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31 août 2011 3 31 /08 /août /2011 03:57

Middle Eastern policy

As part of the Nixon Doctrine that the US would avoid direct combat assistance to allies where possible, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

instead giving them assistance to defend themselves, the US greatly increased arms sales to the Middle East—particularly Israel, Iran and Saudi Arabia—during the Nixon administration. The Nixon administration strongly supported Israel, an American ally in the Middle East but the support was not unconditional. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

Nixon believed that Israel should make peace with its Arab neighbors and that the United States should encourage it. The president believed that—except during the Suez Crisis—the US had failed to intervene with Israel, and should use the leverage of the large US military aid to Israel to urge the parties to the negotiating table. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery

However, the Arab-Israeli conflict was not a major focus of Nixon's attention during his first term—for one thing, he felt that no matter what he did, American Jews would oppose his reelection.

When an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria attacked in October 1973, beginning the Yom Kippur War, Israel suffered initial losses. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

The US took no action for several days, until Nixon ordered an airlift to Israel, taking personal responsibility for any response by Arab nations. Nixon cut through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy to initiate an airlift of American arms. By the time the US and Soviet Union negotiated a truce, Israel had penetrated deep into enemy territory. Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery

The war resulted in the 1973 oil crisis, in which Arab nations refused to sell crude oil to the US in retaliation for its support of Israel. The embargo caused gasoline shortages and rationing in the United States in late 1973, and was eventually ended by the oil-producing nations as peace took hold.Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery

Kissinger played a major role in the settlement, and was also able to reestablish US relations with Egypt for the first time since 1967; Nixon made one of his final international visits as president there in June 1974. Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery


At the time Nixon took office in 1969, inflation was at 4.7 percent—its highest rate since the Korean War. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery

A number of expensive social programs had been enacted under Johnson, which, together with the Vietnam War costs, were causing large budget deficits. There was little unemployment, but interest rates were at their highest in a century. Nixon's major economic goal was to reduce inflation; the most obvious means of doing so was to end the war.Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

This could not be accomplished overnight, and the US economy continued to struggle through 1970, contributing to a lackluster Republican performance in the midterm congressional elections (Democrats controlled both Houses of Congress throughout Nixon's presidency).Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

According to political economist Nigel Bowles in his 2011 study of Nixon's economic policies, the new president did little to alter Johnson's policies through the first year of his presidency.

Nixon was far more interested in foreign affairs than domestic policies, but believed that voters tend to focus on their own financial condition, and that economic conditions were a threat to his reelection.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery

As part of his "New Federalism" views, he proposed grants to the states, but these proposals were for the most part lost in the congressional budget process. However, Nixon gained political credit for advocating them. In 1970, Congress had granted the President the power to impose wage and price freezes, Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery

though the Democratic majorities, knowing Nixon had opposed such controls through his career, did not expect Nixon to actually use the authority. With inflation unresolved by August 1971, and an election year looming, Nixon convened a summit of his economic advisers at Camp David. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery

He then announced temporary wage and price controls, allowed the dollar to float against other currencies, and ended the convertibility of the dollar into gold. Bowles points out, "by identifying himself with a policy whose purpose was inflation's defeat, Nixon made it difficult for Democratic opponents ... to criticize him.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

His opponents could offer no alternative policy that was either plausible or believable since the one they favored was one they had designed but which the president had appropriated for himself." Nixon's policies dampened inflation through 1972, although their aftereffects contributed to inflation during his second term and into the Ford administration.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

After he won reelection, Nixon found inflation returning.He reimposed price controls in June 1973. The price controls became unpopular with the public and businesspeople, who saw powerful labor unions as preferable to the price board bureaucracy.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery

The controls produced food shortages, as meat disappeared from grocery stores and farmers drowned chickens rather than sell them at a loss.Despite the failure to control inflation, controls were slowly ended, and on April 30, 1974, their statutory authorization lapsed.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

Governmental initiatives and organization

Nixon advocated a "New Federalism", which would devolve power to state and local elected officials, though Congress was hostile to these ideas and enacted few of them. He eliminated the Cabinet-level United States Post Office Department, which in 1971 became the government-run United States Postal Service.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

Nixon was a late convert to the conservation movement. Environmental policy had not been a significant issue in the 1968 election; the candidates were rarely asked for their views on the subject. He saw that the first Earth Day in April 1970 presaged a wave of voter interest on the subject, and sought to use that to his benefit;Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

in June he announced the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Nixon broke new ground by discussing environment policy in his State of the Union speech; other initiatives supported by Nixon included the Clean Air Act of 1970 and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA);Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

the National Environmental Policy Act required environmental impact statements for many Federal projects. Nixon vetoed the Clean Water Act of 1972—objecting not to the policy goals of the legislation but to the amount of money to be spent on them, which he deemed excessive. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery

After Congress overrode his veto, Nixon impounded the funds he deemed unjustifiable.

US space program

After a nearly decade-long national effort, the United States won the race to land astronauts on the moon on July 20, 1969, with the flight of Apollo 11. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

Nixon spoke with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their moonwalk. He called the conversation "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House". Nixon, however, was unwilling to keep funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the high level seen through the 1960s as NASA prepared to send men to the moon. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine drew up ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the moon by the end of the 1970s and the launch of a manned expedition to Mars as early as 1981. Nixon, however, rejected both proposals. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

On May 24, 1972, Nixon approved a five-year cooperative program between NASA and the Soviet space program, culminating in the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint mission of an American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in 1975.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

Civil rights

The Nixon years witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South. Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating some Southern whites.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

Hopeful of doing well in the South in 1972, he sought to dispose of desegregation as a political issue before then. Soon after his inauguration, he appointed Vice President Agnew to lead a task force, which worked with local leaders—both white and black—to determine how to integrate local schools. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

Agnew had little interest in the work, and most of it was done by Labor Secretary George Shultz. Federal aid was available, and a meeting with President Nixon was a possible reward for compliant committees. By September 1970, fewer than ten percent of black children were attending segregated schools. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery

By 1971, however, tensions over desegregation surfaced in Northern cities, with angry protests over the busing of children to schools outside their neighborhood to achieve racial balance. Nixon opposed busing personally but did not subvert court orders requiring its use.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery

In addition to desegregating public schools, Nixon implemented the Philadelphia Plan in 1970—the first significant federal affirmative action program.  He also endorsed the Equal Rights Amendmentafter it passed both houses of Congress in 1972 and went to the states for ratification.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

Nixon had campaigned as an ERA supporter in 1968, though feminists criticized him for doing little to help the ERA or their cause after his election, though he appointed more women to administration positions than Lyndon Johnson had. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

1972 presidential campaign

Nixon believed his rise to power had peaked at a moment of political realignment. The Democratic "Solid South" had long been a frustration to Republican ambitions. Goldwater had won several Southern states by opposing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 but had alienated more moderate Southerners. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery

Nixon's efforts to gain Southern support in 1968 were diluted by Wallace's candidacy. Through his first term, he pursued a Southern Strategy with policies, such as his desegregation plans, that would be broadly acceptable among Southern whites, encouraging them to realign with the Republicans in the aftermath of the Civil Rights era.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery

He nominated two Southern conservatives, Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court, but neither was confirmed by the Senate.

Nixon entered his name on the New Hampshire primary ballot on January 5, 1972, effectively announcing his candidacy for reelection.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery

Virtually assured the Republican nomination, the President had initially expected his Democratic opponent to be Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy (brother of the late president), but he was largely removed from contention after the 1969 Chappaquiddick incident.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery

Instead, Maine Senator Edmund Muskie became the front runner, with South Dakota Senator George McGovern in a close second place.

On June 10, McGovern won the California primary and secured the Democratic nomination.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery

The following month, Nixon was renominated at the 1972 Republican National Convention. He dismissed the Democratic platform as cowardly and divisive.McGovern intended to sharply reduce defense spending and supported amnesty for draft evaders as well as abortion rights. Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery

With some of his supporters believed to be in favor of drug legalization, McGovern was perceived as standing for "amnesty, abortion and acid". McGovern was also damaged by his vacillating support for his original running mate,Thomas Eagleton, dumped from the ticket following revelations that he had received treatment for depression.Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery

Nixon was ahead in most polls for the entire election cycle, and was reelected on November 7, 1972 in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history. He defeated McGovern with over 60 percent of the popular vote, losing only in Massachusetts and the District of Columbia.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery


The term Watergate has come to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration. Those activities included "dirty tricks" such as bugging the offices of political opponents and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery

Nixon and his close aides ordered harassment of activist groups and political figures, using the FBI, CIA, and the Internal Revenue Service. The activities became known after five men were caught breaking into Democratic party headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery

The Washington Post picked up on the story; reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward relied on an informant known as "Deep Throat"—later revealed to beMark Felt, associate director at the FBI—to link the men to the Nixon administration. Nixon downplayed the scandal as mere politics, calling news articles biased and misleading. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery

As a series of revelations made it clear that Nixon aides had committed crimes in attempts to sabotage the Democrats and others, senior aides such as White House Counsel John Dean and Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman faced prosecution.

In July 1973, White House aide Alexander Butterfield testified that Nixon had a secret taping system that recorded his conversations and phone calls in the Oval Office. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery

These tapes were subpoenaed by Watergate Special Counsel Archibald Cox. Nixon refused to release them, citing executive privilege. With the White House and Cox at loggerheads, Nixon had Cox fired in October in the "Saturday Night Massacre"; he was replaced by Leon Jaworski. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery

In November, Nixon's lawyers revealed that an audio tape of conversations, held in the White House on June 20, 1972, featured an unexplained 18½ minute gap. Rose Mary Woods, the President's personal secretary, claimed responsibility for the gap, alleging that she had accidentally wiped the section while transcribing the tape,Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery

though her tale was widely mocked. The gap, while not conclusive proof of wrongdoing by the President, cast doubt on Nixon's statement that he had been unaware of the cover-up

Though Nixon lost much popular support, even from his own party, he rejected accusations of wrongdoing and vowed to stay in office.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery

He insisted that he had made mistakes, but had no prior knowledge of the burglary, did not break any laws, and did not learn of the cover-up until early 1973. On October 10, 1973, Vice President Agnew resigned amid allegations—unrelated to Watergate—of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering from his tenure as Maryland's governor. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery

Nixon chose Gerald Ford, Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, to replace Agnew.

On November 17, 1973, during a televised question and answer session with the press, Nixon said,

People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/L Battery

The legal battle over the tapes continued through early 1974, and in April 1974 Nixon announced the release of 1,200 pages of transcripts of White House conversations between him and his aides. The House Judiciary Committee, opened impeachment hearings against the President on May 9, 1974, which were televised on the major networks.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/P Battery

These hearings culminated in votes for articles of impeachment, the first being 27–11 in favor on July 27, 1974 on obstruction of justice. On July 24, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the full tapes, not just selected transcripts must be released.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/S Battery

Even with support diminished by the continuing series of revelations, Nixon hoped to win through. However, one of the new tapes, recorded soon after the break-in, demonstrated that Nixon had been told of the White House connection to the Watergate burglaries soon after they took place, and had approved plans to thwart the investigation. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/W Battery

In a statement accompanying the release of the "Smoking Gun Tape" on August 5, 1974, Nixon accepted blame for misleading the country about when he had been told of the truth behind the Watergate break-in, stating that he had a lapse of memory.Sony VAIO VGN-NS240E/L Battery

He met with Republican congressional leaders soon after, and was told he faced certain impeachment in the House and had, at most, 15 senators prepared to vote for his acquittal—far fewer than the 34 he needed to avoid removal from office.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/L Battery


In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of impeachment, Nixon resigned the office of the presidency on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening. The resignation speech was delivered from the Oval Office and was carried live on radio and television.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/S Battery

Nixon stated that he was resigning for the good of the country and asked the nation to support the new president, Gerald Ford. Nixon went on to review the accomplishments of his presidency, especially in foreign policy.He defended his record as president, and stated:Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/L Battery

Sometimes I have succeeded and sometimes I have failed, but always I have taken heart from what Theodore Roosevelt once said aboutthe man in the arena, "whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes short again and again because there is not effort without error and shortcoming,Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/W Battery

but who does actually strive to do the deed, who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, who spends himself in a worthy cause, who at the best knows in the end the triumphs of high achievements and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly".Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/L Battery

Pardon and illness

Following his resignation, the Nixons returned to their home La Casa Pacifica in San Clemente, California. According to Aitken, after his resignation, "Nixon was a soul in torment". Congress had funded Nixon's transition costs, including some salary expenses, though reducing the appropriation from $850,000 to $200,000.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/P Battery

With some of his staff still with him, Nixon was at his desk by 7 a.m.—with little to do.His former press secretary, Ron Ziegler, sat with him alone for hours each day.

Nixon's resignation had not put an end to the desire among many to see him punished. Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/W Battery

The Ford White House considered a pardon of Nixon, though it would be unpopular in the country. Nixon, contacted by Ford emissaries, was initially reluctant to accept the pardon, but then agreed to do so. Ford, however, insisted on a statement of contrition;Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

Nixon felt he had not committed any crimes and should not have to issue such a document. The former president eventually agreed, and on September 8, 1974, Ford granted him a "full, free, and absolute pardon". This ended any possibility of an indictment. Nixon then released a statement:Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

I was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy. No words can describe the depth of my regret and pain at the anguish my mistakes over Watergate have caused the nation and the presidency,Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

a nation I so deeply love, and an institution I so greatly respect.

In October 1974, Nixon fell ill with phlebitis. Told by his doctors that he could either be operated on or die, a reluctant Nixon chose surgery and, while hospitalized, was visited by President Ford.Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W Battery

Nixon was under subpoena for the trial of three of his former aides—Dean, Haldeman, and John Ehrlichman—and The Washington Post, disbelieving his illness, printed a cartoon showing Nixon with a cast on the "wrong foot". Judge John Sirica excused Nixon's presence despite the defendants' objections.Sony VAIO VGN-NS71B/W Battery

Congress instructed Ford to retain Nixon's presidential papers—beginning a legal battle over the documents which would last three decades, and would eventually be won by the former president and his estate. While Nixon was in hospital, the 1974 midterm elections took place, Sony VAIO VGN-NS72JB/W Battery

in which Watergate and the pardon were factors which contributed to the Republican loss of 43 seats in the House and three in the Senate.

Return to public life

In December 1974, Nixon began planning his comeback despite the considerable ill-will against him in the country. He wrote in his diary, referring to himself and Pat,Sony VAIO VGN-NS90HS Battery

So be it. We will see it through. We've had tough times before and we can take the tougher ones that we will have to go through now. That is perhaps what we were made for—to be able to take punishment beyond what anyone in this office has had before particularly after leaving office. This is a test of character and we must not fail the test. Sony VAIO VGN-NS92JS Battery

By early 1975, Nixon's health was improving. He maintained an office in a Coast Guard station 300 yards from his home, at first taking a golf cart and later walking the route each day; he mainly worked on his memoirs. He had hoped to wait before writing his memoirs; Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery

the fact that his assets were being eaten away by expenses and lawyer fees compelled him to begin work quickly. He was handicapped in this work by the end of his transition allowance in February, which compelled him to part with much of his staff, including Ziegler.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

In August of that year, he met with British talk-show host and producer David Frost, who paid him $600,000 for a series of sit-down interviews. They began on the topic of foreign policy, recounting the leaders he had known, but the most remembered section of the interviews was that on Watergate. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery

Nixon admitted that he had "let down the country" and that "I brought myself down. I gave them a sword and they stuck it in. And they twisted it with relish. And, I guess, if I'd been in their position, I'd have done the same thing." The interviews garnered 45–50 million viewers—becoming the most-watched program of their kind in television history.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery

The interviews helped improve Nixon's financial position—at one point in early 1975 he had only $500 in the bank—as did the sale of his Key Biscayne property to a trust set up by wealthy Nixon friends such as Bebe Rebozo. In February 1976, Nixon visited China at the personal invitation of Mao. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

Nixon had wanted to return to China, but chose to wait until after Ford's own visit in 1975. Nixon remained neutral in the 1976 primary battle between Ford and Reagan—won by Ford in a close fight at the convention in Kansas City, at which Nixon (who had been nominated by five of the last six conventions) was not mentioned once. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery

Ford lost narrowly in the general election to Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter, which led to suggestions that Ford would have been elected, had he not pardoned Nixon. Nixon biographer Black points out that had no pardon been issued, it was likely that Nixon would have been on trial in November 1976, causing a loss by a much greater margin.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

The Carter administration had little use for Nixon, and blocked his planned trip to Australia, causing the government of Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to withhold an official invitation.

In early 1978, Nixon went to the United Kingdom. He was shunned by American diplomats and by most ministers of the James Callaghan government.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery

He was welcomed, however, by the Leader of the Opposition, Margaret Thatcher, as well as by former prime ministers Lord Home and Sir Harold Wilson, though two other former prime ministers, Harold Macmillan and Edward Heath declined to meet with him. Nixon addressed the Oxford Union regarding Watergate:Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Some people say I didn't handle it properly and they're right. I screwed it up. Mea culpa. But let's get on to my achievements. You'll be here in the year 2000 and we'll see how I'm regarded then. Sony VGP-BPS13Q Battery

Author and elder statesman

In 1978, Nixon published his memoirs, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, the first of ten books he was to author in his retirement.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

The book was a bestseller, and attracted a generally positive critical response. Nixon journeyed to the White House in 1979, invited by Carter for the state dinner for Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping. Carter had not wanted to invite Nixon, but Deng had stated he would visit Nixon in California if the former president was not invited. Sony VAIO VGN-NW35E Battery

Nixon had a private meeting with Deng, and visited Beijing again in mid-1979.

In early 1980, the Nixons moved into a New York City townhouse, purchased after being rejected by two Manhattan co-ops. When the former Shah of Iran died in Egypt in July 1980, Nixon defied the State Department, which intended to send no US representative, by attending the funeral. Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/S Battery

Though Nixon had no official credentials, as a former president, he was seen as the American presence at its former ally's funeral. Nixon supported Ronald Reagan for president in 1980, making television appearances portraying himself as, in biographer Stephen Ambrose's words, "the senior statesman above the fray".Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/T Battery

He wrote guest articles for many publications both during the campaign and after Reagan's victory. After 18 months in the New York City townhouse, Nixon and his wife moved to Saddle River, New Jersey in 1981.

Throughout the 1980s, Nixon maintained an arduous schedule of speaking engagements and writing, traveled, and met with many foreign leaders, especially those of Third World countries. Sony VAIO VGN-NW50JB Battery

He joined former Presidents Ford and Carter as representatives of the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.[186] On a trip to the Middle East, Nixon made his views known regarding Saudi Arabia and Libya, which attracted significant US media attention; The Washington Post ran stories on Nixon's "rehabilitation".Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

Nixon journeyed to the Soviet Union in 1986 and on his return sent President Reagan a lengthy memorandum containing foreign policy suggestions and his personal impressions of Mikhail Gorbachev. Following this trip, Nixon was ranked in a Gallop poll as one of the ten most admired men in the world.Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

In 1986, Nixon addressed a convention of newspaper publishers, impressing his audience with his tour d'horizon of the world. Author Elizabeth Drew wrote that "even when he was wrong, Nixon still showed that he knew a great deal and had a capacious memory as well as the capacity to speak with apparent authority,Sony VAIO VGN-NW70JB Battery

enough to impress people who had little regard for him in earlier times".Newsweek ran a story on "Nixon's comeback" with the headline "He's back".

On July 19, 1990, the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California opened as a private institution, with the Nixons in attendance. Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

They were joined by a large crowd of people, including Presidents Ford, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, as well as their wives, Betty, Nancy, andBarbara.In January 1991, the former president founded the Nixon Center, a Washington policy think tank and conference center.Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

Pat Nixon died on June 22, 1993 of emphysema and lung cancer. Her funeral services were held on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace. Richard Nixon was distraught during the interment. Inside the building, he delivered a moving tribute to her.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91FS Battery

Death and funeral

Nixon suffered a severe stroke at 5:45 p.m. on April 18, 1994, while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home. It was determined that a blood clot resulting from his heart condition had formed in his upper heart, then broken off and traveled to his brain. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91GS Battery

He was taken to New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan, initially alert, but unable to speak or to move his right arm or leg. Damage to the brain caused swelling (cerebral edema) and Nixon slipped into a deep coma. On April 22, 1994, he died at 9:08 p.m. with his daughters at his bedside. He was 81.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91VS Battery

Nixon's funeral took place on April 27, 1994—the first for an American president since that of Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973, over which Nixon had presided. Held at the Nixon Library, eulogists included then-President Bill Clinton,Sony VGP-BPS13S Battery

former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, California Governor Pete Wilson, and the Reverend Billy Graham.Sony VGP-BPL10 Battery

Also in attendance were former Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, George H. W. Bush and their wives.

Richard Nixon rests beside his wife Pat in the grounds of the Nixon Library. He was survived by his two daughters, Tricia and Julie, and four grandchildren.Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

In keeping with his wishes, his funeral was not a full state funeral, though his body did lie in repose in the Nixon Library lobby from April 26 to the morning of the funeral services. Mourners waited in line up to eight hours in chilly, wet weather to pay their respects.Sony VGP-BPS10/S Battery

At its peak, the line to pass by Nixon's casket was three miles long and an estimated 42,000 people waited.

John F. Stacks of Time magazine said of Nixon shortly after his death, "an outsize energy and determination drove him on to recover and rebuild after every self-created disaster that he faced. Sony VGP-BPS10A/B Battery

To reclaim a respected place in American public life after his resignation, he kept traveling and thinking and talking to the world's leaders ... And by the time Bill Clinton came to the White House [in 1993], Nixon had virtually cemented his role as an elder statesman. Sony VGP-BPS10B Battery

Clinton, whose wife served on the staff of the committee that voted to impeach Nixon, met openly with him and regularly sought his advice."Tom Wicker of The New York Times noted that Nixon was equalled only by Franklin Roosevelt in being five times nominated on a major party ticket, and stated that "Richard Nixon's jowly, Sony VGP-BPS10A Battery

beard-shadowed face, the ski-jump nose and the widow's peak, the arms upstretched in the V-sign, had been so often pictured and caricatured, his presence had become such a familiar one in the land, he had been so often in the heat of controversy, that it was hard to realize the nation really would not 'have Nixon to kick around anymore'."Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery

Ambrose said of the reaction to Nixon's death, "To everyone's amazement, except his, he's our beloved elder statesman."

Upon Nixon's death, almost all of the news coverage mentioned Watergate, but for the most part, the coverage was favorable to the former president. Sony VGP-BPL8A Battery

The Dallas Morning News stated, "History ultimately should show that despite his flaws, he was one of our most farsighted chief executives." This offended some; columnist Russell Baker complained of "a group conspiracy to grant him absolution".Cartoonist Jeff Koterba of the Omaha World-Herald depicted History before a blank canvas,Sony VGP-BPL8B Battery

his subject Nixon, as America looks on eagerly. The artist urges his audience to sit down; the work will take some time to complete, as "this portrait is a little more complicated than most".


James MacGregor Burns observed of Nixon, "How can one evaluate such an idiosyncratic President, so brilliant and so morally lacking?"Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Nixon's biographers disagree on how he will be perceived by history. According to Ambrose, "Nixon wanted to be judged by what he accomplished. What he will be remembered for is the nightmare he put the country through in his second term and for his resignation."Sony VGP-BPS8A Battery

Irwin Gellman, who chronicled Nixon's congressional career, suggests that "he was remarkable among his congressional peers, a success story in a troubled era, one who steered a sensible anti-Communist course against the excess of McCarthy". Aitken feels that "Nixon, both as a man and as a statesman, Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery

has been excessively maligned for his faults and inadequately recognised for his virtues. Yet even in a spirit of historical revisionism, no simple verdict is possible."

Nixon's Southern Strategy is credited by some historians as causing the South to become a Republican stronghold, though others deem economic factors more important to the change.

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Throughout his career, he was instrumental in moving the party away from the control of isolationists and as a congressman was a persuasive advocate of containing Soviet communism. According to Nixon's biographer, Herbert Parmet, "his role was to steer the Republican party along a middle course,Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

somewhere between the competitive impulses of the Rockefellers, the Goldwaters, and the Reagans".

Nixon is given credit for his stance on domestic affairs, which resulted in environmental and regulatory legislation being passed and enforced. Sony VGP-BPS9/B Battery

Historian Paul Charles Milazzo, in his 2011 paper on Nixon and the environment, points to Nixon's establishment of the EPA and enforcement of legislation such as the 1973 Endangered Species Act, and states that, "though unsought and unacknowledged, Richard Nixon's environmental legacy was secure."Sony VGP-BPS9/S Battery

Nixon saw his policies regarding Vietnam, China, and the Soviets as key to his place in history. George McGovern, Nixon's onetime opponent, commented in 1983, "President Nixon probably had a more practical approach to the two superpowers, China and the Soviet Union, than any other president since World War II ... Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery

I think, with the exception of his inexcusable continuation of the war in Vietnam, Nixon really will get high marks in history." However, political scientist Jussi M. Hanhimäki sees Nixon's diplomacy as merely a continuation of the Cold War policy of containment, using diplomatic means rather than military.Sony VGP-BPS9A/B Battery

Historian Keith W. Olson opines that Nixon leaves a negative legacy: a fundamental mistrust of government, which, Olson believes, has its roots in Vietnam and Watergate. During theimpeachment of Bill Clinton in 1998, both sides tried to use Nixon and Watergate to their advantage. Sony VGP-BPS9A/S Battery

Republicans suggested that Clinton's misconduct was comparable to Nixon's, while Democrats contended that Nixon's actions were far more serious those of the incumbent. Another legacy, for a time, was a decrease in the power of the presidency as Congress passed restrictive legislation in the wake of Watergate.Sony VGP-BPS9B Battery

Olson, however suggests that grants of power to George W. Bush in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks have restored the president's power.

Personality and public image

Nixon's career was frequently dogged by his persona, and the public perception of it.Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery

Editorial cartoonists and comedians often exaggerated his appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow.Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

Nixon had a complex personality, both very secretive and awkward, yet strikingly reflective about himself. He was inclined to distance himself from people and was formal in all aspects, always wearing a coat and tie even when home alone. Nixon biographer Conrad Black described him as being "driven" though also "uneasy with himself in some ways".Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

According to Black, Nixon "thought that he was doomed to be traduced, double-crossed, unjustly harassed, misunderstood, underappreciated, and subjected to the trials of Job, but that by the application of his mighty will, tenacity, and diligence he would ultimately prevail".Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

Biographer Elizabeth Drew summarized Nixon as a "smart, talented man, but most peculiar and haunted of presidents".In his account of the Nixon presidency, author Richard Reeves described Nixon as "a strange man of uncomfortable shyness, who functioned best alone with his thoughts".Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

Nixon's presidency was doomed by his personality, Reeves argues: "He assumed the worst in people, and he brought out the worst in them ... He clung to the idea of being 'tough'. He thought that was what had brought him to the edge of greatness. But that was what betrayed him. He could not open himself to other men and he could not open himself to greatness."Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

In October 1999, a volume of 1971 White House audio tapes was released which contained multiple statements by Nixon deemed derogatory toward Jews. In one conversation with H. R. Haldeman, Nixon said that Washington was "full of Jews" and that "most Jews are disloyal," making exceptions for some of his top aides.Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

He then added, "But, Bob, generally speaking, you can't trust the bastards. They turn on you. Am I wrong or right?" Elsewhere on the 1971 recordings Nixon denies being anti-Semitic, saying, "If anybody who's been in this chair ever had reason to be anti-Semitic, I did ... And I'm not, you know what I mean?"Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

Nixon believed that it was necessary for him, as he advanced in his political career and became president, to maintain a distance between himself and other people. Even Bebe Rebozo, by some accounts his closest friend, did not call him by his first name. Nixon said of this belief, Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

"That's just the way I am. Some people are different. Some people think it's good therapy to sit with a close friend and, you know, just spill your guts ... [to] reveal their inner psyche—whether they were breast-fed, or bottle-fed. Not me. No way."Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

When told that most Americans, even at the end of his career, did not feel they knew him, Nixon replied, "Yeah, it's true. And it's not necessary for them to know."Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery,Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

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