these last mentioned sports only handball attracts a fair amount of attendance. Gaelic football has also been introduced to Malmö, with the new Malmö G.A.A. club winning the Scandinavian Championships in their inaugural year, 2009, and are again in the running for 2011. HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard Among non-team sports badminton and athletics are the most popular together with east Asian martial arts and boxing. Basketball is also fairly a big sport in the city, including the clubs Malbas and SF Srbija among others. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard HP G71-447US Laptop Keyboard Women are permitted by the city council to swim topless in public swimming pools. Everyone must wear bathing attire, but covering of the breasts is not mandatory. "We don’t decide what men should do with their torso, why then do women have to listen to the men. Moreover, many men have larger breasts than women", remarked a council spokesman.ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard
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