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Mauritius

Mauritius  i/məˈrɪʃəs/ (French: Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (French: République de Maurice) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent. The country includes the islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues, 560 kilometres (350 mi) east of the principal island, the islands of Agaléga and Saint Brandon. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

The islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and theFrench department of Réunion 170 km (110 mi) form part of the Mascarene Islands. The area of the country is 2040 km2, its capital is Port Louis.

The first Portuguese explorers found no indigenous people living on the island in 1507. The Dutch settled on the island in 1598 and abandoned it in 1710, ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

Mauritius became a French colony in 1715 and was renamed Isle de France. The British took control of Mauritius in 1810 during the Napoleonic Wars. The country became an independent state as a Commonwealth realm on 12 March 1968 and a republic within the Commonwealth on 12 March 1992. ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

The country's populace is composed of several ethnicities, mostly people of Indian, African, Chinese and European descent. Most Mauritians are multilingual; English, French, Creole and Asian languages are used.[6] ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

The Mauritian Constitution is based on the Westminster model. The head of state is the President but constitutional power is vested in the Prime Minister who is the head of government. Mauritius is highly ranked for democracy, economic and political freedom.

The island of Mauritius was the only home of the Dodo bird. The bird became extinct fewer than eighty years after its discovery.[7] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by theItalian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502.[8] From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi during the Middle Ages[when?] by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

In 1507 Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island. The island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps, probably because of the presence of the flightless bird, the dodo which was abundant at that time. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour ofPrince Maurice van Nassau, stadhouder of the Dutch Republic. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

Later the island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810 the French formally surrendered after the Napoleonic wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius  i/məˈrɪʃəs/.  SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

 [9] The island of Mauritius was unknown and uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages byArab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. In 1507 Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European to land in Mauritius. He named the island 'Ilha do Cirne'. The Portuguese did not stay long as they were not interested in these islands.[9] SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice van Nassau of the Dutch Republic, the ruler of his country. The Dutch established a small colony on the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane,  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

domestic animals and deer. It was from here that Dutch navigator Abel Tasman set out to discover the western part of Australia. The first Dutch settlement lasted only twenty years. Several attempts were made —subsequently, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends and the Dutch abandoned Mauritius in 1710.[9][10] ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

France, which already controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon (now Réunion), took control of Mauritius in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. The 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis as a naval base and a shipbuilding centre. Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are still stanTOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

ding today — these include part of Government House, the Château de Mon Plaisir and the Line Barracks, the headquarters of the police force. The island was under the administration of the French East India Company which maintained its presence until 1767.[9] SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

 From 1767 to 1810, except for a brief period during the French Revolution when the inhabitants set up a government virtually independent of France, the island was controlled by officials appointed by the French Government. Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre visited the island and wrote Paul et Virginie,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

a successful novel situated on the island. In particular Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen, a successful General in the French Revolutionary Wars and, in some ways, a rival of Napoléon I, ruled as Governor of Isle de France and Réunion from 1803 to 1810. British navalcartographer and explorer Matthew Flinders was arrested and detained by the General Decaen on the island, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

in contravention of an order from Napoléon. During theNapoleonic Wars, Mauritius became a base from which French corsairs organised successful raids on British commercial ships. The raids continued until 1810, when a Royal Navy expedition led by Commodore Josias Rowley, R.N., an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

was sent to capture the island. Despite winning the Battle of Grand Port, the only French naval victory over the British during these wars, the French surrendered to a British invasion at Cap Malheureux three months later. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

They formally surrendered on 3 December 1810, on terms allowing settlers to keep their land and property and to use the French language and law of France in criminal and civil matters. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius.[9] SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

The British administration, which began with Sir Robert Farquhar as Governor, was followed by rapid social and economic changes. Slavery was abolished in 1835. The planters received two million pounds sterling in compensation for the loss of their slaves who had been imported from Africa and Madagascar during the French occupation. HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

The abolition of slaveryhad important impacts on Mauritius' society, economy and population. The planters brought a large number of indentured labourers from India to work in the sugar cane fields. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

Between 1834 and 1921, around half a million indentured labourers were present on the island. They worked on sugar estates, factories, in transport and on construction sites. Additionally, the British brought 8,740 Indian soldiers to the island.[9]  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, many Mauritians volunteered to serve under the British flag in Africa and the Near East, fighting against the German and Italian armies. Some went to England to become pilots and ground staff in theRAF. Mauritius was never really threatened, but several British ships were sunk outside Port-Louis by German submarines in 1943. ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

The first general elections were held on 9 August 1948 and were won by the Labour Party. This party, led by Guy Rozemont, bettered its position in 1953, and, on the strength of the election results, demanded universal suffrage. Constitutional conferences were held in London in 1955 and 1957, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

and the ministerial system was introduced. Voting took place for the first time on the basis of universal adult suffrage on 9 March 1959. The general election was again won by the Labour Party, led this time by Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

A Constitutional Review Conference was held in London in 1961 and a programme of further constitutional advance was established. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

Two eminent British academics, Richard Titmuss and James Meade, published a report which dwelt upon the social problems caused by overpopulation and the monoculture of sugar cane. This led to an intense campaign to halt the population explosion, and the 1960s registered a sharp decline in population growth. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

In 1965, the Chagos Archipelago was split from the territory of Mauritius to form British Indian Ocean Territory. A General election took place on 7 August 1967, and the Labour Party and its two allies obtained the majority of seats. Mauritius adopted a new constitution, independence was proclaimed on 12 March 1968, Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

and the country became a member of the Commonwealth realm. Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam became the first prime minister of Mauritius. In 1969, the opposition party Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM) led by Paul Berenger was founded. Later in 1971, the MMM, backed by unions, called a series of strikes in the port which caused a state of emergency in the country, and the leader was imprisoned.[11]  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

The National Assembly is Mauritius's unicameral parliament, which was called the Legislative Assembly until 1992, when the country became a Republic. It consists of 70 members, 62 elected for four-year terms in multi-member constituencies and 8 additional members, known as "Best losers",IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

appointed by the Supreme Court to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented. The president is elected for a five-year term by the parliament. The island of Mauritius is divided into 20 constituencies returning three members each and that of Rodrigues is a single constituency returning two members. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

After a general election, the Electoral Supervisory Commission may nominate up to a maximum of 8 additional members in accordance with section 5 of the First Schedule of the Constitution with a view to correct any imbalance in community representation in Parliament. This system of nominating members is commonly called the best loser system. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The political party or party alliance which wins the majority of seats in Parliament forms the government and its leader usually becomes the Prime Minister. It is the Prime Minister who selects the members of the composition of the Cabinet from elected members of the Assembly, except for the Attorney General,  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

who may not be an elected member of the Assembly. The political party or alliance which has the second largest majority forms the Official Opposition and its leader is normally nominated by the President of the Republic as the Leader of the Opposition. The Assembly elects a Speaker, a Deputy Speaker and a Deputy Chairman of Committees as some of its first task. ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

Laws governing the Mauritian penal system are derived partly from old French codes and English law.[14] The crime rate reduced from 4.3 per 1,000 population in 2009 to 3.6 per 1,000 population in 2010.[15] The Constitution of Mauritius states that for purposes of separation of powers, the judiciary is independent.[16] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

According to The Heritage Foundation the trials are fair and the legal system is generally non-discriminatory and transparent. The Independent Commission Against Corruption investigates offenses and can confiscate the proceeds of corruption and money laundering. Mauritius is one of Africa's least corrupt countries.[17]  ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard

Mauritius has strong and friendly relations with various African, American, Asian, European and Oceania countries. It is a member of the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the African Union, the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the Indian Ocean Commission, HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

COMESA and formed the Indian Ocean Rim Association. Considered part of Africa geographically, Mauritius has friendly relations with African states in the region, particularly South Africa, by far its largest continental trading partner. Mauritian investors are gradually entering African markets, notably Madagascar, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

The country's political heritage and dependence on Western markets have led to close ties with the European Union and its member states, particularly the United Kingdom and France. Relations with China and India are strong for both historical and commercial reasons. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The total land area of the country is 2040 km2, which is the 180st largest nation in the world by size. The Republic of Mauritius also incorporates the island of Rodrigues, situated some 560 kilometers to the east and is 104 km2 in area, the Agaléga situated some 1,000 km to the north of Mauritius and Saint Brandonsituated some 430 km to the north-east of Mauritius, both with total land area of 71.2 km2.[18][19] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Mauritius claim sovereignty over Tromelin islands, small islands that lie 430 km to the north-east of Mauritius.[19] The nation's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) cover about 1.2 million square kilometers of the Indian Ocean.[20] Four fishing banks fall within EEZ limits, the Soudan Banks (including East Soudan Bank), Nazareth Bank, HP G72-227WM laptop keyboard

Saya de Malha Bank, Hawkins Bank. In 2011 the United Nations endorsed the joint submission of Mauritius and Seychelles to extend their continental shelf of 396,000 km2 in the Mascarene region which gives the two countries sovereign right to jointly manage and exploit the seabed and subsoil of the joint area.[21][22][23]  TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 Laptop Keyboard

The island of Mauritius is relatively young geologically, having been created by volcanic activity some 8 million years ago. Together with Saint Brandon, Réunion and Rodrigues, the island is part of the Mascarene Islands. HP AEAT8TPU017 Laptop Keyboard

These islands have emerged from the abysses as a result of gigantic underwater volcanic eruptions that happened thousands of kilometres to the east of the continental block made up by Africa and Madagascar. They are no longer volcanically active and the hotspot now rests under Réunion island. There has been no active volcano on Mauritius island for more than 100,000 years. Mauritius is encircled by a broken ring of mountain ranges,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

varying in height from 300 meters to 800 meters above sea level. The land rises from coastal plains to a central plateau where it reaches a height of 670 meters, the highest peak is in the southwest, Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire at 828 metres (2,717 ft). Streams and rivers speckle the island, a lot of them are formed in the cracks created by lava flows.[24] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

The island of Mauritius is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1242 miles) off the south east coast of the African continent, between Latitudes 19°58.8' and20°31.7' South and Longitudes 57°18.0' and 57°46.5' East, it is 65 km long and 45 km wide, its land area is 1,864.8 km2.[25][26] Mauritius is surrounded by more than 150 kilometres (93 miles) SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

of white sandy beaches and the lagoons are protected from the open sea by the world's third largest coral reef, which surrounds the island.[27] Just off the Mauritian coast lie some 49 uninhabited islands and islets (see Islets of Mauritius), some of them are used as natural reserves for the protection of endangered species. HP G42T-200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Mauritius sought to regain sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago situated 1287 km to the north east (see Chagos Archipelago sovereignty dispute). The Government of the Republic of Mauritius does not recognise the British Indian Ocean Territory, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

which the United Kingdom created by excising the Chagos Archipelago from the territory of Mauritius prior to its independence. Mauritius claims that the Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia, forms an integral part of the territory of Mauritius under both Mauritian law and international law.[28] Starting in the 1960s, SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

the islands 2,000 residents were gradually removedas a process of enabling the United States to establish a military base on the island. The Chagossians has since engaged in activism to return to the archipelago, claiming that the forced expulsion and dispossession was illegal.[7][29]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The environment in Mauritius is typically tropical in the coastal regions with forests in the mountainous areas. Seasonal cyclones are destructive to the flora and fauna, although they recover quickly. Mauritius ranked second in anair quality index released by the World Health Organization in 2011.[30][31] SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

Situated near the tropic of Capricorn, Mauritius has a tropical climate. There are 2 seasons: a warm humid summer from November to April, with a mean temperature of 24.7° and a relatively cool dry winter from June to September with a mean temperature of 20.4°. The temperature difference between the seasons is only 4.3°. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

The warmest months are January and February with average day maximum temperature reaching 29.2° and the coolest months are July and August when average night minimum temperatures drops down to 16.4°. Annual rainfall ranges from 900 mm on the coast to 1,500 mm on the central plateau. SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard

Although there is no marked rainy season, most of the rainfall occurs in summer months. Sea temperature in the lagoon varies from 22° to 27°. The central plateau is much cooler than the surrounding coastal areas and can experience as much as double the rainfall. The prevailing trade winds keep the East side of the island cooler and also tends to bring more rain. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

There can also be a marked difference in temperature and rainfall from one side of the island to the other. Occasional tropical cyclones generally occurs between January to March and tend to disrupt the weather for only about three days bringing a lot of rain.[32] DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

The country is home to some of the world's rarest plants and animals but human habitation and the introduction of non-native species have threatened its indigenous flora and fauna.[7] Due to its volcanic origin, age, isolation and its unique terrain, Mauritius is home to a diversity of flora and fauna not usually found in such a small area. Before its discovery by the Portuguese in 1507, COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

there were no terrestrial mammals on the island. This allowed the evolution of a number of flightless birds and large reptile species. The arrival of man saw the introduction of invasive alien species and the rapid destruction of habitat and the loss of much of the endemic flora and fauna. HP 590527-001 laptop keyboard

Less than 2% of the native forest that once stretched from the mountain tops of the central plateau to the shore now remains, concentrated in the Black River Gorges National Park in the south west, the Bamboo Mountain Range in the south east and the Moka-Port Louis Ranges in the north west. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-12L laptop keyboard

There are also some isolated mountains which are Corps de Garde, Le Morne Brabant and several offshore islands with remnants of coastal and mainland diversity. Over 100 species of plants and animals have become extinct and many more are threatened. ASUS K030662M2 laptop keyboard

Conservation activities began in the 1980s with the implementation of programmes for the reproduction of threatened bird and plant species as well as habitat restoration in the National Parks and Nature Reserves.[33] HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

When it was discovered, the island of Mauritius was the home of a previously unknown species of bird, the Dodo. Dodos were descendent of a type of pigeon which settled in Mauritius over 4 million years ago. With no predators to attack them, they lost their need and ability to fly. In 1505, the Portuguese became the first humans to set foot on Mauritius.  HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

The island quickly became a stopover for ships engaged in the spice trade. Weighing up to 50 pounds, the dodo was a welcome source of fresh meat for the sailors. Large numbers of dodos were killed for food. Later, when the Dutch used the island as a penal colony, new species were introduced to the island. ACER TravelMate 8215WLMi laptop keyboard

Rats, pigs and monkeys ate dodo eggs in the ground nests. The combination of human exploitation and introduced species significantly reduced the dodo population. Within 100 years of the arrival of humans on Mauritius, the once abundant dodo became a rare bird. The last one was killed in 1681.[34] The dodo is prominently featured as a supporter of the national Coat of arms of Mauritius.  HP Pavilion dv6-2165tx laptop keyboard

The Constitution of Mauritius mentions no official language. It only contains a statement in Article 49 that "The official language of the Assembly shall be English but any member may address the chair in French",[36][37] implying that English and French are official languages of the National Assembly (parliament).  SONY VAIO VGN NR298E laptop keyboard

French is also a common language in education and the dominant language of media. SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

The government of Mauritius provides free education to its citizens from pre-primary to tertiary level. Since July 2005, the government introduced free transport for all students. For the year 2011, government expenditure on education was estimated at about Rs 11.7 billion, representing 12.5% of total expenditure.[44] SONY VAIO PCG-FR415S laptop keyboard

The education system in Mauritius consists of pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The education structure consists of three years of pre-primary school, six years of primary schooling leading to the Certificate of Primary Education,  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

followed by five years of secondary education leading to the School Certificate and a further two years of higher secondary ending with the Higher School Certificate. TheO-Level and A-Level examinations are carried out by the University of Cambridge through University of Cambridge International Examinations. The Tertiary Education sector includes colleges, universities and other technical institutions in Mauritius. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 laptop keyboard

 The country's two main public universities are the University of Mauritius and University of Technology. The Tertiary Education Commission's Strategic Plan envisages Mauritius as a regional knowledge hub and a centre for higher learning and excellence. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

It promotes open and distance learning to increase access to post-secondary education and lifelong learning locally and regionally.[45]Being both an English-speaking and French-speaking nation, Mauritius is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie.

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 [40] It was developed in the 18th century by slaves who used apidgin language to communicate with each other as well as with their French masters, who did not understand the various African languages. The pidgin evolved with later generations to become a casual language.[41] Mauritian Creole is a French-based creole due to its close ties with French pronunciation and vocabulary.[42]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

Mauritian Creole is similar in pronunciation to French, but with a few marked differences – Creole does not contain the post-alveolar fricatives and front rounded vowels that French does.

It is only in the Parliament that the official language is English but any member of the National Assembly can still address the chair in French.[5][43] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

However, English is generally accepted as the official language of Mauritius and as the language of government administration and the court business.[38]

In Mauritius, people switch languages according to the situation.[40] Creole is used in informal settings while French and English, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

which have long enjoyed greater social status, are favored in educational and professional settings.[40] Most newspapers and media communications are in French.[41] American and other English-language movies and TV programmes shown in Mauritius are conventionally dubbed into French. ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculture-based economy to a middle-income diversified economy. The economy is based on tourism, textiles, sugar, and financial services. In recent years, HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard

information and communication technology, seafood, hospitality and property development, healthcare, renewable energy, and education and training have emerged as important sectors, attracting substantial investment from both local and foreign investors.[20] HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard

Mauritius has no exploitable natural resources and therefore depends on imported petroleum products to meet most of its energy requirements. Local and renewable energy sources are biomass, hydro, solar and wind energy.[47][48] Mauritius has one of the largest Exclusive Economic Zones in the world, in 2012 the government announced its intention to develop the Ocean Economy.[49] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Mauritius is ranked high in terms of competitiveness, investment climate, governance and freest economy, the Gross Domestic Product (PPP) estimate was at $20.200 billion and GDP (PPP) per capita income over $15,591 in 2012, one of the highest in Africa.[3][12][17][50][51] Mauritius has an upper middle income economy, according to the World Bankin 2011.[52]  HP G62-a20SQ laptop keyboard

  For the fifth consecutive year, the World Bank's 2013 Ease of Doing Business report ranks Mauritius first among African economies and 19th worldwide out of 183 economies in terms of ease of doing business.[51] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

Mauritius has built its success on a free market economy, according to the 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, Mauritius is ranked eighth worldwide. The report's ranking of 183 countries is based on measures of economic openness, regulatory efficiency, rule of law, and competitiveness. TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

The rupee (sign: ₨; ISO 4217 code: MUR) is the currency of Mauritius. It is theoretically divided into 100 cents; however, as at October 2011, only 5 and 20 cent coins, are currently in circulation, the latest mintage of these two coins was in 2010. SONY VAIO VGN-FS115ZR laptop keyboard

A Half Rupee coin is also in circulation. The rupee was established by law in 1876 as the local currency of Mauritius. The rupee was chosen due to the massive inflow of Indian rupees following Indian immigration to Mauritius. Packard Bell Easynote LM82 laptop keyboard

The Mauritian rupee was introduced in 1877, replacing the Indian rupee, sterlingand the Mauritian dollar, with the Mauritian rupee equal to one Indian rupee or half a Mauritian dollar. The pound was worth 10¼ rupees at that time. HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

In 1934, a peg to sterling replaced the peg to the Indian rupee, at the rate of 1 rupee = 1 shilling 6 pence (the rate at which the Indian rupee was also pegged).[53] This rate, equivalent to 13⅓ rupees = 1 pound, was maintained until 1979. HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

Mauritius is one of the world's top luxury tourism destinations.[54] It possesses a wide range of natural and man-made attractions, enjoys a tropical climate with clear warm sea waters, attractive beaches, tropical fauna and flora complemented by a multi-ethnic and cultural population that is friendly and welcoming. DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 laptop keyboard

These tourism assets are its main strength, especially since they are backed up by well-designed and run hotels, and reliable and operational services and infrastructures.[55] Mauritius received the World Leading island Destination award for the third time and World's Best Beach at the World Travel Awards in January 2012.[56] Mauritius has also one of the highest rates of returning tourism visitors in the world.[54] SONY VAIO VGN-CR12GH laptop keyboard

Transport in Mauritius has been free for students, the disabled and seniors since July 2005. There are currently no railways in Mauritius, there were previously industrial railways, but these have been abandoned. To cope with increasing road traffic congestion,  Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

a Light Rail Transit system has been proposed betweenCurepipe and Port Louis. The main harbour where international trade is handled and Cruise Terminal is found at Port Louis. The main airport is Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport, the home of the national airline Air Mauritius, a new passenger terminal is currently under construction and will be operational in April 2013. HP SG-46100-XUA laptop keyboard

The most popular sport in Mauritius is football and the national team is the Club M. However, Mauritius' national sports teams has had little success internationally because of its small population, lack of funding and a local culture that values academic achievement over other activities. Water sports are popular, Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

including swimming, sailing, scuba diving and water skiing. Other popular sports in Mauritius include cyling, table tennis, badminton, volleyball, basketball, handball, boxing, pétanque, judo, karate, taekwondo, weightlifting, bodybuilding and athletics. HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

However Mauritius is quite competitive at regional level in the Indian Ocean. Mauritius collected some golds, silver and bronze medals in the Indian Ocean Island Games. The second (1985) and fifth editions (2003) were hosted by Mauritius. Mauritius won its first Olympic medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing when boxer Bruno Julie won the bronze medal. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S6959 laptop keyboard

The national sport, however, remains horseracing, which is part and parcel of the island's cultural heritage. Horseracing in Mauritius dates to 1812, when the Champ de Mars Racecourse was inaugurated, making it the oldest racecourse in the Southern Hemisphere. Eight races are held every Saturday afternoon from March to December at the Champ de Mars Racecourse in Port Louis.  HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard

Apart from Algerian military, material and humanitarian aid, food and emergency resources are provided by international organizations such as the WHO and UNHCR. Valuable contributions also come from the strong Spanish solidarity organizations. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

The most intense open warfare in the conflict in Western Sahara occurred during the Cold War. But the conflict was never fully dragged into the United States-Soviet dynamics like many other conflicts. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

This was mainly because both sides tried to avoid overt involvement, which would necessitate a crash in relations with either Morocco or Algeria - the major North African players - and because neither viewed it as an important front. Morocco was firmly entrenched in the US camp, whereas Algeria aligned generally with the Soviet Union during the 1970s, and took a more independent "third-worldist" position after that. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The United States claimed political neutrality on the issue, but militarily backed Morocco against POLISARIO during the Cold War, especially during the Reaganadministration. Despite this, POLISARIO never received counter-support from the Soviet Union (or the People's Republic of China, the third and junior player in the Cold War). HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

Instead, the entire East Bloc decided in favour of ties and trade with Morocco and refused to recognize the SADR. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

This made the POLISARIO almost wholly dependent mainly on Algeria and Libya and some African and Latin American third world countries for political support, plus some NGOs from European countries (Sweden, Norway, Spain, etc.) SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

 which generally only approached the issue from a humanitarian angle. The cease-fire coincided with the end of the Cold War. World interest in the conflict seemed to expire in the 1990s as the Sahara question gradually sank from public consciousness due to decreasing media attention. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

One of the most innovative tactics of the SPLA was its early and extensive use of Land Rovers and other re-modeled civilian vehicles, mounting anti-aircraftmachine guns (as ZPU-2 or ZU-23) or anti-tank missiles, (as the AT-3 Sagger) and using them in great numbers, to overwhelm unprepared garrisoned outposts in rapid surprise strikes. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

This may reflect the movement's difficulties in obtaining original military equipment, but nonetheless proved a powerful tactic.[18]

On November 3, 2005,  HP Envy 15-1040er Laptop Keyboard

the Polisario Front signed the Geneva Call, committing itself to a total ban on landmines, and later began to destroy its landmine stockpiles under international supervision. Morocco is one of 40 governments that have not signed the 1997 mine ban treaty. Both parties have used mines extensively in the conflict, but some mine-clearing operations have been carried out under MINURSO supervision since the cease-fire agreement.[19][20] SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

The SPLA traditionally employed ghazzi tactics, i.e., motorized surprise raids over great distances, which were inspired by the traditional camel-back war parties of the Sahrawi tribes. However, after the construction of the Moroccan Wall this changed into tactics more resembling conventional warfare, with a focus on artillery, HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee laptop keyboard

snipers and other long-range attacks. In both phases of the war, SPLA units relied on superior knowledge of the terrain, speed and surprise, and on the ability to retain experienced fighters.

Support for the Polisario Front came mostly from African countries (especially "progressive" countries espousing strong anticolonial viewsSONY VAIO VGN-N37GH/B laptop keyboard

, and those liberation movements who had only recently or not yet gained independence, such as African National Congress (South Africa), SWAPO (Namibia) or MPLA (Angola). Most of theArab world had supported Morocco; only Algeria and Libya have, SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M laptop keyboard

at different times, given any significant support to POLISARIO. Iran recognized the SADR in 1980,Mauritania had recognized the SADR in 1984, and Syria and South Yemen had supported the POLISARIO position on the conflict when they were all members of theFront of Refusal. Additionally, many third world non-aligned countries have supported the Polisario Front.  HP Pavilion DV7-3100 laptop keyboard

Ties with the Fretilin of East Timor (occupied byIndonesia in 1975) were exceptionally strong and remain so after that country's independence; both POLISARIO and Fretilin have argued that there are numerous historical parallels between the two conflicts.[21][22][23]  ACER TravelMate 4650 Series laptop keyboard

The movement's main political and military backers were originally Algeria and Libya, with Cuba coming a very distant third. Mauritania also attempts to avoid involvement and to balance between Morocco and POLISARIO's backers in Algeria, although it formally recognizes the SADR as Western Sahara's government since 1984 and has a substantial Sahrawi refugee population (around 30,000) on its territory. SONY VAIO VGN-FS710/W laptop keyboard

Support from Algeria remains strong, despite the country's preoccupation with its own civil war. The POLISARIO is practically dependent on its bases and refugee camps, located on Algerian soil. While Algeria recognizes the Sahrawis' right to wage an armed struggle against Morocco, and has helped to equip the SPLA army,  HP Pavilion tx2532la laptop keyboard

 the government also seems to have barred POLISARIO from returning to armed struggle after 1991, attempting to curry favor from the US and France and to avoid inflaming its already poor relations with Morocco.[24] SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

In 2004, an anti-ceasefire and anti-Abdelaziz opposition fraction, the Front Polisario Khat al-Shahid announced its existence, in the first break with the principle of "national unity" (i.e., working in one single organization to prevent internal conflict). It calls for reforms in the movement, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

as well as resumption of hostilities with Morocco. But it remains of little importance to the conflict, as the group had splitted in two factions, and Polisario has refused dialogs with it, stating that political decisions must be taken within the established political system. TOSHIBA PK13CW10200 laptop keyboard

When it originally began the anti-Spanish rebellion, POLISARIO was forced to capture its weapons gun-by-gun, and to move only on foot or camel-back. But it multiplied its arsenals and military sophistication after striking an alliance with the anti-Moroccan Algerian government in 1975. The modern SPLA is equipped mainly with outdated Soviet-manufactured weaponry, HP Pavilion dv6-2143ez laptop keyboard

donated by Algeria. But its arsenals display a bewildering variety of material, much of it captured from Spanish, Mauritanian (Panhard AMLs) or Moroccan forces (Eland Mk7s, Ratel IFVs, AMX-13s, SK-105 Kürassiers) and made in France, the United States, South Africa,Austria or Britain. The SPLA has several armored units, composed of old tanks (T-55s, T-62s), SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

 somewhat more modern armored cars (EE-9s, BRDM-2s), infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-1s, BTR-60s), rocket launchers (BM-21s) and halftracks. Surface-to-air missiles (anti-aircraft missiles, as SA-6s, SA-7s, SA-8s and SA-9s) have felled several Moroccan F-5 fighter jets, and helped compensate for the complete Moroccan control of the skies.[17] SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard

On February 3, 1969, Eduardo Mondlane was killed by explosives smuggled into his locale. Many sources state that, in an attempt to rectify the situation in Mozambique, the Portuguese secret police assassinated Mondlane by sending a parcel to his office in Dar es Salaam. Inside the parcel was a book containing an explosive device, HP Pavilion dv6-3020tu Laptop Keyboard

which detonated upon opening. Other sources state that Eduardo was killed when an explosive device detonated underneath his chair at the FRELIMO headquarters, and that the faction responsible was never identified.[47] HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard

The original investigations levelled accusations at Silverio Nungo (who was later executed) and Lazaro Kavandame, FRELIMO leader in Cabo Delgado. The latter had made no secret of his distrust of Mondlane, HP Pavilion dv2-1003ax Laptop Keyboard

seeing him as too conservative a leader, and the Tanzanian police also accused him of working with PIDE (Portugal'ssecret police) to assassinate Mondlane. Kavandame himself surrendered to the Portuguese in April of that year.[15] HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard

Although the exact details of the assassination remain disputed, the involvement of the Portuguese government, particularly Aginter Press or PIDE, is generally accepted by most historians and biographers and is supported by the Portuguese stay behind Gladio-esque army, Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

known as Aginter Press, that suggested in 1990 that they were responsible for the assassination. Initially, however, due to the uncertainty regarding who was responsible, Mondlane's death did create great suspicion within the ranks of the FRELIMO itself and a short power struggle which resulted in a dramatic swing to the political left.[26][48] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

Mondlane's immediate successor was, in fact, the moderate Rev. Uria Simango, who had served under him, as FRELIMO's vice-President, from its formation until 1969. In the post-assassination power-struggle, Simango was ousted by the more hardline Samora Machel and Marcelino dos Santos, expelled from FRELIMO and eventually arrested and executed, post-Independence, in 1975. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

In 1969, General António Augusto dos Santos was relieved of command, with General Kaúlza de Arriaga taking over officially in March 1970. Kaúlza de Arriaga favoured a more direct method of fighting the insurgents, HP Mini 210-1095TU Laptop Keyboard

and the established policy of using African counter-insurgency forces was rejected in favour of the deployment of regular Portuguese forces accompanied by a small number of African fighters. HP Envy 15-1050es Laptop Keyboard

Indigenous personnel were still recruited for special operations, such as the Special Groups of Parachutists in 1973, though their role less significant under the new commander. His tactics were partially influenced by a meeting with United States General William Westmoreland.[15][38] HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard

By 1972, however, there was growing pressure from other commanders, particularly Kaúlza de Arriaga's second in command, General Francisco da Costa Gomes, for the use of African soldiers in Flechas units. Flechas units (Arrows) were also employed in Angola and were units under the command of the Portuguese PIDE. Composed of local tribesmen, the units specialised in tracking, reconnaissance and anti-terrorist operations.[49] DELL E141395 Laptop Keyboard

Costa Gomes argued that African soldiers were cheaper and were better able to create a relationship with the local populace, a tactic similar to the 'hearts and minds' strategy being used by United States forces in Vietnam at the time. ACER Aspire 5613 Laptop Keyboard

These Flechas units saw action in the territory at the very end stages of the conflict, following the dismissal of Kaúlza de Arriaga on the eve of the Portuguese coup in 1974 – the Carnation Revolution. The units were to continue to cause problems for the FRELIMO even after the Revolution and Portuguese withdrawal, when the country splintered into civil war.[50] HP Envy 15-1040er laptop keyboard

There were, in fact, a number of Portuguese special forces units that were unique to either the Mozambican conflict or the Portuguese Colonial War as a whole:

During the entire period of 1970–1974, FRELIMO intensified guerrilla operations, specialising in urban terrorism.[15] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

The use of landmines also intensified, with sources stating that they had become responsible for two out of every three Portuguese casualties.[38] During the conflict, FRELIMO used a variety of anti-tank and anti-personnel mines, including the PMN (Black Widow), TM-46, and POMZ. Even amphibious mines were used, such as the PDM.[36] SONY VAIO VGN-CR220E laptop keyboard

Mine psychosis, an acute fear of landmines, was rampant in the Portuguese forces. This fear, coupled with the frustration of taking casualties without ever seeing the enemy forces, damaged morale and significantly hampered progress.[15][38] DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard

On June 10, 1970, a major counter-offensive was launched by the Portuguese army. The Gordian Knot Operation (Portuguese: Operação Nó Górdio) targeted permanent insurgent camps and the infiltration routes across the Tanzanian border in the north of Mozambique over a period of seven months. The operation involved some 35,000 Portuguese troops,[15] particularly elite units like paratroopers, commandos, marines and naval fusiliers.[35]  GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese had excellent coordination between light bombers, helicopters and reinforced ground patrols. They utilised American tactics of quick airborne (helibourne) assaults supported by heavy aerial bombardments of FRELIMO camps by the Portuguese Air Force (Força Aérea Portuguesa or FAP) to surround and eliminate the guerrillas. HP G61-424CA Laptop Keyboard

These bombardments were accompanied by the use of heavy artillery. The Portuguese also used cavalry units to cover the flanks of patrols and where the terrain was too difficult to motor transport, and units of captured or deserted guerrillas to penetrate their former bases. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Problems for the Portuguese arose almost immediately when the offensive coincided with the beginning of the monsoon season, creating additional logistical difficulties. Not only were the Portuguese soldiers badly equipped, GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

but there was very poor cooperation, if any at all, between the FAP and the army. Thus, the army lacked close air support from the FAP. Mounting Portuguese casualties began to outweigh FRELIMO casualties, leading to further political intervention from Lisbon.[15] TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese eventually reported 651 as killed (a figure of some 440 was most likely closer to reality), and 1,840 captured, for the loss of 132 Portuguese. Gen. Arriaga also claimed his troops to have destroyed 61 guerrilla bases and 165 camps, while 40 tons of ammunition had been captured in the first two months. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Although "Gordian Knot" was to remain the most effective Portuguese offensive of the conflict, weakening guerrillas to such a degree that they would no longer be a significant threat, the operation was still deemed a failure by some military of

ficers and the government.[15]  DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard

By 1972, the Portuguese military had changed its strategy, adapting the British/American search and destroy operations utilising small shock troop sweeps. They also initiated a hearts and minds campaign, named the Aldeamentos Programme, which was a forced relocation program. But on November 9, 1972, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

FRELIMO – not numbering more than 8,000 fighters – launched a large offensive in Tete Province. The response from the Portuguese military was fierce, leading to reprisal attacks in an attempt to unbalance the local population's continuing faith in FRELIMO.

On December 16, 1972, the Portuguese 6th company of Commandos in Mozambique killed the inhabitants of the village of Wiriyamu, in the district of Tete.[15] Referred to as the 'Wiriyamu Massacre',  ACER Aspire 5742ZG Laptop Keyboard

the soldiers killed between 150 (according to the Red Cross) and 300 (according to a much later investigation by the Portuguese newspaper Expresso based in testimonies from soldiers) villagers accused of sheltering FRELIMO guerrillas. TOSHIBA V072426CS1 Laptop Keyboard

The action, "Operation Marosca", was planned at the instigation of PIDE/DGS agents and guided by agent Chico Kachavi, who was later assassinated while an inquiry into the events was being carried out. The soldiers were told by this agent that "the orders were to kill them all", never mind that only civilians, women and children included, were found.[51] SONY Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H laptop keyboard

All of the victims were civilians. The massacre was recounted in July 1973 by the British Catholic priest, Father Adrian Hastings, and two other Spanish missionary priests. However, later counter-claims have been made in a report of Archbishop of Dar es Salaam Laurean Rugambwa that alleged that the killings were carried out by FRELIMO combatants, not Portuguese forces.[52] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In addition, others claimed that the alleged massacres by Portuguese military forces were fabricated to tar the reputation of the Portuguese state abroad.[53] HP Pavilion DV7t-2200 CTO laptop keyboard

Portuguese journalist Felícia Cabrita reconstructed the Wiriyamu massacre in detail by interviewing both survivors and former members of the Portuguese Army Commandos unit that carried out the massacre. Cabrita's report was published in the Portuguese weekly newspaper Expresso and later in a book containing several of the journalist's articles.[54]  SONY VAIO VGN-NW15L laptop keyboard

By 1973, FRELIMO were also mining civilian towns and villages in an attempt to undermine the civilian confidence in the Portuguese forces.[15] "Aldeamentos: agua para todos" (Resettlement villages: water for everyone) was a commonly seen message in the rural areas, as the Portuguese sought to relocate and resettle the indigenous population, in order to isolate the FRELIMO from its civilian base.[55] HP Pavilion DV7-2013tx laptop keyboard

Conversely, Mondlane's policy of mercy towards civilian Portuguese settlers was abandoned in 1973 by the new commander, Machel.[56] "Panic, demoralisation, abandonment, and a sense of futility – all were reactions among whites in Mozambique" stated conflict historian T. H. Henricksen in 1983.[38] TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 laptop keyboard

This change in tactic led to protests by Portuguese settlers against the Lisbon government,[15] a telltale sign of the conflict's unpopularity. Combined with the news of the Wiriyamu massacre and that of renewed FRELIMO onslaughts through 1973 and early 1974, the worsening situation in Mozambique would later contribute to the downfall of the Portuguese government in 1974. A Portuguese journalist argued: HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

Back in Lisbon, the 'Armed Revolutionary Action' branch of the Portuguese Communist Party, which was created in the late 1960s, and the Revolutionary Brigades (BR), a left-wing organisation, worked to resist the colonial wars. They had carried out multiple sabotages and bombings against military targets, HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx laptop keyboard

such as the attack on the Tancos air base that destroyed several helicopters on March 8, 1971, and the attack on the NATO headquarters at Oeiras in October of the same year. The attack on the Portuguese ship Niassa illustrated the role of the colonial wars in this unrest. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

Niassa (named after a Mozambican province) was preparing to leave Lisbon with troops to be deployed in Guinea. By the time of the Carnation Revolution, 100,000 draft dodgers had been recorded.[58] HP Pavilion dv6-3020tu laptop keyboard

Fighting colonial wars in Portuguese colonies had absorbed forty-four percent of the overall Portuguese budget.[15][18][19] This led to an obvious diversion of funds from necessary infrastructural developments in Portugal itself. SONY VAIO VGN-FS760/W laptop keyboard

This contributed to the growing unrest in the European nation. However, Portugal's GDP growth during the colonial war period (1961–1974), was strong and reached a 6% rate (a percentual GDP growth which weren't achieved in any other comparable period after 1974). TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3001 laptop keyboard

The African overseas provinces of Portugal's GDP growth was also widely notable and the construction of infrastructure were at a record high during the war. The unpopularity of the Colonial Wars among many Portuguese led to the formation of several magazines and newspapers, such as Cadernos Circunstância, HP Mini 110-3109sl laptop keyboard

Cadernos Necessários, Tempo e Modo, and Polémica, which had university support and called for political solutions to Portugal's colonial problems.

The growing unrest in Portugal culminated on April 25, 1974, when the Carnation Revolution, a peaceful leftist military coup d'état in Lisbon,  HP Mini 210-2070sb laptop keyboard

ousted the incumbent Portuguese government of Marcelo Caetano. Thousands of Portuguese citizens left Mozambique, and the new head of government, General António de Spínola, called for a ceasefire. With the change of government in Lisbon, many soldiers refused to continue fighting, often remaining in their barracks instead of going on patrol.[58Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

] Negotiations between the Portuguese administration culminated in the Lusaka Accord signed on September 7, 1974, which provided for a complete hand-over of power to FRELIMO, uncontested by elections. Formal independence was set for June 25, 1975, the 13th anniversary of the founding of FRELIMO.[15]  Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

In Mozambique, the Portuguese were not typical settlers. While most European colonies in Africa were "settled" and colonized by whites in the early 20th century, some white families and colonial institutions in those Portuguese-ruled territories had been there for generations.[59][60] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

However, the fear of reprisals and the pro-communist ideologies by the FRELIMO government resulted in the exodus of thousands of Portuguese citizens of European, African and mixed ethnicity from the newly-independent territory to Portugal and other places. In Mozambique, most ethnic Portuguese considered themselves Mozambicans.  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

About 300,000 white ethnic Portuguese citizens from Mozambique left the territory overnight as refugees (in Portugal they were known as retornados). Cities, towns and villages which were founded by the Portuguese and prospered under Portuguese rule, saw their Portuguese names changed after independence – Lourenço Marques to Maputo, Vila Pery to Chimoio, Vila Cabral to Lichinga, or Vila Junqueiro to Gurúè, are just a few examples. HP Pavilion dv6-3023sy laptop keyboard

The statues to Portuguese heroes were removed from their sites in all urban centres. With the exodus of trained Portuguese personnel, the newly-independent country had no skilled professionals to maintain its infrastructure, ACER Travelmate 4670 laptop keyboard

and so the economy plummeted. Privileged commercial links were established with several communist countries by the FRELIMO government on the expense of Portugal which lost influence in the region. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460EB laptop keyboard

Samora Machel became Mozambique's first president. The Reverend Uria Simango, his wife, and other FRELIMO dissidents were arrested in 1975 and liquidated without trial at some unknown date. Within about two years, war restarted with the Mozambican Civil War against the rebel insurgency of RENAMO. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

Mozambique faced severe problems after independence. Economic and social recession, Marxist totalitarianism, corruption, poverty, inequality and failed central planning eroded the initial revolutionary fervour.[61][62] Peace returned only in 1992, and the country became relatively stable for the first time in decades. HP Pavilion DV7-3069wm laptop keyboard

Due to both the technological gap between civilisations and the centuries-long colonial era, Portugal was a driving force in the development and shaping of all Portuguese Africa since the 15th century. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

to counter the increasing insurgency of FRELIMO forces and show to the Portuguese people and the world that the territory was totally under control, the Portuguese government accelerated its major development program to expand and upgrade the infrastructure of Portuguese Mozambique by creating new roads, DELL Latitude E6400 laptop keyboard

railways, bridges, dams, irrigation systems, schools and hospitals to stimulate an even higher level of economic growth and support from the populace.[23][44] SONY VAIO VGN-N350N laptop keyboard

As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969. This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal's "civilising mission"[45] GATEWAY V030946FS1 US laptop keyboard

and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. To this end, Portugal sent three thousand new troops and over one million landmines to Mozambique to defend the building project.[15] DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

Realising the symbolic significance of the dam to the Portuguese, FRELIMO proceeded to spend seven years attempting to halt its construction by force. No direct attacks were ever successful, but FRELIMO had some success in attacking convoys en route to the site.[15] HP G62-147NR Laptop Keyboard

FRELIMO also lodged a protest with the United Nations about the project, and their cause was aided by negative reports of Portuguese actions in Mozambique. In spite of the subsequent withdrawal of much foreign financial support for the dam, it was finally completed in December 1974. DELL NSK-DG101 Laptop Keyboard

The dam's intended propaganda value to the Portuguese was overshadowed by the adverse Mozambican public reaction to the extensive dispersal of the indigenous populace, who were forced to relocate from their homes to allow for the construction project. The dam also deprived farmers of the critical annual floods, which would otherwise re-fertilise the plantations.[46]  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

African leaders began a series of peace talks between the warring factions following a request by the United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali for them to intervene in the humanitarian crisis. Talks were initiated under the aegis of former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere in 1995; following his death, SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

 South African President Nelson Mandela took the helm. As the talks progressed, South African President Thabo Mbeki and United States President Bill Clinton also lent their respective weight.

The peace talks took the form of Track I mediations. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

This method of negotiation can be defined as a form of diplomacy involving governmental or intergovernmental representatives, who may use their positive reputations, mediation or the “carrot and stick” method as a means of obtaining or forcing an outcome, frequently along the lines of “bargaining” or “win-lose”.[30] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

The main objective framing the talks was a structural transformation of the Burundian government and military as a way to bridge the ethnic gap between the Tutsis and Hutus. This would be accomplished in two ways. ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

First, a transitional power sharing government would be established, with the presidents holding office for three-year terms. The second objective involved a restructuring of the military, where the two groups would be represented equally. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

As the protracted nature of the peace talks demonstrated, there were several obstacles facing the mediators and negotiating parties. First, the Burundian officials perceived the goals as “unrealistic” and viewed the treaty as ambiguous, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

contradictory and confusing. Second, and perhaps most importantly, the Burundians believed the treaty would be irrelevant without an accompanying cease fire. This would require separate and direct talks with the rebel groups. The main Hutu party was skeptical of the offer of a power-sharing government; they alleged that they were deceived by the Tutsis in past agreements.[31] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

In 2000, the Burundian President signed the treaty, as well as 13 of the 19 warring Hutu and Tutsi factions. However, disagreements persisted over which group would preside over the nascent government and when the ceasefire would commence. The spoilers of the peace talks were the hardliner Tutsi and Hutu groups who refused to sign the accord; HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

as a result, violence intensified. Three years later at a summit of African leaders in Tanzania, the Burundian president and the main opposition Hutu group signed an accord to end the conflict; the signatory members were granted ministerial posts within the government. However, smaller militant Hutu groups – such as the Forces for National Liberation – remained active. HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

Between 1993 and 2003, many rounds of peace talks, overseen by regional leaders in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda, gradually established power-sharing agreements to satisfy the majority of the contending groups. Initially the South African Protection Support Detachment was deployed to protect Burundian leaders returning from exile, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4047 Laptop Keyboard

which then became part of the African Union Mission to Burundi, deployed to help oversee the installation of a transitional government. In June 2004, the UN stepped in and took over peacekeeping responsibilities as a signal of growing international support for the already markedly advanced peace process in Burundi.[32] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The mission’s mandate, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, has been to monitor cease-fire; carry out disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants; support humanitarian assistance and refugee and IDP return; Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

assist with elections; protect international staff and Burundian civilians; monitor Burundi’s troublesome borders including halting illicit arms flows; and assist in carrying out institutional reforms including those of the Constitution, judiciary, armed forces, and police. SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z laptop keyboard

The mission has been functioning well and has greatly benefited from the existence of a fairly functional transitional government, which is in the process of transitioning into a more legitimate, elected entity.[32] Compaq Presario CQ56-102SE laptop keyboard

The main difficulty the operation faced at first was the continued resistance to the peace process by the last Hutu nationalist rebel group. This organization continued its violent conflict on the outskirts of the capital despite the UN’s presence. By June 2005, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-SP6010L laptop keyboard

the group had stopped fighting and was brought back into the political process. All political parties have accepted a formula for inter-ethnic power-sharing, which means no political party can gain access to government offices unless it is ethnically integrated.[32] HP 9J.NOL82.W01 laptop keyboard

The focus of the UN’s mission had been to enshrine the power-sharing arrangements in a popularly voted constitution, so that elections may be held and a new government installed. Disarmament, FUJITSU Lifebook S7210 laptop keyboard

demobilization and reintegration were done in tandem with elections preparations. In February 2005, the Constitution was approved with over 90% of the popular vote. In May, June, and August 2005, three separate elections were also held at the local level for the Parliament and the presidency. Packard Bell Easynote LM94 laptop keyboard

While there are still some difficulties with refugee returns and securing adequate food supplies for the war-weary population, the mission has managed to win the trust and confidence of a majority of the formerly warring leaders as well as the population at large.[32] It has also been involved with several “quick impact” projects including rehabilitating and building schools, orphanages, health clinics, and rebuilding infrastructure such as water lines. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

Reconstruction efforts in Burundi started to practically take effect after 2006. The UN shut down its peacekeeping mission and re-focused on helping with reconstruction.[33] Toward achieving economic reconstruction, Rwanda, D.R.Congo and Burundi relaunched the regional economic bloc: The Great Lakes Countries Economic Community.[33] In addition, Burundi, along with Rwanda, joined the East African Community in 2007. HP Pavilion DV6t-4000 laptop keyboard

However, the terms of the September 2006 Ceasefire between the government and the last remaining armed opposition group, theFLN (Forces for National Liberation, also called NLF or FROLINA), were not totally implemented, SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

and senior FLN members subsequently left the truce monitoring team, claiming that their security was threatened.[34] In September 2007, rival FLN factions clashed in the capital, killing 20 fighters and causing residents to begin fleeing. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Rebel raids were reported in other parts of the country.[33] The rebel factions disagreed with the government over disarmament and the release of political prisoners.[35] In late 2007 and early 2008, FLN combatants attacked government-protected camps where former combatants were living. The homes of rural residents were also pillaged.[35] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

The 2007 report[35] of Amnesty International mentions many areas where improvement is required. Civilians are victims of repeated acts of violence done by the FLN. The latter also recruits child soldiers. The rate of violence against women is high. Perpetrators regularly escape prosecution and punishment by the state. HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

There is an urgent need for reform of the judicial system. Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity remain unpunished. The establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and a Special HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Tribunal for investigation and prosecution has not yet been implemented. The freedom of expression is limited; journalists are frequently arrested for carrying out legitimate professional activities. A total of 38,087 Burundian refugees have been repatriated between January and November 2007.

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