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Marcel Pagnol To his father's amazement, Pagnol learned to read at a young age.[citation needed] His mother, however, did not allow him to touch a book until he was six "for fear of cerebral explosion".[citation needed] In July 1904, the family rented the Bastide Neuve,[1] – a house in the sleepy Provençal village of La Treille – for the summer holidays, the first of many spent in the hilly countryside between Aubagne and Marseille.[2]TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard About the same time, Augustine's health, which had never been robust, began to noticeably decline and on 16 June 1910 she succumbed to a chest infection ("mal de poitrine") and died, aged 36.[3] Joseph remarried in 1912.[1] In 1913, at the age of 18, Marcel passed his baccalaureate in philosophy[1] and started studying literature at the University in Aix-en-Provence. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard When World War I broke out, he was called up into the infantry at Nice but in January 1915 he was discharged because of his poor constitution ("faiblesse de constitution'').[1]On 2 March 1916, he married Simone Colin in Marseille and in November graduated in English.[1] He became an English teacher, teaching in various local colleges and at a lycée in Marseille.[1]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 1922, he moved to Paris, where he taught English until 1927,[1] when he decided instead to devote his life to playwriting. During this time, he belonged to a group of young writers, in collaboration with one of whom, SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard Paul Nivoix, he wrote the play, Merchants of Glory, which was produced in 1924. This was followed, in 1928, by Topaze, a satire based on ambition.[1] Exiled in Paris, he returned nostalgically to his Provençal roots, taking this as his setting for his play,Marius, which later became Pagnol's first film in 1931. HP G61-420CA Laptop Keyboard Separated from Simone Collin since 1926 (though not divorced until 1941), he formed a relationship with the young English dancer Kitty Murphy: their son, Jacques Pagnol, was born on 24 September 1930.[1] (Jacques later became his father's assistant and subsequently a cameraman for France 3 Marseille.) HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard In 1945, Pagnol re-married, to actress Jacqueline Bouvier.[1] They had two children together, Frédéric (born 1946) and Estelle (born 1949).[1] Estelle died at the age of two. Pagnol was so devastated that he fled the south and returned to live in Paris. He went back to writing plays, but after his next piece was badly received he decided to change his job once more and began writing a series of autobiographical novels – Souvenirs d'enfance –ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard based on his childhood experiences. In 1957, the first two novels in the series, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère were published to instant acclaim.[1] The third Le Temps des secrets was published in 1959;[1] though the fourth Le Temps des Amours was to remain unfinished and was not published until 1977, after his death. In the meantime, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Pagnol turned to a second series, L'Eau des Collines – Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources – which focused on the machinations of Provençal peasant life at the turn of the twentieth century and were published in 1962.[1]  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Pagnol died in Paris on April 18, 1974.[1] He is buried in Marseille at the cemetery La Treille, along with his mother and father, brothers, and wife. His boyhood friend, David Magnan (Lili des Bellons in the autographies), died at the Second Battle of the Marne in July 1918, and is buried nearby. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Pagnol adapted his own film Manon des Sources, with his wife, Jacqueline, in the title role, into two novels, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, collectively titled L'Eau des Collines. In the 1980s, both books were adapted back into film by film-maker Claude Berri, to international acclaim. Pagnol's affectionate reminiscences of childhood, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère were also filmed successfully by Yves Robert in 1990. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard In his films, Pagnol transfers his playwriting talents onto the big screen. His editing style is somberly reserved, placing emphasis on the content of an image. As a pictoral naturalist, Pagnol relies on film as art to convey a deeper meaning rather than solely a tool to tell a story. Pagnol also took great care in the type of actors he employed, hiring local actors to appear in his films to highlight their unique accents and culture. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard . Similar to his plays, Pagnol emphasizes dialogue and musicality throughout his films. The theme of many of Pagnol's films revolves around the acute observation of social rituals. Using interchangeable symbols and reoccurring character roles such as proud fathers and rebellious children, Pagnol illuminates the provincial life of the lower class. Notably, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Pagnol also frequently compares Women and Land, showing both can be barren or fertile. Above all, Pagnol uses all this to illustrate the importance of human bonds and their renewal.[4]SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard In 1926, on a visit to London, Pagnol attended a screening of one of the first talking films and he was so impressed that he decided to devote his efforts to cinema. He contacted Paramount Picture studios and suggested adapting his play Mariusfor cinema. This was directed by Alexander Korda and released on 10 October 1931.[1] It became one of the first successful French-language talking films. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201i Laptop Keyboard In 1932 Pagnol founded his own film production studios in the countryside near Marseille.[1]Over the next decade Pagnol produced his own films, taking many different roles in the production – financier, director, script writer, studio head, and foreign-language script translator – and employing the greatest French actors of the period. On 4 April 1946, Pagnol was elected to the Académie Française, taking his seat in March 1947, the first filmmaker to receive this honour.[1]DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

Académie française

L'Académie française  also called the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII.[1]Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte.[1] It is the oldest of the five académies of the Institut de France. HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard The Académie consists of forty members, known as immortels (immortals).[2] New members are elected by the members of the Académie itself. Académicians hold office for life, but they may be removed for misconduct. Philippe Pétain, named Marshall of France after the victory of Verdun in World War I, was elected to the Academy in 1931 and, following his governorship of Vichy France in World War II, SONY 148084721 Laptop Keyboard was forced to resign his seat in 1945.[3] The body has the task of acting as an official authority on the language; it is charged with publishing an official dictionary of the language. Its rulings, however, are only advisory, not binding on either the public or the government.  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard The Académie's origins occur in an informal literary group that grew out of the salons held at the Hôtel de Rambouillet, during the late 1620s and early 1630s. They began meeting at Valentin Conrart's house, seeking informality. There were then nine members. Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of France, took the body under his protection, and in anticipation of the formal creation of the academy, new members were appointed in 1634. On 22 February 1635, at Richelieu's urging, TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard King Louis XIII granted letters patent formally establishing the body; according to the letters patent registered at the Parlement de Paris on 10 July 1637,[1] the Académie française was "to labor with all the care and diligence possible, to give exact rules to our language, to render it capable of treating the arts and sciences". The Académie française has remained responsible for the regulation of French grammar, spelling, and literature. SONY VAIO VGN-AW2XRY Laptop Keyboard Richelieu's model, the first academy devoted to winnowing out the "impurities" of a language, was the Accademia della Crusca, founded in Florence in 1582, which formalized the already dominant position of the Tuscan dialect of Florence as the model forItalian; the Florentine academy had published its Vocabolario in 1612.[4]HP Pavilion dv6-3135eo Laptop Keyboard During the French Revolution, the National Convention suppressed all royal académies, including the Académie française. In 1792, the election of new members to replace those who died was prohibited; in 1793, the académies were themselves abolished. They were all replaced in 1795 by a single body called the Institut de France, or Institute of France.  Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard Napoleon Bonaparte, asFirst Consul, decided to restore the former académies, but only as "classes" or divisions of the Institut de France. The second class of the Institut was responsible for the French language, and corresponded to the former Académie française. WhenKing Louis XVIII came to the throne in 1816, each class regained the title of "Académie"; accordingly, the second class of the Institut became the Académie française. Since 1816, the existence of the Académie française has been uninterrupted.  APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard The President of France is the "protector" or patron of the Académie. Cardinal Richelieu originally fulfilled this role; upon his death in 1642, Pierre Séguier, the Chancellor of France, succeeded him. King Louis XIV took over the function when Séguier died in 1672; since then, the French head of state has always served as the Académie's protector. DELL XPS M1710 Laptop Keyboard From 1672 to 1805, the official meetings of the Académie were held at the Louvre; since 1805, the Académie française has met at the Collège des Quatre Nations (now known as the Palais de l'Institut). The remaining académies of the Institut de France also meet at the Palais de l'Institut. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard he new member is then installed at a sitting of the Académie. The new member must deliver a speech to the Académie, which includes a eulogy for the member being replaced. This is followed by a speech made by one of the members. Eight days thereafter, a public reception is held, during which the new member makes a speech thanking his counterparts for his election. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Once, a member (Georges de Porto-Riche) was not accorded a reception because the eulogy he made of his predecessor was not considered satisfactory, and he refused to rewrite it. Georges Clemenceau refused to be received because he feared that he might be received by his enemy, Raymond Poincaré. HP G42-472LA Laptop Keyboard Members remain in the Académie for life. However, the body may expel an academician for grave misconduct. The first expulsion came in 1638, when Auger de Moléon de Granier was removed for theft. The most recent expulsions came at the end of the Second World War; Abel Bonnard, Abel Hermant, Philippe Pétain, and Charles Maurras were all excluded for their association with theVichy regime. In total, twenty members have been expelled from the Académie. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard There have been a total of 719 immortels,[2] of whom six have been women (the first woman, Marguerite Yourcenar, was elected in 1980 — besides the six elected women, 14 women were candidates, the first one in 1874). Individuals who are not citizens of France may be, and have been, elected. Moreover, although most academicians are writers,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard one need not be a member of the literary profession to become a member. The Académie has included numerous politicians, lawyers, scientists, historians, philosophers, and senior Roman Catholic clergymen. Five French heads of state (Adolphe Thiers, Raymond Poincaré, Paul Deschanel,Philippe Pétain, and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing), ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard and one foreign head of state (Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal) have been members. Other famous members include Louis, duc de Broglie, Alexandre Dumas, fils, Victor Hugo, Charles, baron de Montesquieu,Louis Pasteur, Henri Poincaré, and Voltaire.  HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Laptop Keyboard Many notable French writers have not become members of the Académie française. In 1855, the writer, Arsène Houssaye, devised the expression, "forty-first seat", for deserving individuals who were never elected to the Académie, either because their candidacies were rejected, because they were never candidates, or because they died before appropriate vacancies arose. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Notable figures in French literature who never became academicians include Jean Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Sartre, Joseph de Maistre,Honoré de Balzac, René Descartes, Denis Diderot, Gustave Flaubert, Molière, Marcel Proust, Jules Verne, Theophile Gautier, and Émile Zola. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

Uniform

The official uniform of a member is known as l'habit vert, or the green habit.[2] The habit vert, worn at the Académie's formal ceremonies, was first adopted during Napoleon Bonaparte's reorganisation of the Institut de France. It consists of a long black coat and black-feathered cocked hat (officially called abicorne),[2] HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard both richly embroidered with golden-green leafy motifs, together with black trousers or skirt. Further, members receive a ceremonial sword(l'épée);[2] however, clergymen do not receive swords. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard As French culture has come under increasing pressure with the widespread use of English in media and technology, the Académie has tried to prevent theAnglicization of the French language. For example, the Académie has recommended, with mixed success, that some loanwords from English (such as walkmansoftwareand email) be avoided,  HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard in favour of words derived from French (baladeurlogiciel, and courriel respectively). Moreover, the Académie has worked to modernizeFrench orthography. The body, however, has sometimes been criticized for behaving in an excessively conservative fashion. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard A recent controversy involved the officialization of feminine equivalents for the names of several professions. For instance, in 1997, Lionel Jospin's government began using the feminine noun "la ministre" to refer to a female minister, following the official practice of Canada, SONY VAIO VGN-FS715 Laptop Keyboard Belgium and Switzerland and a common, though until then unofficial, practice in France. The Académie, however, insisted on the traditional use of the masculine noun, "le ministre," for a minister of either gender. Use of either form remains controversial. DELL Inspiron 1420 Laptop Keyboard The Académie française is responsible for awarding several different prizes in various fields (including literature, painting, poetry, theatre, cinema, history, and translation). Almost all of the prizes have been created in the twentieth century, and only two prizes were awarded before 1780. In total, the Académie awards over sixty prizes, most of them annually.  APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard The most important prize is the grand prix de la francophonie, which was instituted in 1986, and is funded by the governments of France, Canada, Monaco, andMorocco. Other important prizes include the grand prix de littérature (for a literary work), the grand prix du roman (for a novel), the grand prix de poésie(for poetry), the grand prix de philosophie (for a philosophical work), and the grand prix Gobert (for a work on French history). SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

History of the department

Bouches-du-Rhône is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from the western part of the former province of Provence and the principalities of Orange, Martigues, andLambesc. It lost part of its territory in 1793, including Orange and Apt, when the Vaucluse department was created. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard Following its creation, the department was immediately strongly and actively supportive of the French Revolution, containing 90 "Jacobin Clubs" by 1794.[1] It was also noteworthy that more than 50% of the priests in the department accepted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy which in effect subordinated the church to the government.[2] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard During the ascendancy of the Communist Party in the twentieth century election results indicated that support for left-wing politics remained relatively strong in the department, and especially in the northern suburbs of Marseille. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard is a Romance language spoken insouthern France, Italy's Occitan Valleys, Monaco, and Catalonia's Val d'Aran: the regions sometimes known unofficially as Occitania. It is also spoken in the linguistic enclave of Guardia Piemontese (Calabria, Italy). Occitan is a descendant of the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, Lenovo 42T3403 Laptop Keyboard as are languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish,Romanian and Sardinian. It is an official language in Catalonia, (known as Aranese in Val d'Aran).[6] Occitan's closest relative is Catalan.[7] Since September 2010, the Parliament of Catalonia has considered Aranese Occitan to be the officially preferred language for use in the Val d'Aran. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard The term Provençal (Occitan: provençalprovençau or prouvençau, IPA: [pruβenˈsal, pʀuveⁿˈsaw]) may be used as a traditional synonym for Occitan but, nowadays, “Provençal” is mainly understood as an Occitan dialect spoken in Provence.[8]DELL Vostro 1500 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The long-term survival of Occitan is in question. According to the UNESCO Red Book of Endangered Languages,[9] four of the six major dialects of Occitan (Provençal, Auvergnat, Limousin and Languedocien) are considered "severely endangered", TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard while the remaining two (Gascon and Vivaro-Alpine) are considered "definitely endangered" ("severely endangered" essentially means that only elderly people still speak the language fluently, while "definitely endangered" means that adults speak the language but are not passing it on to their children). SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard The name Occitan comes from lenga d'òc (i.e., òc language), which comes from òc, the Occitan word for yes. The Italian medieval poet Dante was the first to have recorded the term lingua d'oc. In his De vulgari eloquentia he wrote in Latin: "nam alii oc, alii si, alii vero dicunt oil" ("for some say òc, others , yet others oïl"), ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard thereby highlighting three major Romance literary languages that were well known in Italy, based on each language's word for "yes", the òc language (Occitan), the oïl language (French), and the sì language (Italian). This was not, of course, the only defining character of each group. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The word òc came from Vulgar Latin hoc ("this"), while oïl originated from Latin hoc illud ("this [is] it"). Old Catalan and nowadays the Catalan of Northern Catalonia (France, Catalunya Nord) also have hoc (òc). Other Romance languages derive their word for yes from the Latin sic, "thus [it is], [it was done], etc.", such as Spanish SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard Eastern Lombard , Italian , or Portuguese sim. In Modern Catalan, as in modern Spanish,  is usually used as a response, although the language retains the word oi, akin to òc, which is sometimes used at the end of yes-no questions and in higher register also as a positive response.[10] French uses si in response to questions where a negative answer is expected: e.g., "Vous n'avez pas de frères?" "Si, j'en ai sept." ("You have no brothers?" "Yes [I do], I have seven."). SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard Other names for Occitan For many centuries, the Occitan dialects (together with Catalan)[11] were referred to as Limousin or Provençal, the names of two regions lying within modern "Occitania". After Mistral's Félibrige movement in the 19th century, Provençal achieved the greatest literary recognition and so became the most popular term for the Occitan language. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard According to Joseph Anglade, a philologist and specialist of medieval literature who helped impose the then archaic term Occitan as the sole correct name,[12][13] the word Lemosin was first used to designate the language at the beginning of the 13th century by Catalan troubadour Raimon Vidal de Besalú in hisRazós de trobar[14]DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard La parladura Francesca val mais et [es] plus avinenz a far romanz e pasturellas; mas cella de Lemozin val mais per far vers et cansons et serventés; et per totas las terras de nostre lengage son de major autoritat li cantar de la lenga Lemosina que de negun'autra parladura, per qu'ieu vos en parlarai primeramen. DELL 9J.N0H82.K01 Laptop Keyboard The French language is worthier and better suited for romances and pastourelles; but the language from Limousin is of greater value for writing poems andcançons and sirventés; and across the whole of the lands where our tongue is spoken, the literature in the Limousin language has more authority than any other dialect, wherefore I shall use this name in priority. ASUS X53K Laptop Keyboard As for the word Provençal, it should not be taken as strictly meaning the language of Provence but of Occitania as a whole, as, "in the eleventh, the twelfth, and sometimes also the thirteenth centuries, one would understand under the name of Provence the whole territory of the old Provincia Romana and evenAquitaine".[15] The term first came into fashion in Italy.[16] lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard Nowadays, linguists use the terms Provençal and Limousin strictly to refer to specific varieties within Occitania, keeping the name Occitan for the language as a whole. Many non-specialists, however, continue to refer to the language as Provençal, causing some confusion. APPLE PowerBook G3 Laptop Keyboard ASUS F6 Laptop Keyboard One of the oldest written fragments of the language ever found dates back to the year 960, in an official text that was mixed with Latin:[17]De ista hora in antea non DECEBRÀ Ermengaus filius Eldiarda Froterio episcopo filio Girberga NE Raimundo filio Bernardo vicecomite de castello de Cornone... NO·L LI TOLRÀ NO·L LI DEVEDARÀ NI NO L'EN DECEBRÀ... nec societatem non AURÀ, si per castellum recuperare NON O FA, et si recuperare potuerit in potestate Froterio et Raimundo LO TORNARÀ, per ipsas horas quæ Froterius et Raimundus L'EN COMONRÀ. [...]HP G61 Laptop Keyboard It is interesting to note that Carolinian litanies (ca 780), both written and sung in Latin, were answered to in Old Occitan by the audience (Ora pro nosTu lo juva).[18]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard Other famous pieces include the Boecis, a 258-line-long poem written entirely in the Limousin dialect of Occitan between the year 1000 and 1030 and inspired byBoethius's Consolation of Philosophy; the Waldensian La Nobla Leyczon (dated 1100[19]), la Cançó de Santa Fe (ca 1054–1076), the Romance of Flamenca (13th c.), the Song of the Albigensian Crusade (1213–1219?), Daurel et Beton (12th or 13th c.), Las, qu'i non sun sparvir, astur (11th c.) and Tomida femina (9th or 10th c.).  ACER Aspire 7741Z Laptop Keyboard Occitan was the vehicle for the influential poetry of the medieval troubadours and trobairises: At that time, the language was understood and celebrated throughout most of educated Europe.[20] With the gradual imposition of French royal power over its territory, Occitan declined in status from the 14th century on. By the Edict of Villers-Cotterets (1539) it was decreed that the langue d'oïl (Northern French) should be used for all French administration. Lenovo Thinkpad T520i Laptop Keyboard Occitan's greatest decline was during the French Revolution, during which diversity of language was considered a threat. The literary renaissance of the late 19th century (which included a Nobel Prize for Frédéric Mistral) was attenuated by the First World War, when Occitan speakers spent extended periods of time alongside French-speaking comrades. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Occitan in Spain

Occitan is closely related to Catalan, with which it shares many linguistic features and even a common origin (see Occitano-Romance languages). The language was one of the first to gain prestige as a medium for literature among Romance languages in the Middle Ages. Indeed, in the 12th and 13th centuries, Catalantroubadours such as Guerau de Cabrera, Guilhem de Bergadan, Guilhem de Cabestany, Huguet de Mataplana, Raimon Vidal de Besalú, Cerverí de Girona, Formit de Perpinhan, and Jofre de Foixà wrote in Occitan. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard At the end of the 11th century, the Franks, as they were called at the time, started to penetrate the Iberian Peninsula through the Ways of St. James viaSomport and Roncesvalles, settling on various spots of the Kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon enticed by the privileges granted them by the Navarrese kings. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-220EC Laptop Keyboard They established themselves in ethnic boroughs where Occitan was used for everyday life, e.g. Pamplona, Sangüesa, Estella, etc.[21] The language in turn became the status language chosen by the Navarrese kings, nobility and upper classes for official and trade purposes in the period stretching from the early 13th century to late 14th century.[22TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard ] These boroughs in Navarre may have been close-knit communities with little mingling, in a context where the natural milieu was predominantly Basque-speaking. The variant chosen for written administrative records was a koiné based on Languedocien from Toulouse with fairly archaic linguistic features.  ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Evidence of a written account in Occitan from Pamplona revolving around the burning of borough San Nicolas has reached up to our days (1258), while the History of the War of Navarre by Guilhem Anelier (1276) albeit written in Pamplona shows a linguistic variant from Toulouse.[23] DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Things turned out slightly otherwise in Aragon, where the sociolinguistic situation was different, with a clearer Basque-Romance bilingual situation (cf. Basques from the Val d'Aran cited circa 1000),[24] but a receding Basque language (Basque banned in the marketplace of Huesca, 1349).[25][26] While the language was chosen as a medium of prestige in records and official statements along with Latin in the early 13th century, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Occitan faced competition from the rising local Romance vernacular, the Navarro-Aragonese, both orally and in writing, especially after Aragon's territorial conquests south to Saragossa, Huesca andTudela between 1118 and 1134. It resulted that a second Occitan immigration of this period was assimilated by the similar Navarro-Aragonese language, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard which at the same time was fostered and chosen by the kings of Aragon. The language fell into decay in the 14th century across the whole southern Pyrenean area and became largely absorbed into Navarro-Aragonese first and Castilian later in the 15th century, after their exclusive boroughs broke up (1423, Pamplona's boroughs unified).[27]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Gascon-speaking communities were called in for trading purposes by Navarrese kings in the early 12th century to the coastal fringe extending from Donostia to the Bidasoa, where they settled down. The language variant used was different from the ones used in Navarre, i.e. a Béarnese Gascon,[28] with Gascon being in use far longer than in Navarre and Aragon till the 19th century, thanks mainly to the close ties held by Donostia and Pasaia with Bayonne. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Though it was still an everyday language for most of the rural population of southern France well into the 20th century, it has been all but replaced by the systematic imposition of the French language. According to the 1999 census, there are 610,000 native speakers (almost all of whom are also native French speakers) and perhaps another million persons with some exposure to the language. TOSHIBA P205-S6347 Laptop Keyboard Following the pattern of language shift, most of this remainder is to be found among the eldest populations. Occitan activists (called Occitanists) have attempted, in particular with the advent of Occitan-language preschools (the Calandretas), to reintroduce the language to the young. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Nonetheless, the number of proficient speakers of Occitan is dropping precipitously. A tourist in the cities in southern France is unlikely to hear a single Occitan word spoken on the street (or, for that matter, in a home), and is likely to only find the occasional vestige, such as street signs (and, of those, most will have French equivalents more prominently displayed), to remind them of the traditional language of the area. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240D Laptop Keyboard Occitans, as a result of more than 200 years of conditioned suppression and humiliation (see Vergonha), seldom speak their own language in the presence of foreigners, whether they're from abroad or from outside Occitania (in this case, often merely and abusively referred to as Parisiens or Nordistes, which means northerners). Occitan is still spoken by many elderly people in rural areas, but they generally switch to French when dealing with outsiders. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Occitan's decline is somewhat less pronounced in Bearn because of the province's history (a late addition to the Kingdom of France), though even there the language is little spoken outside the homes of the rural elderly. The village of Artixis notable for having elected to post street signs in the local language. IBM Thinkpad T61 Laptop Keyboard Occitan is fundamentally defined by its dialects, rather than being a unitary language. Like other languages that fundamentally exist at a spoken, rather than written, level (e.g. Rhaeto-Romance, Franco-Provençal, Astur-Leonese, and Aragonese), every settlement technically has its own dialect, with the whole of Occitania forming a classicdialect continuum that changes gradually along any path from one side to the other. Nonetheless, specialists commonly divide Occitan into six main dialects: IBM Thinkpad T61P Laptop Keyboard All these regional varieties of the Occitan language are written and valid. Standard Occitan, also called occitan larg (i.e., 'wide Occitan') is a synthesis that respects and admits soft regional adaptations (which are based on the convergence of previous regional koines). So Occitan can be considered as a pluricentric language.[45] ACER TravelMate 250P Laptop Keyboard The standardisation process began during the 1970s with the works of Pèire Bèc, Robèrt Lafont, Rogièr Teulat, Jacme Taupiac, and Patric Sauzet. But it has not been achieved yet. It is mostly supported by users of the classical norm. Due to the strong situation of diglossia, some users still reject the standardisation process and do not conceive Occitan as a language that could work just as other standardised languages. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard There are two main linguistic norms currently used for Occitan, one (known as "classical"), which is based on that of Mediaeval Occitan, and one (sometimes known as "Mistralian", due to its use by Frédéric Mistral), which is based on modern French orthography. Sometimes, there is some conflict between some users of each system. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard The classical norm (or less exactly classical orthography) has the advantage of maintaining a link with earlier stages of the language, and reflects the fact that Occitan is not a variety of French. It is used in all Occitan dialects. It also allows speakers of one dialect of Occitan to write intelligibly for speakers of other dialects (e.g., the Occitan for day is written jorn in the classical norm,  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard but could be jourjoun or journ, depending on the writer's origin, in Mistralian orthography). The Occitan classical orthography and the Catalan orthography are quite similar: They show the very close ties of both languages. The digraphs lh and nh, used in the classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese, it is presumed after Friar Gerald, a monk from Moissac, became bishop of Braga in Portugal in 1047 and played a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms.[46]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard The Mistralian norm (or less exactly Mistralian orthography) has the advantage of not forcing Occitan speakers already literate in French (as is usually the case) to learn an entirely new system. Nowadays, HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard it is mostly used in the Provençal/Niçard dialect, besides the classical norm. It has also been used by a number of eminent writers, in particular in Provençal. However, it is somewhat impractical, since it is based mainly on the Provençal dialect and also uses many digraphs for simple sounds, the most notable one being ou for the [u] sound, written as o under the classical orthography. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard There are also two other norms but they have a lesser audience. The Escòla dau Pò norm (or Escolo dóu Po norm) is a simplified version of the Mistralian norm and is used only in the Occitan Valleys (Italy), besides the classical norm. The Bonnaudian norm (or écriture auvergnate unifiée, EAU) was created by Pierre Bonnaud and is used only in the Auvergnat dialect, besides the classical norm. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard The majority of scholars believe that Occitan constitutes a single language.[49] Some authors,[50] constituting a minority,[51] reject this opinion and even the name Occitan: they think that there is a family of distinct languages (called langues d'oc / lengas d'oc in plural) rather than dialects. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Many Occitan linguists and writers,[52] particularly those involved with the pan-Occitan movement centred on the Institut d'Estudis Occitans, disagree with the view that Occitan is a family of languages and think that Limousin, Auvergnat, Languedocien, Gascon, Provençal and Alpine Provençal are dialects of a single language.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Though there are some noticeable differences between these varieties, there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between them;[53] they also share a common literary history, and in academic and literary circles, have been identified as a collective linguistic entity—the langue d'oc—for centuries. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard Some Provençal authors[54] continue to support the view that Provençal is a separate language. Nevertheless, the vast majority of Provençal authors and associations think that Provençal is a part of Occitan.[55] For example, the classical (pan-Occitan) spelling writes Polonha where the Mistralian spelling system has Poulougno, for [puˈluɲo], 'Poland'. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The question of Gascon is similar. Gascon presents a number of significant differences from the rest of the language; but, despite these differences, Gascon and other Occitan dialects have very important common lexical and grammatical features, so authors such as Pierre Bec argue that they could never be considered as different as, for example, Spanish and Italian.[56]  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard In addition, the fact that Gascon is included within Occitan despite its particular differences, can be also justified[57] because there is a common elaboration (Ausbau) process between Gascon and the rest of Occitan. The vast majority of the Gascon cultural movement[58][59][60] considers itself as a part of the Occitan cultural movement. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard And the official status of Val d'Aran (Catalonia, Spain), adopted in 1990, says that Aranese is a part of Gascon and Occitan. A grammar of Aranese by Aitor Carrera, published in 2007 in Lleida, presents the same view. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard The exclusion of Catalan from the Occitan sphere, although Catalan is a language closely related to Occitan, is justified because there has been a consciousness of its being different from Occitan since the later Middle Ages and the elaboration (Ausbau) processes of Catalan and Occitan (including Gascon) have been quite distinct since the 20th century. Nevertheless, some other scholars[61]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard point that the process that lead to the affirmation of Catalan as a distinct language from Occitan was started during the period when the pressure to include Catalan-speaking areas to a mainstream Spanish culture was at its most. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard A comparison of terms and word counts between languages is not easy, as it is impossible to count all the number of words in a language. (See Lexicon, Lexeme,Lexicography for more information.) Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Some have claimed around 450,000 words exist in the Occitan language,[63] a number comparable to English (the Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged with 1993 addenda reaches 470,000 words, as does the Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition). The Merriam-Webster Web site estimates that the number is somewhere between 250,000 and 1 million words.  HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The magazine Géo (2004, p. 79) claims that American English literature can be more easily translated into Occitan than French, excluding modern technological terms that both languages have integrated. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard A comparison of the lexical content can find more subtle differences between the languages. For example, Occitan has 128 synonyms related to cultivated land, 62 for wetlands, and 75 for sunshine (Géo). TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard The language went through an eclipse during the Industrial Revolution, as the vocabulary of the countryside became less important. At the same time, it was disparaged as a patois. Nevertheless, Occitan has also incorporated new words into its lexicon to describe the modern world. The Occitan word for web is oèb, for example. ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard One interesting and useful feature of the Occitan language is its virtually infinite ability to create new words through a number of interchangeable and imbeddable suffixes, giving the original terms a whole array of semantic nuances. Take as an example this excerpt from La covisada (1923) by Henri Gilbert:[64]HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard The 120 words that are needed for a correct English translation of all types of devils, Occitan expresses with just 34. But this is not the only way to determine the size of things or people. The feminine form is also of great avail. Also, suffixes slightly or greatly affect how things or people are perceived. See, for instance, the word prat for meadow:  SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H Laptop Keyboard Despite these differences, Occitan and Catalan remain more or less mutually comprehensible, especially when written — more so than either is with Spanish or French, for example. Occitan and Catalan form a common diasystem (or a common Abstandsprache), which is called Occitano-Romance, according to the linguist Pèire Bèc.[65] Speakers of both languages share early historical and cultural heritage. ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard The combined Occitano-Romance area is 259,000 km2 and represents 23 million speakers. However, the regions are not equal in terms of language speakers. According to Bec 1969 (pp. 120–121), in France,  HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard no more than a quarter of the population in counted regions speak Occitan well, though around half can understand it; it is thought that the number of Occitan users has decreased dramatically since then. By contrast, in the Spanish Catalonia, nearly three quarters of the population speak Catalan and 95% understand it.[66]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard There are a number of vernacular languages of France as well as recent imported foreign languages. French is the sole official language and is by far the most widely spoken, but several regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees. Owing to immigration, a number of non-indigenous tongues are now also spoken in parts of the country.  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The map to the right displays the historical areas in which regional languages have been spoken. Some of these languages have also been spoken in neighbouring countries. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Legacy

According to a 2005 survey, carried out in the context of the tenth anniversary of the death of Socialist President François Mitterrand, 35% of respondents said Mitterand was the best French President ever, followed by Charles de Gaulle (30%) and then Jacques Chirac (12%).[153] Another poll by BVA four years later, showed that 87% of French people regarded his presidency positively.[154]DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard Statues have been erected in his honor in Warsaw, Moscow, and Quebec. The first Algerian president Ahmed Ben Bella, said of De Gaulle that before granting Algeria independence, that while he was the "military leader who brought us the hardest blows" he also "saw further" than other politicians, and that his "universal dimension that is too often lacking in current leaders."[155] ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard Likewise, Léopold Sédar Senghor, the first President of Senegal, said that few Western leaders could boast of having risked their lives to grant a colony independence. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In 1990, his old political enemy, the Socialist President Francois Mitterrand presided over the celebrations to mark the 100th anniversary of his birth. Mitterrand, having once written a vitriolic critique of him called the ‘Permanent Coup d’Etat’, quoted a then recent opinion poll, saying; "As General de Gaulle, he has entered the pantheon of great national heroes, where he ranks ahead of Napoleon and behind only Charlemagne."[156]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Although he initially enjoyed good relations with U.S. President John F. Kennedy, who admired his stance against the Soviet Union - particularly when the Berlin Wall was being built - HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard and who called him "a great captain of the western world", their relationship later cooled.[19] De Gaulle was Kennedy's most loyal ally during the Cuban Missile Crisis and supported the right that the United States claimed to defend its interests in the Western Hemisphere, in contrast to then German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer who doubted Kennedy's commitment to Europe and thought the crisis could have been avoided.[157] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Nevertheless, De Gaulle was a prominent figure at Kennedy's funeral.[158] De Gaulle was very much admired by the later President Nixon, however. After a meeting at the Palace of Versaillesjust before the general left office, Nixon declared that "He did not try to put on airs but an aura of majesty seemed to envelop him... his performance - and I do not use that word disparagingly - was breathtaking."[19] On arriving for his funeral several months later, Nixon said of him "greatness knows no national boundaries".[159]TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard The French professor and academic Régis Debray, who served as Foreign Affairs adviser to President François Mitterrand, in his book Charles de Gaulle: Futurist of the Nation (1994), wrote: "I cannot hope to get Charles of France intact across the Channel. The cliché-covered gravestone is too heavy. And how does one preserve some freedom of thought between the pomposities of official courtesy on the one hand and, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard on the other, the unshakeable suspicion with which many of my British friends regard an archaic, ungrateful xenophobe, authoritarian and vaguely fascist ? Neither the worldwide dissemination of images and capital, nor the digging of the Channel Tunnel, alters the fact that caricatures travel better than portraits. After all,  HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard the bowlers, umbrellas and thin drizzle of the City do not travel either, any more than the morning sfumato in the hills of Siena or the bouquet of great Bordeaux. I am afraid that, like them, this victorious soldier, who disdained the military and placed the writer above the warrior, may have to be consumed in his country of origin”.[160] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Debray called de Gaule "super-lucide" [160] and pointed out that virtually all of his predictions, such as the fall of communism, the reunification of Germany and the resurrection of ‘old’ Russia had come true since his death. Debray compared him with Napoleon ('the great political myth of the nineteenth century'), calling de Gaulle his twentieth century equivalent, " FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The sublime, it seems, appears in France only once a century… Napoleon left two generations dead on battlefield. De Gaulle was more sparing with other people blood; even so, he left us, as it were, stranded, alive but dazed… A delusion, perhaps, but one that turns the world upside down: causes events and movements; divides people into supporters and adversaries; HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard leaves traces in the form of civil and penal codes and railways, factories and institutions (the Fifth Republic has already lasted three times as long as the Empire). A statesman who gets something going, who has followers, escapes the reality of the reports and statistics and become part of imagination. Napoleon and de Gaulle modified the state of things because they modified souls”.[160]p-pavilion-dv6-3180ef-keyboard.html">HP Pavilion dv6-3180ef Laptop Keyboard However, Debray pointed out that there is a difference between Napoleon and de Gaulle : «How can the exterminator be compared with the liberator ?... The former ran the whole enterprise into the ground, while the latter managed to save it. So that to measure the rebel against the despot, the challenger against the leader, is just glaringly idiotic. SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard You simply do not put an adventurer who worked for himself or his family on the same level as a commander-in-chef serving his country… Regrettably, Gaullism and Bonopartism have a number of features in common, but Napoleon and de Gaulle do not have the same moral value. ... the first wanted a Holy French Empire without the faith, a Europe under French occupation. The second wanted to rescue the nation from the emperors and establish a free France in a free Europe".[160]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Debray continued that he could not say if the general ever loved Britain, but that ironically, as a result of reading his account of his time in exile in his autobiography, "Probably no Frenchman since Hastings has done more to create a familiar, attractive and romantic image of the hereditary enemy Britain in the minds of Frenchmen of a certain age than this champion of the French self-interest".LENOVO Ideapad U550 Laptop Keyboard On Algeria, the Australian historian Brian Crozier has written "that he was able to part with Algeria without civil war was a great though negative achievement which in all probability would have been beyond the capacity of any other leader France possessed."[161]  ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard In April 1961, when two rebel generals seized power in Algeria, he "did not flinch in the face of this daunting challenge", but appeared on television in his general’s uniform to forbid Frenchmen to obey the rebels' orders in an "inflexible display of personal authority".SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard The historian K. Perry, while referring to his handling of the Algerian settlement as "a masterly performance", went on to say that "his impatient shedding of the problem increased the price in human terms that had to be paid. HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard He was so possessed by a burning ambition to restore French greatness and break American leadership in western international affairs that he wished for a speedy end to the Algerian problem, which had become a tiresome distraction for him".[50] A number of commentators have been critical of de Gaulle for his failure to prevent the massacres after Algerian independence[50] while others take the view that the struggle had been so long and savage that it was perhaps inevitable.[19]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5169 Laptop Keyboard De Gaulle was an excellent manipulator of the media, as seen in his shrewd use of television to persuade around 80% of Metropolitan France to approve the new constitution for the Fifth Republic. In so doing, he refused to yield to the reasoning of his opponents who said that, if he succeeded in Algeria, he would no longer be necessary. He afterwards enjoyed massive approval ratings, and once said that "every Frenchman is, has been or will be Gaullist".[162]SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard In its obituary,[146] TIME magazine said; "He rescued his nation not once but twice, the first time from the shame of its capitulation to the Nazis in World War II, the second from its own quarrelling factions. With the Fifth Republic, he gave France its first strong governmental framework since the days of Louis Napoleon. He was indeed ‘l'homme du destin,’ (the man of destiny) as Winston Churchill once called him, and even his name, HP Pavilion dv6-3140sa Laptop Keyboard suggestive of both Charlemagne and ancient Gaul, was perfectly suited to the role he took upon himself. But the fact was that France offered De Gaulle too limited a scope and power base. Try as he might, he could not change the basic reality that France simply lacked the specific gravity to offset the force of a superpower. ACER Aspire 5553G Laptop Keyboard "Like most crusaders, De Gaulle was extraordinarily farsighted but sometimes, maddeningly, his imperious manner and fragile sensibilities infuriated his nation's closest allies. In a vain effort to force French leadership on Europe, he twice vetoed Britain's entry into the continent's first economic cooperative, the Common Market. At home, he stinted on public welfare in the form of new roads, telephones and a thousand other needed improvements, to pay for symbolically important but ultimately hollow shows of prestige, like the nuclear Force de Frappe" HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Laptop Keyboard In Britain, his apparent betrayal at twice preventing the British attempt at joining the EEC was keenly felt for many years.[citation needed] That de Gaulle did not necessarily reflect mainstream French public opinion with his veto was suggested by the decisive majority of French people who voted in favour of British  DELL Inspiron n7110 Laptop Keyboard membership when the much more conciliatory Pompidou called a referendum on the matter in 1972. His early influence in setting the parameters of the EEC can still be seen today, most notably with the controversial Common Agricultural Policy. SONY VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Laptop Keyboard Some writers take the view that Pompidou was a more progressive and influential leader than de Gaulle because, though also a Gaullist, he was less autocratic and more interested in social reforms.[50][163] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Although he followed the main tenets of de Gaulle’s foreign policy, he was keen to work towards warmer relations with the US. A banker by profession, Pompidou is also widely credited, as de Gaulle's Prime Minister from 1962–1968, with putting in place the reforms which provided the impetus for the economic growth which followed. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard In 1968, shortly before leaving office, de Gaulle refused to devalue the Franc on grounds of national prestige, but upon taking over Pompidou reversed the decision almost straight away. It was ironic, that during the financial crisis of 1968, France had to rely on American (and West German) financial aid to help shore up the economy.[50] Compaq Presario CQ71-430EM Laptop Keyboard Perry has written "The events of 1968 illustrated the brittleness of de Gaulle’s rule. That he was taken by surprise is an indictment of his rule; he was too remote from real life and had no interest in the conditions under which ordinary French people lived. Problems like inadequate housing and social services had been ignored. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard The French greeted the news of his departure with some relief as the feeling had grown that he had outlived his usefulness. Perhaps he clung onto power too long, perhaps he should have retired in 1965 when he was still popular."[50]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Brian Crozier has said "the fame of de Gaulle outstrips his achievements, he chose to make repeated gestures of petulance and defiance that weakened the west without compensating advantages to France"[161]Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard However, Daniel Mahoney writes that "such is the level to which de Gaulle has now passed into mythology in France that he is now claimed by all the political parties, though some more than others. No account of de Gaulle that wishes to capture the man and his works can simply be a profile of his time in power, for Charles de Gaulle was undoubtably one of the great human beings of the twentieth century, a member of that distinguished elite who deserve the appellation ‘statesman’."[156]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Writing in 1995, another commentator, Pierre Manent attempted to explain why he remains so popular in France, yet not in the United States; "It is true that de Gaulle wanted France to take its destiny into its own hands and wished it would cease to depend onAmerican protection. As such, this ambition was legitimate, even if one disagrees with the manner in which it was formulated and put into practice. As for the wartime difficulties with Roosevelt, the great American president was simply mistaken about de Gaulle, whom he took to be an aspiring despot, and this error of judgement was the principle cause of grave political differences that could have been avoided."[156]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Despite spending virtually his entire political career at odds with de Gaulle and his policies, the eminent diplomat and economist Jean Monnet had no doubt about the positive role he played in leading the Free French during the first years of the war and immediately after the liberation. Speaking in 1965 he told a journalist; COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard First things first, before a united Europe and an Atlantic partnership there had to be a united France, strong, mobilized and able to assume a leading role among the Western allies. Without de Gaulle or against de Gaulle, we could not have liberated or reconstructed France. There was no one but de Gaulle. Whatever his faults, he was a tower of strength and inspiration.[18] HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In France, there were accusations that Britain had armed the demonstrators.[53] De Gaulle raged against ‘Churchill’s ultimatum’, saying that "the whole thing stank of oil".[48] He summoned Duff Cooper and told him; "I recognise that we are not in a position to wage war against you, but you have betrayed France and betrayed the West. That cannot be forgotten".[19]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard France was isolated and suffering a diplomatic crisis. The secretary of the Arab League Edward Atiyah said; "France put all her cards and two rusty pistols on the table". In turn, the French press attacked Britain as an enemy of France and accused the U.S. of helping ItaSONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard During the Potsdam Conference in July, to which de Gaulle was again not invited, Churchill was defeated at the British general election and replaced by theLabour leader Clement Attlee. The Potsdam Conference brought a decision to divide Vietnam, which had been a French colony for over a hundred years, into British and Chinese spheres of influence.[51] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Soon after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, de Gaulle sent the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to re-establish French sovereignty in French Indochina, making Admiral d'Argenlieu High Commissioner and General Leclerc commander-in-chief and commander of the expeditionary corps.[56] However, the resistance leaders in Indo-China proclaimed the freedom and independence of Vietnam.[53] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Languages of France The official language of the French Republic is French (art. 2 of the French Constitution) and the French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. The government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising be available in French (though it can also use other languages); see Toubon Law. The French government, however, does not mandate the usage of French in non-commercial publications by private individuals or corporations or in any other media. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July 2008.[2] The 1999 Report written for the government by Bernard Cerquiglini identified 75 languages that would qualify for recognition under the government's proposed ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 24 of those languages are indigenous to the European territory of the state while all the others are from overseas areas of the French Republic (in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and South America). TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard Although ratification was blocked by the Constitutional Council as contradicting the Fifth Republic's constitutional provision enshrining French as the language of the Republic, the government continues to recognise regional and minority languages to a limited extent (HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard i.e. without granting them official status) and theDélégation générale à la langue française has acquired the additional function of observing and studying the languages of France and has had et aux langues de France added to its title. The category of languages of France(in French: langues de France) is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go as far as providing any official status. TOSHIBA NSK-TN0SC Laptop Keyboard The regional languages of France are sometimes called patois, but this term (roughly meaning "dialect") is often considered derogatory. Patois is used to refer to supposedly purely oral languages,[citation needed] but this does not, for instance, take into account that Occitan was already being written at a time when French was not and its literature has continued to thrive, with a Nobel Prize for Frédéric Mistral in 1904. Lenovo Thinkpad X220 Laptop Keyboard At the time of the French revolution in 1789 it is estimated that only half of the population of France spoke French, and by 1871 only a quarter spoke French.[3]

Language education

The topic of the teaching of regional languages in public primary and secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the measure state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages and to show respect to the local culture. Opponents contend that local languages are often non-standardised (thus making curricula difficult), Lenovo laptop keyboard of dubious practical usefulness (since most are spoken by a small number of people, without any sizable corpus of publications) and that the curriculum and funding of public schools are already too strained. The topic also leads to wider controversial questions of autonomy of therégions. Regarding other languages, English, Spanish, Italian and German are the most commonly studied foreign languages in French schools. SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard In April 2001, the Minister of Education, Jack Lang [1], admitted formally that for more than two centuries, the political powers of the French government had repressed regional languages[citation needed], and announced that bilingual education would, for the first time, be recognised, and bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools. SONY VAIO VGN-N21M/W Laptop Keyboard

Cross-border languages

Some of the languages of France are also cross-border languages (for example, Basque, Catalan, Picard, Norman, Franco-Provençal,Dutch, Occitan, Franc-Comtois and others), some of which enjoy a recognised or official status in the respective neighbouring state or territory (including French itself in Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and in the Val-d'Aoste). ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard Maore Comorian, or Shimaore (French Mahorais), is one of the two indigenous languages spoken in the French-ruledComorian islands of Mayotte; Shimaore being a dialect of the Comorian (Swahili) language, while KiBushi is an unrelatedMalayo-Polynesian language originally from Madagascar. Historically, TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard Shimaore- and KiBushi-speaking villages on Mayotte have been clearly identified, but Shimaore tends to be the de facto indigenous lingua franca in everyday life, because of the larger Shimaore-speaking population. Only Shimaore is represented on the local television news program by RFO. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard The 2002 census references 80,140 speakers of Shimaore in Mayotte itself, to which one would have to add people living outside the island, mostly in metropolitan France. There are also 20,000 speakers of Comorian in Madagascar, some of which are Shimaore speakers. HP G42-363LA Laptop Keyboard The same 2002 census indicates that 37,840 persons responded as knowing how to read or write Shimaore. However this number has to be taken with caution, since until a few years ago Shimaore did not have a standard writing system.  ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard From a sociolinguistic perspective, French tends to be regarded by many Shimaore speakers as the language of higher education and prestige, and there is a temptation by native Mahorans to provide an all-French education to their children. This puts a lot of pressure on Shimaore and the language may become endangered in the near future if nothing is done.[citation needed]HP Probook 4320s Laptop Keyboard Although French remains the official language in Mayotte, Shimaore will probably be taught in Mahoran schools starting in the next few years, and a pilot project began in fall 2004. As in many parts of France where local languages are introduced in the school system, this has led to tensions between partisans of a French-centered education system and administrations, versus those promoting a more diversified approach.[citation needed]  SONY VAIO PCG-FR395EP Laptop Keyboard Shimaore's position in this regard is however different from other French regions (such as Brittany), since the language is locally spoken by a majority of the population. The project in Mayotte has been inspired by similar projects involving Swahili in eastern Africa countries. HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard Mayotte is a geographically small territory, but frequent exchanges between villages have not started until the last quarter of the twentieth century. As of 2004, linguistic differences between the east and west part of the island, and between the main city of Mamoudzou and the remote villages, are still noticeable, especially when it comes to phonological differences. One typical example is the word u-la (to eat), notably pronounced this way in the city due to the influence of a brand of yogurt bearing the same name, but pronounced u-dja in other parts of the island.  Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4314 Laptop Keyboard HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard

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