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Many Korean, Japanese and American appliances sold in the US are actually of Mexican design and origin but sold under the OEM's client names.[133][134] In 2008 one out of every four consumer appliances sold in the United States was of Mexican design.

While many foreign companies like Phillips, Vizio and LG simply install wholly owned factories in HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Mexico a number of foreign companies have set up semi-independent joint venture companies with Mexican businesses to manufacture and design components in Mexico. These companies are independently operated from their foreign parent companies and are registered in Mexico. These local companies function under Mexican law and retain a sizable portion of the revenue. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

These companies typically function dually as in-company OEM development and design facilities and manufacturing centers and usually produce most components needed to manufacture the finished products. An example would by Sharp which has formed Semex.[136] Semex was founded as a joint venture between Sharp and Mexican investors which acts as an autonomous independent company which Sharp only maintains partial control over. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The company manufactures whole products such televisions and designs individual components on behalf of Sharp such as LCD modules and in return Semex is granted access to Sharp capital, technology, research capacity and branding. Notable foreign companies which have set up joint venture entities in Mexico include Samsung which formed Samex,[137] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

a local designer and manufacturer of finished televisions, white goods and individual electronic components like printed circuit boards, LCD panels and semiconductors,[138] Toshiba, who formed Toshiba de México, S.A. de C.V., an administratively autonomous subsidiary which produces electronics parts, televisions and heavy industrial equipment.[139] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Some of these subsidiaries have grown to expand into multiple branches effectively becoming autonomous conglomerates within their own parent companies. Sony for example started operations in Mexico in 1976 with a group of Mexican investors, and founded the joint venture, Sony de Mexico[140] which produces LED panels, LCD modules, automotive electronics, appliances and printed circuit boards amongst other products for its Japanese parent company,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Sony KG. Sony de Mexico has research facilities in Monterrey and Mexico City, designs many of the Sony products manufactured in Mexico and has now expanded to create its own finance, music and entertainment subsidiaries which are Mexican registered and independent of their Japanese parent corporation.

Although much of Mexico's electronics industry is driven by foreign companies, HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

Mexico also has a sizeable domestic electronics industry and a number of electronics companies including Mabe, a major appliance manufacturer and OEM which has been functioning since the nineteen fifties and has expanded into the global market, Meebox, a designer and manufacturer desktop and tablet computers, solar power panels and electronics components, Texa, which manufactures computers laptops and servers, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

Falco, a major international manufacturer of electronic components such as printed circuitboards, power systems, semiconductors, gate drives and which has production facilities in Mexico, India and China, and Lanix, Mexico's largest electronics company which manufactures products such as computers, laptops, smartphones, LED and LCD displays, flash memory, tablets, servers, hard drives, HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

RAM, optical disk drives, and printed circuitboards and employs over 11,000 people in Mexico and Chile and distributes its products throughout Latin America.[142][143][144] Another area being currently developed in Mexico is Robotics, Mexico's new Mexone robot has been designed with the idea that in future years develop a commercial application for such advanced robots. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Mineral resources are the "nation's property" (i.e. public property) by constitution. As such, the energy sector is administered by the government with varying degrees of private investment. Mexico is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world, with 3,700,000 barrels per day (590,000 m3/d).[146] Pemex, the public company in charge of administering research, HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

exploration and sales of oil, is the largest company (oil or otherwise) in Mexico, and the second largest in Latin America after Brazil's Petrobras.[147] Nonetheless, the company is heavily taxed, a significant source of revenue for the government, of almost 62 per cent of the company's sales.[22] Without enough money to continue investing in finding new sources or upgrading infrastructure, and being protected constitutionally from private and foreign investment, HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

some have predicted the company may face institutional collapse.[22] While the oil industry is still relevant for the government's budget, its importance in GDP and exports has steadily fallen since the 1980s. In 1980 oil exports accounted for 61.6% of total exports; by 2000 it was only 7.3%.

The tertiary sector was estimated to account for 70.5% of the country's GDP, and employs 58% of the active population.[14SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

]This section includes transportation, commerce, warehousing, restaurant and hotels, arts and entertainment, health, education, financial and banking services, telecommunications as well as public administration and defense. Mexico's service sector is strong, and in 2001 replaced Brazil's as the largest service sector in Latin America in dollar terms. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

According to the IMF the Mexican banking system is strong, in which private banks are profitable and well-capitalized.[150] The financial and banking sector is increasingly dominated by foreign companies or mergers of foreign and Mexican companies with the notable exception of Banorte. The acquisition of Banamex, one of the oldest surviving financial institutions in Mexico,Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

by Citigroup was the largest US-Mexico corporate merger, at US $12.5 billion.[151] In spite of that, the largest financial institution in Mexico is Bancomer associated to the Spanish BBVA.[152]

The process of institution building in the financial sector in Mexico has evolved hand in hand with the efforts of financial liberalization and of inserting the economy more fully into world markets.[153] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

Over the recent years, there has been a wave of acquisitions by foreign institutions such as US-based Citigroup, Spain’s BBVA and the UK’s HSBC. Their presence, along with a better regulatory framework, has allowed Mexico’s banking system to recover from the 1994–95 peso devaluation. Lending to the public and private sector is increasing and so is activity in the areas of insurance, leasing and mortgages.[154] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

However, bank credit accounts for only 22% of GDP, which is significantly low compared to 70% in Chile.[155] Credit to the Agricultural sector has fallen 45.5% in six years (2001 to 2007), and now represents about 1% of total bank loans.[156] Other important institutions include savings and loans, credit unions (known as "cajas populares"),[157] HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

government development banks, “non-bank banks”, bonded warehouses, bonding companies and foreign-exchange firms.[158]

A wave of acquisitions has left Mexico’s financial sector in foreign hands. Their foreign-run affiliates compete with independent financial firms operating as commercial banks, brokerage and securities houses, insurance companies, retirement-fund administrators, mutual funds, and leasing companies. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

Mexico has a single securities market, the Mexican Stock Exchange (Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, known as the Bolsa). The market has grown steadily, with its main indices increasing by more than 600% in the last decade. It is Latin America's second largest exchange, after Brazil's. The total value of the domestic market capitalization of the BMV was calculated atUS$409 billion at the end of 2011, and raised to US$451 billion by the end of February this year.[159] ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

The Indice de Precios y Cotizaciones (IPC, the general equities index) is the benchmark stock index on the Bolsa. In 2005 the IPC surged 37.8%, to 17,802.71 from 12,917.88, backed by a stronger Mexican economy and lower interest rates. It continued its steep rise through the beginning of 2006, reaching 19,272.63 points at end-March 2006. The stockmarket also posted a record low vacancy rate, according to the central bank. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Local stockmarket capitalisation totalled US$236bn at end-2005, up from US$170bn at end-2004. As of March 2006 there were 135 listed companies, down from 153 a year earlier. Only a handful of the listed companies are foreign. Most are from Mexico City or Monterrey; companies from these two cities compose 67% of the total listed companies. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

The IPC consists of a sample of 35 shares weighted according to their market capitalisation. Heavy hitters are America Telecom, the holding company that manages Latin America’s largest mobile company, América Móvil; Telefonos de Mexico, Mexico’s largest telephone company; Grupo Bimbo, world's biggest baker; and Wal-Mart de México, a subsidiary of the US retail giant. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The makeup of the IPC is adjusted every six months, with selection aimed at including the most liquid shares in terms of value, volume and number of trades.

Mexico’s stockmarket is closely linked to developments in the US. Thus, volatility in the New York and Nasdaq stock exchanges, as well as interest-rate changes and economic expectations in the US, can steer the performance of Mexican equities. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

This is both because of Mexico’s economic dependence on the US and the high volume of trading in Mexican equities through American Depositary Receipts (ADRs). Currently, the decline in the value of the dollar is making non-US markets, including Mexico's, more attractive.

Despite the recent gains, investors remain wary of making placements in second-tier initial public offerings (IPOs). ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

Purchasers of new issues were disappointed after prices fell in numerous medium-sized companies that made offerings in 1996 and 1997. IPO activity in Mexico remains tepid and the market for second-tier IPOs is barely visible. There were three IPOs in 2005.

Banco de México is Mexico's central bank, an internally autonomous public institution whose governor is appointed by thepresident and approved by the legislature to which it is fully responsible. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan


Banco de México's functions are outlined in the 28th article of the constitution and further expanded in the Monetary Law of the United Mexican States.[162] Banco de México's main objective is to achieve stability in the purchasing power of the national currency. It is also the lender of last resort. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The floating exchange originated with reforms initiated after the December 1994 peso crash which had followed an unsustainable adherence to a short band. Under the new system, Banco de México now makes no commitment to the level of the peso exchange rate, although it does employ an automatic mechanism to accumulate foreign reserves. It also possesses tools aimed at smoothing out volatility. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The Exchange Rate Commission sets policy; it is made up of six members—three each from the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Publico—SHCP) and the central bank, with the SHCP holding the deciding vote.

In August 1996, Banco de México initiated a mechanism to acquire foreign reserves when the peso is strong, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

without giving the market signals about a target range for the exchange rate. The resulting high levels of reserves, mostly from petroleum revenues, have helped to improve the terms and conditions on debt Mexico places on foreign markets. However, there is concern that the government relies too heavily on oil income in order to build a healthy base of reserves. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

According to the central bank, international reserves stood at US $75.8 billion in 2007.[163] In May 2003, Banco de México launched a program that sells U.S. dollars via a monthly auction, with the goal of maintaining a stable, but moderate, level of reserves.From April 1, 1998 through April 1, 2008 the Peso traded around a range varying from $8.46 MXN per $1.00 USD on April 21, 1998 to $11.69 MXN per $1.00 USD on May 11, 2004, a 10 year peak depreciation of 38.18% between the two reference date extremes before recovering. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

After the onset of the US credit crisis that accelerated in October 2008, the Peso had an exchange rate during October 1, 2008 through April 1, 2009 fluctuating from lowest to highest between $10.96 MXN per $1.00 USD on October 1, 2008 to $15.42 MXN per $1.00 USD on March 9, 2009, a peak depreciation ytd of 28.92% during those six months between the two reference date extremes before recovering. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

From the $11.69 rate during 2004's low to the $15.42 rate during 2009's low, the peso depreciated 31.91% in that span covering the US recession coinciding Iraq War of 2003 and 2004 to the US & Global Credit Crisis of 2008.

Some experts including analysts at Goldman Sachs who coined the term BRIC in reference to the growing economics of Brazil, Russia, India, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

and China for marketing purposes believe that Mexico is going to be the 5th or 6th biggest economy in the world by the year 2050, behind China, United States, India, Brazil, and possibly Russia.

Mexico’s monetary policy was revised following the 1994–95 financial crisis, when officials decided that maintaining general price stability was the best way to contribute to the sustained growth of employment and economic activity. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

As a result, Banco de México has as its primary objective maintaining stability in the purchasing power of the peso. It sets an inflation target, which requires it to establish corresponding quantitative targets for the growth of the monetary base and for the expansion of net domestic credit.

The central bank also monitors the evolution of several economic indicators, such as the exchange rate, ASUS A8H CPU Fan

differences between observed and projected inflation, the results of surveys on the public and specialists’ inflation expectations, revisions on collective employment contracts, producer prices, and the balances of the current and capital accounts.

A debate continues over whether Mexico should switch to a US-style interest rate-targeting system. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Government officials in favor of a change say that the new system would give them more control over interest rates, which are becoming more important as consumer credit levels rise.Until 2008(???), Mexico used a unique system, amongst the OECD countries,[154] to control inflation in a mechanism known as the corto (lit. "shortage") a mechanism that allowed the central bank to influence market interest rates by leaving the banking system short of its daily demand for money by a predetermined amount.HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

If the central bank wanted to push interest rates higher, it increased the corto. If it wished to lower interest rates, it decreased the corto. Source: BANXICO: in April 2004, the Central Bank began setting a referential overnight interest rate as its monetary policy.

Petty corruption based on exercise of administrative discretion in matters of zoning and business permits is endemic in Mexico[164] adding about 10% to the cost of consumer goods and services.[165] APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

An April 2012 article in The New York Times reporting payment of bribes to officials throughout Mexico in order to obtain construction permits, information, and other favors[166] resulted in investigations in both the United States and Mexico.Mexico is an export oriented economy. It is an important trade power as measured by the value of merchandise traded, and the country with the greatest number of free trade agreements.[169] HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

In 2005, Mexico was the world's fifteenth largest merchandise exporter and twelfth largest merchandise importer with a 12% annual percentage increase in overall trade.[170] In fact, from 1991 to 2005 Mexican trade increased fivefold.[171] Mexico is the biggest exporter and importer in Latin America; in 2005, Mexico alone exported US $213.7 billion, roughly equivalent to the sum of the exports of Brazil, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Paraguay.[170] By 2009 Mexico ranked once again number 15 on World's leading exporters with US $230 billion (And amongst the top ten excluding Intra-EU countries).[172] However, Mexican trade is fully integrated with that of its North American partners: close to 90% of Mexican exports and 50% of its imports are traded with the United States and Canada. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

Nonetheless, NAFTA has not produced trade diversion.[30] While trade with the United States increased 183% from 1993–2002, and that with Canada 165%, other trade agreements have shown even more impressive results: trade with Chile increased 285%, with Costa Rica 528% and Honduras 420%.[31] Trade with the European Union increased 105% over the same time period. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Mexico joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986, and today is an active and constructive participant of the World Trade Organization. Fox's administration promoted the establishment of a Free Trade Area of the Americas; Puebla served as temporary headquarters for the negotiations, and several other cities are now candidates for its permanent headquarters if the agreement is reached and implemented. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

The North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is by far the most important Trade Agreement Mexico has signed both in the magnitude of reciprocal trade with its partners as well as in its scope. Unlike the rest of the Free Trade Agreements that Mexico has signed, NAFTA is more comprehensive in its scope and was complemented by the North American Agreement for Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC). SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

The NAAEC agreement was a response to environmentalists' concerns that companies would relocate to Mexico or the United States would lower its standards if the three countries did not achieve a unanimous regulation on the environment. The NAAEC, in an aim to be more than a set of environmental regulations, established the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (NACEC), HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

a mechanism for addressing trade and environmental issues, the North American Development Bank (NADBank) for assisting and financing investments in pollution reduction and the Border Environmental Cooperation Commission (BECC). The NADBank and the BECC have provided economic benefits to Mexico by financing 36 projects, mostly in the water sector. By complementing NAFTA with the NAAEC, it has been labeled the "greenest" trade agreement.[175] HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

The NAALC supplement to NAFTA aimed to create a foundation for cooperation among the three members for the resolution of labor problems, as well as to promote greater cooperation among trade unions and social organizations in all three countries, in order to fight for the improvement of labor conditions. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Though most economists agree that it is difficult to assess the direct impact of the NAALC, it is agreed that there has been a convergence of labor standards in North America. Given its limitations, however, NAALC has not produced (and in fact was not intended to achieve) convergence in employment, productivity and salary trend in North America.[176] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

The agreement fell short in liberalizing movement of people across the three countries. In a limited way, however, immigration of skilled Mexican and Canadian workers to the United States was permitted under the TN status. NAFTA allows for a wide list of professions, most of which require at least a Bachelor's degree, for which a Mexican or a Canadian citizen can request TN status and temporarily immigrate to the United States. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

Unlike the visas available to other countries, TN status requires no sponsorship, but simply a job offer letter.

The overall benefits of NAFTA have been quantified by several economists, whose findings have been reported in several publications like the World Bank's Lessons from NAFTA for LA and the Caribbean,[176] NAFTA's Impact on North America,[177] and NAFTA revisited by the Institute for International Economics.[30] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

They assess that NAFTA has been positive for Mexico, whose poverty rates have fallen, and real income salaries have risen even after accounting for the 1994–1995 Economic Crisis. Nonetheless, they also state that it has not been enough, or fast enough, to produce an economic convergence nor to reduce the poverty rates substantially or to promote higher rates of growth. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Beside this the textile industry gain hype with this agreement and the textile industry in Mexioogained open access to the American market, promoting exports to the United States. The value of Mexican cotton and apparel exports to the U.S. grew from $ 3 billion in 1995 to $ 8.4 billion in 2002, a record high of $ 9.4 billion in 2000. At the same time, the share of Mexico’s cotton textile market the U.S. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

has increased from 8 percent in 1995 to 13 percent in 2002.|} Some have suggested that in order to fully benefit from the agreement Mexico should invest in education and promote innovation as well as in infrastructure and agriculture.[176]

Contrary to popular belief, the maquiladora program was in place far before NAFTA, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

in some sense dating all the way back to 1965. A maquiladora manufacturer operates by importing raw materials into Mexico either tariff free (NAFTA) or at a reduced rate on a temporary basis (18 months) and then using Mexico's relatively less expensive labor costs to produce finished goods for export. Prior to NAFTA maquiladora companies importing raw materials from anywhere in the world were given preferential tariff rates by the Mexican government so long as the finished good was for export.HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

The US, prior to NAFTA, allowed Maquiladora manufactured goods to be imported into the US with the tariff rate only being applied to the value of non US raw materials used to produce the good, thus reducing the tariff relative to other countries. NAFTA has eliminated all tariffs on goods between the two countries, but for the maquiladora industry significantly increased the tariff rates for goods sourced outside of NAFTA. Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

Given the overall size of trade between Mexico and the United States, there are remarkably few trade disputes, involving relatively small dollar amounts. These disputes are generally settled in WTO or NAFTA panels or through negotiations between the two countries. The most significant areas of friction involve trucking, sugar, high fructose corn syrup, and a number of other agricultural products. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

A research brief published by the World Bank[178] as part of its Trade Costs and Facilitation Project suggests that Mexico has the potential to substantially increase trade flows and economic growth through trade facilitation reform. The study examines the potential impacts of trade facilitation reforms in four areas: port efficiency, customs administration, information technology, and regulatory environment (including standards). HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

The study projects overall increments from domestic reforms to be on the order of $31.8 billion, equivalent to 22.4 percent of total Mexican manufacturing exports for 2000–03. On the imports side, the corresponding figures are $17.1 billion and 11.2 percent, respectively. Increases in exports, including textiles, would result primarily from improvements in port efficiency and the regulatory environment. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

Exports of transport equipment would be expected to increase by the greatest increment from improvements in port efficiency, whereas exports of food and machinery would largely be the result of improvements in the regulatory environment. On the imports side, Mexican improvements in port efficiency would appear to be the most important factor, although for imports of transport equipment, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

improvements in service sector infrastructure would also be of relative importance.

Small and medium enterprises in Mexico generally called PYMEs (Spanish: pequeña y mediana empresa), are an important segment of the Mexican economy. They are classified in two types of small and medium enterprises: family businesses and non-family businesses.[1] Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

The Mexican Government supports PyMEs since 2004. The Mexican Chamber of Economy with the help of the Mexican government creates different type of programs for the PyMEs that need to improve their participation in the national market and also for the international market. The PyMEs' size is classified by the number of employees they have. The main sectors are manufacturing, commerce and service. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

As of 2006 there were about 4 million enterprises in Mexico. Out of those 4 million, 99.8% were small and medium enterprises. About 52% of the Mexican GDP is generated by small and medium size enterprises. While the remaining 48% relies on large enterprises. Small and medium size enterprises contribute with the 72% of the formal employment in Mexico. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

PyMEs are subdivided into: 15% for Micro, 14.5% for small and 22.5% for medium enterprises.[2]

PyMes can be classified by type and size. There is a manufacturing, commerce, and service type. Within these, PyMEs are classified according to the number of employees—10, 50, 250 and more than 250 respectively—into micro, small, medium, and large enterprises. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Service enterprises are classed by those with have 10, 50, 100, and more than 100 employees.[3]

PyMEs throughout the nation are distributed by region. About 38% of them in the central part of the country, 17% locate southwest, 6% southeast, 12% northeast and 27% center-west.

There are two types of PyMEs in Mexico (according to their origin). Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

Those that began as family businesses and those formed by more formal partnership. The ones that start as family business are small and only very few of them have some type of projection abroad. These are usually the ones who search for government support mainly for financial and training purposes. The other type of small and Medium size enterprises in Mexico are those who follow an established path. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

An example of this could be franchises, these do not have a problem of expanding abroad. Franchises are small projection of big enterprises who have already done the market research before entering a new zone. They have all the possible experience on expanding overseas and very little risk on failing because in most cases they go under the concept of a high brand awareness. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

PyMEs have been an important part of the country's development, especially in the area of exports. Due to their small size they are versatile, dynamic and have growth potential. This potential also includes entering international markets. They are a major source of job creation in the country and are the most likely to implement new technologies. Since many are located in different regions of the country, they foment local development. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

The main contribution to enterprises growth lies on PyMEs. The importance of small and medium size enterprises in Mexico has grown through time due to the positive effect these businesses have had on Mexico's economy. Since these enterprises continue becoming more important, government is focusing a lot on supporting them.

On the other hand, they also have some disadvantages. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

In general PyMEs have not development the habit of reinvesting to improve production or reinvest in equipment. They do not have enough economic resources to hire specialized employees nor to train current ones. This and lack of foresight can lead to insufficient sales, lack of competitiveness, inadequate customer service, low quality and higher prices. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

Because of the lack of quality control, legal problems such as dealing with VATs and defective products becomes an issue.

Since 2004, Mexican government has had a number of programs to support PyMEs so that they help Mexico's economy growth. The government has two groups of programs to support PyMEs.The first group helps PyMEs to grow within the national market.HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The main programs are Emerging Programs, Productive Projects, Centros Mexico Emprende (Mexico undertake program), National System of Loan Guaranties, and Enterprises Consultancy.[5]

The main objective of the Programas Emergentes (Emerging Programs) is to help the economic areas that have been affected by natural disasters. This program achieves this objective through loans with special payment conditions. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

This help is given to the PyMEs that stop their economic activity because of a natural disaster. The Emerging Programs are coordinated and supervised by "Fondo PyMe." The regulations that this organization point out is that the PyMEs are supported with special resources with the concepts that the directive council determine that are essential to the economic reactivation of the enterprises. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

These enterprises have to satisfy certain conditions.[6] Proyectos Productivos (Productive Projects) helps to finance investment projects that improve the competitiveness of PyMes. This helps to trigger the creation and maintenance of jobs and regional development. The most important project is the financing. These funds are mostly targeted to production projects. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

The projects have to help by developing, expansion and consolidation of the enterprises.[7] The Centros Mexico Emprende (Mexico undertake program) is for the execution of public or private services to support PyMEs. The support is given in a comprehensive, accessible, lively, and timely way according to the size and the enterprises potential. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The different types of center concepts are: fitting out and infrastructure, designing and updating information systems for planning, and measuring of results generated from the "Centros Mexico Emprende."[8] Sistema Nacional de Garantias (National System of Loan Guaranties) provides PyMEs with easy access to the financing programs with competitive conditions and payment periods.[9] HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The Consultoria Empresarial (Enterprises Consultancy) is a program that helps PyMEs be more productive and profitable. It achieves this objective through the identification of business intervention programs. These programs are applied to one or more fundamental areas of an enterprise as training and consultancy and the development of instructors and consultants. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

The second group helps PyMEs to maintain a place and to succeed in the international market. The SPyME (Subsecretaría para la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa) was created to promote, encourage, and design tools and programs with the purpose of creating, consolidating and developing micro, small, and medium enterprises in the international market.[11] COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

The Sub-secretary for Small and Medium Enterprise (SPYME), with the purpose of helping primarily small enterprises, created thePrograma Nacional de Capacitación y Consultoría (National Program for Training and Consultancy). This program incorporates improvement actions in areas where weaknesses or opportunities are detected. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

The program stimulates the consolidation of the entrepreneurship through actions like the instrumentation of innovative methodologies in productive priority sectors. The program also foments the application of strategic programs to improve enterprises management.[12]

The National Program of Training and Consultancy (Programa Nacional de Capacitación y Consulta) divides its operation in four components. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

The Programa de Consultoría General (Program of General Consultancy), that was created for the projects of major demand identified by chambers and managerial associations, that as well as for state and municipal governments, will look for the support of the Fondo PyME (Fund SME). This program was made to take care of the needs of training and consultancy, across proven methodologies that assure they will have quantifiable results. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The Programa Moderniza (Modernization Program), the Secretary of Economy (SE) and the Secretary of Tourism (SECTUR) started a System of Management named "Modernize" that allows to improve the quality of the services offered to the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of the tourist sector. The Secretary of Tourism carries out the consultants' formation, which are the only ones authorized to execute the program and to register in SECTUR. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The Formación de Consultores PyME – JICA (SME Consultants' Formation – JICA) establishes the formation of advisers specialized in the methodology of the Agency of International Cooperation of the Japan (JICA). The process is based on the application of Japanese tools of improvements of high impact with a lower cost. It lasts approximately one month and a half, and is directed to consultants with more than three years of experience in managerial consultancy. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

This has allowed relying on a base of specialized consultants that multiplies the efforts to offer specialized services of consultancy that generate more competitive enterprises. The Consultoría Empresarial PyME (SME Managerial Consultancy-JICA) estimulates the development and consolidation of the MIPyMES by the application of a model of integral attention of standardized consultancy, Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

carried out by the consultants PYME-JICA and accredited by the Secretary of Economy. The process of consultancy that is offered in the facilities of the company lasts from 3 to 4 months, and is directed for MIPYMES, preferably with two years of operation. The Fondo PyME (Fund SME), along with the National Program of Consultancy PYME-JICA, helps with subsidies that go from 30 to 70 percent of the total cost of the service of managerial consultancy. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

It is proven that many economies are based on their exports. Well organized and structured PyMEs can be a significant source of exports. For this reason, the Mexican government is giving special attention to PyMEs in this regard, allocating a big part of its economic resources to help small and medium size enterprises expand overseas. Supported PyMEs can mean increasing exports and a more open economy.[13] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

The "Subsecretaria para la pequena y mediana empresa" (SPyME) was founded to design, foment and promote programs and other tools that have as objective the creation, consolidation and development of micro, small and medium size enterprises.

About 59% of Mexico's exports are controlled by 30% of the total enterprises in the country. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Out of all the PyMEs existing only 9% of them export, while the remaining 83% do not have any type of presence overseas. International Commerce in Mexico is mainly based on big enterprises, this is why government is very interested on giving assistance and financial help to small businesses.

Out of all the exporting enterprises in Mexico only 64,000 are PyMEs. They are located mostly in the center part of the country, northeast and centerwest. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

There are many ways PyMEs can be supported in Mexico. Fiscal support to Mexican exporters. VAT return or VAT compensation. Program of foment for the manufacturing industry maquiladora and export services (IMMEX). Also through the program of sectorial promotion. Program of Drawback ( through which Government offers VAT return to those Mexican small businesses that export to a country that has imposed tariffs on imports). Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

There are Benefits to High level exporting enterprises (ALTEX). Benefits to International commerce enterprises (ECEX). Mechanisms of Indirect Exports such as VAT elimination or Application of 0% VAT on exports. Mixed Commission for the Promotion of exports (COMPEX). An annual incentive named National Exporting Price. Government aid such as information or opportunities to expand overseas, consultancy and training. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

Commercial opportunities such as analysis of the market. Selection and establishment of contact with client within the foreign market. Government may also support PyMEs though a Positioning process.

The most important programs supporting for exports are Financing, Consultancy, Training, Exporting, Technical Assistance and Information on exports.[14] SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The services that the Programa Nacional de Franquicias (Exemption National Program) offers to PyMES are: commercialization, consultancy and financing. Likewise, they approach to the entrepreneurs, MIPyMES and owners of exemptions, to give them supports that offer the opportunity to start a new business taking advantage of the experience of an exemption, stimulate successful business to turn them into exemptions, HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

develop new exemptions. Support the consolidation of the existing exemptions. Export models of Mexican exemptions. Strengthen the positioning of the brand of the existing exemptions and realize the re-engineering of existing models of exemptions.[15]

The PyMExporta Centers are federal, states and local organizations who have the objective of helping the PyMEs that have the special interest to start, increase, or to diversify their exports worldwide. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

This organizations join efforts with the Business Mexican Sector to achieve this aim.[16]

Some of the advantages and benefits that the centers bring to PyMEs are the training of the export process, a specialized consultancy for the development of export projects, the possibility of being able of promote the PyMEs in the international market, consultancy in customs Mexico requirements, HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

information about markets and legal regulations for exports and the support in the tasks of logistics and management. The PyMExporta Centers work with their own register methodology, accompaniment and management of institutional supports according with what the businesses require. The supporting service is personal and specialized for each need of the enterprises.[16] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Services are given depending on the levels of the identification of the enterprises potential, in case the enterprises have the facilities to export its product a document will be signed for the development of each process stage of the export. The commerce strategy identifies the requirements of the product, it supports and advises the businessman since the beginning of the contract of international sale until the end of the sale. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

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