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Michael Jordan

Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963) is a retired American professional basketball player, activeentrepreneur, and majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats. His biography on the National Basketball Association (NBA) website states, Sony vaio VPCY11S1E battery

"By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time."[1] Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s.[2]Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/G battery

Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/L battery

After a three-season career at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was a member of the Tar Heels'national championship team in 1982, Jordan joined the NBA's Chicago Bulls in 1984. Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/SI battery

He quickly emerged as a league star, entertaining crowds with his prolific scoring. His leaping ability, illustrated by performing slam dunks from the free throw line in slam dunk contests, earned him the nicknames "Air Jordan" and "His Airness". He also gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball.[3]Sony vaio VPCY22Z5008B battery

 In 1991, he won his first NBA championship with the Bulls, and followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a "three-peat". Although Jordan abruptly retired from basketball at the beginning of the 1993–94 NBA season to pursue a career in baseball, Sony vaio VPCYA1V9E/B battery

he rejoined the Bulls in 1995 and led them to three additional championships (1996, 1997, and 1998) as well as an NBA-record 72 regular-season wins in the 1995–96 NBA season. Jordan retired for a second time in 1999, but returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Washington Wizards. Sony vaio VPCYB1S1E/S battery

Jordan's individual accolades and accomplishments include five MVP awards, ten All-NBA First Team designations, nine All-Defensive First Team honors, fourteen NBA All-Star Game appearances, Sony vaio VPCY11S1E/S battery

three All-Star Game MVP awards, ten scoring titles, three steals titles, six NBA Finals MVP awards, and the 1988 NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award. He holds the NBA records for highest career regular season scoring average (30.12 points per game) and highest career playoff scoring average (33.45 points per game). HP Pavilion dv7-4026eo Battery

In 1999, he was named the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century by ESPN, and was second to Babe Ruth on the Associated Press's list of athletes of the century. He was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2009. HP Pavilion dv7-4026tx Battery

Jordan is also noted for his product endorsements. He fueled the success of Nike's Air Jordan sneakers, which were introduced in 1985 and remain popular today.[4] Jordan also starred in the 1996 feature film Space Jam as himself. HP Pavilion dv7-4027so Battery

He is the majority owner and head of basketball operations for the NBA's Charlotte Bobcats, having won a bidding war to buy controlling interest in the team from founding owner Robert L. Johnson. HP Pavilion dv7-4027tx Battery

Jordan was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Deloris (née Peoples), who worked in banking, and James R. Jordan, Sr., an equipment supervisor. His family moved toWilmington, North Carolina, when he was a toddler.[6] HP Pavilion dv7-4028eo Battery

Jordan attended Emsley A. Laney High School in Wilmington, where he anchored his athletic career by playing baseball,football, and basketball. He tried out for the varsity basketball team during hissophomore year, but at 5'11" (1.80 m), he was deemed too short to play at that level. His taller friend, Harvest Leroy Smith, was the only sophomore to make the team.[7]HP Pavilion dv7-4028tx Battery

Motivated to prove his worth, Jordan became the star of Laney's junior varsity squad, and tallied several 40 point games.[7] The following summer, he grew four inches (10 cm)[1] and trained rigorously. Upon earning a spot on the varsity roster, HP Pavilion dv7-4029tx Battery

Jordan averaged about 20 points per game over his final two seasons of high school play.[8][9]As a senior, he was selected to the McDonald's All-American Team[10] after averaging atriple-double: 29.2 points, 11.6 rebounds, and 10.1 assists.[11]HP Pavilion dv7-4030ed Battery

 

In 1981, Jordan earned a basketball scholarship to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he majored in cultural geography. As a freshman in coach Dean Smith's team-oriented system, he was namedACC Freshman of the Year after he averaged 13.4 points per game (ppg) on 53.4% shooting (field goal percentage).[12] HP Pavilion dv7-4030ek Battery

He made the game-winning jump shot in the 1982 NCAA Championship game against Georgetown, which was led by future NBA rival Patrick Ewing.[1] Jordan later described this shot as the major turning point in his basketball career.[13] HP Pavilion dv7-4030em Battery

During his three seasons at North Carolina, he averaged 17.7 ppg on 54.0% shooting, and added 5.0 rebounds per game (rpg).[8] He was selected by consensus to the NCAA All-American First Team in both his sophomore (1983) and junior (1984) seasons. HP Pavilion dv7-4030er Battery

After winning theNaismith and the Wooden College Player of the Year awards in 1984, Jordan left North Carolina one year before his scheduled graduation to enter the 1984 NBA Draft. The Chicago Bulls selected Jordan with the third overall pick, after Hakeem Olajuwon (Houston Rockets) and Sam Bowie (Portland Trail Blazers). Jordan returned to North Carolina to complete his degree in 1986.[14]HP Pavilion dv7-4030ew Battery

  Professional career

During his first season in the NBA, Jordan averaged 28.2 ppg on 51.5% shooting.[12] He quickly became a fan favorite even in opposing arenas,[15][16][17] and appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated with the heading "A Star is Born" just over a month into his professional career.[18][19HP Pavilion dv7-4030ss Battery

] Jordan was also voted in as an All-Starstarter by the fans in his rookie season.[1] Controversy arose before the All-Star game when word surfaced that several veteran players, led by Isiah Thomas, were upset by the amount of attention Jordan was receiving.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-4031eo Battery

This led to a so called "freeze-out" on Jordan, where players refused to pass him the ball throughout the game.[1] The controversy left Jordan relatively unaffected when he returned to regular season play, and he would go on to be voted Rookie of the Year.[20] The Bulls finished the season 38–44,[21] and lost in the first round of the playoffs in four games to the Milwaukee Bucks.[20]HP Pavilion dv7-4031sd Battery

 

Jordan's second season was cut short by a broken foot which caused him to miss 64 games.[1] Despite Jordan's injury and a 30–52 record,[21] the Bulls made theplayoffs. Jordan recovered in time to participate in the playoffs and performed well upon his return. HP Pavilion dv7-4031tx Battery

Against a 1985–86 Boston Celtics team that is often considered one of the greatest in NBA history,[22] Jordan set the still-unbroken record for points in a playoff game with 63 in Game 2.[23] The Celtics, however, managed to sweep the series.[20]HP Pavilion dv7-4032eo Battery

Jordan had recovered completely by the 1986–87 season, and had one of the most prolific scoring seasons in NBA history. He became the only player other than Wilt Chamberlain to score 3,000 points in a season, averaging a league high 37.1 points on 48.2% shooting.[12] HP Pavilion dv7-4033tx Battery

In addition, Jordan demonstrated his defensive prowess, as he became the first player in NBA history to record 200 steals and 100 blocks in a season. HP Pavilion dv7-4035es Battery

Despite Jordan's success, Magic Johnson won the league's Most Valuable Player Award. The Bulls reached 40 wins,[21] and advanced to the playoffs for the third consecutive year. However, they were again swept by the Celtics.[20]HP Pavilion dv7-4034tx Battery

Mid-career: Pistons roadblock

Jordan led the league in scoring again in the 1987–88 season, averaging 35.0 ppg on 53.5% shooting[12] and won his first league MVP award. He was also named theDefensive Player of the Year, as he had averaged 1.6 blocks and a league high 3.16 steals per game.[24]HP Pavilion dv7-4035sa Battery

 The Bulls finished 50–32,[21] and made it out of the first round of the playoffs for the first time in Jordan's career, as they defeated the Cleveland Cavaliers in five games.[25] However, the Bulls then lost in five games to the more experienced Detroit Pistons,[20] who were led by Isiah Thomas and a group of physical players known as the "Bad Boys".HP Pavilion dv7-4035so Battery

In the 1988–89 season, Jordan again led the league in scoring, averaging 32.5 ppg on 53.8% shooting from the field, along with 8 rpg and 8 assists per game(apg).[12] The Bulls finished with a 47–35 record,[21] and advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals, defeating the Cavaliers and New York Knicks along the way. HP Pavilion dv7-4035tx Battery

The Cavaliers series included a career highlight for Jordan when he hit The Shot over Craig Ehlo at the buzzer in the fifth and final game of the series.[26] However, the Pistons again defeated the Bulls, this time in six games,[20] by utilizing their "Jordan Rules" method of guarding Jordan, which consisted of double and triple teaming him every time he touched the ball.[1]HP Pavilion dv7-4036tx Battery

The Bulls entered the 1989–90 season as a team on the rise, with their core group of Jordan and young improving players like Scottie Pippen and Horace Grant, and under the guidance of new coach Phil Jackson. HP Pavilion dv7-4038ca Battery

Jordan averaged a league leading 33.6 ppg on 52.6% shooting, to go with 6.9 rpg and 6.3 apg[12] in leading the Bulls to a 55–27 record.[21] They again advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals beating the Bucks and Philadelphia 76ers en route. However, despite pushing the series to seven games, the Bulls lost to the Pistons for the third consecutive season.[20]HP Pavilion dv7-4038tx Battery

First three-peat

In the 1990–91 season, Jordan won his second MVP award after averaging 31.5 ppg on 53.9% shooting, 6.0 rpg, and 5.5 apg for the regular season.[12] The Bulls finished in first place in their division for the first time in 16 years and set a franchise record with 61 wins in the regular season.[21] HP Pavilion dv7-4039tx Battery

With Scottie Pippendeveloping into an All-Star, the Bulls had elevated their play. The Bulls defeated the New York Knicks and the Philadelphia 76ers in the opening two rounds of the playoffs. They advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals where their rival, the Detroit Pistons, awaited them. However, this time the Bulls beat the Pistons in a surprising sweep.[27][28] HP Pavilion dv7-4040ed Battery

In an unusual ending to the fourth and final game, Isiah Thomas led his team off the court before the final seconds had concluded. Most of the Pistons went directly to their locker room instead of shaking hands with the Bulls.[29][30]HP Pavilion dv7-4040ek Battery

The Bulls compiled an outstanding 15–2 record during the playoffs,[27] and advanced to the NBA Finals for the first time in franchise history, where they beat theLos Angeles Lakers four games to one. Perhaps the best known moment of the series came in Game 2 when, HP Pavilion dv7-4040sa Battery

attempting a dunk, Jordan avoided a potential Sam Perkinsblock by switching the ball from his right hand to his left in mid-air to lay the shot in.[31] In his first Finals appearance, Jordan posted per game averages of 31.2 points on 56% shooting from the field, 11.4 assists, 6.6 rebounds, 2.8 steals and 1.4 blocks.[32] Jordan won his first NBA Finals MVP award,[33] and he cried while holding the NBA Finals trophy.[34]HP Pavilion dv7-4040sb Battery

Jordan and the Bulls continued their dominance in the 1991–92 season, establishing a 67–15 record, topping their franchise record from 1990 to 91.[21] Jordan won his second consecutive MVP award with averages of 30.1 points, 6.4 rebounds and 6.1 assists per game on 52% shooting.[24] HP Pavilion dv7-4040sf Battery

After winning a physical 7-game series over the New York Knicks in the second round of the playoffs and finishing off the Cleveland Cavaliers in the Conference Finals in 6 games, the Bulls met Clyde Drexlerand the Portland Trail Blazers in the Finals. HP Pavilion dv7-4040sp Battery

The media, hoping to recreate a Magic-Bird rivalry, highlighted the similarities between "Air" Jordan and Clyde "The Glide" during the pre-Finals hype.[35] In the first game, Jordan scored a Finals-record 35 points in the first half, including a record-setting six three-point field goals.[36] HP Pavilion dv7-4040ss Battery

After the sixth three-pointer, he jogged down the court shrugging as he looked courtside. Marv Albert, who broadcast the game, later stated that it was as if Jordan was saying, "I can't believe I'm doing this."[37] HP Pavilion dv7-4040tx Battery

The Bulls went on to win Game 1, and defeat the Blazers in six games. Jordan was named Finals MVP for the second year in a row[33] and finished the series averaging 35.8 ppg, 4.8 rpg, and 6.5 apg, while shooting 53% from the floor.[33]HP Pavilion dv7-4045ea Battery

In 1992–93, despite a 32.6 ppg, 6.7 rpg and 5.5 apg campaign,[24] Jordan's streak of consecutive MVP seasons ended as he lost the award to his friend Charles Barkley. Coincidentally, Jordan and the Bulls met Barkley and his Phoenix Suns in the 1993 NBA Finals. HP Pavilion dv7-4045eb Battery

The Bulls captured their third consecutive NBA championship on a game-winning shot by John Paxson and a last-second block by Horace Grant, but Jordan was once again Chicago's catalyst. He averaged a Finals-record 41.0 ppg during the six-game series,[38]HP Pavilion dv7-4045er Battery

 and became the first player in NBA history to win three straight Finals MVP awards.[33] He scored more than 30 points in every game of the series, including 40 or more points in 4 consecutive games. HP Pavilion dv7-4047ea Battery

With his third Finals triumph, Jordan capped off a seven-year run where he attained seven scoring titles and three championships, but there were signs that Jordan was tiring of his massive celebrity and all of the non-basketball hassles in his life.[39]HP Pavilion dv7-4050ea Battery

Gambling controversy

During the Bulls' playoff run in 1993, controversy arose when Jordan was seen gambling in Atlantic City, New Jersey the night before a game against the New York Knicks.[40] In that same year, he admitted to having to cover $57,000 in gambling losses,[41]HP Pavilion dv7-4050eb Battery

 and author Richard Esquinas wrote a book claiming he had won $1.25 million from Jordan on the golf course.[41] In 2005, Jordan talked to Ed Bradley of the CBS evening show 60 Minutes about his gambling and admitted that he made some reckless decisions. Jordan stated, "Yeah, I've gotten myself into situations where I would not walk away and I've pushed the envelope. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ec Battery

Is that compulsive? Yeah, it depends on how you look at it. If you're willing to jeopardize your livelihood and your family, then yeah."[42] When Bradley asked him if his gambling ever got to the level where it jeopardized his livelihood or family, Jordan replied, "No."[42]HP Pavilion dv7-4050ed Battery

First retirement and baseball career

On October 6, 1993, Jordan announced his retirement, citing a loss of desire to play the game. Jordan later stated that the murder of his father earlier in the year shaped his decision.[43] James R. Jordan, Sr. was murdered on July 23, HP Pavilion dv7-4050ei Battery

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 1993, at a highway rest area in Lumberton, North Carolina, by two teenagers, Daniel Green and Larry Martin Demery. The assailants were traced from calls they made on James Jordan's cellular phone,[44] HP Pavilion dv7-4050em Battery

caught, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison. Jordan was close to his father; as a child he had imitated his father's proclivity to stick out his tongue while absorbed in work. He later adopted it as his own signature, displaying it each time he drove to the basket.[1] In 1996 he founded a Chicago area Boys & Girls Club and dedicated it to his father.[45][46]HP Pavilion dv7-4050eo Battery

In his 1998 autobiography For the Love of the Game, Jordan wrote that he had been preparing for retirement as early as the summer of 1992.[47] The added exhaustion due to the Dream Team run in the 1992 Olympics solidified Jordan's feelings about the game and his ever-growing celebrity status. Jordan's announcement sent shock waves throughout the NBA and appeared on the front pages of newspapers around the world.[48]HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev Battery

 

Jordan then further surprised the sports world by signing a minor league baseball contract with the Chicago White Sox. He reported to spring training and was assigned to the team's minor league system on March 31, 1994.[49] HP Pavilion dv7-4050ez Battery

Jordan has stated this decision was made to pursue the dream of his late father, who had always envisioned his son as a Major League Baseball player.[50] The White Sox were another team owned by Bulls owner Jerry Reinsdorf, who continued to honor Jordan's basketball contract during the years he played baseball.[51] HP Pavilion dv7-4050sg Battery

In 1994, Jordan played for the Birmingham Barons, a Double-A minor league affiliate of the Chicago White Sox, batting .202 with three home runs, 51 runs batted in, 30stolen bases, and 11 errors.[9]HP Pavilion dv7-4050sy Battery

 He also appeared for the Scottsdale Scorpions in the 1994 Arizona Fall League, batting .252 against the top prospects in baseball.[52] On November 1, 1994, his number 23 was retired by the Bulls in a ceremony that included the erection of a permanent sculpture known as The Spirit outside the new United Center.[53][54][55]HP Pavilion dv7-4051nr Battery

"I'M BACK": RETURN TO THE NBA

In the 1993–94 season, the Bulls, without Jordan, achieved a 55–27 record,[21] and lost to the New York Knicks in the second round of the playoffs. But the 1994–95 version of the Bulls was a shell of the championship squad of just two years earlier. HP Pavilion dv7-4051sg Battery

Struggling at mid-season to ensure a spot in the playoffs, Chicago was 31–31 at one point in mid-March.[56] The team received a lift, however, when Jordan decided to return to the NBA for the Bulls. HP Pavilion dv7-4052sg Battery

On March 18, 1995, Jordan announced his return to the NBA through a 2-word press release: "I'm back."[1] The next day, Jordan donned jersey number 45 (his number with the Barons), as his familiar 23 had been retired in his honor following his first retirement. HP Pavilion dv7-4053eg Battery

He took to the court with the Bulls to face the Indiana Pacers inIndianapolis, scoring 19 points.[57] The game had the highest Nielsen rating of a regular season NBA game since 1975.[58]HP Pavilion dv7-4053cl Battery

Although he hadn't played an NBA game in a year and a half, Jordan played well upon his return, making a game-winning jump shot against Atlanta in his fourth game back. He then scored 55 points in the next game against the Knicks at Madison Square Garden on March 28, HP Pavilion dv7-4054ca Battery

1995 (his first appearance at Madison Square Garden since retiring).[20] Boosted by Jordan's comeback, the Bulls went 13-4 to make the playoffs and advanced to the Eastern Conference Semifinals against the Orlando Magic. HP Pavilion dv7-4054eg Battery

Though at the end of Game 1, Orlando's Nick Anderson stripped Jordan from behind, leading to the game-winning basket for the Magic; he would later comment that Jordan "didn't look like the old Michael Jordan",[59] after which Jordan returned to wearing his old number. Jordan averaged 31 points per game in the series, but Orlando prevailed in 6 games.[8]HP Pavilion dv7-4055sf Battery

SECOND THREE-PEAT

Freshly motivated by the playoff defeat, Jordan trained aggressively for the 1995–96 season.[60] Strengthened by the addition of rebound specialist Dennis Rodman, the Bulls dominated the league, starting the season 41–3,[61] and eventually finishing with the best regular season record in NBA history: HP Pavilion dv7-4055sg Battery

72–10.[22] Jordan led the league in scoring with 30.4 ppg,[62] and won the league's regular season and All-Star Game MVP awards.[1] In the playoffs, the Bulls lost only three games in four series, defeating the Seattle SuperSonics in the NBA Finals to win the championship. HP Pavilion dv7-4057ca Battery

 Jordan was named Finals MVP for a record fourth time,[33] surpassing Magic Johnson's three Finals MVP awards. He also achieved only the second sweep of the MVP Awards in the All-Star Game, regular season and NBA Finals, Willis Reed having achieved the first, during the 1969–70 season.[20] HP Pavilion dv7-4057sf Battery

Because this was Jordan's first championship since his father's murder, and it was won on Father's Day, Jordan reacted very emotionally upon winning the title, including a memorable scene of him sobbing on the locker room floor with the game ball.[1][34]HP Pavilion dv7-4058ca Battery

 

In the 1996–97 season, the Bulls started out 69–11, but narrowly missed out on a second consecutive 70-win season by losing their final two games to finish 69–13.[63] However, this year Jordan was beaten for the NBA MVP Award by Karl Malone. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eb Battery

The Bulls again advanced tothe Finals, where they faced Malone and the Utah Jazz. The series against the Jazz featured two of the more memorable clutch moments of Jordan's career. He won Game 1 for the Bulls with a buzzer-beating jump shot. HP Pavilion dv7-4060em Battery

In Game 5, with the series tied at 2, Jordan played despite being feverish and dehydrated from a stomach virus. In what is known as the "Flu Game", Jordan scored 38 points, including the game-deciding 3-pointer with 25 seconds remaining.[64]HP Pavilion dv7-4060si Battery

The Bulls won 90–88 and went on to win the series in six games.[63] For the fifth time in as many Finals appearances, Jordan received the Finals MVP award.[33] During the 1997 NBA All-Star Game, Jordan posted the firsttriple double in All-Star Game history in a victorious effort; however, he did not receive the MVP award. HP Pavilion dv7-4060us Battery

Jordan and the Bulls compiled a 62–20 record in the 1997–98 season.[21] Jordan led the league with 28.7 points per game,[24] securing his fifth regular-season MVP award, plus honors for All-NBA First Team, First Defensive Team and the All-Star Game MVP.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-4061nr Battery

The Bulls captured the Eastern Conference Championship for a third straight season, including surviving a grueling seven-game series with Reggie Miller'sIndiana Pacers in the Eastern Conference Finals; it was the first time Jordan had played in a Game 7 since the 1992 series with the Knicks. After prevailing, they moved on for a rematch with the Jazz in the Finals. HP Pavilion dv7-4063ca Battery

The Bulls returned to Utah for Game 6 on June 14, 1998 leading the series 3–2. Jordan executed a series of plays, considered to be one of the greatest clutch performances in NBA Finals history.[65] HP Pavilion dv7-4065dx Battery

With the Bulls trailing 86–83 with 41.9 seconds remaining, Phil Jackson called a timeout. When play resumed, Jordan received the inbound pass, drove to the basket, and hit a layup over several Jazz defenders.[65] HP Pavilion dv7-4065ei Battery

The Jazz brought the ball upcourt and passed the ball to forward Karl Malone, who was set up in the low post and was being guarded by Rodman. Malone jostled with Rodman and caught the pass, but Jordan cut behind him and swatted the ball out of his hands for a steal.[65] HP Pavilion dv7-4065ez Battery

Jordan then slowly dribbled upcourt and paused at the top of the key, eyeing his defender, Jazz guard Bryon Russell. With fewer than 10 seconds remaining, Jordan started to dribble right, then crossed over to his left, possibly pushing off Russell,[66][67][68] HP Pavilion dv7-4065sf Battery

although the officials did not call a foul. Jordan then made what would become the climactic shot of his career. After John Stockton missed a desperation 3-pointer, Jordan and the Bulls claimed their sixth NBA championship, and secured a second three-peat. Once again, Jordan was voted the Finals MVP,[33]HP Pavilion dv7-4065si Battery

 having led all scorers by averaging 33.5 points per game, including 45 in the deciding Game 6.[69] Jordan's six Finals MVPs is a record; Shaquille O'Neal, Magic Johnson, and Tim Duncan are tied for second place with three apiece.[33] The 1998 Finals holds the highest television rating of any Finals series in history, and Game 6 holds the highest television rating of any game in NBA history.[70][71]HP Pavilion dv7-4066sf Battery

SECOND RETIREMENT

With Phil Jackson's contract expiring, the pending departures of Scottie Pippen (who stated his desire to be traded during the season) and Dennis Rodman (who would sign with the Los Angeles Lakers as a free agent) looming, and being in the latter stages of an owner-induced lockout of NBA players, Jordan retired for the second time on January 13, 1999. HP Pavilion dv7-4067sf Battery

On January 19, 2000, Jordan returned to the NBA not as a player, but as part owner and President of Basketball Operations for theWashington Wizards.[72] Jordan's responsibilities with the Wizards were comprehensive. HP Pavilion dv7-4069wm Battery

He controlled all aspects of the Wizards' basketball operations, and had the final say in all personnel matters. Opinions of Jordan as a basketball executive were mixed.[73][74] HP Pavilion dv7-4070eb Battery

He managed to purge the team of several highly paid, unpopular players (such as forward Juwan Howard and point guardRod Strickland),[75][76] but used the first pick in the 2001 NBA Draft to select high schooler Kwame Brown, who did not live up to expectations and was traded away after four seasons.[73][77]HP Pavilion dv7-4070eo Battery

Despite his January 1999 claim that he was "99.9% certain" that he would never play another NBA game,[34] in the summer of 2001 Jordan expressed interest in making another comeback,[78][79] this time with his new team. Inspired by the NHL comeback of his friend Mario Lemieux the previous winter,[80] HP Pavilion dv7-4070er Battery

Jordan spent much of the spring and summer of 2001 in training, holding several invitation-only camps for NBA players in Chicago.[81] In addition, Jordan hired his old Chicago Bulls head coach, Doug Collins, as Washington's coach for the upcoming season, a decision that many saw as foreshadowing another Jordan return.[78][79]HP Pavilion dv7-4070ez Battery

WASHINGTON WIZARDS COMEBACK

On September 25, 2001 Jordan announced his return to professional play with the Wizards, indicating his intention to donate his salary as a player to a relief effort for the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks.[82][83] HP Pavilion dv7-4070sf Battery

In an injury-plagued 2001–02 season, he led the team in scoring (22.9 ppg), assists (5.2 apg), and steals (1.42 spg).[1] However, torn cartilage in his right knee ended Jordan's season after only 60 games, the fewest he had played in a regular season since playing 17 games after returning from his first retirement during the 1994–95 season.[12]HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Battery

Playing in his 14th and final NBA All-Star Game in 2003, Jordan passed Kareem Abdul-Jabbar as the all-time leading scorer in All-Star game history (a record since broken by Kobe Bryant).[84] That year, Jordan was the only Washington player to play in all 82 games, HP Pavilion dv7-4071nr Battery

starting in 67 of them. He averaged 20.0 points, 6.1 rebounds, 3.8 assists, and 1.5 steals per game.[1] He also shot 45% from the field, and 82% from the free throw line.[1] Even though he turned 40 during the season, he scored 20 or more points 42 times, 30 or more points nine times, HP Pavilion dv7-4073ca Battery

and 40 or more points three times.[20] On February 21, 2003, Jordan became the first 40-year-old to tally 43 points in an NBA game.[85] During his stint with the Wizards, all of Jordan's home games at the MCI Center were sold out, and the Wizards were the second most-watched team in the NBA, averaging 20,172 fans a game at home and 19,311 on the road.[86] HP Pavilion dv7-4073nr Battery

However, neither of Jordan's final two seasons resulted in a playoff appearance for the Wizards, and Jordan was often unsatisfied with the play of those around him.[87][88] At several points he openly criticized his teammates to the media, citing their lack of focus and intensity, notably that of the number one draft pick in the 2001 NBA Draft, Kwame Brown.[87][88]HP Pavilion dv7-4074ca Battery

With the recognition that 2002–03 would be Jordan's final season, tributes were paid to him throughout the NBA. In his final game at his old home court, the United Center in Chicago, Jordan received a four-minute standing ovation.[89] HP Pavilion dv7-4075sb Battery

The Miami Heat retired the number 23 jersey on April 11, 2003, even though Jordan had never played for the team.[90] At the 2003 All-Star Game, Jordan was offered a starting spot from Tracy McGrady and Allen Iverson,[91] but refused both; in the end, however, he accepted the spot of Vince Carter, who decided to give it up under great public pressure.[92]HP Pavilion dv7-4075sf Battery

Jordan's final NBA game was on April 16, 2003 in Philadelphia. After scoring only 13 points in the game, Jordan went to the bench with 4 minutes and 13 seconds remaining in the third quarter and with his team trailing the Philadelphia 76ers, 75–56. HP Pavilion dv7-4077cl Battery

Just after the start of the fourth quarter, the First Union Center crowd began chanting "We want Mike!". After much encouragement from coach Doug Collins, Jordan finally rose from the bench and re-entered the game for Larry Hughes with 2:35 remaining. At 1:45, Jordan was intentionally fouled by the 76ers' Eric Snow, HP Pavilion dv7-4078ca Battery

and stepped to the line to make both free throws. After the second foul shot, the 76ers in-bounded the ball to rookie John Salmons, who in turn was intentionally fouled by Bobby Simmons one second later, stopping time so that Jordan could return to the bench. Jordan received a three-minute standing ovation from his teammates, his opponents, the officials and a crowd of 21,257 fans.[93]HP Pavilion dv7-4080er Battery

Olympic career

Jordan played on two Olympic gold medal-winning American basketball teams. As a college player he participated, and won the gold, in the 1984 Summer Olympics. Jordan led the team in scoring averaging 17.1 ppg for the tournament.[94]HP Pavilion dv7-4080sb Battery

In the 1992 Summer Olympics he was a member of the star-studded squad that included Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, and David Robinson and was dubbed the "Dream Team". Jordan was the only player to start all 8 games in the Olympics. Playing limited minutes due to the frequent blowouts, Jordan averaged 14.9 ppg,[95] HP Pavilion dv7-4080ss Battery

finishing second on the team in scoring.[96] Jordan,Patrick Ewing, and fellow Dream Team member Chris Mullin are the only American men's basketball players to win Olympic gold as amateurs (all in 1984) and professionals.[94][95]HP Pavilion dv7-4080us Battery

 

After retiring as a player

After his third retirement, Jordan assumed that he would be able to return to his front office position of Director of Basketball Operations with the Wizards.[97] However, his previous tenure in the Wizards' front office had produced the aforementioned mixed results and may have also influenced the trade of Richard "Rip" Hamilton for Jerry Stackhouse (although Jordan was not technically Director of Basketball Operations in 2002).[73] HP Pavilion dv7-4083cl Battery

On May 7, 2003, Wizards owner Abe Pollin fired Jordan as Washington's President of Basketball Operations.[73] Jordan later stated that he felt betrayed, and that if he knew he would be fired upon retiring he never would have come back to play for the Wizards.[42]HP Pavilion dv7-4085eb Battery

 

Jordan kept busy over the next few years by staying in shape, playing golf in celebrity charity tournaments, spending time with his family in Chicago, promoting his Jordan Brand clothing line, and riding motorcycles.[98] HP Pavilion dv7-4085es Battery

Since 2004, Jordan has owned Michael Jordan Motorsports, a professional closed-course motorcycle road racing team that competes with two Suzukis in the premier Superbike class sanctioned by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA).[99][100]HP Pavilion dv7-4085sf Battery

 Jordan and his then-wife Juanita pledged $5 million to Chicago's Hales Franciscan High School in 2006,[101] and the Jordan Brand has made donations to Habitat for Humanityand a Louisiana branch of the Boys & Girls Clubs of HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl Battery

June 15, 2006, Jordan bought a minority stake in theCharlotte Bobcats, becoming the team's second-largest shareholder behind majority owner Robert L. Johnson. As part of the deal, Jordan was named "Managing Member of Basketball Operations," with full control over the basketball side of the operation.[103] Despite Jordan's previous success as an endorser, he has made an effort not to be included in Charlotte's marketing campaigns.[104]HP Pavilion dv7-4090ca Battery

In February 2010, it was reported that Jordan was seeking majority ownership of the Bobcats.[105] As February wore on, it emerged that the leading contenders for the team were Jordan and former Houston Rockets president George Postolos. HP Pavilion dv7-4090eb Battery

On February 27, the Bobcats announced that Johnson had reached an agreement with Jordan and his group, MJ Basketball Holdings, to buy the team pending NBA approval.[106] On March 17, the NBA Board of Governors unanimously approved Jordan's purchase, making him the first former NBA player ever to become the majority owner of a league franchise.[107]HP Pavilion dv7-4090es Battery

During the 2011 NBA lockout, The New York Times wrote that Jordan led a group of 10 to 14 hardline owners wanting to cap the players' share of basketball-related income at 50 percent and as low as 47. Journalists observed that, during the labor dispute in 1998, HP Pavilion dv7-4090sf Battery

Jordan had told Washington Wizards then-owner Abe Pollin, "If you can’t make a profit, you should sell your team."[108] Jason Whitlock of FoxSports.com called Jordan a "sellout" wanting "current players to pay for his incompetence."[109] He cited Jordan's executive decisions to draft disappointing players Kwame Brown and Adam Morrison.[109]HP Pavilion dv7-4091sf Battery

Player profile

Jordan was a shooting guard who was also capable of playing small forward (the position he would primarily play during his second return to professional basketball with the Washington Wizards). Jordan was known throughout his career for being a strong clutch performer. HP Pavilion dv7-4095eb Battery

He decided numerous games with last-second plays (e.g., The Shot) and performed at a high level even under adverse circumstances (e.g., Flu Game). His competitiveness was visible in his prolific trash-talk[110] and well-known work ethic.[111][112]HP Pavilion dv7-4100 Battery

Jordan had a versatile offensive game. He was capable of aggressively driving to the basket, as well as drawing fouls from his opponents at a high rate; his 8,772free throw attempts are the ninth highest total of all time.[113] HP Pavilion dv7-4105TX Battery

As his career progressed, Jordan also developed the ability to post up his opponents and score with his trademark fadeaway jump shot, using his leaping ability to "fade away" from block attempts. According to Hubie Brown, this move alone made him nearly unstoppable.[114] HP Pavilion dv7-4106TX Battery

Despite media criticism as a "selfish" player early in his career, Jordan's 5.3 assists per game[12] also indicate his willingness to defer to his teammates. In later years, the NBA shortened its three-point line to 22 feet (from 23 feet, 9 inches), HP Pavilion dv7-4130sa Battery

which coupled with Jordan's extended shooting range to make him a long-range threat as well—his 3-point stroke developed from a low 9/52 rate (.173) in his rookie year into a stellar 111/260 (.427) shooter in the 1995–96 season.[12] For a guard, Jordan was also a good rebounder (6.2 per game).[12]HP Pavilion dv7-4131sa Battery

In 1988, Jordan was honored with the NBA's Defensive Player of the Year Award and became the first NBA player to win both the Defensive Player of the Year and MVP awards in a career (since equaled by Hakeem Olajuwon, David Robinson, and Kevin Garnett; Olajuwon is the only player other than Jordan to win both during the same season). HP Pavilion dv7-4140ea Battery

In addition he set both seasonal and career records for blocked shots by a guard,[115] and combined this with his ball-thieving ability to become a standout defensive player. His 2,514 steals are second highest all-time behind John Stockton, while his steals per game average is third all-time.[116] Jerry West often stated that he was more impressed with Jordan's defensive contributions than his offensive ones.[117]HP Pavilion dv7-4142eo Battery

Legacy

Jordan's basketball talent was clear from his rookie season.[15][17] In his first game in Madison Square Garden against the New York Knicks, Jordan received a prolonged standing ovation,[17] a rarity for an opposing player. After Jordan scored a playoff record 63 points against the Boston Celtics in 1986, Celtics starLarry Bird described him as "God disguised as Michael Jordan."[23]HP Pavilion dv7-4150ea Battery

Jordan led the NBA in scoring in 10 seasons (NBA record) and tied Wilt Chamberlain's record of seven consecutive scoring titles. He was also a fixture on the NBA All-Defensive First Team, making the roster nine times (NBA record shared with Gary Payton). HP Pavilion dv7-4170eo Battery

Jordan also holds the top career regular season and playoff scoring averages of 30.1 and 33.4 points per game,[1]respectively. By 1998, the season of his Finals-winning shot against the Jazz, he was well known throughout the league as aclutch performer. HP Pavilion dv7-4180ea Battery

In the regular season, Jordan was the Bulls' primary threat in the final seconds of a close game and in the playoffs, Jordan would always demand the ball at crunch time.[118] Jordan's total of 5,987 points in the playoffs is the highest in NBA history.[119] He retired with 32,292 points in regular season play,[120] placing him third on the NBA's all-time scoring list behind Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Karl Malone.[120]HP Pavilion dv7-6000 Battery

With five regular-season MVPs (tied for second place with Bill Russell; only Kareem Abdul-Jabbar has won more, six), six Finals MVPs (NBA record), and three All-Star MVPs, Jordan is the most decorated player ever to play in the NBA. Jordan finished among the top three in regular-season MVP voting a record 10 times, and was named one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996. HP Pavilion dv7-6000sg Battery

Many of Jordan's contemporaries label Jordan as the greatest basketball player of all time.[117] An ESPN survey of journalists, athletes and other sports figures ranked Jordan the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century, above icons such as Babe Ruth and Muhammad Ali.[121] HP Pavilion dv7-6001sg Battery

Jordan placed second to Babe Ruth in the Associated Press's list of 20th century athletes.[122] In addition, the Associated Press voted him as the basketball player of the 20th century.[123] Jordan has also appeared on the front cover of Sports Illustrated a record 49 times.[124] In the September 1996 issue of Sport, which was the publication's 50th anniversary issue, Jordan was named the greatest athlete of the past 50 years.[125]HP Pavilion dv7-6001xx Battery

Jordan's athletic leaping ability, highlighted in his back-to-back slam dunk contest championships in 1987 and 1988, is credited by many with having influenced a generation of young players.[126][127] HP Pavilion dv7-6002sa Battery

Several current NBA All-Stars have stated that they considered Jordan their role model while growing up, including LeBron James[128] and Dwyane Wade.[129] In addition, commentators have dubbed a number of next-generation players "the next Michael Jordan" upon their entry to the NBA, including Anfernee "Penny" Hardaway, HP Pavilion dv7-6004ea Battery

Grant Hill, Allen Iverson, Kobe Bryant, LeBron James, Vince Carter, and Dwyane Wade.[130][131][132] Although Jordan was a well-rounded player, his "Air Jordan" image is also often credited with inadvertently decreasing the jump shooting skills, defense, and fundamentals of young players,[126]a fact Jordan himself has lamented. HP Pavilion dv7-6004tx Battery

Although Jordan has done much to increase the status of the game, some of his impact on the game's popularity in America appears to be fleeting.[133][134] Television ratings in particular increased only during his time in the league and have subsequently lowered each time he left the game.[133][134]HP Pavilion dv7-6005sg Battery

In August 2009, the Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, Massachusetts, opened a Michael Jordan exhibit containing items from his college and NBA careers, as well as from the 1992 "Dream Team". HP Pavilion dv7-6005tx Battery

The exhibit also has a batting glove to signify Jordan's short career in baseball.[135] He was inducted into the Hall of Fame in September 2009, with former Bulls teammates Scottie Pippen, Dennis Rodman, Charles Oakley, Ron Harper, Steve Kerr, and Toni Kukoc in attendance.[136]HP Pavilion dv7-6006sg Battery

Personal life

Jordan is the fourth of five children. He has two older brothers, Larry Jordan and James R. Jordan, Jr., one older sister, Deloris, and a younger sister, Roslyn. Jordan's brother James retired in 2006 as the Command Sergeant Major of the 35th Signal Brigade of the XVIII Airborne Corps in the U.S. Army.[137]HP Pavilion dv7-6007sg Battery

He married Juanita Vanoy in September 1989, and they have two sons, Jeffrey Michael and Marcus James, and a daughter, Jasmine. Jordan and Vanoy filed for divorce on January 4, 2002, citing irreconcilable differences, HP Pavilion dv7-6008eg Battery

but reconciled shortly thereafter. They again filed for divorce and were granted a final decree of dissolution of marriage on December 29, 2006, commenting that the decision was made "mutually and amicably".[138][139] It is reported that Juanita received a $168 million settlement, making it the largest celebrity divorce settlement in history at the time on public record.[140]HP Pavilion dv7-6008sg Battery

On July 21, 2006, a Cook County, Illinois judge determined that Jordan did not owe his alleged former lover Karla Knafel $5 million.[141]Jordan had allegedly paid Knafel $250,000 to keep their relationship a secret.[142][143][144] HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg Battery

Knafel claimed Jordan promised her $5 million for remaining silent and agreeing not to file a paternity suit after Knafel learned she was pregnant in 1991. A DNA test showed Jordan was not the father of the child.[141]HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx Battery

As of 2007, Jordan lived in Highland Park, Illinois,[138] and both of his sons attended Loyola Academy, a private Roman Catholic high school located in Wilmette, Illinois.[145] Jeffrey graduated as a member of the 2007 graduating class and played his first collegiate basketball game on November 11, 2007, for the University of Illinois. HP Pavilion dv7-6012eg Battery

 After two seasons, Jeffrey left the Illinois basketball team in 2009. He later rejoined the team for a third season,[146][147] then received a release to transfer to the University of Central Florida, where Marcus was attending.[148][149] Marcus transferred to Whitney Young High School after his sophomore year at Loyola Academy and graduated in 2009. He began attending UCF in the fall of 2009.[150]rderbattery.co.uk/hp-pavilion-dv7-6012sg-battery.html">HP Pavilion dv7-6012sg Battery

Jordan's private jet features a stripe in North Carolina blue, the "Air Jordan" logo on the tail, and references to his career in the identification number.[151] He proposed to his long time girlfriend, Cuban-American model Yvette Prieto, on Christmas Eve, 2011, and is engaged to be married.[152]HP Pavilion dv7-6012tx Battery

Media figure and business interests

Jordan is one of the most marketed sports figures in history. He has been a major spokesman for such brands as Nike, Coca-Cola,Chevrolet, Gatorade, McDonald's, Ball Park Franks, Rayovac, Wheaties, Hanes, and MCI.[153] HP Pavilion dv7-6013eg Battery

Jordan has had a long relationship with Gatorade, appearing in over 20 commercials for the company since 1991, including the "Like Mike" commercials in which a song was sung by children wishing to be like Jordan.[153][154]HP Pavilion dv7-6013tx Battery

Nike created a signature shoe for him, called the Air Jordan. One of Jordan's more popular commercials for the shoe involved Spike Leeplaying the part of Mars Blackmon. In the commercials Lee, as Blackmon, attempted to find the source of Jordan's abilities and became convinced that "it's gotta be the shoes".[153] HP Pavilion dv7-6014tx Battery

The hype and demand for the shoes even brought on a spate of "shoe-jackings" where people were robbed of their sneakers at gunpoint. Subsequently Nike spun off the Jordan line into its own division named the "Jordan Brand". HP Pavilion dv7-6015eg Battery

The company features an impressive list of athletes and celebrities as endorsers.[155][156] The brand has also sponsored college sports programs such as those of North Carolina, Cincinnati, Cal, St. John's, Georgetown, and North Carolina A&T. HP Pavilion dv7-6015sg Battery

Jordan also has been associated with the Looney Tunes cartoon characters. A Nike commercial shown during the 1993 Super Bowl XXVIIfeatured Jordan and Bugs Bunny playing basketball against a group of Martian characters.[157] HP Pavilion dv7-6025eg Battery

The Super Bowl commercial inspired the 1996 live action/animated movie Space Jam, which starred Jordan and Bugs in a fictional story set during his first retirement.[158] They have subsequently appeared together in several commercials for MCI.[158]HP Pavilion dv7-6055ef Battery

Jordan's yearly income from the endorsements is estimated to be over forty million dollars.[159][160] In addition, when Jordan's power at the ticket gates was at its highest point the Bulls regularly sold out every game they played in, whether home or away.[161]HP Pavilion dv7-6055sf Battery

 Due to this, Jordan set records in player salary by signing annual contracts worth in excess of US $30 million per season.[162] An academic study found that Jordan’s first NBA comeback resulted in an increase in the market capitalization of his client firms of more than $1 billion.[163]HP Pavilion dv7-6065ef Battery

Most of Jordan's endorsement deals, including the first deal with Nike, were engineered by his agent, David Falk.[164] Jordan has said of Falk that "he's the best at what he does", and that "marketing-wise, he's great. He's the one who came up with the concept of 'Air Jordan.'"[165]HP Pavilion dv7-6065sf Battery

In June 2010, Jordan was ranked by Forbes Magazine as the 20th most powerful celebrity in the world with $55 million earned between June 2009 and June 2010. According to the Forbes article, Jordan Brand generates $1 billion in sales for Nike.[166]HP Pavilion dv7-6070sf Battery

Several other celebrities released statements responding to Houston's death. Dolly Parton, whose song "I Will Always Love You" was covered by Houston, said, "I will always be grateful and in awe of the wonderful performance she did on my song and I can truly say from the bottom of my heart, 'Whitney, I will always love you. HP Pavilion dv6-6001ea Battery

You will be missed'." Aretha Franklin said, "It's so stunning and unbelievable. I couldn't believe what I was reading coming across the TV screen."[252] Mariah Careysaid, "Heartbroken and in tears over the shocking death of my friend ... HP Pavilion dv6-6001eg Battery

She will never be forgotten as one of the greatest voices to ever grace the earth."[253]Oprah Winfrey, who did an in-depth interview with Houston in 2009, wrote on Twitter "To me Whitney was THE VOICE. We got to hear a part of God every time she sang. Heart is heavy, spirit grateful for the GIFT of her."[254] HP Pavilion dv6-6001sg Battery

Quincy Jones said, "I am absolutely heartbroken at the news of Whitney’s passing. Ashford & Simpson first made me aware of Whitney when she was just sixteen, and I always regretted not having had the opportunity to work with her. She was a true original and a talent beyond compare. I will miss her terribly."[253]HP Pavilion dv6-6002eg Battery

Moments after news of her death emerged, CNN, MSNBC and Fox News all broke from their regularly scheduled programming to dedicate time to non-stop coverage of Houston's death. All three featured live interviews with people who knew Houston including those that have worked with her, interviewed her along with some of her peers in the music industry. HP Pavilion dv6-6002sg Battery

 Saturday Night Live displayed a photo of a smiling Houston, alongside Molly Shannon, from her 1996 appearance.[255][256] MTV and VH-1 interrupted their regularly scheduled programming on Sunday February 12 to air many of Houston's classic videos with MTV often airing news segments in between and featuring various reactions from fans and celebrities. HP Pavilion dv6-6003eg Battery

Houston's former husband, Bobby Brown, was reported to be "in and out of crying fits" since receiving the news. He did not cancel a scheduled performance and within hours of his ex-wife's sudden death, an audience in Mississippi observed as Brown blew kisses skyward, tearfully saying: "I love you, Whitney".[257]HP Pavilion dv6-6004sa Battery

Ken Ehrlich, executive producer of the 54th Grammy Awards, announced that Jennifer Hudson would perform a tribute to Houston at the February 12, 2012, awards. He said "event organizers believed Hudson – an Academy Award-winning actress and Grammy Award-winning artist – could perform a respectful musical tribute to Houston". HP Pavilion dv6-6005ea Battery

Ehrlich went on to say: "It's too fresh in everyone's memory to do more at this time, but we would be remiss if we didn't recognize Whitney's remarkable contribution to music fans in general, and in particular her close ties with the Grammy telecast and her Grammy wins and nominations over the years".[258] HP Pavilion dv6-6005eg Battery

At the start of the awards ceremony, a footage of Houston performing "I Will Always Love You" from 1994 Grammys was shown following a prayer read by host, LL Cool J. HP Pavilion dv6-6005sg Battery

Later in the program following a montage of photos of musicians who died in 2011 with Houston singing "Saving All My Love for You" at the 1986 Grammys, Hudson paid tribute to Houston and the other artists by performing "I Will Always Love You".[259][260]HP Pavilion dv6-6006ea Battery

Houston was honored in the form of various tributes at the 43rd NAACP Image Awards, held on February 17. A image montage of Houston and important black figures who died in 2011 was followed by video footage from the 1994 ceremony, HP Pavilion dv6-6007sg Battery

which depicted her accepting two Image Awards for outstanding female artist and entertainer of the year. Following the video tribute, Yolanda Adams delivered a rendition of "I Love the Lord" from The Preacher's Wife Soundtrack. In the finale of the ceremony, Kirk Franklin and The Family started their performance with "Greatest Love of All."[261]HP Pavilion dv6-6007TX Battery

 The 2012 BRIT Awards, which took place at London's O2 Arena on February 21, also paid tribute to Houston by playing a 30-second-video montage of her music videos with a snippet of "One Moment in Time" as the background music in the ceremony's first segment.[262] HP Pavilion dv6-6008eg Battery

New Jersey Governor Chris Christie said that all New Jersey state flags would be flown at half-staff on Tuesday, February 21 to honor Houston.[263] Accompanied by Esperanza Spalding belting out "What a Wonderful World" along with the Southern California Children's Choir, HP Pavilion dv6-6011tu Battery

Houston was featured in theIn Memoriam montage alongside other cinema greats at the 84th Academy Awards, held at the Hollywood and Highland Center on February 26, 2012.[264][265]HP Pavilion dv6-6013tu Battery

Artistry and legacy

Houston was a mezzo-soprano,[266][267] and was commonly referred to as "The Voice" in reference to her exceptional vocal talent.[268] Her vocal range extended from G below middle C (G3) to high B-flat (B♭5); she could belt out to treble F (F5).[269] She was third in MTV's list of 22 Greatest Voices,[270] HP Pavilion dv6-6024tx Battery

and sixth on Online Magazine COVE's list of the 100 Best Pop Vocalists with a score of 48.5/50.[271] In 2008, Rolling Stone listed Houston as the thirty-fourth of the 100 greatest singers of all time, stating, "Her voice is a mammoth, HP Pavilion dv6-6027tx Battery

coruscating cry: Few vocalists could get away with opening a song with 45 unaccompanied seconds of singing, but Houston's powerhouse version of Dolly Parton's 'I Will Always Love You' is a tour de force."[97] HP Pavilion dv6-6025tx Battery

Matthew Perpetua from Rolling Stone also eulogized Houston's vocal, enumerating ten performances, including "How Will I Know" from the 1986 MTV VMAs and "The Star Spangled Banner" at the 1991 Super Bowl. "HP Pavilion dv6-6042sf Battery

Whitney Houston was blessed with an astonishing vocal range and extraordinary technical skill, but what truly made her a great singer was her ability to connect with a song and drive home its drama and emotion with incredible precision," he stated. "She was a brilliant performer, and her live shows often eclipsed her studio recordings."[272]HP Pavilion dv6-6051xx Battery

Jon Caramanica of The New York Times commented, "Her voice was clean and strong, with barely any grit, well suited to the songs of love and aspiration. [...] Hers was a voice of triumph and achievement, and it made for any number of stunning, time-stopping vocal performances."[273] HP Pavilion dv6-6054ef Battery

Mariah Carey stated, "Whitney has a really rich, strong mid-belt that very few people have. She sounds really good, really strong."[274] While in her review of I Look to You, music critic Ann Powers of the Los Angeles Times writes, HP Pavilion dv6-6054sf Battery

"[Houston's voice] stands like monuments upon the landscape of 20th century pop, defining the architecture of their times, sheltering the dreams of millions and inspiring the climbing careers of countless imitators", adding "When she was at her best, nothing could match her huge, clean, cool mezzo-soprano".[267]HP Pavilion dv6-6063sf Battery

HP Pavilion dv6-6087eg Battery

Lauren Everitt from BBC News Magazine commented on melisma used in Houston's recording and its influence. "An early 'I' in Whitney Houston's 'I Will Always Love You' takes nearly six seconds to sing. HP Pavilion dv6-6090sf Battery

In those seconds the former gospel singer-turned-pop star packs a series of different notes into the single syllable," stated Everitt. "The technique is repeated throughout the song, most pronouncedly on every 'I' and 'you'. The vocal technique is called melisma, and it has inspired a host of imitators. HP Pavilion dv6-6090us Battery

Other artists may have used it before Houston, but it was her rendition of Dolly Parton's love song that pushed the technique into the mainstream in the 90s. [...] But perhaps what Houston nailed best was moderation." HP Pavilion dv7-4000eh Battery

Everitt said that "[i]n a climate of reality shows ripe with 'oversinging', it's easy to appreciate Houston's ability to save melisma for just the right moment".[275]HP Pavilion dv6-6091nr Battery

Houston's vocal stylings have had a significant impact on the music industry. She has been called the "Queen of Pop" for her influence during the 1990s, commercially rivaling Mariah Carey and Celine Dion.[276] HP Pavilion dv7-4000sb Battery

Stephen Holden from The New York Times, in his review of Houston's Radio City Music Hall concert on July 20, 1993, praised her attitude as a singer, writing, "Whitney Houston is one of the few contemporary pop stars of whom it might be said: the voice suffices. HP Pavilion dv7-4000 Battery

While almost every performer whose albums sell in the millions calls upon an entertainer's bag of tricks, from telling jokes to dancing to circus pyrotechnics, Ms. Houston would rather just stand there and sing." With regard to her singing style, he added: "HP Pavilion dv7-4001tx Battery

Her [Houston's] stylistic trademarks – shivery melismas that ripple up in the middle of a song, twirling embellishments at the ends of phrases that suggest an almost breathless exhilaration – infuse her interpretations with flashes of musical and emotional lightning."[277]HP Pavilion dv7-4002TX Battery

Elysa Gardner of the Los Angeles Times in her review for The Preacher's Wife Soundtrack praised Houston's vocal ability highly, commenting, "She is first and foremost a pop diva –HP Pavilion dv7-4003tx Battery

at that, the best one we have. No other female pop star – not Mariah Carey, not Celine Dion, not Barbra Streisand – quite rivals Houston in her exquisite vocal fluidity and purity of tone, and her ability to infuse a lyric with mesmerizing melodrama."[278]HP Pavilion dv7-4003xx Battery

IFLUENCE

During the 1980s, MTV was coming into its own and received criticism for not playing enough videos by black artists. With Michael Jacksonbreaking down the color barrier for black male artists, Houston did the same for black female artists. HP Pavilion dv7-4004ez Battery

She became the first black female artist to receive heavy rotation on the network following the success of the "How Will I Know" video.[279] Following Houston's breakthrough, other African-American female artists, such as Janet Jackson and Anita Baker, HP Pavilion dv7-4004TX Battery

were successful in popular music.[52][53]Baker commented that "Because of what Whitney and Sade did, there was an opening for me... For radio stations, black women singers aren't taboo anymore."[280]HP Pavilion dv7-4005so Battery

Allmusic noted her contribution to the success of black artists on the pop scene, commenting, "Houston was able to handle big adult contemporary ballads, effervescent, stylish dance-pop, and slick urban contemporary soul with equal dexterity" and that "the result was an across-the-board appeal that was matched by scant few artists of her era, HP Pavilion dv7-4005sw Battery

and helped her become one of the first black artists to find success on MTV in Michael Jackson's wake".[281] The New York Times stated that "Houston was a major catalyst for a movement within black music that recognized the continuity of soul, pop, jazz and gospel vocal traditions".[282] Richard Corliss of Time magazine commented on her initial success breaking various barriers: HP Pavilion dv7-4006so Battery

Of her first album's ten cuts, six were ballads. This chanteuse [Houston] had to fight for air play with hard rockers. The young lady had to stand uncowed in the locker room of macho rock. The soul strutter had to seduce a music audience that anointed few black artists with superstardom. [...]HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Battery

She was a phenomenon waiting to happen, a canny tapping of the listener's yen for a return to the musical middle. And because every new star creates her own genre, her success has helped other blacks, other women, other smooth singers find an avid reception in the pop marketplace.[283]HP Pavilion dv7-4010ev Battery

Stephen Holden of The New York Times said that Houston "revitalized the tradition of strong gospel-oriented pop-soul singing".[284] Ann Powers of the Los Angeles Times referred to the singer as a "national treasure".[267] HP Pavilion dv7-4010sd Battery

Jon Caramanica, other music critic of The New York Times, called Houston "R&B's great modernizer," adding "slowly but surely reconciling the ambition and praise of the church with the movements and needs of the body and the glow of the mainstream".[273] He also drew comparisons between Houston's influence and other big names' on 1980s pop: HP Pavilion dv7-4010sg Battery

She was, alongside Michael Jackson and Madonna, one of the crucial figures to hybridize pop in the 1980s, though her strategy was far less radical than that of her peers. Jackson and Madonna were by turns lascivious and brutish and, HP Pavilion dv7-4010so Battery

crucially, willing to let their production speak more loudly than their voices, an option Ms. Houston never went for. Also, she was less prolific than either of them, achieving most of her renown on the strength of her first three solo albums and one soundtrack, released from 1985 to 1992. HP Pavilion dv7-4010sv Battery

If she was less influential than they were in the years since, it was only because her gift was so rare, so impossible to mimic. Jackson and Madonna built worldviews around their voices; Ms. Houston’s voice was the worldview. She was someone more to be admired, like a museum piece, than to be emulated.[273]HP Pavilion dv7-4010sw Battery

The Independent's music critic Andy Gill also wrote about Houston's influence on modern R&B and singing competitions, comparing it to Michael Jackson's. "Because Whitney, more than any other single artist ―HP Pavilion dv7-4010tx Battery

Michael Jackson included ― effectively mapped out the course of modern R&B, setting the bar for standards of soul vocalese, and creating the original template for what we now routinely refer to as the 'soul diva'," stated Gill. "Jackson was a hugely talented icon, HP Pavilion dv7-4011eg Battery

ertainly, but he will be as well remembered (probably more so) for his presentational skills, his dazzling dance moves, as for his musical innovations. Whitney, on the other hand, just sang, and the ripples from her voice continue to dominate the pop landscape." HP Pavilion dv7-4011el Battery

Gill said that there "are few, if any, Jackson imitators on today's TV talent shows, but every other contestant is a Whitney wannabe, desperately attempting to emulate that wondrous combination of vocal effects – the flowing melisma, the soaring mezzo-soprano confidence, the tremulous fluttering that carried the ends of lines into realms of higher yearning".[285]HP Pavilion dv7-4011so Battery

Houston was considered by many to be a "singer's singer", who had an influence on countless other vocalists, both female and male.[97][286] Similarly, Steve Huey from Allmusic wrote that the shadow of Houston's prodigious technique still looms large over nearly every pop diva and smooth urban soul singer –HP Pavilion dv7-4012eg Battery

male or female – in her wake, and spawned a legion of imitators.[281] Rolling Stone, on her biography, stated that Houston "redefined the image of a female soul icon and inspired singers ranging from Mariah Carey to Rihanna".[287] Essence ranked Houston the fifth on their list of 50 Most Influential R&B Stars of all time, calling her "the diva to end all divas".[288]HP Pavilion dv7-4012TX Battery

A number of artists have acknowledged Houston as an influence, including Celine Dion,[289] Mariah Carey,[97] Toni Braxton,[290] Christina Aguilera,[291] LeAnn Rimes,[292] Jessica Simpson,[293] Nelly Furtado,[294][295] HP Pavilion dv7-4013eg Battery

Kelly Clarkson, Britney Spears,[296] Ciara,[297] P!nk,[296] Ashanti,[298] Robin Thicke,[299] Jennifer Hudson,Stacie Orrico, Amerie,[300] and Destiny's Child.[296][301] Mariah Carey, who was often compared to Houston, said, "HP Pavilion dv7-4013el Battery

Houston has been a big influence on me."[302] She later told USA Today that "none of us would sound the same if Aretha Franklin hadn't ever put out a record, or Whitney Houston hadn't."[303] HP Pavilion dv7-4013so Battery

Celine Dion who was the third member of the troika that dominated female pop singing in the 1990s, did a telephone interview with Good Morning America on February 13, 2012, telling "Whitney's been an amazing inspiration for me. I've been singing with her my whole career, actually. I wanted to have a career like hers, HP Pavilion dv7-4013tx Battery

sing like her, look beautiful like her."[304] Beyoncé told the Globe and Mail that Houston "inspired [her] to get up there and do what [she] did".[305] She also wrote on her website on the day after Houston's death, HP Pavilion dv7-4014eo Battery

"I, like every singer, always wanted to be just like [Houston]. Her voice was perfect. Strong but soothing. Soulful and classic. Her vibrato, her cadence, her control. So many of my life's memories are attached to a Whitney Houston song. She is our queen and she opened doors and provided a blueprint for all of us."[306]HP Pavilion dv7-4015ew Battery

Mary J. Blige said that Houston inviting her onstage during VH1's Divas Live show in 1999 "opened doors for [her] all over the world".[307] Brandy stated, "The first Whitney Houston CD was genius. HP Pavilion dv7-4015ez Battery

That CD introduced the world to her angelic yet powerful voice. Without Whitney, half of this generation of singers wouldn't be singing."[308] Kelly Rowland, in an Ebony's feature article celebrating black music in June 2006, HP Pavilion dv7-4015sa Battery

recalled that "[I] wanted to be a singer after I saw Whitney Houston on TV singing 'Greatest Love of All'. I wanted to sing like Whitney Houston in that red dress." She added that "And I have never, ever forgotten that song [Greatest Love of All]. HP Pavilion dv7-4015sg Battery

I learned it backward, forward, sideways. The video still brings chills to me. When you wish and pray for something as a kid, you never know what blessings God will give you."[309]HP Pavilion dv7-4015sl Battery

Alicia Keys said "Whitney is an artist who inspired me from [the time I was] a little girl".[310] Oscar winner Jennifer Hudson cites Houston as her biggest musical influence. She told Newsday that she learned from Houston the "difference between being able to sing and knowing how to sing".[311] HP Pavilion dv7-4015ss Battery

Leona Lewis, who has been called "the new Whitney Houston", also cites her as an influence. Lewis stated that she idolized her as a little girl.[312][313]HP Pavilion dv7-4016eg Battery

Further information: List of awards and nominations received by Whitney Houston and Whitney Houston chart records and achievementsHP Pavilion dv7-4017ez Battery

Houston was the most awarded female artist of all time, according to Guinness World Records,[1] with two Emmy Awards, six Grammy Awards, 30 Billboard Music Awards, 22 American Music Awards, among a total of 415 career awards as of 2010. HP Pavilion dv7-4019sz Battery

She held the all-time record for the most American Music Awards of any female solo artist and shared the record with Michael Jackson for the most AMAs ever won in a single year with eight wins in 1994.[314] HP Pavilion dv7-4020em Battery

Houston won a record 11 Billboard Music Awards at its fourth ceremony in 1993.[315] She also had the record for the most WMAs won in a single year, winning five awards at the 6th World Music Awards in 1994.[316]HP Pavilion dv7-4020ec Battery

In May 2003, Houston placed at number three on VH1's list of "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era", behind Madonna and Janet Jackson.[317] She was also ranked at number 116 on their list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time".[318] HP Pavilion dv7-4020eo Battery

In 2008, Billboard magazine released a list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists to celebrate the US singles chart's 50th anniversary, ranking Houston at number nine.[319][320] Similarly, she was ranked as one of the HP Pavilion dv7-4020sa Battery

"Top 100 Greatest Artists of All Time" by VH1 in September 2010.[321] In November 2010, Billboard released its "Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years" list and ranked Houston at number three whom not only went on to earn eight number one singles on the R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, but also landed five number ones on R&B/Hip-Hop Albums.[322]HP Pavilion dv7-4021tx Battery

Houston's debut album is listed as one of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time by Rolling Stone magazine[49] and is on Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's Definitive 200 list.[50] In 2004, Billboard picked the success of her first release on the charts as one of 110 Musical Milestones in its history.[323] HP Pavilion dv7-4022tx Battery

Houston's entrance into the music industry is considered one of the 25 musical milestones of the last 25 years, according to USA Today in 2007. It stated that she paved the way for Mariah Carey's chart-topping vocal gymnastics.[51] HP Pavilion dv7-4023so Battery

In 1997, the Franklin School in East Orange, New Jersey was renamed to The Whitney E. Houston Academy School of Creative and Performing Arts. In 2001, Houston was the first artist to be given a BET Lifetime Achievement Award.[324]HP Pavilion dv7-4024so Battery

Houston was one of the world's best-selling music artists, having sold over 200 million albums and singles worldwide.[2][3] She was ranked as the fourth best-sellingfemale artist in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America, with 55 million certified albums sold in the US. HP Pavilion dv7-4024tx Battery

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