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Molière Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, (French pronunciation: [mɔ'ljɛʁ] ; baptised January 15, 1622 – February 17, 1673) was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature.[1] Among Molière's best-known works are Le Misanthrope (The Misanthrope), HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard L'École des femmes (The School for Wives), Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur, (Tartuffe or the Hypocrite), L'Avare (The Miser), Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid), and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman). HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont (now Lycée Louis-le-Grand), Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French comedy.[2]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Through the patronage of a few aristocrats, including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans – the brother of Louis XIV – Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, Le Docteur amoureux (The Doctor in Love), Molière was granted the use of salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre,  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances. Later, Molière was granted the use of the Palais-Royal. In both locations he found success among the Parisians with plays such as Les Précieuses ridicules (The Affected Ladies), L'École des maris (The School for Husbands) and L'École des femmes (The School for Wives). This royal favor brought a royal pensionto his troupe and the title "Troupe du Roi" (The King's Troupe). Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments.[3]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Though he received the adulation of the court and Parisians, Molière's satires attracted criticisms from moralists and the Roman Catholic Church. Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur (Tartuffe or the Hypocrite) and its attack on religious hypocrisy roundly received condemnations from the Church, while Dom Juan was banned from performance. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-260ES Laptop Keyboard Molière's hard work in so many theatrical capacities began to take its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final play, Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid), Molière, who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a haemorrhage while playing the hypochondriac Argan. He finished the performance but collapsed again and died a few hours later.[3]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Molière was born in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin and Marie Cressé, the daughter of a prosperous bourgeois family.[4] He lost his mother at the age of 10 and he did not seem to have been particularly close to his father. After his mother's death, he lived with his father above the Pavillon des singes on the rue Saint-Honoré, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard an affluent area of Paris. It is likely[citation needed] that his education commenced with studies in a Parisian elementary school; this was followed with his enrollment in the prestigious Jesuit Collège de Clermont, where he completed his studies in a strict academic environment. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In 1631, Jean Poquelin purchased from the court of Louis XIII the posts of "valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi" ("valet of the King's chamber and keeper of carpets and upholstery"). His son assumed the same posts in 1641.[5] The title required only three months' work and an initial cost of 1,200 livres; TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard the title paid 300 livres a year and provided a number of lucrative contracts. Poquelin also studied as a provincial lawyer some time around 1642, probably in Orléans, but it is not documented that he ever qualified. So far he had followed his father's plans, which had served him well; he had mingled with nobility at the Collège de Clermont and seemed destined for a career in office. HP G62-b25SA Laptop Keyboard In June 1643, when Molière was 21, he decided to abandon his social class and pursue a career on the stage. Taking leave of his father, he joined the actress Madeleine Béjart, with whom he had crossed paths before, and founded the Illustre Théâtre with 630 livres. They were later joined by Madeleine's brother and sister.  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The new theatre troupe went bankrupt in 1645. Molière had become head of the troupe, due in part, perhaps, to his acting prowess and his legal training. However, the troupe had acquired large debts, mostly for the rent of the theatre (a court for jeu de paume), for which they owed 2000 livres. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Historians differ as to whether his father or the lover of a member of his troupe paid his debts; either way, after a 24-hour stint in prison he returned to the acting circuit. It was at this time that he began to use the pseudonym Molière, possibly inspired by a small village of the same name in theMidi near Le Vigan.  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard It was also likely that he changed his name to spare his father the shame of having an actor in the family (actors, although no longer vilified by the state under Louis XIV, were still not allowed to be buried in sacred ground).  HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard After his imprisonment, he and Madeleine began a theatrical circuit of the provinces with a new theatre troupe; this life was to last about 12 years, during which he initially played in the company of Charles Dufresne, and subsequently created a company of his own, which had sufficient success and obtained the patronage of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans. Few plays survive from this period. TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S5805 Laptop Keyboard The most noteworthy are L'Étourdi, ou le Contretemps and Le Docteur amoureux; with these two plays, Molière moved away from the heavy influence of the Italian improvisational Commedia dell'arte, and displayed his talent for mockery. In the course of his travels he met Armand, Prince of Conti, SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P Laptop Keyboard the governor of Languedoc, who became his patron, and named his company after him. This friendship later ended when Conti, having contracted syphilis from a courtesan, attempted to cure himself by reconciling himself with religion. Conti's religious advisor counseled him against maintaining actors and encouraged him to join Molière's enemies in the Parti des Dévots and the Compagnie de Saint Sacrement. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard In Lyon, Mademoiselle Du Parc, known as Marquise, joined the company. Marquise was courted, in vain, by Pierre Corneille and later became the lover of Jean Racine. Racine offered Molière his tragedy Théagène et Chariclée (one of the first works he wrote after he had abandoned his theology studies), HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard but Molière would not perform it, though he encouraged Racine to pursue his artistic career. It is said that soon thereafter Molière became angry with Racine when he was told that he had secretly presented his tragedy to the company of the Hôtel de Bourgogne as well. IBM 39T0581 Laptop Keyboard Return to Paris Molière was forced to reach Paris in stages, staying outside for a few weeks in order to promote himself with society gentlemen and allow his reputation to feed in to Paris. Molière reached Paris in 1658 and performed in front of the King at the Louvre (then for rent as a theatre) in Corneille's tragedy Nicomède and in the farce Le Docteur amoureux (The Doctor in Love), ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard with some success. He was awarded the title of Troupe de Monsieur (Monsieur being the honorific for the king's brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans). With the help of Monsieur, his company was allowed to share the theatre in the large hall of the Petit-Bourbon with the famous Italian Commedia dell'arte company ofTiberio Fiorillo, ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop Keyboard famous for his character of Scaramouche. (The two companies performed in the theatre on different nights.) The premiere of Molière's Les Précieuses ridicules (The Affected Young Ladies) took place at the Petit-Bourbon on November 18, 1659.  DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard Les Précieuses ridicules was the first of Molière's many attempts to satirize certain societal mannerisms and affectations then common in France. It is widely accepted that the plot was based on Samuel Chappuzeau's Le Cercle des femmes of 1656. He primarily mocks the Académie Française, a group created by Richelieu under a royal patent to establish the rules of the fledgling French theater.  Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard The Académie preached unity of time, action, and styles of verse. Molière is often associated with the claim that comedy castigat ridendo mores or "criticises customs through humour," a phrase in fact coined by his contemporary Jean de Santeuil and sometimes mistaken for a classical Latin proverb. SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard

eight of fame

Despite his own preference for tragedy, which he had tried to further with the Illustre Théâtre, Molière became famous for his farces, which were generally in one act and performed after the tragedy. Some of these farces were only partly written, and were played in the style of Commedia dell'arte with improvisation over a canovaccio (a vague plot outline). HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop Keyboard He also wrote two comedies in verse, but these were less successful and are generally considered less significant. Later in life Molière concentrated on writing musical comedies, in which the drama is interrupted by songs and/or dances. DELL Inspiron M5030 Laptop Keyboard Les précieuses ridicules won Molière the attention and the criticism of many, but it was not a popular success. He then asked Fiorillo to teach him the techniques of Commedia dell'arte. His 1660 play Sganarelle, ou Le Cocu imaginaire (The Imaginary Cuckold) seems to be a tribute both to Commedia dell'arte and to his teacher. SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard Its theme of marital relationships dramatizes Molière's pessimistic views on the falsity inherent in human relationships. This view is also evident in his later works, and was a source of inspiration for many later authors, including (in a different field and with different effect) Luigi Pirandello. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard It describes a kind of round dance where two couples believe that each of their partners has been betrayed by the other's and is the first in Molière's 'Jealousy series' which includes Dom Garcie de NavarreL'École des maris and L'École des femmes.  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1660 the Petit-Bourbon was demolished to make way for the eastern expansion of the Louvre, but Molière's company was allowed to move into the abandoned theatre in the east wing of the Palais-Royal. After a period of refurbishment they opened there on January 20, 1661. In order to please his patron, Monsieur, who was so enthralled with entertainment and art that he was soon excluded from state affairs, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Molière wrote and played Dom Garcie de Navarre ou Le Prince jaloux (The Jealous Prince, 4 February 1661), a heroic comedy derived from a work of Cicognini's. Two other comedies of the same year were the successful L'École des maris (The School for Husbands) and Les Fâcheux, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard subtitled Comédie faite pour les divertissements du Roi (a comedy for the King's amusements) because it was performed during a series of parties that Nicolas Fouquet gave in honor of the sovereign. These entertainments led Jean-Baptiste Colbert to demand the arrest of Fouquet for wasting public money, and he was condemned to life imprisonment. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard On February 20, 1662, Molière married Armande Béjart, whom he believed to be the sister of Madeleine. She may have instead been her illegitimate daughter with the Duke of Modena. The same year he premiered L'École des femmes (The School for Wives), subsequently regarded as a masterpiece. It poked fun at the limited education that was given to daughters of rich familiesACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard , and reflected Molière's own marriage. Both this work and his marriage attracted much criticism. The play sparked the protest called the "Quarrel of L'École des femmes". On the artistic side he responded with two lesser-known works: La Critique de "L'École des femmes", in which he imagined the spectators of his previous work attending it. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard The piece mocks the people who had criticised L'École des femmes by showing them at dinner after watching the play; it addresses all the criticism raised about the piece by presenting the critics' arguments and then dismissing them. This was the so-called Guerre comique (War of Comedy), in which the opposite side was taken by writers like Donneau de Visé, Edmé Boursault, and Montfleury. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard But more serious opposition was brewing, focusing on Molière's politics and his personal life. A so-called parti des Dévots arose in French high society, who protested against Molière's excessive "realism" and irreverence, which were causing some embarrassment. These people accused Molière of having married his daughter. HP G62-a60EV Laptop Keyboard The Prince of Conti, once Molière's friend, joined them. Molière had other enemies, too, among them the Jansenists and some traditional authors. However, the king expressed his solidarity with the author, granting him a pension and agreeing to be the godfather of Molière's first son. Boileau also supported him through statements that he included in his Art poétique. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard Molière's friendship with Jean-Baptiste Lully influenced him towards writing his Le Mariage forcé and La Princesse d'Élide (subtitled as Comédie galante mêlée de musique et d'entrées de ballet), written for royal "divertissements" at the Palace of Versailles.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard Tartuffe, ou L'Imposteur was also performed at Versailles, in 1664, and created the greatest scandal of Molière's artistic career. Its depiction of the hypocrisy of the dominant classes was taken as an outrage and violently contested. It also aroused the wrath of the Jansenists and the play was banned.  HP G61-321NR Laptop Keyboard Molière was always careful not to attack the institution of monarchy. He earned a position as one of the king's favorites and enjoyed his protection from the attacks of the court. The king allegedly suggested that Molière suspend performances of Tartuffe, and the author rapidly wrote Dom Juan ou le Festin de Pierreto replace it. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard It was a strange work, derived from a work by Tirso de Molina and rendered in a prose that still seems modern today. It describes the story of an atheist who becomes a religious hypocrite and for this is punished by God. This work too was quickly suspended. The king, demonstrating his protection once again, became the new official sponsor of Molière's troupe. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard With music by Lully, Molière presented L'Amour médecin (Love Doctor or Medical Love). Subtitles on this occasion reported that the work was given "par ordre du Roi" (by order of the king), and this work was received much more warmly than its predecessors. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard In 1666, Le Misanthrope was produced. It is now widely regarded as Molière's most refined masterpiece, the one with the highest moral content, but it was little appreciated at its time. It caused the "conversion" of Donneau de Visé, who became fond of his theatre. But it was a commercial flop, forcing Molière to immediately write Le médecin malgré lui (The Doctor Despite Himself), HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard a satire against the official sciences. This was a success despite a moral treatise by the Prince of Conti, criticizing the theater in general and Molière's in particular. In several of his plays, Molière depicted the physicians of his day as pompous individuals who speak (poor) Latin to impress others with false erudition, and know only clysters and bleedings as (ineffective) remedies. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard After the Mélicerte and the Pastorale comique, he tried again to perform a revised Tartuffe in 1667, this time with the name of Panulphe or L'Imposteur. As soon as the King left Paris for a tour, Lamoignon and the archbishop banned the play. The King finally imposed respect for Tartuffe a few years later, after he had gained more power over the clergy.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Molière, now ill, wrote less. Le Sicilien ou L'Amour peintre was written for festivities at the castle of Saint-Germain, and was followed in 1668 by Amphitryon, inspired both by Plautus' work of the same name and Jean Rotrou's successful reconfiguration of the drama. With some conjecture, Molière's play can be seen to allude to the love affairs of Louis XIV, then king of France. George Dandin, ou Le mari confondu (The Confounded Husband) was little appreciated, but success returned with L'Avare (The Miser), now very well known. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard With Lully he again used music for Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, for Les Amants magnifiques, and finally for Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (The Middle Class Gentleman), another of his masterpieces. It is claimed to be particularly directed against Colbert, the minister who had condemned his old patron Fouquet. The collaboration with Lully ended with a tragédie et balletPsyché, written in collaboration with Pierre Corneille and Philippe Quinault. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1672, Madeleine Béjart died, and Molière suffered from this loss and from the worsening of his own illness. Nevertheless, he wrote a successful Les Fourberies de Scapin (Scapin's Schemings), a farce and a comedy in five acts. His following play, La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas, is considered one of his lesser works.  HP QT6D Laptop Keyboard Les Femmes savantes (The Learned Ladies) of 1672 is considered one of Molière's masterpieces. It was born from the termination of the legal use of music in theater, since Lully had patented the opera in France (and taken most of the best available singers for his own performances), so Molière had to go back to his traditional genre. It was a great success, and it led to his last work, which is held in high esteem. SONY 148701322 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard In his 14 years in Paris, Molière single-handedly wrote 31 of the 85 plays performed on his stage while simultaneously holding his company together. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard Molière suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, possibly contracted when he was imprisoned for debt as a young man. One of the most famous moments in Molière's life was his last, which became legend: he collapsed on stage in a fit of coughing and haemorrhaging while performing in the last play he'd written, Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard which had lavish ballets performed to the music of Marc-Antoine Charpentier and which ironically was entitled Le Malade imaginaire (The Hypochondriac). Molière insisted on completing his performance. Afterwards he collapsed again with another, larger haemorrhage before being taken home, where he died a few hours later, SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard without receiving the last rites because two priests refused to visit him while a third arrived too late. The superstition that green brings bad luck to actors is said to originate from the colour of the clothing he was wearing at the time of his death.  SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard Under French law at the time, actors were not allowed to be buried in the sacred ground of a cemetery. However, Molière's widow, Armande, asked the King if her spouse could be granted a "normal" funeral at night. The King agreed and Molière's body was buried in the part of the cemetery reserved for unbaptised infants. HP Pavilion ze5375us Laptop Keyboard In 1792 his remains were brought to the museum of French monuments and in 1817 transferred to Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, close to those of La Fontaine. Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Reception of his works

Though conventional thinkers, religious leaders, and medical professionals in Molière's time criticized his work, their ideas did not really impact his widespread success with the public. Other playwrights and companies began to emulate his dramatic style in England and in France. Molière's works continued to garner positive feedback in 18th century England, HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard but they were not so warmly welcomed in France at this time. However, during the French Restoration of the 19th century, Molière's comedies became popular with both the French public and the critics. Romanticists admired his plays for the unconventional individualism they portrayed. 20th century scholars have carried on this interest in Molière TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5132 Laptop Keyboard and his plays and have continued to study a wide array of issues relating to this playwright. Many critics now are shifting their attention from the philosophical, religious, and moral implications in his comedies to the more objective study of his comic technique.[6]SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Molière's works were translated into English prose by John Ozell in 1714,[7] but the first complete version in English, by Baker and Miller in 1739, remained "influential" and was long reprinted.[8] The first to offer full translations of Molière's verse plays such as Tartuffe into English verse was Curtis Hidden Page, ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard who produced blank verse versions of three of the plays in his 1908 translation.[9] Since then, notable translations have been made by Richard Wilbur,Donald M. Frame, and many others.  HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard In his memoir A Terrible Liar, actor Hume Cronyn writes that, in 1962, celebrated actor Laurence Olivier criticized Molière in a conversation with him. According to Cronyn, he mentioned to Olivier that he (Cronyn) was about to play the title role in The Miser, and that Olivier then responded, "Molière? Funny as a baby's open grave." Cronyn comments on the incident: "You may imagine how that made me feel. Fortunately, he was dead wrong."[10]Compaq Presario CQ56-105TU Laptop Keyboard Author Martha Bellinger points out that Molière "has been accused of not having a consistent, organic style, of using faulty grammar, of mixing his metaphors, and of using unnecessary words for the purpose of filling out his lines. All these things are occasionally true, but they are trifles in comparison to the wealth of character he portrayed, to his brilliancy of wit, TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard and to the resourcefulness of his technique. He was wary of sensibility or pathos; but in place of pathos he had "melancholy -- a puissant and searching melancholy, which strangely sustains his inexhaustible mirth and his triumphant gaiety"[11]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-307EA Laptop Keyboard Portrayals of Molière Russian writer Mikhail Bulgakov wrote a semi-fictitious biography-tribute to Molière, titled "Life of Mr. de Molière". Written 1932-1933, first published 1962. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard In the 2000 film Le Roi Danse (The King Dances), Molière is played by Tchéky Karyo, and shows his collaborations with Jean-Baptiste Lully, as well as his illness and on-stage death.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The French 1978 film titled Molière directed by Ariane Mnouchkine, presents his complete biography. It was in competition for the Palme d'Or at Cannes in 1978.[12]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard The 2007 French film Molière was more loosely based on the life of Molière, starring Romain Duris, Fabrice Luchini and Ludivine Sagnier.[13]The Miser is a comedy of manners about a rich moneylender named Harpagon. His feisty children long to escape from his penny-pinching household and marry their respective lovers. Although the 17th-century French upper classes presumably objected to the play's message, it is less savage and somewhat less realistic than Molière's earlier play, Tartuffe, which attracted a storm of criticism on its first performance. HP G72-b15SA Laptop Keyboard The play is also notable for the way in which it sends up certain theatrical conventions. Many comedies from the Elizabethan period and onwards contain asideswhich are delivered by characters to the audience and which the other actors ignore. In L'Avare, however, characters generally demand to know who exactly these asides are being delivered to. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard The play's ending is also self-consciously ridiculous, mocking the French idea of comedy to better the comical effect of the play and its parts, while still taking in hand the tragedy of Harpagon and his life. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard The Misanthrope (French: Le Misanthrope ou l'Atrabilaire amoureux) is a 17th-century comedy of manners in verse written by Molière. It was first performed on 4 June 1666 at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal, Paris by the King's Players.[1]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The play satirizes the hypocrisies of French aristocratic society, but it also engages a more serious tone when pointing out the flaws which all humans possess. The play differs from other farces at the time by employing dynamic characters like Alceste and Célimène as opposed to the traditionally flat characters used by most satirists to criticize problems in society. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard It also differs from most of Molière's other works by focusing more on character development and nuances than on plot progression. The play, though not a commercial success in its time, survives as Molière's best known work today. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard Because both Tartuffe and Dom Juan, two of Molière's previous plays, had already been banned by the French government, Molière may have subdued his actual ideas to make his play more socially acceptable. As a result, there is much uncertainty about whether the main character Alceste is supposed to be perceived as a hero for his strong standards of honesty or whether he is supposed to be perceived as a fool for having such idealistic and unrealistic views about society. Molière has received much criticism for The Misanthrope. ASUS X53S  Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, claimed (in his Letter to M. D'Alembert on Spectacles) that it was Molière's best work but hated the fact that Alceste was depicted as a fool on stage. He believed that the audience should be supporting Alceste and his views about society rather than disregarding his idealistic notions and belittling him as a character. SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU  Keyboard  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard Much to the horror of his friends and companions, Alceste rejects the notion la politesse, or the social conventions of the seventeenth century French salon. His refusal to "make nice" makes him tremendously unpopular and he laments his isolation in a world he sees as superficial and base, saying early in Act I, "… Mankind has grown so base, / I mean to break with the whole human race.” TOSHIBA Satellite A305  Keyboard SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard Despite his convictions, however, Alceste cannot help but love the flighty and vivacious Célimène, a consummate flirt whose wit and frivolity epitomize the courtly manners that Alceste despises. Though he constantly reprimands her, Célimène refuses change, charging Alceste with being unfit for society. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard Despite his sour reputation, "the misanthrope," Alceste, does have women pining for him, in particular the moralistic Arsinoé and the honest Eliante. Though he acknowledges their superior virtues, his heart still lies with Célimène. His deep feelings for her primarily serve to counter his negative expressions about mankind, since the fact that he has such feelings includes him amongst those he so fiercely criticizes. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M  Keyboard When Alceste insults a sonnet written by the powerful noble, Oronte, he is called to stand trial. Refusing to dole out false compliments, he is charged and humiliated, and resolves on self-imposed exile. HP 599572-001  Keyboard His friends forsake him and upon meeting them, he discovers that Célimène has been leading him on. She has written identical love letters to numerous suitors, and broken her vow to favor him above all others. He gives her an ultimatum. He will forgive her and marry her if she runs away with him to exile. Célimène refuses, SONY VAIO VGN-FW160D  Keyboard believing herself too young and beautiful to leave society and all her suitors behind. Philinte, for his part, becomes betrothed to Eliante. Alceste then decides to exile himself from society, and the play ends with Philinte and Eliante running off to convince him to return. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M  Keyboard Modern adaptations of the play have been written by Tony Harrison and Liz Lochhead. Lochhead's version is set in the early years of the Scottish Parliament and satirises Scottish Labour's relationship with the media. The Grouch, a more modern verse version of The Misanthrope by Ranjit Bolt was first performed at West Yorkshire Playhouse in February 2008. It is set in contemporary London, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard and most of the characters' names are recognisably linked to Molière's: in the sequence of the above cast list they are Alan, Celia, Phil, Eileen, Orville, Fay (Arsinoe), Lord Arne, Chris, and manservant Bates. Martin Crimp's adaptation, starringDamian Lewis and Keira Knightley, opened at the Comedy Theatre, London in December 2009.  SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King (French: le Roi-Soleil), was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre.[1] He holds the distinction of being the longest-reigning king in European history, reigning for 72 years and 110 days.[2]Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU  Keyboard Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661 after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[3] An adherent of the theory of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin and lack of temporal restraint of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital.  SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronderebellion during Louis's minority. By these means he consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured from 1661 until the French Revolution. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard During Louis's reign France was the leading European power and fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession, as well as two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, HP Envy 15  Keyboard military and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Colbert, Turenne and Vauban, as well as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Le Brun, Rigaud,Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles and Claude Perrault, and Le Nôtre. COMPAQ 367777-001  Keyboard Upon his death just days before his seventy-seventh birthday, Louis was succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson,Louis XV. All his intermediate heirs—his son Louis, le Grand Dauphin; the Dauphin's eldest son Louis, duc de Bourgogne; and Bourgogne's eldest son and his second eldest son, Louis, duc de Bretagne (the older brothers of the future Louis XV)—predeceased him. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. His parents had been married for 23 years at the time of his birth. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift, and his birth, a miracle of God. He was often referred to as "Louis-Dieudonné" (Louis-God-given)[4] and also bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin.[5]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Keyboard Recognising that his death was imminent, Louis XIII, in 1643, prepared for his son's impending minority rule. He decreed that a regency council should rule on Louis's behalf for the duration of the minority. Contrary to custom, he did not make Anne the sole regent even if she gave birth to Louis and his brother Philippe because he was unsure of her political abilities. DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard He, however, made her the head of the Council. When Louis XIII lay on his deathbed the queen brought Louis (who was not yet five years old) to see the king. The young Louis could already grasp the reality of the situation because when his father asked his son if he knew who he was, the young Louis answered, "Louis the Fourteenth, Father." To which his father responded, "You are not Louis the Fourteenth, yet." DELL Latitude D830  Keyboard Louis XIV shared a very affectionate relationship with his mother, Anne, which was uncommon at the time. Sources, such as contemporaries and the Queen's attendants, stated that the Queen would spend almost all of her time with her son. Their shared interests revolved around food and theatre. The Queen was a food lover and passed that love on to Louis. TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard Theatre was something Louis was immersed in because his mother held such a passion for it. Their loving relationship was long-lasting and can be seen in excerpts of journal entries kept by Louis XIV: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. But attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood."[6]HP 597635-001  Keyboard

Minority and the Fronde

Subsequently, in 1648, Mazarin successfully negotiated the Peace of Westphalia. Although war continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War in Germany. Its terms ensured Dutch independence from Spain, TOSHIBA Satellite A300  Keyboard awarded some autonomy to the various German princes, and granted Sweden seats on theImperial Diet and territories to control the mouths of the Oder, Elbe and Weser. France, however, profited most from the settlement. Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace and acknowledged her de facto sovereignty over the Three Bishoprics. DELL OPYTVX  Keyboard Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves from Habsburg domination, petty German states sought French protection. This anticipated the formation of the 1658 League of the Rhine, leading to the further diminution of Imperial power. As the Thirty Years' War came to an end, a civil war—the Fronde—erupted in France. It effectively checked France's ability to exploit the Peace of Westphalia. Mazarin had largely pursued the policies of his predecessor, DELL Studio 1457  Keyboard Cardinal Richelieu, augmenting the Crown's power at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements. The Frondeurs, political heirs of a dissatisfied feudal aristocracy, sought to protect their traditional feudal privileges from an increasingly centralized royal government. Furthermore, HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx  Keyboard they believed their traditional influence and authority was being usurped by the recently ennobled bureaucrats (the Noblesse de Robe) who administered the Kingdom and on whom the Monarchy increasingly began to rely. This belief intensified their resentment. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S  Keyboard In 1648 Mazarin attempted to tax members of the Parlement de Paris. The members not only refused to comply, but also ordered all his earlier financial edicts burned. Buoyed by the victory of Louis, duc d’Enghien (later le Grand Condé) at Lens, Mazarin arrested certain members in a show of force. Paris erupted in rioting. HP 441426-001  Keyboard A mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased, and quietly departed. The threat to the royal family prompted Anne to flee Paris with the king and his courtiers. Shortly thereafter, the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia allowed Condé's army to return to aid Louis and his court. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M  Keyboard As this first Fronde (Fronde parlementaire, 1648–1649) ended, a second (Fronde des princes, 1650–1653) began. Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterised this second phase of upper-class insurrection. To the aristocracy, this rebellion represented a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion fromvassals to courtiers. HP 441316-001  Keyboard t was headed by the highest-ranking French nobles, among them Louis's uncle, Gaston, duc d'Orléans, and first cousin, la Grande Mademoiselle; more distantly related Princes of the Blood, like Condé, his brother, Conti, and their sister the duchesse de Longueville; dukes of legitimised royal descent, such as Henri, HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard duc de Longueville, and François, duc de Beaufort; and princes étrangers, such as Frédéric Maurice, duc de Bouillon, his brother, the famous Marshal of France, Turenne, and Marie de Rohan, duchesse de Chevreuse; and scions of France's oldest families, such as François, duc de La Rochefoucauld. HP Pavilion dv6000 Keyboard The Frondeurs claimed to act on Louis's behalf and in his real interest against his mother and Mazarin. However, Louis's coming-of-age and subsequent coronation deprived them of their pretext for revolt. Thus, the Fronde gradually lost steam and ended in 1653, when Mazarin returned triumphantly after having fled into exile on several occasions. SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Keyboard On Mazarin's death in 1661, Louis assumed personal control of the reins of government. He was able to utilize the widespread public yearning for law and order resulting from prolonged foreign war and domestic civil strife to further consolidate central political authority and reform at the expense of the feudal aristocracy. Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, Chateaubriand noted that "it is the voice of genius of all kinds which sounds from the tomb of Louis".[7]SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Keyboard Louis began his personal reign with administrative and fiscal reforms. In 1661, the treasury verged on bankruptcy. To rectify the situation, Louis chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert as Contrôleur général des Financesin 1665. However, Louis first had to eliminate Nicolas Fouquet, the Surintendant des Finances. Fouquet was charged with Embezzlement. The Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile. However, Louis commuted the sentence to life-imprisonment and also abolished Fouquet's post.  TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Keyboard Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not really very different from Mazarin before or Colbert after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis. He had, for example, built an opulent château at Vaux-le-Vicomte where he lavishly entertained a comparatively poorer Louis. He appeared eager to succeed Mazarin and Richelieu in assuming power and indiscreetly purchased and privately fortified Belle Île. These acts sealed his doom. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Keyboard Divested of Fouquet, Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation. The principal taxes included the aides and douanes (both customs duties), the gabelle (a tax on salt), and the taille (a tax on land). Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Colbert'smercantilist administration established new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and theManufacture des Gobelins, SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard a producer of tapestries. He invited manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe to France, such as Murano glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders. In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard Louis instituted reforms in military administration through Le Tellier and his son Louvois. They helped to curb the independent spirit of the nobility, imposing order on them at court and in the army. Gone were the days when generals protracted war at the frontiers while bickering over precedence and ignoring orders from the capital and the larger politico-diplomatic picture. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard The old military aristocracy (the Noblesse d'épée) ceased to have a monopoly over senior military positions and rank. Louvois in particular pledged himself to modernizing the army, re-organizing it into a professional, disciplined and well-trained force. He was devoted to the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and even tried to direct campaigns. DELL Latitude C510 Keyboard Legal matters did not escape Louis's attention, as is reflected in the numerous Grandes Ordonnances he enacted. Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many coutumes as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions—customary law in the northern pays de droit coutumier and Roman civil law in the southern pays de droit écrit.[8] HP G72-b01SA  Keyboard The 'Grande Ordonnance de Procédure Civile' of 1667, also known as Code Louis, was a comprehensive legal code attempting a uniform regulation of civil procedure throughout legally irregular France. It prescribed inter alia baptismal, marriage and death records in the state's registers, not the church's, and also strictly regulated the right of the Parlements to remonstrate.[9] HP G61 Keyboard Thinkpad T420 Keyboard The Code Louis played an important part in French legal history as the basis for the Code Napoléon, itself the origin of many modern legal codes. SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Keyboard One of Louis's more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of 1685, also known as Code Noir. Although it sanctioned slavery, it did attempt to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised.  HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard Patronage of the arts The Sun King generously supported the royal court and those who worked under him. He brought the Académie Française under his patronage, and became its "Protector". He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine and La Fontaine, whose works remain greatly influential to this day.  HP G62-b25ER Keyboard Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox andHyacinthe Rigaud whose works became famous throughout Europe. In music, composers and musicians such as Lully,Chambonnières and François Couperin thrived. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles. With the exception of the current Royal Chapel (built near the end of Louis's reign), the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May 1682.  HP G61  Keyboard Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries. At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat. For example, DELL Alienware M11x  Keyboard Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.[10] Alternatively, the Fronde allegedly caused Louis to hate Paris, which he abandoned for a country retreat. However, his many improvements, embellishments and developments of Paris, TOSHIBA NB200-10J  Keyboard such as the establishment of a police and street-lighting,[11] lend little credence to this theory. As further examples of his continued care for the capital, Louis constructed the Hôtel des Invalides—a military complex and home to this day for officers and soldiers rendered infirm either by injury or age. HP 519265-001  Keyboard While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, les Invalidespioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment. The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 also induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.[12]HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and many other royal residences. Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre. However, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris. Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of Perrault's elegant colonnade. ASUS F82Q  Keyboard With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given

over to the arts and the public.[13] During his visit from Rome, Bernini also executed a portrait bust of the king.  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard The death of Philip IV of Spain in 1665 precipitated the War of Devolution. In 1660 Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as part of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. The marriage treaty specified that Maria Theresa was to renounce all claims to Spanish territory for herself and all her descendants.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard However, Mazarin and Lionne made the renunciation conditional on the full payment of a Spanish dowry of 500,000 écus.[14] The dowry was never paid and would later play a part persuading Charles II of Spain to leave his empire to Philippe d'Anjou (later Philip V of Spain)—the grandson of Louis and Maria Theresa. ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry. Rather, Louis's pretext for war was the "devolution" of land. In Brabant, children of the first marriage traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents’ remarriages, HP Pavilion dv6-3130tx Keyboard and still inherited property. Louis's wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new King of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage. Thus, Brabant allegedly "devolved" on Maria Theresa. This excuse led to France's attack on the Spanish Netherlands. SONY 147977821  Keyboard Internal problems in the Dutch Republic aided Louis's designs. The most prominent politician in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary, feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange, specifically dispossession of his supreme power and the restoration of the House of Orange to the influence it had enjoyed before the death of William II, HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard Prince of Orange. The Dutch were thus initially more preoccupied with domestic affairs than the French advance into Spanish territory. Moreover, the French were nominally their allies against the English in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. Shocked by the rapidity of French successes and fearful of the future, HP Probook 4520S Keyboard the Dutch nonetheless turned on their nominal allies and made peace with England. Joined by Sweden, the English and Dutch formed a Triple Alliance in 1668. The threat of an escalation of the conflict and a secret treaty partitioning the Spanish succession with Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, induced Louis to make peace. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Keyboard The Triple Alliance did not last very long. In 1670 French gold bought the adherence of Charles II of England to the secretTreaty of Dover. France and England, along with certain Rhineland princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War. The rapid invasion and occupation of most of the Netherlands precipitated a coup that toppled De Witt and brought William III to power. SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Keyboard In 1674, when France lost the assistance of England, which sued for peace by the Treaty of Westminster, William III received the help of Spain, the Emperor Leopold I, and the rest of the Empire. Despite these diplomatic reverses, the French continued to triumph against overwhelming opposing forces. Within a few weeks, French forces led by Louis captured all of Spanish-heldFranche-Comté in 1674. HP Envy 15  Keyboard Despite being greatly outnumbered, Condé trounced William III's coalition army of Austrians, Spaniards and Dutchmen at the Battle of Seneffe, and prevented him from descending on Paris. Another outnumbered general, Turenne, conducted a daring and brilliant campaign in the winter of 1674–1675 against the Imperial armies under Raimondo Montecuccoli, TOSHIBA P205-S7469  Keyboard driving them back across the Rhine out of Alsace, which had been invaded. Through a series of feints, marches and counter-marches in 1678, Louis besieged and captured Ghent. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901  Keyboard By placing Louis in a military position far superior to his enemies, these victories brought the war to a speedy end. Six years of war had exhausted Europe, and peace negotiations were soon concluded in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen. Although Louis returned all Dutch territory he captured, he retained Franche-Comté and gained more land in the Spanish Netherlands. HP Mini 110-3135dx  Keyboard The conclusion of a general peace permitted Louis to intervene in the Scanian War in 1679 on behalf of his ally Sweden. He forced Brandenburg-Prussia to the peace table at the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and imposed peace on Denmark-Norway by the Treaty of Fontainebleau and the Peace of Lund. TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard、 The successful conclusion of the Treaty of Nijmegen enhanced French influence in Europe, but Louis was still not satisfied. In 1679 he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne, because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies. Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims, SONY VAIO PCG-792L  Keyboard Louis avoided using military force alone. Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom. Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously. Louis established the Chambres des Réunions to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard Cities and territories such as Luxembourg and Casale were prized for their strategic position on the frontier and access to important waterways. Louis also sought Strasbourg, an important strategic crossing on the Rhine through which various Imperial armies had invaded France. Although a part of Alsace, APPLE Macbook 13 Inch  Keyboard Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia. Following the determinations of the Chambres des Réunions, Louis seized these and other territories. Infuriated by his annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. HP Pavilion G7-1150US  Keyboard However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor (distracted by the Great Turkish War) abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally. By the Truce of Ratisbon in 1684, Spain was forced to acquiesce in French occupation of most of the conquered territories for 20 years. ACER Aspire 5810T  Keyboard This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli, two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves. Next, in 1684, a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars. TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002M  Keyboard Although the Genoese submitted and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained reputation for brutality and arrogance. European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades' effect (discussed below) led many states to abandon their alliance with France.[16]Accordingly, by the late 1680s, France became increasingly isolated in Europe. DELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard Non-European relations and the colonies French colonies multiplied in the Americas, Asia and Africa during Louis's reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America. Jolliet and Marquette discovered the Mississippi River in 1673. In 1682, Cavelier de La Salle followed the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the vast Mississippi basin in Louis's name, calling it Louisiane. French trading posts were also established in India at Chandernagore and Pondicherry, and in the Indian Ocean at Île Bourbon. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa  Keyboard Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. In 1669,Suleiman Aga led an Ottoman embassy, reviving the old Franco-Ottoman alliance.[17] DELL Vostro PP37L  Keyboard Then, in 1682, after the reception of the embassy of Mohammed Tenim in France,Moulay Ismail, Sultan of Morocco, allowed French consular and commercial establishments in his country.[18] Louis once again received a Moroccan ambassadorin 1699. He also received a Persian embassy led by Mohammed Reza Beg in 1715. HP G61-110SA  Keyboard From further afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in 1684, reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont. This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan superbly received at Versailles in 1686. Louis then sent another embassy in 1687 under Simon de la Loubère, SONY NSK-S8101  Keyboard and French influence grew at the Siamese court, which granted Mergui as a naval base to France. However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya, the execution of his pro-French minister Phaulkon and the Siege of Bangkok in 1688 ended this era of French influence.[19]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-112EM  Keyboard HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard France also attempted to actively participate in Jesuit missions to China. To break the Portuguese dominance there, Louis sent five Jesuit "mathematicians" (Fontaney, Bouvet, Gerbillon, Le Comte and Visdelou) to the court of the Kangxi Emperor in 1685.[20] Louis also received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung.[21] Furthermore, he had at his court a Chinese librarian and translator—Arcadio Huang.[22][23]SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard

Height of power

By the early 1680s Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world. Domestically, he successfully increased the Crown's influence and authority over the Church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.  HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard DELL Inspiron 6400  Keyboard Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism, which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assemblée du Clergé in November 1681. Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power. TOSHIBA PK13CW10100  Keyboard Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties. Although the King could make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France. Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration.[3]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160  Keyboard By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy. Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king.[24] However, the pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to their rank were only possible by waiting constantly on Louis.[10SONY VAIO VGN-NR21J/S  Keyboard ] For this purpose, an elaborate court ritual was created where the king became the centre of attention and was observed throughout the day by the public. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions. HP 576835-001  Keyboard Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.[24] Moreover, by entertaining, impressing and domesticating them with extravagant luxury and other distractions, Louis not only cultivated public opinion of him, but also ensured the aristocracy remained under his scrutiny. HP Envy 15  Keyboard This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power-bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.[25] TOSHIBA MP-09K53US6698  Keyboard Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy (the noblesse d'épée) into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power. In their place, Louis raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy (the noblesse de robe). He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than a grandee of ancient lineage with an entrenched influence.  HP 576835-001  Keyboard Explaining Louis's actions were his experiences during theFronde, when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king and even, for some, kinsman. This victory over the nobility may have then in fact ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the Revolution about a century later. HP Envy 15  Keyboard

Personal life

Having been married in 1660, Louis and Maria Theresa of Spain had six children. However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin, known as Monseigneur. Maria Theresa died in 1683, whereupon Louis remarked that she had caused him unease on no other occasion. HP 576835-001  Keyboard Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis did not remain faithful to Maria Theresa for long. He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial, among them Mademoiselle de La Vallière, Madame de Montespan, and Mademoiselle de Fontanges. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.  ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard Louis proved more faithful to his second wife, Madame de Maintenon. It is believed that they were married secretly on or around 10 October 1683 at Versailles.[26] This marriage, though never announced or publicly discussed, was an open secret and lasted until his death.[27]ACER Aspire 5930  Keyboard It has traditionally been suggested that Madame de Maintenon pushed Louis to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes, which had awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom, but this is now being questioned.[28] Louis himself saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. TOSHIBA Satellite L355  Keyboard After all, the Edict was Henry IV's pragmatic concession to end the longstanding Wars of Religion. Moreover, since the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability was cuius regio, eius religio— the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm.[29]HP 576835-001  Keyboard Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers,  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard and prohibited domestic Protestant migration. He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages where third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants and rewarded converts to Catholicism.[30] This discrimination did not encounter much Protestant resistance; and a steady conversion of Protestants occurred, especially among the noble elites.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300  Keyboard  HP pavilion DV7-1000  Keyboard HP 550  Keyboard

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