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Moldova has 66 cities (towns), including the five with municipality status, and 916 communes. Other 699 villages are too small to have a separate administration, and are administratively part of either cities (40 of them) or communes (659). This makes for a total of 1,681 localities of Moldova, all but two of which are inhabited. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova lies between latitudes 45° and 49° N, and mostly between meridians 26° and30° E (a small area lies east of 30°). The total land area is 33,851 km2

The largest part of the nation lies between two rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova has access to the Danube for only about 480 m (1,575 ft), and Giurgiulești is the only Moldovan port on the Danube. In the east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south, receiving the waters of Răut, Bâc, Ichel, Botna. Ialpug flows into one of the Danube limans, whileCogâlnic into the Black Sea chain of limans. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country is landlocked, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While most of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 m (1,411 ft) — the highest point being the Bălănești Hill. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Its subdivisions in Moldova include the Dniester Hills (Northern Moldavian Hills and Dniester Ridge), the Moldavian Plain (Middle Prut Valley and Bălţi Steppe), and the Central Moldavian Plateau (Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills, Cornești Hills—Codri Massive, "Codri" meaning "forests"—Lower Dniester Hills, Lower Prut Valley, and Tigheci Hills). HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau, and parts of the Eurasian Steppe.The country's main cities are the capital Chișinău, in the centre of the country, Tiraspol (in the eastern region of Transnistria), Bălţi (in the north) and Bender (in the south-east). Comrat is the administrative centre of Gagauzia. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate.[71]

Moldova's climate is moderately continental: The summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20 °C (68 °F), and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging −4 °C (25 °F). Annual rainfall, which ranges from around 600 mm (24 in) in the north to 400 mm (16 in) in the south, can vary greatly; Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) on July 21, 2007 in Camenca.[ HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lowest temperature ever recorded was −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) on January 20, 1963 in Brătușeni, Edineţ county.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As a part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, liberalized all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and liberalized interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to promote growth.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Recent trends indicate that the Communist government intends to reverse some of these policies, and recollectivise land while placing more restrictions on private business. The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2007 (6%), in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.

Following the regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. It has, furthermore, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy. These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy's further growth and development in the medium term.[ Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Despite these efforts and recent resumption of economic growth, Moldova ranks low in terms of commonly used living standards and human development indicators in comparison with other transition economies. Although the economy experienced a constant economic growth after 2000: HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with 2.1%, 6.1%, 7.8% and 6.3% between 2000 and 2003 (with a forecast of 8% in 2004), one can observe that these latest developments hardly reach the level of 1994, with almost 40% of the GDP registered in 1990. Thus, during the last decade little has been done to reduce the country's vulnerability. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After a severe economic decline, social and economic challenges, energy uprooted dependencies, Moldova continues to occupy one of the last places among European countries in income per capita.]

In 2005, according to the Human Development Report, the registered GDP per capita was US$ 2,100 PPP, which was 78% lower than the world average at the time (US $ 9,543). HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moreover, GDP per capita was under the average of its statistical region (US $ 9,527 PPP). In 2005, about 20.8% of the population were under the absolute poverty line and registered an income lower than US $ 2.15 (PPP) per day. Moldova is classified as medium in human development and is at the 111th spot in the list of 177 countries. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The value of the Human Development Index (0.708) is below the world average. Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe in terms of official (i.e., excluding the black and grey economy) per capita which currently stands at $3,400 [74] The GDP(PPP) in 2011 constituted $12.15 billion. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova imports all of its supplies of petroleum, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Moldova is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova is known for its wines. For many years viticulture and winemaking in Moldova were the general occupation of the population. Evidence of this is present in historical memorials and documents, folklore, and the spoken language of Moldova, which is Romanian.

The country has a well established wine industry. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It has a vineyard area of 147,000 hectares (360,000 acres), of which 102,500 ha (253,000 acres) are used for commercial production. Most of the country's wine production is made for export. Many families have their own recipes and strands of grapes that have been passed down through the generations. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to a 2011 WHO report, Moldova consumed the highest amount of alcohol per capita in the world in 2005.Cricova is one of the largest wine cellars in the world, with 120 km (75 mi) of tunnel-like storage galleries.Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate (with warm summers and mild winters) DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe. In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform.

The main means of transportation in Moldova are railroads 1,138 km (707 mi) and a highway system (12,730 km or 7,910 mi overall, including 10,937 km or 6,796 mi of paved surfaces). HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The sole international air gateway of Moldova is the Chișinău International Airport. The Giurgiulești terminal on the Danube is compatible with small seagoing vessels. Shipping on the lower Prut and Nistru rivers plays only a modest role in the country's transportation system. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first million of mobile telephone users was registered in September 2005. The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by 47.3% in the first quarter of 2008 against the last year and exceeded 2.89 million.[78]

In September 2009, Moldova was the first country in the world to launch high-definition voice services (HD voice) for mobile phones, and the first country in Europe to launch 14.4 Mbit/s mobile broadband at a national scale, with over 40% population coverage.[79] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As of 2010 there are around 1,295,000 Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of 35.9%.[80]

On 6 June 2012, the Government approved the licensing of 4G / LTE for mobile operators.

There is an ongoing controversy whether Romanians and Moldovans are the same ethnic group, namely whether Moldovans' self-identification constitutes an ethnic group distinct and apart from Romanians or a subset. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There were also numerous allegations that the ethnic affiliation numbers were rigged, 7 out of 10 observer groups of the Council of Europe reported a significant number of cases when census-takers recommended respondents to declare themselves Moldovans rather than Romanians.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Complicating the interpretation of the results, 18.8% of respondents that identified themselves as Moldovans declared Romanian to be their native language.

The official language of Moldova is Romanian, a Romance language related to Italian, French, Catalan, Spanish, and Portuguese. HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 1991 Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian.[84][85] The Constitution of 1994 states that the national language of the Republic of Moldova is Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.[86] In 2003, theCommunist government adopted a political document which states that one of the priorities of the national politics of the Republic of Moldova is the insurance of the existence of the Moldovan language.[ HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In December 2013, a decision of theConstitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and the state language should be called "Romanian".[1][88]

Scholars agree that Moldovan and Romanian are the same language, with the glottonym "Moldovan" used in certain political contexts.[89] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

More than 76 percent of the population declared Romanian/Moldovan as their native language.

As of the 2004 census, the country has significant Russian (6%) and Ukrainian (8.4%) populations. 50% of ethnic Ukrainians, 27% of Gagauz, 35% of Bulgarians, and 54% of smaller ethnic groups speak Russian as their first language.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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Russian remains, in practice, used on all levels of the society and the state, and is provided with the status of a "language of interethnic communication" (alongside an official regional language in Gagauzia and Transnistria). In total, there are 541,000 people (or 16% of the population) in Moldova who use Russian as their first language, ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including 130,000 ethnic Moldovans. On the other hand, 47,000 members of ethnic minorities use Romanian as their first language. Gagauz and Ukrainian have significant regional speaker populations and are also granted official regional status in Gagauzia and Transnistria respectively. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The primary foreign language taught is English. In 2013 it was taught to over 60% of schoolchildren as the first foreign language. This was followed by French, with less than 50% (Since 1996, the Republic of Moldova has been a full member of La Francophonie.), and then German. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

For the 2004 census, Orthodox Christians, who make up 93.3% of Moldova's population, were not required to declare the particular of the two main churches they belong to. The Moldovan Orthodox Church, autonomous and subordinated to theRussian Orthodox Church, and the Orthodox Church of Bessarabia, Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

autonomous and subordinated to the Romanian Orthodox Church, both claim to be the national church of the country. 1.9% of the population is Protestant, 0.9% belongs to other religions, 1.0% is non-religious, 0.4% is atheist, and 2.2% did not answer the religion question at the census. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There are 16 state and 15[91] private institutions of higher education in Moldova, with a total of 126,100 students, including 104,300 in the state institutions and 21,700 in the private ones. The number of students per 10,000 inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Union, reaching 217 in 2000–2001, and 351 in 2005–2006. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The National Library of Moldova was founded in 1832. The Moldova State University and the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, the main scientific organizations of Moldova, were established in 1946.The total fertility rate (TFR) in Moldova was estimated in 2013 at 1.55 children/woman,[94] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2012, the average age of women at first birth was 23.9 years, with 75.2% of births being to women under 30, and 22.4% of births being to unmarried women.[95] The maternal mortality rate was 41 deaths/100,000 live births (in 2010) and the infant mortality rate was 13.28 deaths/1,000 live births (in 2013).[96] HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 69.82 years (65.95 years male, 73.94 years female).[96]

Public expenditure on health was 4.2% of the GDP and private expenditure on health 3.2%.[97] There are about 264 physicians per 100,000 people.[97] Health expenditure was 138 US$ (PPP) per capita in 2004.[97] HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the country has seen a decrease in spending on health care and, as a result, the tuberculosis incidence rate in the country has grown.[98] According to a 2009 study, Moldova was struggling with one of the highest incidence rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world.[99]  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The percentage of adults (aged 15–49) living with HIV/AIDS was estimated in 2009 at 0.40%.

Located geographically at the crossroads of Latin, Slavic and other cultures, Moldova has enriched its own culture adopting and maintaining some of the traditions of its neighbours and of other influence sources. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam and Dosoftei, and those of scholars such as Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Nicolae Milescu, Dimitrie Cantemir,[nb 6] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Ion Neculce. In the 19th century, Moldavians from the territories of the medieval Principality of Moldavia, then split between Austria, Russia, and an Ottoman-vassal Moldavia (after 1859, Romania), made a significant contribution to the formation of the modern Romanian culture. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Among these were many Bessarabians, such asAlexandru Donici, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stamati-Ciurea, Costache Negruzzi,Alecu Russo, Constantin Stere.

Mihai Eminescu, a late Romantic poet, and Ion Creangă, a writer, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

are the most influential Romanian language artists, considered national writers both in Romania and Moldova.[102]

The largest ethnic group is a speaker of Romanian and shares the Romanian culture. The culture has been also influenced (throughEastern Orthodoxy) by the Byzantine culture.HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The country has also important minority ethnic communities. Gagauz, 4.4% of the population, are Christian Turkic people. Greeks,Armenians, Poles, Ukrainians, although not numerous, were present since as early as 17th century, and had left cultural marks. The 19th century saw the arrival of many more Ukrainians from Podolia and Galicia, as well as new communities, such as Lipovans, Bulgarians and Bessarabian Germans. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

In the second part of the 20th century, Moldova saw a massive Soviet immigration, which brought with it many elements of Soviet culture.

In October 1939, Radio Basarabia, a local station of the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company, was the first radio station opened in Chișinău. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

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Television in Moldova was introduced in April 1958, within the framework of Soviet television. Through cable, Moldovan viewers can receive a large number of Russian channels, a few Romanian channels, and several Russian language versions of international channels in addition to several local channels. One Russian and two local channels are aired. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Moldovan cuisine is similar to neighbouring Romania, and has been influenced by elements of Russian, Turkish, and Ukrainian cuisine. Main dishes include beef, pork, potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of cereals. Popular alcoholic beverages are divin(Moldovan brandy), beer, and local wine. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Total recorded adult alcohol consumption is approximately evenly split between spirits, beer and wine.

Among Moldova's most prominent composers are Gavriil Musicescu, Ştefan Neaga and Eugen Doga.

In the field of popular music, Moldova has produced the band O-Zone, who came to prominence in 2003, with their hit song "Dragostea Din Tei." HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

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Moldova has been participating in the Eurovision Song Contest since 2005. Another popular band from Moldova is Zdob și Zdub that represented the country in the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing 6th.

In May 2007, Natalia Barbu represented Moldova in Eurovision Song Contest 2007 with her entry "Fight", in Finland, Helsinki.ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Natalia squeezed into the final by a very small margin. Her rock song was aggressive in nature and performance. She took 10th place with 109 points. Then Zdob și Zdub again represented Moldova in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing 12th. Dan Bălan, another popular artist, released the album Chica Bomb in 2010. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The band SunStroke Project with Olia Tira represented the country in the 2010 Eurovision Song Contest with their hit song "Run Away". Their performance gained international notoriety as an internet meme due to the pelvic thrusting and dancing of Sergey Stepanov, the band saxophonist. He has been fittingly dubbed "Epic Sax Guy".HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Among most prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Mark Pester, a distinguished violinist, conductor and the first professor of the State Conservatory. Mark Pester was a student of the famous violin teacher Leopold Auer at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

As a conductor, he staged the first operas in Moldova and performed with the greatest soloists including Sergei Rachmaninov. Other prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Maria Biesu, one of the leading world's sopranos and the winner of the Japan International Competition; Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

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pianist Mark Zeltser, winner of the USSR National Competition, Margueritte Long Competition in Paris and Busoni Competition in Bolzano, Italy. Another outstanding pianist is Oleg Maisenberg, the winner of the Schubert International Competition in Vienna.

Located in southeastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine.Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Most of its territory lies between the area's two main rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The Dniester forms a small part of Moldova's border with Ukraine in the northeast and southeast, but it mainly flows through the eastern part of the country, separating Bessarabia and Transnistria. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The Prut River forms Moldova's entire western boundary with Romania. The Danube touches the Moldovan border at its southernmost tip, and forms the border for 200 m (656 ft).

Phytogeographically, Moldova is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

According to the WWF, the territory of Moldova can be subdivided into threeecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, the East European forest steppe (the most territory of the country), andPontic steppe (in the south and southeast).

Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

Moldova's climate is moderately continental: the summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20 °C (68 °F), and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging −4 °C (25 °F). Annual rainfall, which ranges from around 6 centimeters (2.4 in) in the north to 4 centimeters (1.6 in) in the south, can vary greatly; HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

Weather records. The highest temperature ever recorded: +41.5 °C (106.7 °F) on July 21, 2007 (Camenca). HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The lowest temperature ever recorded: −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) on January 20, 1963 (Brătuşeni, Edineţ county).

Most of Moldova's territory is a moderate hilly plateau cut deeply by many streams and rivers. Geologically, Moldova lies primarily on deep sedimentary rock that gives way to harder crystalline outcroppings only in the north. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Moldova's hills are part of theMoldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains.

The northern landscape of Moldova is characterized by gently rolling uplands of theDniester Hills (up to 300 m or 984 ft, in elevation) interlaced with small flat plains in the valleys of the numerous creeks (at 150 m or 492 ft elevation). Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

These hills, which have an average altitude of 240 meters (787 ft) and a maximum altitude of 320 meters (1,050 ft), can be divided into the Northern Moldavian Hills and theDniester Ridge, and continue further occupying the northern part of the Chernivtsi oblast in Ukraine. The eastern slopes of the Dniester Ridge (average 250 meters or 820 feet, max 347 meters or 1,138 feet), form the high right bank of the Dniester River. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The Moldavian Plain has an average of 200 meters (656 ft) and a maximum altitude of 250 meters (820 ft), and can be divided into the Bălţi Steppe and the Middle Prut Valley. Originally forested, it has been extensively de-forested for agriculture during the 19th and 20th centuries. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

In contrast to the region to the north and south, which is smore slant, this area is referred to as plain, although it has relief very different from that of a flatland, and vegetation different from that of the steppe.

The hills of central Moldova, the Central Moldavian Plateau, at an average elevation of about 350 to 400 m (1,148 to 1,312 ft),HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

are ridges interlaced by deep, flat valleys, ravines, and landslide-scoured depressions. Steep forest-clad slopes account for much of the terrain, where the most common trees are hornbeam, oak, linden, maple, wild pear, and wild cherry. The term Codri refers more generally to all the forests between the Carpathians and the Dniesterriver, Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

and even more generally to all forests in the area of the Carpathians, yet since in Moldova most of them were preserved in the central part, Codri sometimes can colloquially refer to the remaining forests in the hills west and north of Chişinău. The Dniester Ridge border Central Moldavian Plateau to the north along the river Răut. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

The plateau can be divided into 5 parts: Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Ciuluc-Soloneţ), alongated in the north along the right side of the Răut river, 1,690 km2 (653 sq mi), Corneşti Hills (Romanian:Dealurile Corneştilor), also known as Cordi Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Codrilor), 4,740 km2 (1,830 sq mi), HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Lower Dniester Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Nistrului Inferior), alongated to the south of the Botna river, 3,040 km2 (1,174 sq mi),Tigheci Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Tigheciului), alongated in the south along the left side of the Prut river, 3,550 km2(1,371 sq mi), and between the latter and the Prut river, the Lower Prut Valley (Romanian: Valea Prutului Inferior), 1,810 km2 (699 sq mi). DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The country's highest point, Bălăneşti Hill, which reaches 1,407 or 1,410 ft (428.9 or 429.8 m), depending on the source, is situated in the Corneşti Hills, the western part of the Central Moldavian Plateau. Northwest of it are the Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills (average 250 meters or 820 feet, max 388 meters or 1,273 feet). HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

In the south, the Tigheci Hills (average 200 meters or 656 feet, max 301 meters or 988 feet) are a prolongation, and run to the south parallel to the Lower Prut Valley.

To the south-east, the southern part of the Central Moldavian Plateau, which averages 150–200 meters (492–656 ft), max 250 meters (820 ft), and has numerous ravines and gullies, SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

gradually vanishs into the extensive Bugeac Plain, with most of the Budjak region already in Ukraine.Transnistria (the left bank of the Dniester) has spurs of the Podolian Plateau (Romanian: Podişul Podoliei, Ukrainian: Volyno-Podil's'ka vysochyna), (average 180 meters or 591 feet, max 275 meters or 902 feet), which are cut into by tributaries of the Dniester River. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The southern half of Transnistria, the Lower Dniester Plain, can be regarded as the western end of the Eurasian steppe, and has an average elevation of 100 meters (328 ft), with a maximum of 170 meters (558 ft). The high right bank and low left bank of the Dniester are in sharp contrast here, where visibility is not impeded by forests. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

About 75 percent of Moldova is covered by a soil type called black earth or chernozem. In the northern hills, more clay textured soils are found; in the south, red-earth soil is predominant. The soil becomes less fertile toward the south but can still support grape and sunflower production. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The hills have woodland soils, while a small portion in southern Moldova is in the steppe zone, although most steppe areas today are cultivated. The lower reaches of the Prut and Dniester rivers and the southern river valleys are saline marshes.

Drainage in Moldova is to the south, toward the Black Sea lowlands, and eventually into the Black Sea, but only eight rivers and creeks extend more than 100 kilometers. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Moldova's main river, the Dniester, is navigable throughout almost the entire country, and in warmer winters it does not freeze over. The Prut river is a tributary of the Danube, which it joins at the far southwestern tip of the country. Over 95% of the water circulation in Moldova flows into one of the two rivers - the Prut or Dniester. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Of Moldova's well-developed network of about 3,000 creeks and streams, all draining south to the Black Sea, only 246 exceed 6 mi (9.7 km) in length, and only 8 exceed 60 mi (96.6 km).

Underground water, extensively used for the country's water supply, includes about 2,200 natural springs. The terrain favours construction of reservoirs of various size. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Moldova's communist-era environmental legacy, like that of many other former Soviet republics, is one of environmental degradation. Agricultural practices such as overuse of pesticides and artificial fertilizers were intended to increase agricultural output at all costs, without regard for the consequences. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

As a result, Moldova's soil and groundwater were contaminated by lingering chemicals, some of which (including DDT) have been banned in the West.

Such practices continue in Moldova to the present day. In the early 1990s, use of pesticides in Moldova averaged approximately twenty times that of other former Soviet republics and Western nations. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

In addition, poor farming methods, such as destroying forests to plant vineyards, have contributed to the extensive soil erosion to which the country's rugged topography is already prone. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan,Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

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