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d'Alembert in the article Dimension in Encyclopedie. Another early venture was by Joseph Louis Lagrange in his Theory of Analytic Functions (1797, 1813). SONY VAIO VGN-SR220J/H laptop keyboard

He said, "One may view mechanics as a geometry of four dimensions, and mechanical analysis as an extension of geometric analysis".[5]

After discovering quaternions,[6] William Rowan Hamilton commented, "Time is said to have only one dimension, and space to have three dimensions. ... The mathematical quaternion partakes of both these elements; in technical language it may be said to be 'time plus space', or 'space plus time': and in this sense it has, or at least involves a reference to, IBM 42T3265 laptop keyboard

four dimensions. And how the One of Time, of Space the Three, Might in the Chain of Symbols girdled be." Hamilton'sbiquaternions, which have algebraic properties sufficient to model spacetime and its symmetry, were in play for more than a half-century before formal relativity. For instance, William Kingdon Clifford noted their relevance. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

Another important antecedent to spacetime was the work of James Clerk Maxwell as he used partial differential equations to develop electrodynamics with the four parameters. Lorentz discovered some invariances of Maxwell's equations late in the 19th century which were to become the basis of Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Fiction authors were also involved, as mentioned above. It has always been the case that time and space are measured using real numbers, and the suggestion that the dimensions of space and time are comparable could have been raised by the first people to have formalized physics, but ultimately, the contradictions between Maxwell's laws and Galilean relativity had to come to a head with the realization of the import of finitude of the speed of light. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

While spacetime can be viewed as a consequence of Einstein's 1905 theory of special relativity, it was first explicitly proposed mathematically by one of his teachers, the mathematician Hermann Minkowski, in a 1908 essay[7] building on and extending Einstein's work. His concept of Minkowski space is the earliest treatment of space and time as two aspects of a unified whole, the essence of special relativity. HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

 (For an English translation of Minkowski's article, see Lorentz et al. 1952.) The 1926 thirteenth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica included an article by Einstein titled "Space–Time".[8]) The idea of Minkowski space led to special relativity being viewed in a more geometrical way. DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

However, the most important contribution of Minkowski's geometric viewpoint of spacetime turned out to be in Einstein's later development of general relativity, since the correct description of the effect of gravitation on space and time was found to be most easily visualized as a "warp" or stretching in the geometrical fabric of space and time, in a smooth and continuous way that changed smoothly from point-to-point along the spacetime fabric.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Spacetimes are the arenas in which all physical events take place—an event is a point in spacetime specified by its time and place. For example, the motion ofplanets around the sun may be described in a particular type of spacetime, or the motion of light around a rotating star may be described in another type of spacetime. The basic elements of spacetime are events. In any given spacetime, an event is a unique position at a unique time.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Because events are spacetime points, an example of an event in classical relativistic physics is  , the location of an elementary (point-like) particle at a particular time. A spacetime itself can be viewed as the union of all events in the same way that a line is the union of all of its points, formally organized into a manifold, a space which can be described at small scales using coordinates systems. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

A spacetime is independent of any observer.[9] However, in describing physical phenomena (which occur at certain moments of time in a given region of space), each observer chooses a convenient metrical coordinate system. Events are specified by four real numbers in any such coordinate system. Lenovo 45N2071 Laptop Keyboard

The trajectories of elementary (point-like) particles through space and time are thus a continuum of events called the world line of the particle. Extended or composite objects (consisting of many elementary particles) are thus a union of many world lines twisted together by virtue of their interactions through spacetime into a "world-braid". Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

However, in physics, it is common to treat an extended object as a "particle" or "field" with its own unique (e.g. center of mass) position at any given time, so that the world line of a particle or light beam is the path that this particle or beam takes in the spacetime and represents the history of the particle or beam. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

  The world line of the orbit of the Earth (in such a description) is depicted in two spatial dimensions x and y (the plane of the Earth's orbit) and a time dimension orthogonal to x and y. The orbit of the Earth is an ellipse in space alone, but its world line is a helix in spacetime.[10]  HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

The unification of space and time is exemplified by the common practice of selecting a metric (the measure that specifies the interval between two events in spacetime) such that all four dimensions are measured in terms of units of distance: representing an event as   (in the Lorentz metric) or   (in the original Minkowski metric)[11] where   is the speed of light. The metrical descriptions of Minkowski Spaceand spacelike, HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

lightlike, and timelike intervals given below follow this convention, as do the conventional formulations of the Lorentz transformation.

For physical reasons, a spacetime continuum is mathematically defined as a four-dimensional, smooth, connected Lorentzian manifold  . DELL Inspiron 9300 laptop keyboard

This means the smooth Lorentz metric   has signature  . The metric determines the geometry of spacetime, as well as determining the geodesics of particles and light beams. About each point (event) on this manifold, coordinate charts are used to represent observers in reference frames. Usually, Cartesian coordinates   are used. Moreover, for simplicity's sake, the speed of light   is usually assumed to be unity. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 laptop keyboard

A reference frame (observer) can be identified with one of these coordinate charts; any such observer can describe any event  . Another reference frame may be identified by a second coordinate chart about  . Two observers (one in each reference frame) may describe the same event   but obtain different descriptions. COMPAQ Presario CQ50Z-100 CTO laptop keyboard

Usually, many overlapping coordinate charts are needed to cover a manifold. Given two coordinate charts, one containing   (representing an observer) and another containing   (representing another observer), the intersection of the charts represents the region of spacetime in which both observers can measure physical quantities and hence compare results. LENOVO 25-011427 Laptop Keyboard

The relation between the two sets of measurements is given by a non-singular coordinate transformation on this intersection. The idea of coordinate charts as local observers who can perform measurements in their vicinity also makes good physical sense, as this is how one actually collects physical data—locally. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

For example, two observers, one of whom is on Earth, but the other one who is on a fast rocket to Jupiter, may observe a comet crashing into Jupiter (this is the event  ). In general, they will disagree about the exact location and timing of this impact, i.e., they will have different 4-tuples   (as they are using different coordinate systems). TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

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In fact, relativity theory requires more than this in the sense that it stipulates these (and all other physical) laws must take the same form in all coordinate systems. This introduces tensors into relativity, by which all physical quantities are represented. HP Envy 15-1015tx Laptop Keyboard

Geodesics are said to be time-like, null, or space-like if the tangent vector to one point of the geodesic is of this nature. Paths of particles and light beams in spacetime are represented by time-like and null (light-like) geodesics, respectively.

The assumptions contained in the definition of a spacetime are usually justified by the following considerations. TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard

The connectedness assumption serves two main purposes. First, different observers making measurements (represented by coordinate charts) should be able to compare their observations on the non-empty intersection of the charts. If the connectedness assumption were dropped, this would not be possible. Second, for a manifold, the properties of connectedness and path-connectedness are equivalent, and one requires the existence of paths (in particular, geodesics) in the spacetime to represent the motion of particles and radiation. SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard

Every spacetime is paracompact. This property, allied with the smoothness of the spacetime, gives rise to a smooth linear connection, an important structure in general relativity. Some important theorems on constructing spacetimes from compact and non-compact manifolds include the following:[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv6-2108sa laptop keyboard

In general relativity, it is assumed that spacetime is curved by the presence of matter (energy), this curvature being represented by the Riemann tensor. In special relativity, the Riemann tensor is identically zero, and so this concept of "non-curvedness" is sometimes expressed by the statement Minkowski spacetime is flat. TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5607 laptop keyboard

The earlier discussed notions of time-like, light-like and space-like intervals in special relativity can similarly be used to classify one-dimensional curves through curved spacetime. SAMSUNG R20 laptop keyboard

Technically the three types of curves are usually defined in terms of whether the tangent vector at each point on the curve is time-like, light-like or space-like. The world line of a slower-than-light object will always be a time-like curve, the world line of a massless particle such as a photon will be a light-like curve, and a space-like curve could be the world line of a hypothetical tachyon. In the local neighborhood of any event, SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

time-like curves that pass through the event will remain inside that event's past and future light cones, light-like curves that pass through the event will be on the surface of the light cones, and space-like curves that pass through the event will be outside the light cones. One can also define the notion of a 3-dimensional "spacelike hypersurface", Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

a continuous 3-dimensional "slice" through the 4-dimensional property with the property that every curve that is contained entirely within this hypersurface is a space-like curve.[12]

Many spacetime continua have physical interpretations which most physicists would consider bizarre or unsettling. For example, a compact spacetime has closed timelike curves, which violate our usual ideas of causality (that is, future events could affect past ones). DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

For this reason, mathematical physicists usually consider only restricted subsets of all the possible spacetimes. One way to do this is to study "realistic" solutions of the equations of general relativity. Another way is to add some additional "physically reasonable" but still fairly general geometric restrictions and try to prove interesting things about the resulting spacetimes. The latter approach has led to some important results, most notably the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

In general relativity, spacetime is assumed to be smooth and continuous—and not just in the mathematical sense. In the theory of quantum mechanics, there is an inherent discreteness present in physics. In attempting to reconcile these two theories, it is sometimes postulated that spacetime should be quantized at the very smallest scales. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

Causal sets, loop quantum gravity, string theory, and black hole thermodynamics all predict a quantized spacetime with agreement on the order of magnitude. Loop quantum gravity makes precise predictions about the geometry of spacetime at the Planck scale. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard

There are two kinds of dimensions, spatial (bidirectional) and temporal (unidirectional). Let the number of spatial dimensions be N and the number of temporal dimensions be T. That N = 3 and T = 1, setting aside the compactified dimensions invoked by string theory and undetectable to date, can be explained by appealing to the physical consequences of letting N differ from 3 and T differ from 1. The argument is often of an anthropic character. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

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The implicit notion that the dimensionality of the universe is special is first attributed to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who in the Discourse on Metaphysics suggested[13] that the world is "the one which is at the same time the simplest in hypothesis and the richest in phenomena." Immanuel Kant argued that 3-dimensional space was a consequence of the inverse square law of universal gravitation. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

While Kant's argument is historically important, John D. Barrow says that it "...gets the punch-line back to front: it is the three-dimensionality of space that explains why we see inverse-square force laws in Nature, not vice-versa." (Barrow 2002: 204). This is because the law of gravitation (or any other inverse-square law) follows from the concept of flux and the proportional relationship of flux density and the strength of field. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5366 Laptop Keyboard

If N = 3, then 3-dimensional solid objects have surface areas proportional to the square of their size in any selected spatial dimension. In particular, a sphere of radius r has area of 4πr ². More generally, in a space of N dimensions, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two bodies separated by a distance of r would be inversely proportional to rN−1. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

In 1920, Paul Ehrenfest showed that if we fix T = 1 and let N > 3, the orbit of a planet about its sun cannot remain stable. The same is true of a star's orbit around the center of its galaxy.[14] Ehrenfest also showed that if N is even, then the different parts of a wave impulse will travel at different speeds. If N > 3 and odd, then wave impulses become distorted. Only when N = 3 or 1 are both problems avoided.  SONY 1-417-802-21 Laptop Keyboard

In 1922, Hermann Weyl showed that Maxwell's theory ofelectromagnetism works only when N = 3 and T = 1, writing that this fact "...not only leads to a deeper understanding of Maxwell's theory, but also of the fact that the world is four dimensional, which has hitherto always been accepted as merely 'accidental,' become intelligible through it."[15] Finally, Tangherlini[16] showed in 1963 that when N > 3, electron orbitals around nuclei cannot be stable; electrons would either fall into the nucleus or disperse. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

Max Tegmark[17] expands on the preceding argument in the following anthropic manner. If T differs from 1, the behavior of physical systems could not be predicted reliably from knowledge of the relevant partial differential equations. In such a universe, intelligent life capable of manipulating technology could not emerge.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard

Moreover, ifT > 1, Tegmark maintains that protons and electrons would be unstable and could decay into particles having greater mass than themselves. (This is not a problem if the particles have a sufficiently low temperature.) If N> 3, Ehrenfest's argument above holds; atoms as we know them (and probably more complex structures as well) could not exist. If N < 3, gravitation of any kind becomes problematic, and the universe is probably too simple to contain observers. For example, when N < 3, nerves cannot cross without intersecting. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

In general, it is not clear how physical law could function if T differed from 1. If T > 1, subatomic particles which decay after a fixed period would not behave predictably, because time-like geodesics would not be necessarily maximal.[18] N = 1 and T = 3 has the peculiar property that the speed of light in a vacuum is a lower bound on the velocity of matter; all matter consists of tachyons.[17] However, signature (1,3) and (3,1) FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Laptop Keyboard

are physically equivalent. To call vectors with positive Minkowski "length" timelike is just a convention that depends on the convention for the sign of the metric tensor. Indeed, particle phyicists tend to use a metric with signature (+−−−)SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

that results in positive Minkowski "length" for timelike intervals and energies while spatial separations have negative Minkowski "length". Relativists, however, tend to use the opposite convention (−+++) so that spatial separations have positive Minkowski length. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Hence anthropic and other arguments rule out all cases except N = 3 and T = 1 (or N = 1 and T = 3 in different conventions) — which happens to describe the world about us. Curiously, the cases N = 3 or 4 have the richest and most difficult geometry and topology. There are, for example, geometric statements whose truth or falsity is known for all N except one or both of 3 and 4.[citation needed] N = 3 was the last case of thePoincaré conjecture to be proved.  LENOVO 25-011427 laptop keyboard

For an elementary treatment of the privileged status of N = 3 and T = 1, see chpt. 10 (esp. Fig. 10.12) of Barrow;[19] for deeper treatments, see §4.8 of Barrow and Tipler (1986) and Tegmark.[17] Barrow has repeatedly cited the work of Whitrow.[20] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard

String theory hypothesizes that matter and energy are composed of tiny vibrating strings of various types, most of which are embedded in dimensions that exist only on a scale no larger than the Planck length. Hence N = 3 and T = 1 do not characterize string theory, which embeds vibrating strings in coordinate grids having 10, or even 26, dimensions.  HP Envy 15-1050nr laptop keyboard

The Causal dynamical triangulation (CDT) theory is a background independent theory which derives the observed 3+1 spacetime from a minimal set of assumptions, and needs no adjusting factors. It does not assume any pre-existing arena (dimensional space), but rather attempts to show how the spacetime fabric itself evolves. TOSHIBA A000014900 laptop keyboard

So, CDT may become the first theory which doesn't postulate but really explains observed number of spacetime dimensions.[21]  TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6843 Laptop Keyboard

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