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Marie Stopes Marie Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist, campaigner for women's rights and pioneer in the field of birth control. She was the wife of Humphrey Verdon Roe, with whom she founded the first birth control clinic in Britain. Stopes edited the newsletter Birth Control News which gave explicit practical advice. ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard Her sex manual Married Love, which she wrote while legally a virgin, was controversial and influential, while her book, Wise Parenthood, was written before she'd become a parent. She was never in favor of abortion, arguing that prevention of conception was sufficient.[1]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU  Keyboard Marie was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of Henry Stopes, a brewer, engineer, architect and palaeontologist and the Shakespeare scholar and women's rights campaigner Charlotte Carmichael Stopes. Both her parents were members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science—where they had met[2] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard —and Marie was brought to meetings where she met the famous scholars of the day. She was at first home schooled, then from 1892 to 1894 she attended St. George's School in Edinburgh.[3] Stopes was later sent to the North London Collegiate School, where she was a close friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite A305  Keyboard She attended University College London as a scholarship student studying botany and geology, graduating with a first class B.Sc. in 1902 after only two years by attending both day and night school.[5] Following this, Stopes earned a D.Sc. degree from University College London, becoming the youngest person in Britain to have done so. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard In 1903 she published a study of the botany of the recently dried-up Ebbsfleet River. After carrying out research at University College London, she pursued further study at the University of Munich, receiving a Ph.D. in palaeobotany in 1904. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard She was also Fellow and sometime Lecturer in Palaeobotany at University College London and Lecturer in Palaeobotany at the University of Manchester (she held the post at Manchester from 1904 to 1907; in this capacity she became the first female academic of the University of Manchester). SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M  Keyboard

Scientific Research

During Stopes's time at Manchester, she studied coal, coal balls, and the collection of Glossopteris (seed ferns). This was an attempt to prove the theory of Eduard Suess concerning the existence of Gondwanaland or Pangaea. HP 599572-001  Keyboard A chance meeting with Robert Falcon Scott (Scott of the Antarctic) during one of his fund-raising lectures in 1904 brought a possibility of proving Suess's theory. Stopes's passion to prove Suess's theory led her to discuss with Scott the possibility of joining his next expedition to Antarctica. She failed to join the expedition, but Scott promised to bring back samples of fossils to provide confirmatory evidence for the theory. SONY VAIO VGN-FW160D  Keyboard (The interior of Antarctica, being perpetually below 0°C, is not suitable for life, and the existence of fossils can be taken as providing inferential evidence of major changes in biological conditions in that region during geologic time.) Although Scott died during the expedition (1912), his corpse was found; and located near the bodies of him and his companions were fossils from the Queen Maud Mountains that did indeed provide this evidence.[6]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M  Keyboard In 1907 she went to Japan on a scientific mission, spending a year and a half at the Imperial University, Tokyo, exploring for fossil plants in coal mines on the island of Hokkaido. She published her Japanese experiences in the form of a diary, called Journal from Japan: a daily record of life as seen by a scientist, in 1910. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard In 1910 Stopes was commissioned to date a geological structure in New Brunswick, Canada, known as the Fern Ledges, due to a heated debate concerning the age of the Ledges. Canadian scholars were divided between dating the Ledges to the Devonian age and the Pennsylvanian period. Stopes arrived in North America before Christmas to start her research and on 29 December she attended a dinner in St. Louis,  SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard Missouri, where she met Reginald Ruggles Gates. (They became engaged two days later.) Starting in earnest in February 1911, she made geological excursions and visited geological collections in museums, Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU  Keyboard before shipping specimens back to England for further investigation. Married in March and back in England on 1 April with her new husband, she continued her research, dispatching her results in mid 1912, finding for the Pennsylvanian period of the Carboniferous.[7] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard During the First World War she was engaged in various studies of coal for the British government, which culminated in the writing of a Monograph on the constitution of coal with R.V. Wheeler in 1918. However, due to the success of work in marriage issues and birth control, her scholarly work began to flag and her last scientific publications were in 1923. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard

Marriage and Married Love

A year into her marriage with Gates and the pair were struggling. She had maintained her name out of principle rather than taking on her husband's. Her work was blooming while his was struggling. He was disturbed by what seemed to him her suffragette support. He had failed to assert his position as head of the household and was thus frustrated.[8]HP Envy 15  Keyboard After another year she sought legal advice as to how she could end the marriage. Not receiving useful help, she took to reading the legal code looking for a way to get a divorce.[9] The marriage had fallen apart amid squabbling over the house and rent. On 11 May 1913, Stopes filed for divorce, citing that the marriage had never been consummated. Gates left England in the following year and did not contest the divorce. COMPAQ 367777-001  Keyboard Some time around the start of the divorce proceedings, Stopes began to write a book about how she thought a marriage should work. In July 1915, she met Margaret Sanger, who had just given an address on birth control at a Fabian Society meeting. Stopes showed her what she had written and sought her advice regarding a chapter on contraception for her book.[10] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Keyboard Her book was finished before the year was out, offering it to Blackie and Son, who declined. The book was too hot, as she found out with refusals from several publishers. It wasn't until Binnie Dunlop, secretary of the Malthusian League, introduced her to Humphrey Verdon Roe, her future second husband DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard , in 1917 that she received the boost that helped her publish her book. Roe was a philanthropist interested in birth control and he supplied the finance to entice Fifield & Co. to publish the work.[11] The book was an instant success, requiring five editions in the first year [12] and elevating Stopes to a national figure. DELL Latitude D830  Keyboard On 26 March 1918, the day Married Love was first published, Stopes was to her publisher's dismay visiting Humphrey Roe, who had just returned from World War I with a broken ankle after his plane had crashed.[13] Less than two months later they were married and Stopes had her first opportunity to practise what she preached in her book. TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard The success of Married Love had stimulated the need for a follow-up, which Stopes provided in the form of the already written Wise Parenthood: a Book for Married People, a manual on birth control, published later that year.[14] It also brought an avalanche of letters seeking her personal advice, which she energetically endeavoured to give. HP 597635-001  Keyboard The following year she had published a condensed form of Wise Parenthood aimed at the poor entitled A Letter to Working Mothers on how to have healthy children and avoid weakening pregnancies. It was a pamphlet of 16 pages and was to be distributed free of charge.[15] Stopes' intended audience had—until this work—been the middle classes. She had shown little interest in, or respect for, the working classes,[16] but the Letter was aimed at redressing her bias. TOSHIBA Satellite A300  Keyboard Stopes was now pregnant and a month overdue she entered a nursing home on 16 July 1919. There was a conflict between Stopes and the doctors over the method of birth—she was not allowed to give birth on her knees—and, when the baby came, it was stillborn. The doctors suggested that the incident was due to syphilis, but an examination excluded the possibility. She was DELL OPYTVX  Keyboard Having regained strength and courage Stopes returned to work in 1920, engaged in public speaking, responding to letters seeking advice on marriage, sex and birth control.[18] She sent Mrs. E.B. DELL Studio 1457  Keyboard Mayne to disseminate the Letter to Working Mothers with its message of birth control to the slums of East London and, while Mrs. Mayne approached 20 families a day, after several months she brought back the observation that the working class was just too mistrustful of well-intentioned meddlers[19] (see the Settlement movement, which peaked at about that time). HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx  Keyboard It may be that this lack of success brought her to contemplate a different approach to bringing her message to the poor. A conference of Anglican bishops was to be held in June and at home not long before the conference she had a vision: she called in her secretary and dictated a message addressed to the bishops which begins as follows: SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S  Keyboard "My Lords, I speak to you in the name of God. You are his priests. I am his prophet. I speak to you of the mysteries of man and woman."[20] The New Gospel to All Peoples seemed to be that the time was now ripe for the Stopes message of wholesome sexual relations between husband and wife. HP 441426-001  Keyboard The bishops' response was not receptive. Among the resolutions carried during the conference one was aimed against "the deliberate cultivation of sexual union" and another against "indecent literature, suggestive plays and films [and] the open or secret sale of contraceptives".[21] The Catholic Church's reaction was more strident,[22] marking the start of an open conflict that lasted the rest of her life. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M  Keyboard Work in family planning In 1917, before he'd met Marie Stopes, Humphrey Roe offered to endow a birth control clinic attached to St Mary's Hospital in Manchester. He had set conditions that all the patients be married and that there were to be no abortions, but the offer was declined.[23][24] This was a serious issue for Roe, so after their marriage he and Stopes planned to open a clinic for poor mothers in London. HP 441316-001  Keyboard Margaret Sanger had attempted to run a birth control clinic in New York, but it was closed down by the police. In 1920 she proposed opening a clinic in London, which spurred Stopes to act more constructively, ASUS X53S  Keyboard though Sanger's plan never materialized.[25] Stopes resigned her lectureship at the University College of London at the end of 1920 to concentrate on the clinic and three months later she and Roe opened the Mothers' Clinic at 61, Marlborough Road, Holloway, North London on 17 March 1921.[26] The clinic, run by midwives, offered mothers birth control advice and taught them the use of a cervical cap. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Keyboard Later that year Stopes had founded the Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress, a support organization for the clinic. In 1925 the Mothers' Clinic moved to Central London, where it remains to this day. Stopes gradually built up a small network of clinics across Britain, working tirelessly to fund them. She opened clinics in Leeds in April, 1934; Aberdeen in October, 1934; Belfast in October, 1936; Cardiff in October, 1937, and Swansea in January, 1943.[27]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard Stopes and her fellow family planning pioneers around the globe, like Dora Russell, played a major role in breaking down taboos about sex and increasing knowledge, pleasure and improved reproductive health. In 1930 the National Birth Control Council was formed. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard The clinics continued to operate after her death, but by the early 1970s they were in financial difficulties and in 1975 they went into voluntary receivership. The modern organisation that bears Marie Stopes' name was established a year later as an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) working on sexual and reproductive health. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard The Marie Stopes International global partnership took over responsibility for the main clinic, and in 1978 it began its work overseas in New Delhi. Since then the organisation has grown steadily and today the MSI works in over 40 countries, has 452 clinics worldwide, and has offices in London, Brussels, Melbourne and USA. DELL Latitude C510 Keyboard Birth control on trial In 1922 a book was published called Birth Control by a Roman Catholic doctor, Halliday Gibson Sutherland. The book attacked Stopes over her advocacy of the cervical cap, describing the cap as "the most harmful method [of contraception] of which I have had experience" associating her birth control campaign with a writer convicted of obscenity for publishing on birth control 45 years earlier. HP G72-b01SA  Keyboard HP G61 Keyboard Sutherland did not respond to a challenge to debate the issue, so a writ for libel was issued against him.[28] The court case began on 21 February 1923; it was highly acrimonious; and the jury found in favor of Stopes, answering the judge's four questions: Thinkpad T420 Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Keyboard However the judge ignored the general tenor of the jury's response and found in favor of Sutherland, based on the response to #2. It was a moral victory for Stopes, as the press saw it and she appealed.[29] On 20 July the Court of Appeal reversed the previous decision, awarding the £100 to Stopes, but this victory was short-lived.  HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard The Catholic community was now mobilized to provide Sutherland support for a final appeal to the House of Lords, which was heard on 21 November 1924. The decision, irrevocable, was in Sutherland's favor. The cost for Stopes was vast.[30] However, the publicity and book sales partially compensated her losses. The trial had made birth control a public topic and the numbers of clients visiting the clinic doubled.[31] HP G62-b25ER Keyboard Persistence and hard work had always served her well. She had gained remarkable results as a scientist. She had two runaway best sellers. She had her clinic and had an organization behind her to maintain it. Humphrey Roe, the co-founder of the clinic, was demoted to "husband of Dr. Stopes".[33] In 1924 the 43-year-old Marie Stopes gave birth to her only son, Harry. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

Literary Stopes

Stopes knew many famous people of her age. Among them were writers such as George Bernard Shaw with whom she corresponded for many decades, Aylmer Maude another lifelong correspondent, H.G. Wells with whom she had stormy discussions, Noël Coward who wrote a humorous ditty about her, and Lord Alfred Douglas whose letters she edited. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard (She unsuccessfully petitioned Neville Chamberlain to obtain a civil list pension for Douglas: the signitaries included Arthur Quiller-Couch, John Gielgud, Evelyn Waugh and Virginia Woolf.[34]) Muriel Spark, then general secretary of the Poetry Society, had an altercation with the birth control champion and lamented "that Stopes's mother had not been better informed on the subject."[35]ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard This was Coward's hymn to Marie Stopes: Stopes herself wrote plays and poetry. Starting during the First World War she wrote plays on themes that became more didactic until her major success in 1923, a play called Our Ostriches, which dealt with society's shortsighted approach to working class women forced to produce babies all their lives.[37] The play ran for three months at the Royal Court Theatre. TOSHIBA NB200-10J  Keyboard The play was hurriedly produced in place of another Stopes play, called Vectia.[38] This was a strongly autobiographical play, which attempted to analyze the failure of her first marriage. As it dealt with sex and impotence, the play never received a licence to be performed, despite Stopes' frequent efforts over the following years.[39] Vectia she had printed in 1926 under the title A Banned Play and a Preface on Censorship. Her later plays did not reach the stage. HP 519265-001  Keyboard In her later years, with the war for birth control won, she published several volumes of poetry. Stopes was strongly against the termination of a pregnancy once it had started: her clinics did not offer the possibility during her life. She saw birth control as the way families should limit their size. HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard ASUS F82Q  Keyboard It is worth noting some of her views on abortion either in statement or in action.

Advocacy of eugenics

Stopes was a supporter of eugenics, in line with the progressive thinking of the era. (See for example, Havelock Ellis, John Maynard Keynes and Cyril Burt.) As a child she had met the founder of the Eugenics movement, Francis Galton, both through the British Association for the Advancement of Science and socially through her father.[46]  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard In 1912 she attended the inaugural congress of the Eugenics Society.[47] When she came to write her works on marriage and birth control, it was not strange that they were infused with eugenics theories.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard In an age when there was a piece of legislation on the books called The Mental Deficiency Act 1913, which described not only people it categorized as idiots and imbeciles, but also those who were "moral defectives" and "feeble-minded",[48] Stopes, mentioning "the inferior, the depraved, and the feeble-minded", advocated "the sterilisation of those totally unfit for parenthood [to be] made an immediate possibility, indeed made compulsory."[49]ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard She contributed a chapter to The Control of Parenthood (1920), comprising a sort of manifesto for her circle of Eugenicists, arguing for a "utopia" to be achieved through "racial purification":HP Pavilion dv6-3130tx Keyboard Those who are grown up in the present active generations, the matured and hardened, with all their weaknesses and flaws, cannot do very much, though they may do something with themselves. They can, however, study the conditions under which they came into being, discover where lie the chief sources of defect, and eliminate those sources of defect from the coming generation so as to remove from those who are still to be born the needless burdens the race has carried.[50]SONY 147977821  Keyboard However, in this tract, she argues that the leading causes of "racial degeneration" are "overcrowding" and sexually transmitted disease.[51] It concludes somewhat vaguely, that racial consciousness needs to be increased so that, "women of all classes [may] have the fear and dread of undesired maternity removed from them ..." to usher in the promised utopia, described throughout.[52]HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard In 1935 Stopes attended the International Congress for Population Science in Berlin, held in the second year of Hitler's rule.[53] She was more than once accused of being anti-Semitic by other pioneers of the birth control movement such as Havelock Ellis.[54] She was also anti-Prussian, anti-Catholic and anti-Russian, if one can judge by the following crude verse, written in 1942. HP Probook 4520S Keyboard Stopes, who was ever ready to promote her writings, sent a copy of her Love Songs for Young Lovers to Adolf Hitler with the following cover letter: Dear Herr Hitler, Love is the greatest thing in the world: so will you accept from me these (poems) that you may allow the young people of your nation to have them? The young must learn love from the particular 'till they are wise enough for the universal. I hope too that you yourself may find something to enjoy in the book. (letter from Marie Stopes to Hitler, August 1939)[56]SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Keyboard Her aim was to have her poems distributed through the German birth clinics, but the letter has been interpreted as showing sympathy for Hitler. However, any sympathy she may have had would soon have dissipated when Hitler closed the birth control clinics.[57] On 12 July 1940 she wrote to Churchill to offer a slogan, "Fight the Battle of Britain in Berlin's Air".[58]SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Keyboard

Personal life

Stopes had a serious relationship mainly through correspondence with Japanese botanist Kenjiro Fujii, whom she met at the University of Munich in 1904 whilst researching her Ph.D. It was so serious that, in 1907, during her 1904-1910 tenure at Manchester University, she arranged to do research in Japan, allowing her to be with him, but the affair ended. In 1911 Stopes married Canadian geneticist Reginald Ruggles Gates. Her marriage to Gates was annulled in 1916 on the grounds that the marriage was never consummated.[59]HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard In 1918 she married the financial backer of her most famous work, Married Love: A New Contribution to the Solution of the Sex Difficulties, Humphrey Verdon Roe, brother of Alliott Verdon Roe. Their son, the philosopher Harry Stopes-Roe, was born in 1924.[60]HP Pavilion dv6000 Keyboard Stopes was very controlling as a mother. She had taken a dislike to her son's companion, Mary Eyre Wallis (the daughter of the noted engineer Barnes Wallis), and, when Harry announced their engagement in October 1947, his mother set out to sabotage the union. She found fault with everything she could about Mary, even writing to Mary's father to complain.[61] SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Keyboard After Harry married Mary, who was myopic, Stopes cut him out of her will, settling on the eugenics argument that prospective grandchildren might inherit the condition to justify her resentment.[62][63]SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Keyboard Stopes died at her home in Dorking, Surrey, UK from breast cancer. In her will she left her clinic to the Eugenics Society. The bulk of her estate went to the Royal Society of Literature. To her son, Harry, who she had never forgiven for marrying Mary Eyre Wallis, she left her copy of the Greater Oxford Dictionary and other small items.[64][65] TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Keyboard Roe was from Manchester, son of Edwin Roe and Annie Verdon, and younger brother of Alliot Verdon Roe.[1] After leaving school he enlisted as an officer in the Manchester Regiment and served in the Boer War. In February 1902 he returned to Birmingham and took control of a company that manufactured webbing, Everard & Co., HP Envy 15  Keyboard as his uncle who owned the firm had just died. He lifted the company back to commercial viability.[2] In 1909 Roe invested in his brother Alliott's aeronautical inventions and a firm was eventually registered in 1913 under the name "A.V. Roe and Company", which is better known as Avro.[3][4]TOSHIBA P205-S7469  Keyboard Everard's most successful product was called "Bullseye Braces", which led to the "stock joke that 'Avro' biplanes were kept up by Bullseye Braces."[5] Roe became managing director of the company, and "piloted the planes as often as his brother".[6] The company was extremely successful and the brothers became rich, but then in 1917 they had a falling out and Roe withdrew from the company.[7]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901  Keyboard Marie Stopes and the Mothers' Clinic Before he met his wife, Roe had attempted to found a birth control clinic in Manchester, offering to finance St Mary's Hospital for the purpose. He had observed the effects of mothers in Manchester who had given birth to too many children and decided he could do something. The hospital declined the offer. In November 1917 Dr Binnie Dunlop, HP Mini 110-3135dx  Keyboard who was also interested in birth control, introduced Roe to Marie Stopes, who had just written a book called Married Love, but couldn't get it published. Later Roe decided to finance the book. Roe, who had recently joined the Royal Flying Corps, then left for the front.[8]TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard In late March 1918 Roe injured his spine and broke an ankle when the aircraft in which he was an observer crashed after a bombing raid over a Germany airfield. On his repatriation to London Stopes joined him on the day Married Love was published. They were married on 16 May 1918 and with the aid of his wife his desire to open a birth control clinic was realized on 17 March 1921 at 61, SONY VAIO PCG-792L  Keyboard Marlborough Road, Holloway, North London on 17 March 1921.[9] Stopes became the figurehead and Roe acted as the hardworking secretary. Together they worked tirelessly to keep the clinic running and expand their operations to other cities in Britain. Their relationship failed in the mid 1930s. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard During World War at the age of 61, Roe joined the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve and for a third time did his duty for his country.[10] In 1949 he developed kidney trouble and died on 27 July aged 71. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch  Keyboard

Doctor of Science

In the United States, the formally recognized traditional Doctor of Science is an academic research doctoral degree awarded by research universities. The academic research Sc.D. (or D.Sc.) is considered by both the United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation to be equivalent to the more commonly awarded Ph.D.[3]HP Pavilion G7-1150US  Keyboard The first North American Sc.D. was inaugurated by Harvard University in 1872, when graduate studies first began at Harvard, and where the Ph.D. and Sc.D. degrees were introduced in the same year.[4] The Doctor of Science research degree is earned with the formal dissertation defense and approval of a committee on the basis of original research and publications, and it is awarded predominantly in doctoral-level science programs, such as engineering, medical and health sciences, and health economics.[5]ACER Aspire 5810T  Keyboard Although rarer than the Doctor of Philosophy, the Doctor of Science research degree has been awarded by institutions such as Harvard University,[6] Johns Hopkins University,[7] Massachusetts Institute of Technology,[8] Robert Morris University[9] and Tulane University.[10]TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002M  Keyboard A few university doctoral research programs offer both the Sc.D. and Ph.D. degrees in the same academic field, such as Johns Hopkins University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, DELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard with identical requirements for obtaining either. Currently, research programs that offer the formal research Sc.D. but not the Ph.D. degree for a given field include several doctoral programs at Harvard University,[11] Boston University, Capitol College,[12] and Dakota State University.[13]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa  Keyboard There are programs where the Sc.D. and Ph.D. have different degree requirements, though the two degrees are officially considered equivalent. The Engineering school at Washington University in St. Louis, for example, requires four graduate courses in the D.Sc. program not required for the Ph.D. degree,  DELL Vostro PP37L  Keyboard while the Ph.D requires teaching assistance services. The Johns Hopkins University also offers both Ph.D. and Sc.D. in certain programs,[14] with only minor differences in university administration of the degrees. In some institutions, the Sc.D. has been converted to the Ph.D.[15] For instance, the doctoral degree in biostatistics at Harvard recently converted from Sc.D. to Ph.D., even though the doctoral degree structure and requirements have remained identical.[15]HP G61-110SA  Keyboard In the Czech Republic and Slovakia "Doctor of Sciences" (DrSc. behind the name), established in 1953, is equivalent to the degree of Doctor of Science in the sense in which the D.Sc. is used in the Commonwealth. It is the highest academic qualification, different from both Ph.D. and PhDr. titles. In the Czech Republic, DrSc. SONY NSK-S8101  Keyboard is not awarded since 2001; instead, since 2006, a "Doctor of Sciences" degree (DSc. behind the name) is awarded not by universities but by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic mostly for research in the field of natural or formal science. In Slovakia, "Doctor of Sciences" (Dr.Sc.) is awarded by the Slovak Academy of Sciences.  HP G61  Keyboard In the former Yugoslavia, the Serbian, Slovenian, etc. title doktor nauka (literally "doctor of science") is used in a much broader sense than D.Sc., simply referring to a field of academic study – from art history (Sln. doktor znanosti s področja umetnostne zgodovine), philosophy (Sln. doktor znanosti s področja filozofije), DELL Alienware M11x  Keyboard and literary studies (Sln. doktor znanosti s področja literarnih ved) to hard sciences such as molecular biology (Sln. doktor znanosti s področja molekularne biologije). It is therefore formally recognized as a Ph.D. in Western Bloc, but also counts as a post doctoral degree since it usually takes 10 years to obtain it after "Magister of Science" title has been obtained first.[citation needed]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-112EM  Keyboard In Finland, most doctoral degrees awarded in the fields of natural sciences, technology and economics are D.Sc. degrees with a suffix indicating the field of study. For example, the proper translation for the doctorate in technology (Tekniikan tohtori) would be D.Sc. (Tech.), whereas a doctorate in economics and business administration (Kauppatieteiden tohtori) would be translated as D.Sc. (Econ.). When conversing or writing in English, the prefix Dr. may be used to address a holder of a doctoral degree awarded in Finland. HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard In France the Doctor of Sciences degree (doctorat ès sciences also called doctorat d'État) was a higher doctorate in the fields of experimental and natural sciences, superseded in 1984 by the habilitation.  HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard In Ireland, the United Kingdom and the countries of the Commonwealth, such as India, the degree of Doctor of Science is one of the Higher Doctorates. DELL Inspiron 6400  Keyboard In some older universities it typically has precedence after Divinity, Laws or Civil Law, Medicine, and Letters, and above Music. The degree is conferred on a member of the university who has a proven record of internationally recognised scholarship. A candidate for the degree will usually be required to submit a selection of their publications to the board of the appropriate faculty, which will decide if the candidate merits this accolade. TOSHIBA PK13CW10100  Keyboard The degree is only exceptionally and rarely awarded to a scholar under the age of forty. However Marie Stopes obtained hers at the age of 25[20] and Kevin Warwick had been awarded two by the time he was 40.[21]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160  Keyboard The first University to admit an individual to this degree was the University of London in 1860.[22] In 1893 Maria Ogilvie was the first woman to receive this degree. However, the University of London ceased awarding the degree more than ten years ago.[23]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21J/S  Keyboard In former times the doctorate in science was regarded as a greater distinction than a professorial chair and hence a professor who was also a D.Sc. would be known as Doctor. The Doctor of Science may also be awarded as an honorary degree, that is, given to individuals who have made extensive contributions to a particular field and not for specific academic accomplishments. It is usual to signify this by adding D.Sc. h.c. (for honoris causa). HP 576835-001  Keyboard ETH Zurich ETH Zürich (German: Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the City of Zurich, Switzerland. Like its sister institution École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), it is an integral part of the ETH Domain that is directly subordinate to Switzerland's Federal Department of Home Affairs. HP Envy 15  Keyboard ETH Zurich is consistently ranked among the top universities in the world. It is considered the best university in continental Europe by the Shanghai Ranking ARWU, the Times Higher Education Ranking[1] and the QS World University Ranking. It is currently ranked 7th best university in the world in engineering, science and technology. TOSHIBA MP-09K53US6698  Keyboard Twenty-one Nobel Prizes have been awarded to students or professors of the Institute in the past, the most famous of which is Albert Einstein in 1921, and the most recent is Richard F. Heck in 2010. It is a founding member of the IDEA League and the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU). It is a member of the CESAER and Top Industrial Managers for Europe networks.  HP 576835-001  Keyboard HP Envy 15  Keyboard The school was founded by the Swiss Federal Government in 1854 with the stated mission to educate engineers and scientists, serve as a national center of excellence in science and technology and provide a hub for interaction between the scientific community and industry.[citation needed]HP 576835-001  Keyboard ETH was founded in 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and opened its doors in 1855 as a polytechnic institute (Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule). It comprised in the beginning six departments: architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry, forestry, and a catch-all department for mathematics, natural sciences, literature, and social and political sciences. It is locally still known as Poly, derived from the original name Eidgenössisches Polytechnikum "Federal Polytechnic Institute". ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard ETH is a federal institute (i.e., under direct administration by the Swiss government), whereas the University of Zurich is a cantonal institution. The decision for a new federal university was heavily disputed at the time, because the liberals pressed for a "federal university", while the conservative forces wanted all universities to remain under cantonal control, with the goal of giving liberal thoughts no refuge.[citation needed] In the beginning, both universities were co–located in the buildings of the University of Zurich. ACER Aspire 5930  Keyboard In 1909, the course program of ETH was restructured to that of a real university, from its early, very schoolish agenda, and ETH was granted the right to award doctorates. In 1911, it was given its current name, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In 1924, another reorganization structured the university in 12 departments. However, it now has 16 departments. TOSHIBA Satellite L355  Keyboard


ETH Zurich is regularly ranked among the top universities in the world. Typically, popular rankings place the institution as the best university in Switzerland and on the main European continent, among the top 3-5 European universities, and among the best 15-20 of the world (e.g., in 2010, rank 15 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranking and rank 23 in the 2011 Shanghai ranking, see Ranking Overview). HP 576835-001  Keyboard Historically, ETH Zurich has achieved its reputation particularly in the fields of chemistry, mathematics and physics. There are 21 Nobel Laureates who are associated with ETH. The most recent Nobel Laureate is Richard F. Heck who was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2010. Albert Einstein is perhaps its most famous alumnus. Other distinguished alumni include Har Gobind Khorana and John Von Neumann. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182  Keyboard In a comparison of Swiss universities by swissUP Ranking and in rankings published by CHE comparing the universities of German-speaking countries, ETH Zurich traditionally is ranked first in natural sciences, computer science and engineering sciences. DELL Vostro 3700  Keyboard In the survey CHE ExcellenceRanking on the quality of Western European graduate school programmes in the fields biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics, ETH was assessed as one of the three institutions to have excellent graduate programmes in all considered fields, the other two being the Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge. To support its cutting edge research, ETH Zurich has a budget of 1.36 billion CHF (approx. 1.72 billion USD) in the year 2011.  HP Mini 110-1115SA  Keyboard In 2011 the QS World University Rankings[2] placed ETH Zurich at 18th overall in the world, and 1st in mainland Europe, while only four UK universities performed better than it in Europe. In the 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ETH Zurich ranked 15th overall, 7th in the field of Engineering & IT and 11th in Physical Sciences.  HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL  Keyboard According to the 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), the ETH is ranked 23rd in the world, the 4th best university in Europe, and 1st in Switzerland. It is also ranked 5th in the field of Chemistry and 9th in the broad subject field of Natural Sciences and Mathematics worldwide.[3]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T  Keyboard ETH is not selective in its undergraduate admission procedures. Like every public university in Switzerland, ETH is obliged to grant admission to every Swiss citizen who took the Matura. It also grants entry to foreign students with certain qualifications, such as A-Levels with GCSE, but only in specific combinations. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P  Keyboard Most applicants from foreign countries are required to take either the reduced entrance exam or the comprehensive entrance exam; an applicant can be admitted to ETH even without any verifiable educational records by passing the comprehensive entrance exam.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T  Keyboard There are no obligatory examinations during the first academic year which is divided into two semesters. However, the actual selection process takes place in the summer shortly after the second semester. Students have to pass the block examinations of courses of the first year, called the Basisprüfung. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214  Keyboard If the weighted average score is not sufficient, you are required to retake the entire Basisprüfung which usually means that you have to resit through the first year. About 50% of the students fail the Basisprüfung on first try and many of them choose to drop out after the failure. The structure of examinations in higher academic years is similar to the Basisprüfung (Basis examination), HP 576835-001  Keyboard but with a higher success rate. The regular time to reach graduation is six semesters for the Bachelor of Science degree and three further semesters for the Master of Science degree. The last semester is dedicated to writing a thesis.  FUJITSU Lifebook S6240  Keyboard Education at ETH tends to be theoretically oriented with a high amount of mathematics involved throughout the courses. The main language of instruction in undergraduate (Bachelor) studies is German and English, while most Master's programmes and doctoral study are in English. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER  Keyboard ETH Zurich has two campuses. The main building was constructed in the 1860s in the heart of the city. As the university grew, it spread into the surrounding quarters. As a result, the Zentrum campus consists of various buildings and institutions throughout Zurich and firmly integrates the ETH in the city. The main building stands directly across the street from the University of Zurich. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505 Series  Keyboard Because this geographic situation substantially hindered the expansion of ETH, a new campus was built from 1964 to 1976 on the Hönggerberg in the outskirts of the city. The last major expansion project of this new campus was completed in 2003; since then, the Hönggerberg location houses the departments of materials science, architecture, civil engineering, physics, biology, and chemistry.  HP 636376-001  Keyboard The main building of ETH was built 1861 to 1864 under Gustav Zeuner; the architect, however, was Gottfried Semper, who was a professor of architecture at ETH at the time and one of the most important writers and theorists of the age. Semper worked in a neoclassical style that was unique to him. It emphasized bold and clear massings with a detailing,  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard such as the rusticated ground level and giant order above, that derived in part from the work of Andrea Palladio and Donato Bramante. During the construction of the University of Zurich, the south wing of the building was allocated to the University until its own new main building was constructed (1912 – 1914). At about the same time, Semper's ETH building was enlarged and also got its impressive cupola.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300  Keyboard ETH students were found to be the busiest students of all institutions of higher education in Switzerland.[5] The undergraduates' tight curriculum consists of as much as twice the number of lectures as comparable courses of other Swiss universities.[citation needed] HP pavilion DV7-1000  Keyboard ETH has well over 100 student associations. Most notable is the VSETH (Verband der Studierenden an der ETH) which comprises all department associations. The associations regularly organize events with varying size and popularity. Events of the neighboring University of Zurich are well-attended by ETH students and vice versa. HP 550  Keyboard The VSETH organizes events of greater public attention, such as the Polyball, the Polyparty (does not exist any more) and the Erstsemestrigenfest, the first two housed in the main building of ETH. Sometimes, the annual Erstsemestrigenfest takes place at extraordinary locations, for example the Zurich Airport. All freshmen enjoy special treatment at that event. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Keyboard ETH's junior enterprise ETH juniors ranks top 5 within Europe. ETH juniors[6] is a student association that offers consulting services to companies and gives ETH students a chance to gain work and project experience next to their studies. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Keyboard The Academic Sports Association of Zurich (ASVZ) offers more than 80 sports. The biggest annual sports event is the SOLA-Stafette (SOLA relay race) which consists of 14 sections over a total distance of 140 kilometers. More than 760 teams participated in the 2009 edition.[7]HP AEAT8TPU319 Keyboard Haber was born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), into a Hasidic Jewish family. His family was one of the oldest families of that town.[1] Haber later converted from strict Judaism to Lutheranism. His mother died during childbirth. His father was a well-known merchant in the town. From 1886 until 1891, he studied at the University of Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Keyboard HP G42-386TX  Keyboard at the University of Berlin (today the Humboldt University of Berlin) in the group of A. W. Hofmann, and at the Technical College of Charlottenburg (today the Technical University of Berlin) under Carl Liebermann. He married Clara Immerwahr during 1901. Clara was also a chemist and an opponent of Haber's work in chemical warfare. HP Pavilion dv6-3117sl  Keyboard Following an argument with Haber over the subject, she committed suicide.[2] Their son, Hermann, born in 1902, would later also commit suicide because of his shame over his father's chemical warfare work.[3] Before starting his own academic career, he worked at his father's chemical business and in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich with Georg Lunge. TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01  Keyboard During his time at University of Karlsruhe from 1894 to 1911, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed the Haber process, which is the catalytic formation of ammonia from hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen under conditions of high temperature and pressure.[4]SONY Vaio PCG-K35  Keyboard In 1918 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. The Haber-Bosch process was a milestone in industrial chemistry, because it divorced the production of nitrogen products, such as fertilizer, explosives and chemical feedstocks, from natural deposits, especially sodium nitrate (caliche), of which Chile was a major (and almost unique) producer.  ACER Aspire 6930  Keyboard Naturally extracted nitrate production in Chile fell from 2.5 million tonnes (employing 60,000 workers and selling at $45/ton) in 1925 to just 800,000 tonnes, produced by 14,133 workers, and selling at $19/tonne in 1934.[5] The annual world production of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer is currently more than 100 million tonnes. The food base of half of the current world population is based on the Haber-Bosch process.[6] HP Mini 210-2006sa  Keyboard He was also active in the research of combustion reactions, the separation of gold from sea water, adsorption effects, electrochemistry, and free radical research (see Fenton's reagent). A large part of his work from 1911 to 1933 was done at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry at Berlin-Dahlem SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX  Keyboard . In 1953, this institute was renamed for him. He is sometimes credited, incorrectly, with first synthesizing MDMA (which was first synthesized by Merck KGaA chemist Anton Köllisch in 1912).[7][8]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151  Keyboard Haber played a major role in the development of chemical warfare in World War I. Part of this work included the development of gas masks with adsorbent filters. In addition to leading the teams developing chlorine gas and other deadly gases for use in trench warfare, GATEWAY MT6700  Keyboard Haber was on hand personally to aid in its release despite its proscription by the Hague Convention of 1907 (to which Germany was a signatory). Future Nobel laureates James Franck, Gustav Hertz, and Otto Hahn served as gas troops in Haber's unit. DELL Inspiron 1545 Keyboard Gas warfare in World War One was, in a sense, the war of the chemists, with Haber pitted against French Nobel laureate chemist Victor Grignard. Regarding war and peace, Haber once said, "During peace time a scientist belongs to the World, but during war time he belongs to his country." This was an

example of the ethical dilemmas facing chemists at that time.[9]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard His first wife Clara, a fellow chemist and the first woman to earn a PhD at the University of Breslau, committed suicide with his service revolver in their garden, possibly in response to his having personally overseen the first successful use of chlorine at the Second Battle of Ypres on 22 April 1915.[10] She shot herself in the heart on 15 May, and died in the morning. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Keyboard That same morning, Haber left for the Eastern Front to oversee gas release against the Russians.[11] Haber left behind his grieving 13-year-old son, who had been the one to discover his dying mother.[12]SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Keyboard HP 317443-001 Keyboard Haber was a patriotic German who was proud of his service during World War I, for which he was decorated. He was even given the rank of captain by the Kaiser, rare for a scientist too old to enlist in military service. DELL Latitude D600 Keyboard In his studies of the effects of poison gas, Haber noted that exposure to a low concentration of a poisonous gas for a long time often had the same effect (death) as exposure to a high concentration for a short time. He formulated a simple mathematical relationship between the gas concentration and the necessary exposure time. This relationship became known as Haber's rule. HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard Haber defended gas warfare against accusations that it was inhumane, saying that death was death, by whatever means it was inflicted. During the 1920s, scientists working at his institute developed the cyanide gas formulation Zyklon A, which was used as an insecticide, especially as a fumigant in grain stores.[13] During the Holocaust, Zyklon A was altered by the Nazis to be used in the gas chambers of concentration camps as Zyklon B. Haber's creation of Zyklon A was used to kill millions after his death. HP Probook 4710S Keyboard


In the 1920s, Haber searched exhaustively for a method to extract gold from sea water, and published a number of scientific papers on the subject. After years of research, he concluded that the concentration of gold dissolved in sea water was much lower than those reported by earlier researchers, and that gold extraction from sea water was uneconomic.[14]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard Haber's genius was recognized by the Nazis, who offered him special funding to continue his research on weapons. As a result of fellow Jewish scientists having already been prohibited from working in that field, he left Germany in 1933. His Nobel Prize-winning work in chemistry, and subsequent contributions to Germany's war efforts in the form of chemical fertilizers, explosives and poison munitions, were not enough to prevent eventual vilification of his heritage by the Nazi regime. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Keyboard He moved to Cambridge, England, along with his assistant J J Weiss, for a few months, during which time Ernest Rutherford pointedly refused to shake hands with him, due to his involvement in poison gas warfare. Haber was offered by Chaim Weizmann the position of director at the Sieff Research Institute (now the Weizmann Institute) in Rehovot, in Mandate Palestine, HP 550 Keyboard and accepted it. He started his voyage to what is today Israel in January 1934, after recovering from a heart attack. His ill health overpowered him and on 29 January 1934, at the age of 65, he died of heart failure in a Basel hotel, where he was resting on his way to the Middle East.[15] He was cremated and his ashes, together with Clara's ashes, were buried in Basel's Hornli Cemetery.[16] He bequeathed his extensive private library to the Sieff Institute. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Keyboard Haber's immediate family also left Germany. His second wife, Charlotte, with their two children, settled in England. Haber's son from his first marriage, Hermann, emigrated to the United States during World War II. HP Pavilion G60-230 Keyboard He committed suicide in 1946. Members of Haber's extended family died in concentration camps. One of his children, Ludwig ("Lutz") Fritz Haber (1921–2004), became an eminent historian of chemical warfare in World War I, and published a book called The Poisonous Cloud (1986).[17]ASUS X53S Keyboard The second was entitled "The Greater Good" and was first broadcast on 23 October 2008.[20] It was directed by Celia de Wolff and written by Justin Hopper, and starred Anton Lesser as Haber. It explored his work on gas warfare during the First World War and the strain it put on his wife Clara (Lesley Sharp), HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard concluding with her suicide and its cover-up by the authorities. Other cast included Dan Starkey as Haber's research associate Otto Sackur, Stephen Critchlow as Colonel Peterson, Conor Tottenham as Haber's son Hermann, Malcolm Tierney as General Falkenhayn and Janice Acquah as Zinaide. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard In 2008, a short film entitled "Haber" depicted Fritz Haber's decision to embark on the gas warfare program and his relationship with his wife. The film was written and directed by Daniel Ragussis.[21][22] In November 2008 Haber was again played by Anton Lesser in Einstein and Eddington.[23]SONY NSK-S8101 Keyboard ASUS X53S Keyboard The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to "an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community". It is stipulated that "The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".[1] The Turing Award is recognized as the "highest distinction in Computer science"[2] and "Nobel Prize of computing".[3]ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard The award is named after Alan Turing, mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester. Turing is "frequently credited for being the Father of theoretical computer science and arHP Pavilion DV6-1007tx Keyboard ficial intelligence".[4] As of 2007, the award is accompanied by a prize of $250,000, with financial support provided by Intel and Google.[1] The first recipient, in 1966, was Alan Perlis, of Carnegie Mellon University. Frances E. Allen of IBM, in 2006, was the first female recipient in the award's forty year history.[5][6][7] The 2008 award also went to a woman, Barbara Liskov. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard There are a large number of Smalltalk variants.[3] The unqualified word Smalltalk is often used to indicate the Smalltalk-80 language, the first version to be made publicly available and created in 1980. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard Smalltalk was the product of research led by Alan Kay at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC); Alan Kay designed most of the early Smalltalk versions, which Dan Ingalls implemented. The first version, known as Smalltalk-71, was created by Ingalls in a few mornings on a bet that a programming language based on the idea of message passing inspired by Simula could be implemented in "a page of code."[1] DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard A later variant actually used for research work is now known as Smalltalk-72 and influenced the development of the Actor model. Its syntax and execution model were very different from modern Smalltalk variants. Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2522 Keyboard After significant revisions which froze some aspects of execution semantics to gain performance (by adopting a Simula-like class inheritance model of execution), Smalltalk-76 was created. This system had a development environment featuring most of the now familiar tools, including a class library code browser/editor. Smalltalk-80 added metaclasses, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50 2889 Keyboard to help maintain the "everything is an object" (except private instance variables) paradigm by associating properties and behavior with individual classes, and even primitives such as integer and boolean values (for example, to support different ways of creating instances). DELL Inspiron N4050 Keyboard Smalltalk-80 was the first language variant made available outside of PARC, first as Smalltalk-80 Version 1, given to a small number of firms (Hewlett-Packard, Apple Computer, Tektronix, and DEC) and universities (UC Berkeley) for "peer review" and implementation on their platforms. Later (in 1983) a general availability implementation, FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 Keyboard known as Smalltalk-80 Version 2, was released as an image (platform-independent file with object definitions) and a virtual machine specification. ANSI Smalltalk has been the standard language reference since 1998.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard Two of the currently popular Smalltalk implementation variants are descendants of those original Smalltalk-80 images. Squeak is an open source implementation derived from Smalltalk-80 Version 1 by way of Apple Smalltalk. VisualWorks is derived from Smalltalk-80 version 2 by way of Smalltalk-80 2.5 and ObjectWorks (both products of ParcPlace Systems, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Keyboard a Xerox PARC spin-off company formed to bring Smalltalk to the market). As an interesting link between generations, in 2002 Vassili Bykov implemented Hobbes, a virtual machine running Smalltalk-80 inside VisualWorks.[5] (Dan Ingalls later ported Hobbes to Squeak.) ASUS F8Sp Keyboard During the late 1980s to mid-1990s, Smalltalk environments—including support, training and add-ons—were sold by two competing organizations: ParcPlace Systems and Digitalk, both California based. ParcPlace Systems tended to focus on the Unix/Sun Microsystems market, while Digitalk focused on Intel-based PCs running Microsoft Windows or IBM's OS/2. ACER Aspire 5536 Keyboard Both firms struggled to take Smalltalk mainstream due to Smalltalk's substantial memory needs, limited run-time performance, and initial lack of supported connectivity to SQL-based relational database servers. While the high price of ParcPlace Smalltalk limited its market penetration to mid-sized and large commercial organizations, HP Probook 4515S Keyboard the Digitalk products initially tried to reach a wider audience with a lower price. IBM initially supported the Digitalk product, but then entered the market with a Smalltalk product in 1995 called VisualAge/Smalltalk. Easel introduced Enfin at this time on Windows and OS/2. Enfin became far more popular in Europe, SAMSUNG R470 Keyboard as IBM introduced it into IT shops before their development of IBM Smalltalk (later VisualAge). Enfin was later acquired by Cincom Systems, and is now sold under the name ObjectStudio, and is part of the Cincom Smalltalk product suite. HP G62-b25SA Keyboard In 1995, ParcPlace and Digitalk merged into ParcPlace-Digitalk and then rebranded in 1997 as ObjectShare, located in Irvine, CA. ObjectShare (NASDAQ: OBJS) was traded publicly until 1999, when it was delisted and dissolved. The merged firm never managed to find an effective response to Java as to market positioning, and by 1997 its owners were looking to sell the business. HP G42-359TU Keyboard In 1999, Seagull Software acquired the ObjectShare Java development lab (including the original Smalltalk/V and Visual Smalltalk development team), and still owns VisualSmalltalk, although worldwide distribution rights for the Smalltalk product remained with ObjectShare who then sold them to Cincom.[6]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard VisualWorks was sold to Cincom and is now part of Cincom Smalltalk. Cincom has backed Smalltalk strongly, releasing multiple new versions of VisualWorks and ObjectStudio each year since 1999. HP Pavilion DV6-1022el Keyboard Cincom, Gemstone and Object Arts, plus other vendors continue to sell Smalltalk environments. IBM has 'end of life'd VisualAge Smalltalk having in the late 1990s decided to back Java and it is, as of 2006[update], supported by Instantiations, Inc.[7] which has renamed the product VA Smalltalk and released several new versions. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard The open Squeak implementation has an active community of developers, including many of the original Smalltalk community, and has recently been used to provide the Etoys environment on the OLPC project, a toolkit for developing collaborative applications Croquet Project, and the Open Cobalt virtual world application. HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Keyboard GNU Smalltalk is a free software implementation of a derivative of Smalltalk-80 from the GNU project. Last but not least Pharo Smalltalk (a fork of Squeak oriented towards research and use in commercial environments) a new and clean MIT licensed open source Smalltalk that brings fresh ideas and interest into the Smalltalk market and scene. ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard A significant development, that has spread across all current Smalltalk environments, is the increasing usage of two web frameworks, Seaside and AIDA/Web, to simplify the building of complex web applications. Seaside has seen considerable market interest with Cincom, Gemstone and Instantiations incorporating and extending it. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard Smalltalk-80 is a totally reflective system, implemented in Smalltalk-80 itself. Smalltalk-80 provides both structural and computational reflection. Smalltalk is a structurally reflective system whose structure is defined by Smalltalk-80 objects. The classes and methods that define the system are themselves objects and fully part of the system that they help define. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard The Smalltalk compiler compiles textual source code into method objects, typically instances of CompiledMethod. These get added to classes by storing them in a class's method dictionary. The part of the class hierarchy that defines classes can add new classes to the system. The system is extended by running Smalltalk-80 code that creates or defines classes and methods. In this way a Smalltalk-80 system is a "living" system, carrying around the ability to extend itself at run time. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170 Keyboard Since the classes are themselves objects, they can be asked questions such as "what methods do you implement?" or "what fields/slots/instance variables do you define?". So objects can easily be inspected, copied, (de)serialized and so on with generic code that applies to any object in the system. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Keyboard Smalltalk-80 also provides computational reflection, the ability to observe the computational state of the system. In languages derived from the original Smalltalk-80 the current activation of a method is accessible as an object named via a pseudo-variable (one of the six reserved words), thisContext. By sending messages to thisContext ACER Aspire 7520 Keyboard a method activation can ask questions like "who sent this message to me". These facilities make it possible to implement co-routines or Prolog-like back-tracking without modifying the virtual machine. The exception system is implemented using this facility. COMPAQ Presario C700 Keyboard One of the more interesting uses of this is in the Seaside web framework which relieves the programmer of dealing with the complexity of a Web Browser's back button by storing continuations for each edited page and switching between them as the user navigates a web site. Programming the web server using Seaside can then be done using a more conventional programming style. ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard When an object is sent a message that it does not implement, the virtual machine sends the object the doesNotUnderstand: message with a reification of the message as an argument. The message (another object, an instance of Message) contains the selector of the message and an Array of its arguments. IBM Thinkpad T61P Keyboard In an interactive Smalltalk system the default implementation of doesNotUnderstand: is one that opens an error window (a Notifier) reporting the error to the user. Through this and the reflective facilities the user can examine the context in which the error occurred, redefine the offending code, and continue, all within the system, using Smalltalk-80's reflective facilities. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Keyboard HP 597635-001 Keyboard Another important use of doesNotUnderstand: is intercession. One can create a class that does not define any methods other than doesNotUnderstand: and does not inherit from any other class. The instances of this class effectively understand no messages. So every time a message is sent to these instances they actually get sent doesNotUnderstand:, hence they intercede in the message sending process. Such objects are called proxies. DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard By implementing doesNotUnderstand: appropriately, one can create distributed systems where proxies forward messages across a network to other Smalltalk systems (a facility common in systems like CORBA, COM+ and RMI but first pioneered in Smalltalk-80 in the 1980s), SONY VGN-FE31M Keyboard and persistent systems where changes in state are written to a database and the like. An example of this latter is Logic Arts' VOSS (Virtual Object Storage System) available for VA Smalltalk under dual open source and commercial licensing. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Keyboard

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