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McMaster University McMaster University (commonly referred as McMaster or Mac) is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on 121 hectares (300 acres) of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens.[5] The university operates six academic faculties: Engineering, Health Science, Humanities, Social Sciences, Science, and the DeGroote School of Business. It is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.[6]HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Laptop Keyboard The university bears the name of Honourable William McMaster, a prominent Canadian Senator and banker who bequeathed C$900,000 to the founding of the university.[7] McMaster University was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College. SONY VAIO VGN-N17G Laptop Keyboard It opened in Toronto in 1890. Inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted the institution to relocate in 1930.[8] McMaster was controlled by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec until it became a privately chartered, publicly funded non-denominational institution in 1957. DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard The university is co-educational, and has over 24,500 undergraduate and nearly 4,000 post-graduate students. Alumni and former students of the university can be found all across Canada and in 140 countries around the world.[3] The McMaster athletic teams are known as the Marauders, and are members of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport.  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard McMaster University resulted from the outgrowth of educational initiatives undertaken by Baptists as early as the 1830s.[9] It was founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College. Canadian Senator William McMaster, the first president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, bequeathed funds to endow a university, HP 9J.NOL82.W01 Laptop Keyboard which was incorporated through a merger of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College, Woodstock, Ontario. In 1887 the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College was granted royal assent, and McMaster University was officially incorporated.[1] Woodstock College, Woodstock, and Moulton Ladies' College, Toronto, were maintained in close connection.[10]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The new university, housed in McMaster Hall in Toronto, was sponsored by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec as a sectarian undergraduate institution for its clergy and adherents. The first courses—initially limited to arts and theology leading to a BA degree—were taught in 1890, and the first degrees were conferred in 1894.[11]HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard As the university grew, McMaster Hall started to become overcrowded. The suggestion to move the university to Hamilton was first brought up by a student and Hamilton native in 1909, although the proposal was not seriously considered by the university until two years later.[12] By the 1920s, after previous proposals between various university staff, HP COMPAQ NX6110 Laptop Keyboard the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce launched a campaign to bring McMaster University to Hamilton.[8] As the issue of space at McMaster Hall became more acute, the university administration debated the future of the university. The university nearly became federated with the University of Toronto, as had been the case with Trinity College and Victoria College. Instead, in 1927, the university administration decided to transfer the university to Hamilton.[8]HP 9J.N8682.501 Laptop Keyboard The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec secured $1.5 million, while the citizens of Hamilton raised an additional $500,000 to help finance the move.[13] The lands for the university and new buildings were secured through gifts from graduates.[11] Lands were transferred from the Royal Botanical Gardens to establish the campus area. The first academic session on the new Hamilton campus began in 1930.[13]McMaster's property in Toronto was sold to the University of Toronto when McMaster moved to Hamilton in 1930. McMaster Hall is now home to the Royal Conservatory of Music.[14]HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Professional programs during the interwar period were limited to theology and nursing.[15] By the 1940s the McMaster administration was under pressure to modernize and expand the university's programs. During the Second World War and post-war periods the demand for technological expertise, particularly in the sciences, HP 550 Laptop Keyboard increased.[15] This problem placed a strain on the finances of what was still a denominational Baptist institution. In particular, the institution could no longer secure sufficient funds from denominational sources alone to sustain science research.[15] Since denominational institutions could not receive public funds, TOSHIBA Equium M30 Series Laptop Keyboard the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec decided to reorganize the university, creating two federated colleges. The arts and divinity programs were reconstituted as University College and science was reorganized under the newly incorporated Hamilton College as a separate division capable of receiving provincial grants.[15] DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard Hamilton College was incorporated in 1948 by letters patent under The Companies Act, although it remained only affiliated with the university.[16] The University traditionally focused on undergraduate studies, and did not offer a PhD program until 1949.[17]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Through the 1950s increased funding advanced the place of sciences within the institution.[18] In 1950, the university had completed the construction of three academic buildings for the sciences, all designed by local architect William Russell Souter.[19] Public funding was eventually necessary to ensure the humanities and social sciences were given an equal place.[18]Thus, in 1957 the University reorganized once again under The McMaster University Act, 1957, SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard dissolving the two colleges. Its property was vested to McMaster and the university became a nondenominational institution eligible for public funding.[16] The historic Baptist connection was continued through McMaster Divinity College, a separately chartered affiliated college of the university.[11][20] Also in 1957, Ph.D. programs were consolidated in a new Faculty of Graduate Studies.[17] Construction of theMcMaster Nuclear Reactor also began in 1957, and was the first university-based research reactor in the Commonwealth when it began operating in 1959.[21]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard In 1965, with the support of the Ontario government, the University established a medical school and teaching hospital, graduating its first class of physicians in 1972.[22] In 1968 the university was reorganized under an amended act of the McMaster Act into the Divisions of Arts, Science, and Health Sciences, each with its own Vice-President, ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop Keyboard while the Divinity College continued under its existing arrangement.[16][23] In 1974 the divisional structure of the university was dissolved and reorganized again under The McMaster University Act, 1976 and the vice-presidents were replaced by a single Vice-President (Academic).[16] The Faculties of Business, Engineering, Health Sciences, Humanities, Science, and Social Sciences were retained, each under the leadership of a dean.  ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard


McMaster University is situated in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, located in the Golden Horseshoe along the western end of Lake Ontario. The main campus is bordered to the north by Cootes Paradise, an extensive natural marshland, to the east and west by residential neighbourhoods, and to its south by Main Street West, a major transportation artery. Its northern boundaries are a popular destination for walkers who make use of the many trails that connect the campus to the Royal Botanical Gardens.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS315E Laptop Keyboard While the main campus is 152.4 hectares (377 acres), the majority of the teaching facilities are centered within the core 12.1 hectares (30 acres).[3][5] In addition to its main campus in Hamilton, McMaster owns several other properties around Hamilton, as well as in Burlington,Kitchener, and St. Catharines, Ontario.  SONY Vaio PCG-K215Z Laptop Keyboard The university owns and manages 62 buildings, both on and off campus.[3] The buildings at McMaster vary in age, with Hamilton Hall opening in 1926, to the university's new nuclear research facility, which opened in 2011.[8][24] Plans to construct a new academic building in 2013, known as the Wilson Building for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard are underway after securing a substantial donation from the university's chancellor, Lynton Wilson, as well as securing funding from the provincial government.[25] McMaster main campus is divided up into three main areas: the Core Campus, North Campus and West Campus. The Core Campus is where the majority of the university's academic,  SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard research and residential buildings are located while the North Campus is made up of the university's athletic precinct and a small amount of surface parking. The West Campus is the least developed area of the main campus, containing only a few buildings, surface parking, and undeveloped land.[26]Packard Bell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard he university's campus has gone through continuous development since 1928. The main campus's six original buildings are of neo-Gothic architecture. They are now flanked by over fifty structures built predominantly during booms in the 1950s, 1960s and during the 2000s.[3] The largest facility is the McMaster University Medical Centre, Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard a multi-use research hospital that is home to the second-largest neonatal intensive care unit and the third-largest child and youth mental health unit in the country.[27]It is connected to the Life Sciences building and the Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning & Discovery, which houses many well-funded research groups in areas of genetics, infectious diseases, and several specific conditions.[28]SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard The McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) has been the largest university reactor in the Commonwealth since it began operation and is the second largest research reactor in North America.[29][30] It is a "pool-type" reactor with a core of enriched uranium fuel moderated and cooled by distilled water.[31]  Acer eMachines E732 Laptop Keyboard While the MNR's primary purpose is research and the production of medical isotopes, the MNR also serves students in nuclear engineering, medical and health physics, and other applied radiation sciences.[32] The university provides a wide range of irradiation, laboratory, and holding facilities, which include a cyclotron, an accelerator, a small-angle neutron-scattering detector, and wide-angle neutron scattering facilities.[33] The cyclotron is used for the production of fluorine-18, and is used for research purposes, particularly the development of novel molecular imaging agents.[34]HP Pavilion dv6-3138eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university's library system is a member of 31 organizations, including the Association of Research Libraries.[3][35] The library's resource expenditure on 30 April 2010 was approximately $7.8 million, with 83.8 percent of the budget allocated to serial subscriptions, and 15.3 percent on hard copy acquisitions.[3] The library system include four libraries housing 1,645,876 volumes and 3,620,092 total resources, including videos, maps, sound recordings, and microfilm.[3] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-457TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Mills Library houses the humanities and social sciences collections, with a wide range of print and digital resources. Innis Library houses content which supports the academic and research interests of the DeGroote School of Business. Thode Library houses academic material of various disciplines of science and engineering, while the Health Science Library houses books pertaining to medical sciences. HP Pavilion dv9000 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The McMaster Museum of Art's (MMA) principal role is to support the academic mission of McMaster University and to contribute to the discourse on art in Canada. The museum has the highest attendance figures for a university-affiliated museum in Canada, with 30,040 visitors. Established in 1967, the museum houses and exhibits the university's art collection.  HP Pavilion dv9885ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As of 2010, that collection of 6,980 pieces holds a total value of $98 million.[3] The collection includes works by Gustave Courbet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Walter Sickert and Vincent van Gogh. The museum also boasts the most comprehensive collection of German expressionist and Weimar period prints in Canada.[3]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Currently McMaster has twelve smoke-free student residences: Bates, Brandon, Edwards, Hedden, Les Prince, Mary E. Keyes, Matthews, McKay, Moulton, Wallingford, Whidden, and Woodstock Hall. McMaster's student residences can accommodate 3,685 students in total.[36] The latest residence to be built was Les Prince Hall, a large co-ed building, completed in 2006. It was named for a long-time hall master in the residence system who lived with his family on campus until after his retirement in 1980.[37] SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard In September 2010, 49 percent of first-year students lived on campus, with 17.1 percent of the overall undergraduate population living on campus.[38] Residences provide traditional room and board style, furnished apartment style, and suite-style accommodation. Brandon Hall houses the university's substance-free lifestyle living spaces.[39] TOSHIBA Satellite C655-SP4163 Laptop Keyboard The residence system is supervised by Residence Life staff, who provide guidance and help the transition to university life for many first-year students.[40] Residence students are represented by the Inter-Residence Council (IRC), which aims to build a sense of community among the residents through programming.[41] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The McMaster University Student Centre (MUSC) is the centre of student life and programming. It contains a café, study space, common areas, and a number of administrative departments, including the CIBC Conference Hall. The MUSC contains the offices of a number of student organizations, including the McMaster Students Union and The Silhouette weekly newspaper as well as other services such as the Campus Health Centre and the campus dentist.[42] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The university has over twenty dining outlets located throughout the campus, including two major residence dining facilities.[43] The university has a number of vegetarian establishments, such as a completely vegetarian cafe known as Bridges Café and a farmers market stand. The university was voted as the country's most vegan-friendly university through People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) for a number of years.[44]Several other dining outlets at McMaster have garnered a number of awards throughout the years for food services.[45]TOSHIBA NSK-T4A01 Laptop Keyboard Off-campus facilities As of 2010 McMaster University's DeGroote School of Business operates a 1.82-hectare (4.5-acre) site in the neighbouring city of Burlington. Consideration for the new building began in 2004, when McMaster University had announced its initial intent to construct a new arts- and technology-intensive campus in partnership with the city of Burlington. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, the City of Burlington, Halton Region, and McMaster University signed an official agreement laying out the timelines and next steps for the university's expansion into Burlington.[46] Construction began on June 17, 2009,[47] and the official opening was on October 7, 2010. The four-story, 90,000-square-foot (8,400 m2) building is called the Ron Joyce Centre. The Ron Joyce Centre is home to DeGroote's MBA program and its business management program (both degree and non-degree programs).[48][49]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard McMaster has a number of administrative offices at its Downtown Centre, located in Hamilton in the former Wentworth County Courthouse.[50] The centre is also home to the McMaster Centre for Continuing Education, which offers a variety of certificate and diploma programs as well as personal and professional development programs.[51]GATEWAY MT6708 Laptop Keyboard The Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine is located on the main campus as well as in two regional campses at St. Catharines and Kitchener. The Waterloo Regional Campus is located in downtown Kitchener, sharing facilities with the Health Sciences Campus of the University of Waterloo.[52] The campus in St. Catharines is located at Brock University's Niagara Health and Bioscience Research Complex.[53] Approximately 30 medical students in each year of the program attend each campus.[54] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Those who apply to McMaster's School of Medicine are asked to rank their site choice (Hamilton, Niagara Region, Waterloo Region) from first to third, or no preference. Offers of admission to the medical school are made from a rank list irrespective of geographical preference. Subsequent to an applicant's acceptance, registrants to the class are placed based on their preference and geographical background. The offers given out by McMaster are bound to the assigned site.[54]SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard McMaster purchased a large industrial park three kilometres east of its main Hamilton campus in 2005 with the intention of creating an array of research facilities for the development of advanced manufacturing and materials, biotechnology, automotive, and nanotechnology.[55] In July 2005 the federal government announced that it would be relocating CANMET, a federal government materials research laboratory, from its Ottawa centre to Hamilton. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard This decision helped spearhead the development of the McMaster Innovation Park.[56] The United Nations University-International Network on Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) is currently headquartered within the park. UNU-INWEH is the only United Nations agency headquartered in Ontario and the only North American host site for aUnited Nations University, after moving to McMaster Innovation Park on 23 April 2008.[5][57]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard The Office of Sustainability, created as the All-modes Commuting & Transportation Office in 2002, is charged with promoting sustainable operations and growth at the university.[58][59] The Office of Sustainability, headed by the Manager of University Sustainability, works with members of the university population, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard external community groups, and the government.[60] Along with the other members of the Council of Ontario Universities, McMaster signed a pledge in 2009 known asOntario Universities Committed to a Greener World, with the objective of transforming its campus into a model of environmental responsibility.[61][62] On 21 October 2010, the university signed two accords addressing the issue of climate change: the Talloires Declaration and the University and College Presidents’ Climate Change Statement of Action for Canada.[63][64] SONY VAIO VGN-FS760/W Laptop Keyboard The governance of the university is conducted through the Board of Governors and the Senate, both of which were established in the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College in 1887.[1] The Board is responsible for the university's conduct, management, and control of the university and of its property, revenues, business, and affairs.[70]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Ex officio governors of the Board include the university's chancellor, president, and the chairman of the board-senate committee on long-range planning. The Board also consists of 34 other governors, either appointed or elected by the various members of the university's community, including elected representatives from the student body.[70] While The McMaster University Act, 1976 outlines that the board be only composed of 37 members, the Board also includes 12 honorary members, bringing the total number of governors to 51.[71]SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard The Senate is responsible for the university's academics, including standards for admission into the university and qualifications for degrees, diplomas, and certificates.[70] The Senate consists of 15 ex officio positions granted to the chancellor, the president, the vice-presidents of the university, SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard the senior dean of each faculty, the dean of graduate studies, the dean of adult education, the principal of McMaster Divinity College, and the Chairman of the Undergraduate Council. The Senate also consists of 51 other members, appointed or elected by the various communities of the university including elected representatives of the student body.[72] Meetings of the Board of Governors and the Senate are open to the public.[70]TOSHIBA Satellite P300D Series Laptop Keyboard The president acts as the chief executive officer of the university under the authority of the Board and the Senate, and supervises and directs the academic and administrative work of the university and of its teaching and non-teaching staff.[70] Patrick Deane is the seventh president of the university, serving the post since 1 July 2010.[73] ACER 23.TB2V1.003 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The office was created in 1949, with George Gilmour serving as the university's first president. The office of the vice-chancellor, created at the same time as the office of president, has always been held by the incumbent president of the university.[74]Samsung MCF-908AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Programs, departments, and schools at McMaster are divided among six faculties. By enrolment, the three largest programs are engineering, with 3,662 full-time and part-time students, followed by the social sciences, with 5,014 full-time and part-time undergraduates and graduate students.[3] ACER Aspire 5735z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The School of Graduate Studies serves as the central administrative unit of graduate education at the university.[75] The School of Graduate Studies is not considered its own faculty. The Arts and Science program is taught jointly by the other faculties at McMaster.[76] Created in 1981, the program aims to provide a broad-based, liberal education, providing substantial work in both the arts and sciences.[77] HP G62-b30SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Finances The total net assets owned by the university as of 30 April 2012 stands at $705.6 million.[2] The university had completed the 2011–2012 year with revenues of $877.9 million, expenses of $868.7 million and an excess of revenues over expenses of $9.1 million.[2] McMaster's revenue comes from endowment income, gifts, fees, and annual grants from the City of Hamilton, the Hamilton-Wentworth Region, the Province of Ontario, and the Government of Canada.[23] HP Pavilion dv6-3013cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The majority of McMaster's financial revenue originates from financial endowments. The second-largest source of revenue is operating grants provided by the government, valued at nearly C$232.9 million. As of 30 April 2012, McMaster's financial endowment was valued at C$519.2 million.[2] The financing of McMaster's scholarships and bursaries takes up 40 per cent of the endowments received.[78] Financial Services comprises the following areas: Student Accounts & Cashiers, Financial Accounting and Reporting, and Budgeting Services.[79] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad T61 7658 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university has been registered as an educational charitable organization in Canada since 1 January 1967. As of 2011, the university has registered the university primarily as a post-secondary institution, with 70 percent of the charity dedicated to the management and maintenance of the university. The remaining 30 percent has been dedicated under research.[80]HP 450933-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan McMaster is a publicly funded research university, and a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.[81][82] McMaster functions on a semester system, operating year-round on academic semesters, fall/winter and spring/summer.[83] Undergraduate programs comprise the majority of the school's enrolment, made up of 24,520 full-time and part-time undergraduate students.[3] The university conferred 4,690 bachelor degrees, 221 doctoral degrees, 993 master degrees, and 179 first professional degrees in 2010–2011.[3]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Students may apply for financial aid such as the Ontario Student Assistance Program and Canada Student Loans and Grants through the federal and provincial governments. The financial aid provided may come in the form of loans, grants, bursaries, scholarships, fellowships, debt reduction, interest relief, and work programs.[84] In 2010-11, McMaster students received $70.3 million in Canada-Ontario Integrated Student Loans and $17.3 million in grants, approximately $87.7 million in total.[3]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard The McMaster Model is the university's policy for a student-centred, problem-based, interdisciplinary approach to learning, a policy which has been adopted by other several other universities around the world.[5][85] During the 1960s the university's Faculty of Health Science pioneered problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials that have since been adopted by other programs and faculties within the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard PBL is now used in occupational therapy, physical therapy, nursing, midwifery, and other allied fields.[86][87] Most medical schools in Canada and more than 80 percent of medical schools in the United States employ PBL in their curriculum, and many international universities do the same.[88][89]HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1991, McMaster's School of Medicine adopted progress testing, developing the personal progress index (PPI), a system based on progress testing invented concurrently by the University of Missouri-Kansas City's medical school and the Maastricht University. The PPI is used as an objective method for assessing acquisition and retention of knowledge for students in the medical program.[90] The PPI is administered at regular intervals to all students in the program, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard regardless of their level of training, and plots students' scores as they move through the program. Students typically score 20 percent on their first examination, and increase by five to seven percent with each successive examination.[90] Students can monitor the changes in their scores and receive formative feedback based on a standardized score relative to the class mean.[90] Due to the overwhelming success and research supporting the use of the PPI as an evaluation tool, it is now used in Canada, US, Europe, and Australia.[91] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard McMaster University has consistently been ranked one of Canada's top universities. In the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) rankings, the university ranked 92nd in the world and fourth-highest in Canada.[92] The 2012-2013 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed McMaster 88th in the world, and fifth in Canada.[97] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The 2012 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 152nd in the world.[101] In terms of national rankings, Maclean's ranked McMaster 6th in their 2011 Medical Doctoral university rankings.[100] McMaster was ranked in spite of having opted out—along with several other universities in Canada—of participating in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006.[102]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard McMaster's Health Science program has consistently been ranked within the top 100 universities. In the 2012-2013 Times Higher Education rankings of clinical, pre-clinical, and health universities, McMaster's Health Science program ranked 14th in the world and first in Canada.[98] The 2012 QS World University Rankings had ranked the medical program at McMaster 30th in the world, and third in Canada.[103] In the ARWU 2012 rankings for the field of clinical medicine and pharmacy, SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard the university had placed 46th in the world and third in Canada.[95] McMaster was also ranked in a number of ARWU rankings based on academic fields. The university was ranked 42nd in the ARWU 2012 in the field of social sciences, the second-highest in the country.[96]In the same 2012 ARWU rankings, the university had ranked 101-150th in the field of natural science and mathematics, and ranked 151-200th in the field of engineering and computer science.[93][94]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard McMaster's DeGroote School of Business has garnered national and worldwide recognition, as it was accredited by the AACSB in 2006.[104] In an employability survey published by the New York Times in October 2011, when CEOs and chairmans were asked to select the top universities which they recruited from, McMaster placed 61st in the world, and fourth in Canada.[105]TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard Research In Research Infosource's Decade in Review, McMaster was designated the top performer in research income growth from 1999 to 2009 in the medical doctoral category and as the second-top performer in research intensity growth for the same period.[106] With a total sponsored research income of $377.732 million, McMaster has the sixth largest sponsored research income in the country. With an average research income of $310,100 CAD per full-time faculty member, HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard McMaster is also the second most research intensive full-service university in the country.[107] In 2004 McMaster earned the designation of research university of the year based on its ability to attract and capitalize on its research income.[108] Its research activities exceed those of universities twice its size. The federal government is the largest source of funding, providing 57 percent of McMaster's research budget, primarily through grants. Corporations contribute around 12 percent of the overall research budget.[3]HP 530580-001 Laptop Keyboard In terms of research performance, High Impact Universities 2010 ranked McMaster 62nd out of 500 universities, and fourth in Canada.[109] The university was ranked 25th out of 500 universities—second in the country—for research performance in the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, and health sciences.[110] SONY VAIO PCG-FX605 Laptop Keyboard The university was ranked 83rd out of 500 universities, ranking third nationally, for research performance in the fields of engineering, computing, and technology.[111] In the fields of arts, humanities, business, and social sciences, the university's research performance was ranked 60th out of 500 universities, the third highest nationally.[112]  ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 2012, the Higher Education Strategy Associates, another organization which also ranks universities based off their research strength, ranked McMaster tenth nationally in the field of science and engineering and seventh nationally in the field of social sciences and humanities.[113] HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard The Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT), an organization which also evaluates universities based on theirscientific paper's performances, ranked McMaster 54th in the world and fourth nationally for in social sciences in its 2011 rankings. HEEACT placed McMaster 95th in the world and fifth nationally for its overall research performance.[114][115]SAMSUNG BA59-02489J Laptop Keyboard McMaster has been has received accolades for its research strengths, particularly in the field of health sciences. For five years in a row, McMaster has ranked second in for biomedical and health care research revenues by the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada. In 2008–2009, Faculty investigators were overseeing $133 million a year in research, much of that research conducted by scientists and physicians who teach in the medical school.[116] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard For its 2011 rankings, HEEACT ranked McMaster 35th in the world and third on a national scale for scientific papers in clinical medicine.[117] The Faculty of Health Sciences operates several research institutes, including the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, the DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, and the Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute.[118][119][120] A McMaster research group led by David Sackett and later Gordon Guyatt had been largely credited for largely establishing the methodologies used in evidence-based medicine. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard Guyatt had also been credited for coining the term evidence-based medicine in 1990.[121][122] In November 2010, researchers at the Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute turned clumps of human skin into blood cells, which may help alleviate the shortage of blood donors.[123] A portion of Albert Einstein's brain is preserved and held for medical research at the McMaster brain bank.[124]Researchers there have identified differences in his brain that may relate to his genius for spatial and mathematical thinking.[125][126]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The Brockhouse Institute for Material Research (BIMR) is located at McMaster. Created in 1960 by Howard Petch, the institute was named after McMaster alumnusBertram Brockhouse. The BIMR is an interdisciplinary research organization with the mandate to develop, support, and co-ordinate all materials research related activities at McMaster.[127] Its membership of 123 faculty members is drawn from 13 departments in the Faculties of Science, Engineering, HP Pavilion dv6-3111sa Laptop Keyboard and Health Sciences, as well as several Canadian and international universities.[127] Facilities of the BIMR include the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Centre for Crystal Growth, McMaster Analytical Xray Facility, Electronic and Magnetic Characterization Facility, and the Photonics Research Laboratories.[128] The Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy is home to the world's most advanced microscope. The Titan 80–300 cubed microscope has a magnification of 14 million and is used for material, medical, and nanotechnology research.[129]Gateway M-2414U Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university also operates the McMaster Nuclear Reactor, which has been used for nuclear science and engineering research since 1959.[33] The strength of nuclear science at McMaster was augmented in 1968 under the presidency of Dr. H.G. Thode by the construction of a 10MV Model FN Tandem particle accelerator. The 3MV Model KN single-ended accelerator was added the same year.[130] The academic direction of the laboratory fell to the Physics Department in the early days, SONY Vaio VGN-N250FH Laptop CPU Cooling Fan as it was primarily a nuclear structure laboratory. During the next 28 years, the nuclear research effort was extensive, with hundreds of graduate students trained and many publications generated.[131] The reactor at McMaster produces 25 percent of the world's supply of iodine-125, an isotope used in nuclear medicine to treat prostate cancer.[29] The production of molybdenum-99 at the National Research Universal Reactor (NRU) has also been occasionally moved to the university's reactor, during the 1970 and 2009 shutdown of the NRU.[132]HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The requirements for admission differ between students from Ontario, other provinces in Canada, and international students due to the lack of uniformity in marking schemes. The acceptance rate at McMaster for full-time, first-year applications in 2011 was 63 percent.[133] In September 2010,  Gateway NV55C03U Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the secondary school average for full-time first-year students at McMaster University was 85.8 percent. Students entering McMaster's more selective undergraduate programs, such as its Health Science program and its Arts and Science program, had a secondary school average of 95.5 percent.[134] ACER Aspire 5552 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan McMaster's medical school receives twice the number of applications as other medical programs in Canada, with more than 4,500 applicants competing for 204 positions.[135] In 2001 McMaster developed the multiple-mini interview to address long-standing concerns over the standard panel interviews as being poor reflectors of performance in medical school.[136] This format uses short, independent assessments in a timed circuit to obtain aggregate scores in interpersonal skills, Compaq Presario C506TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan professionalism, ethical/moral judgment, and critical thinking to assess candidates. The multiple-mini interview has consistently shown to have a higher predictive validity for future performance than traditional interviews.[136] The format has since been adopted by the majority of other medical schools in Canada and abroad.[137]  ASUS U3S Laptop Keyboard The main student unions on administrative and policy issues are the McMaster Students Union for full-time undergraduates, the McMaster Association of Part-Time Students for part-time undergraduates, and the McMaster Graduate Students Association for postgraduates.[138][139][140] In addition, each faculty has its own student representative body. DELL Latitude D820 Laptop Keyboard Students within the residence are represented by the Inter-Residence Council.[141] There are more than 200 student organizations and clubs, covering a wide range of interests such as academics, culture, religion, social issues, and recreation.[142] Many of them are centred on the McMaster student activity centre, the McMaster University Student Centre. The Silhouette, the student-run newspaper, is the oldest student service at McMaster University, SONY VAIO PCG-FRV25 Laptop Keyboard in publication since 1929.[8] Since 1968, the McMaster Engineering Society has published The Plumbline, the main satire magazine of McMaster University.[143] The campus radio station CFMU-FM (93.3 FM) is Canada’s second-oldest campus radio station, and has been broadcasting since 1978.[144] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard MacInsiders, a popular online student-run forum and information network, has been operating since 2007[145] and has over 18,000 registered members.[146] The McMaster Marching Band, created in September 2009, is a brass and reed marching band composed of 35 graduate and undergraduate students.[147]DELL Latitude D600 Laptop Keyboard The university hosts a number of honour societies, including the McMaster Honour Society and a chapter of the Golden Key International Honour Society.[148][149] The university is home to two semi-professional acting companies, McMaster Musical Theatre and the McMaster Thespian Company.[150] HP Envy 15-1008xx Laptop Keyboard The McMaster Engineering Musical is an annual musical production that is written, directed, and cast by engineers. The production often features unique interpretations of popular songs or musicals.[151] The university and the student unions do not recognize any fraternity or sororities; existing chapters operate as non-accredited off-campus organizations.[152] Two fraternities currently operate an active chapter at the university, Alpha Epsilon Pi and Phi Delta Theta. HP Business Notebook nx9005 Laptop Keyboard Athletics at McMaster is managed by the university's student affairs, under their athletics and recreation department. The university's varsity teams compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. The university's team sports programs include baseball, basketball, football, lacrosse, rugby, soccer, volleyball, and water polo.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The first major sport game played at McMaster was in 1889, when a group of alumni from Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College played an exhibition game against one another, sparking an early intercity rivalry between McMaster students. In 1897 the university placed all physical activity and sports under the jurisdiction of a central executive committee.[155] The varsity teams have been known as the McMaster Marauders since 1948, through a contest run by the student newspaper, The Silhouette, to name the university's men's basketball team.[156]DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard The Marauders have won 11 national championships and 139 provincial champions since 1961. The men's water polo team has won the Ontario University Athletics championship 25 times, making it the Marauders' most successful team at the provincial level. The men's wrestling team has been the Marauders' most successful team at the national level, HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard winning the Canadian Interuniversity Sport championship four times.[157] McMaster University has graduated 34 Olympic athletes, eight Olympic coaches, two Olympic administrators and two Olympic officials.[158] As is mandatory for all members of Canadian Interuniversity Sport, McMaster University does not provide full-ride athletic scholarships.[159]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The university's sports facilities are located in the northeast corner of the main campus. The university has a number of sports facilities, including the David Braley Athletic Centre and the Ron Joyce Stadium.[160] Ron Joyce Stadium includes a full-sized Canadian football field and FIFA-sized soccer pitch.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Laptop Keyboard The stadium features permanent seating for 6,000 and temporary seating for an additional 6,000 on the other side of the field when needed. Ron Joyce Stadium is not only used by the university's football and soccer varsity teams it is also used as the training camp for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League and as the home stadium for the Hamilton Nationals of Major League Lacrosse.[161][162]ACER Aspire 2010WLMi Laptop Keyboard Intramural sport leagues and tournaments have a high level of participation at McMaster. Opportunities are offered at multiple skill levels and across a variety of sports to service a range of interest and ability. Sports offered include traditional sports like volleyball, basketball, soccer and cricket, as well as less traditional events like dodgeball, inner tube water polo, and extreme potato sack racing.[163]ACER Aspire 2001WLCi Laptop Keyboard The McMaster motto, chosen from Colossians 1:17, is ΤΑ ΠΑΝΤΑ ΕΝ ΧΡΙΣΤΩΙ ΣΥΝΕΣΤΗΚΕΝ.[164] The motto, adopted in 1888, is Greek for "In Christ all things consists".[164] The McMaster motto is unusual in that it employs Greek instead of Latin or English. The use of Latin reflects the origin of universities in mediaeval institutions in which Latin was more prominent than Greek.[7][165] McMaster's founders desired to go back beyond the Middle Ages to the earliest days of the Christian faith, and therefore used the Greek form.[165]HP Mini 110-3101tu Laptop Keyboard  ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games are: The Alma Mater Song(1935), with words by Mrs. A.A. Burridge and music by Hugh Brearly; The McMaster March, with words by Claire Senior Burke et al., and music by Arthur Burridge; and My Mac (1982), with words and music by Fred Moyes.[166]Packard Bell Easynote TK83 Laptop Keyboard

Coat of arms

After the university moved to Hamilton in 1930, the university petitioned Lord Lyon King of Arms in Edinburgh for a coat of arms.[167] The request was granted on behalf of The Crown on 20 October 1930.[7][167] In 1997 the Board of Governors introduced a simplified shield design, which recognized the tradition of McMaster’s heraldry while improving the quality of print and electronic reproduction.[167] The university's arms and badge was registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on 15 October 2006.[168]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard The coat of arms consists of a shield, a crest, and a motto, together with a helmet. The shield contains an eagle, symbolic of the heavenly vision, with a cross on its breast to indicate Christianity as the inspiration for the university's vision.[169] The chief of the shield bears an open book, a common symbol of learning, with a maple leaf on each side, signifying that McMaster's charter was granted by the Province of Ontario.[169] The helmet, HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard above the shield, has the open visor and forward-facing style typically used by universities.[169] The mantling surrounding the shield and helmet represents the cloak worn over a knight's armour as protection from the sun. The crest, located above the helmet, is a stag and oak tree, which serves as a tribute to the Canadian Senator, William McMaster, who also used a stag and oak on his insignias.[167] The motto is located above the crest, as is common in Scottish heraldry.[170]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard As of November 2010, McMaster University has over 140,000 alumni residing over 140 countries.[3] Throughout McMaster's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in many different fields, accumulating a number of awards includingNobel prizes, Rhodes scholarships and the Lasker Award.[171][172] Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard Nobel Prize winners include alumnus Myron Scholes, who was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1997; faculty member Bertram Brockhouse, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physicsin 1994; and alumnus James Orbinski, who accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 on behalf of Doctors Without Borders.[173] Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard Many former students have gained local and national prominence for serving in government. Lincoln Alexander served as Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, also becoming the first visible-minority Lieutenant Governor in Canada.[174] Two premiers from Canada, the current premier from Ontario, Dalton McGuinty, SONY Vaio VGN-N385E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the former premier of Saskatchewan, Tommy Douglas, were graduates of McMaster University.[175][176] Prominent faculty members in the field of social sciences include Ruth Landes, a cultural anthropologist, andHenry Giroux, one of the founding theorists of critical pedagogy.[177][178] A prominent alumnus in the field of social sciences wasHarold Innis, who helped shape communication theory and the staples thesis.[179]ACER Aspire 5553NWXCi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A significant number of prominent business leaders have studied at McMaster. Examples include Stephen Elop, current president and CEO of Nokia and former president of Microsoft's business division;[180] Paul D. House, current executive chairman of Tim Hortons;[181] Lynton Wilson, current chairman of Nortel and chancellor of McMaster;[182]  HP Envy 17-1188el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Michael Lee-Chin, current chairman, CEO, andCIO of AIC Limited;[183] and Rob Burgess, former chairman and CEO of Macromedia and director of Adobe Systems.[184] Two members of McMaster University had travelled in space: faculty member Dafydd Williams, who is a physician-scientist at McMaster Centre for Medical Robotics at St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton,[185] and astronaut Roberta Bondar, the first Canadian woman in space.[186]HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Canadian Baptists of Ontario and Quebec (CBOQ) is the oldest union of Baptist churches in central Canada. In 1880 a "Baptist Union o

f Canada" was formed. Since the churches were located chiefly in the central provinces, the name was changed in 1888 to "Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec"[1] (BCOQ). In 1927 the "Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy" resulted in 77 churches splitting off to form the Union of Regular Baptist Churches - SONY Vaio VPC-EE41FX/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan out of which the current Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches in Canada merged in 1953. Even today, in the affected geographic regions, this split results in baptists to be known as either "fellowship" baptists or "convention" baptists. In 1944, the CBOQ joined with the United Baptist Convention of the Maritimes and the Baptist Union of Western Canada to form the Canadian Baptist Federation. It was renamed in 2008 to "Canadian Baptists of Ontario and Quebec" (CBOQ) to better align with other Baptist groups in Canada: i.e. Canadian Baptists of Western Canada. DELL Latitude D600 Laptop Keyboard The Convention Assembly meets annually, electing officers, addressing issues, and offering workshops. According to its mission statement, "[t]he Convention exists to assist our churches to carry out their individual mission for Christ and to do that which we believe God calls us to do together." HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard The Canadian Baptist is a quarterly newsletter published by the Convention. McMaster Divinity College is affiliated with McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. Convention offices are located in Etobicoke, Ontario. BCOQ is a member of the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada, Canadian Council of Churches, and Canadian Baptist Ministries. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard Around the turn of the 20th century, the Convention was composed of over 450 churches with about 44,000 members. Due to internal controversies, such as fundamentalism vs. modernism, and the strength of the United Church of Canada in Ontario and the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec, the CBOQ has declined to about 380 churches in 2003, with an estimated 45,000 members. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard The Legislative Assembly of Ontario (also known as Ontario Legislative Assembly or Ontario Legislature), is thelegislature of the Canadian province of Ontario, and is the second largest provincial legislature of Canada. It is located in the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in Toronto. HP Mini 210-2090nr Laptop Keyboard The British North America Act section 69 stipulates "There shall be a Legislature for Ontario consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor and of One House, styled the Legislative Assembly of Ontario". The Legislative Assembly is unicameral, without anupper house, with 107 seats representing ridings elected through a first-past-the-post electoral system across the province. DELL XPS M1720 Laptop Keyboard The Legislative Assembly is informally known as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament". This is because unlike the otherCanadian provinces, members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" (MPPs) as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" (MLAs) as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. L10 refers only to "members of the Assembly".HP 431414-001 Laptop Keyboard The 40th Legislative Assembly of Ontario was elected on October 6, 2011. The first session of the 40th Legislative Assembly opened on November 22, 2011 and ended on October 15, 2012. HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster System, most laws originate with the cabinet (Government bills), and are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce privately (Private Members' Bills), play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents. In the Ontario Legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is also at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4697 Laptop Keyboard A Member's day will typically be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns, problems and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process. HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard Finally, it is the task of the Legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As already noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly. When a political party comes to power it will usually place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government.  DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province. The Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792. The crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario.  HP Pavilion dv5-1008ea Laptop Keyboard The crown on the wreath represents national and provincial loyalties; its rim is studded with the provincial gemstone, the amethyst. The griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe.  DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard The deer represent the natural riches of the province. The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy. They were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0111ORL Laptop Keyboard In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York (now Toronto), the provincial capital. The motto "Audi Alteram Partem" is one of a series of Latin phrases carved in the Chamber of the Legislative Building. It challenges Members of Provincial Parliament to "Hear the Other Side".HP Pavilion dv6-2147es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Like the Parliament of Canada, the Legislature has procedural officers: The Clerk of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the chief permanent officer of the Legislative Assembly, with the rank and status of a Deputy Minister. He or she is the principal procedural adviser and senior officer of the House. The Clerk's responsibilities include advising the Speaker and Members of the Legislature on questions of procedure and interpretation of the rules and practices of the House. Toshiba Satellite P300-18M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Clerk is also responsible for the overall direction and administration of the Legislative Assembly and is Secretary of the Board of Internal Economy. As Chief Executive Officer, the Clerk is accountable to the Speaker for the administrative and operational functions of the Office of the Assembly. FUJITSU Lifebook B3020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The other key officer is the Sergeant-at-Arms, whose role is to keep order during meetings in the Legislature. The Sergeant-at-Arms is also charged with control of the Ceremonial mace in the Legislature in session. Captain Charles Smith Rutherford VC MC MM held this office. FUJITSU LifeBook P8110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Other officers of the legislature include the Office of the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth, the Ontario Ombudsman, the Environmental Commissioner of Ontario, the Integrity Commissioner of Ontario, the Auditor General of Ontario and the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario. SONY Vaio VPC-EB37FGW Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and then the Clear Grits. Toshiba Satellite A100-849 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854. It is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier. Sandfield Macdonald was actually a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in theCanadian House of Commons but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4727 Laptop CPU Cooling Fanr His government was initially a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was essentially a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was originally a party that includedCatholics and Protestants became an almost exclusively English and Protestant party, SONY Vaio VPC-EB26FGP Laptop CPU Cooling Fan more and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, and even for its leadership. The party became opposed to funding for separate (Catholic) schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, and distrustful of immigrants. Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. Compaq Presario C783TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was officially known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became widely known as the Conservative Party. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province. The Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It also enacted reactionary legislation (such as Regulation 17) against the French-Canadian population in Ontario. The Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914,  HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard however, they lacked vision and became complacent. The Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard Post-war dynasty Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives re-organized and developed new policies. Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard It was at this time that the party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party to reflect this change. Seeing that the country could afford the war-time spending levels, meant that governments could afford to spend to support economic growth.[citation needed]ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard The Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate, to get a majority government. The Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard though it emerged several years later that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades. TOSHIBA V000130390 Laptop Keyboard The anti-Catholic, anti-French, anti-immigrant strain of the Tories was evident under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, who embodied all those elements. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario. He was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power. HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard He was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while also promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Robarts initially opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but later endorsed it fully. He led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.  HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard In the 1995 election, Harris catapulted his party from third place to an election victory, running on a neoliberal platform known as the "Common Sense Revolution" that highlighted a number of "wedge issues" and promised significant tax cuts, cuts towelfare, the introduction of workfare, and privatization of social services. Harris went on to win a second majority in 1999despite the strikes and protests that plagued his first term in office. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard The Harris government was criticized on issues such as health care, the environment, education, and its tax policies, though it remained generally popular until Harris's departure as party leader. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard The slide in Conservative support began in early 2000, according to the Ipsos-Reid polling company (Ipsos-Reid website), when the Tories fell behind the Liberals in the public opinion polls for the first time since the 1999 election, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard with 36% support of those polled, compared to 42% for the Liberals and 17% for the NDP. Later in 2000, Liberal support rose to about half of those polled, while Conservative support remained in the low 30s. This pattern held through to the 2002 leadership campaign, when Conservative support rose to 37%, while the Liberals retained the support of about half of those polled. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard

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