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29 juillet 2013 1 29 /07 /juillet /2013 11:23

More controversially, Mandela oversaw the formation of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate crimes committed under apartheid by both the government and the ANC, appointing Desmond Tutu as its chair. To prevent the creation of martyrs, Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/P Battery

the Commission granted individual amnesties in exchange for testimony of crimes committed during the apartheid era. Dedicated in February 1996, it held two years of hearings detailing rapes, torture, bombings, and assassinations, before issuing its final report in October 1998. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery

Both de Klerk and Mbeki appealed to have parts of the report suppressed, though only de Klerk's appeal was successful.[230] Mandela praised the Commission's work, stating that it "had helped us move away from the past to concentrate on the present and the future".Sony Vaio VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery

Mandela's administration inherited a country with a huge disparity in wealth and services between white and black communities. Of a population of 40 million, around 23 million lacked electricity or adequate sanitation, 12 million lacked clean water supplies, with 2 million children not in school and a third of the population illiterate. Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/W Battery

There was 33% unemployment, and just under half of the population lived below the poverty line.[232] Government financial reserves were nearly depleted, with a fifth of the national budget being spent on debt repayment, meaning that the extent of the promised Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) was scaled back, Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/T Battery

with none of the proposed nationalisation or job creation.[233] Instead, the government adopted liberal economic policies designed to promote foreign investment, adhering to the "Washington consensus" advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.[234] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

Under Mandela's presidency, welfare spending increased by 13% in 1996/97, 13% in 1997/98, and 7% in 1998/99.[235] The government introduced parity in grants for communities, including disability grants, child maintenance grants, and old-age pensions, which had previously been set at different levels for South Africa's different racial groups.[235] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery

In 1994, free healthcare was introduced for children under six and pregnant women, a provision extended to all those using primary level public sector health care services in 1996.[236] By the 1999 election, the ANC could boast that due to their policies, 3 million people were connected to telephone lines, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery

1.5 million children were brought into the education system, 500 clinics were upgraded or constructed, 2 million people were connected to the electricity grid, water access was extended to 3 million people, and 750,000 houses were constructed, housing nearly 3 million people.[237] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery

The Land Restitution Act of 1994 enabled people who had lost their property as a result of the Natives Land Act, 1913 to claim back their land, leading to the settlement of tens of thousands of land claims.[238] The Land Reform Act 3 of 1996 safeguarded the rights of labour tenants who live and grow crops or graze livestock on farms. Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery

This legislation ensured that such tenants could not be evicted without a court order or if they were over the age of sixty-five.[239] The Skills Development Act of 1998 provided for the establishment of mechanisms to finance and promote skills development at the workplace.[240] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/T Battery

The Labour Relations Act of 1995 promoted workplace democracy, orderly collective bargaining, and the effective resolution of labour disputes.[241] The Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997 improved enforcement mechanisms while extending a "floor" of rights to all workers,[241] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/Q Battery

while the Employment Equity Act of 1998 was passed to put an end to unfair discrimination and ensure the implementation of affirmative action in the workplace.[241]

Many domestic problems however remained. Critics like Edwin Cameron accused Mandela's government of doing little to stem the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country; Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11EN Battery

by 1999, 10% of South Africa's population were HIV positive. Mandela later admitted that he had personally neglected the issue, leaving it for Mbeki to deal with.[242] Mandela also received criticism for failing to sufficiently combat crime, South Africa having one of the world's highest crime rates; Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11XN Battery

this was a key reason cited by the 750,000 whites who emigrated in the late 1990s.[243] Mandela's administration was mired in corruption scandals, with Mandela being perceived as "soft" on corruption and greed.

Following the South African example, Mandela encouraged other nations to resolve conflicts through diplomacy and reconciliation.[246] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12EN Battery

 He echoed Mbeki's calls for an "African Renaissance", and was greatly concerned with issues on the continent; he took a soft diplomatic approach to removing Sani Abacha's military junta in Nigeria but later became a leading figure in calling for sanctions when Abacha's regime increased human rights violations.[247] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery

In 1996 he was appointed Chairman of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and initiated unsuccessful negotiations to end the First Congo War in Zaire.[248] In South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation, Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili after a disputed election prompted opposition uprisings.[249] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery

In September 1998, Mandela was appointed Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement, who held their annual conference in Durban. He used the event to criticise the "narrow, chauvinistic interests" of the Israeli government in stalling negotiations to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21VN Battery

urged India and Pakistan to negotiate to end the Kashmir conflict, for which he was criticised by both Israel and India.[250] Inspired by the region's economic boom, Mandela sought greater economic relations with East Asia, in particular with Malaysia, although this was scuppered by the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[251] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21XN Battery

 He attracted controversy for his close relationship with Indonesian President Suharto, whose regime was responsible for mass human rights abuses, although privately urged him to withdraw from the occupation of East Timor.[252]

Mandela faced similar criticism from the west for his personal friendships with Fidel Castro and Muammar Gaddafi.Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31VT Battery

Castro visited in 1998, to widespread popular acclaim, while Mandela met Gaddafi in Libya to award him the Order of Good Hope.[253] When western governments and media criticised these visits, Mandela lambasted the criticisms as having racist undertones.Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31XT Battery

 Mandela hoped to resolve the long-running dispute between Libya and the US and Britain over bringing to trial the two Libyans, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, who were indicted in November 1991 and accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103. Mandela proposed that they be tried in a third country, Sony VAIO VPC-CW1S1E/B Battery

which was agreed to by all parties; governed by Scots law, the trial was held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands in April 1999, and found one of the two men guilty.

The new Constitution of South Africa was agreed upon by parliament in May 1996, enshrining a series of institutions to check political and administrative authority within a constitutional democracy.[256] Sony VAIO VPC-CW1S1E/L Battery

De Klerk however opposed the implementation of this constitution, withdrawing from the coalition government in protest.[257] The ANC took over the cabinet positions formerly held by the National Party, with Mbeki becoming sole Deputy President.[258] When both Mandela and Mbkei were out of the country in one occasion, Sony VAIO VPC-CW1S1E/R Battery

Buthelezi was appointed "Acting President", marking an improvement in his relationship with Mandela.[259]

Mandela stepped down as ANC President at the December 1997 conference, and although hoping that Ramaphosa would replace him, the ANC elected Mbeki to the position; Sony VAIO VPC-CW1S1E/W Battery

Mandela admitted that by then, Mbeki had become "de facto President of the country". Replacing Mbeki as Deputy President, Mandela and the Executive supported the candidacy of Jacob Zuma, a Zulu who had been imprisoned on Robben Island, but he was challenged by Winnie, whose populist rhetoric had gained her a strong following within the party; Sony Vaio VGN-NS38E/S Battery

Zuma defeated her in a landslide victory vote at the election.[260]

Mandela's relationship with Machel had intensified; in February 1998 he publicly stated that "I'm in love with a remarkable lady", and under pressure from his friend Desmond Tutu, Sony Vaio VGN-NS38M/W Battery

who urged him to set an example for young people, he set a wedding for his 80th birthday, in July.[261] The following day he held a grand party with many foreign dignitaries.[262] Mandela had never planned on standing for a second term in office, and gave his farewell speech on 29 March 1999, after which he retired. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery

Retiring in June 1999, Mandela sought a quiet family life, to be divided between Johannesburg and Qunu. He set about authoring a sequel to his first autobiography, to be titled The Presidential Years, but it was abandoned before publication.[264] Finding such seclusion difficult, he reverted to a busy public life with a daily programme of tasks, Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S/B Battery

meeting with world leaders and celebrities, and when in Johannesburg worked with the Nelson Mandela Foundation, founded in 1999 to focus on combating HIV/AIDS, rural development and school construction.[265] Although he had been heavily criticised for failing to do enough to fight the pandemic during his presidency, Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B Battery

he devoted much of his time to the issue following his retirement, describing it as "a war" that had killed more than "all previous wars", and urged Mbeki's government to ensure that HIV+ South Africans had access to retrovirals.[266] In 2000, the Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament was founded, Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZS/B Battery

hosted by Gary Player.[267] Mandela was successfully treated for prostate cancer in July 2001.In 2002, Mandela inaugurated the Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture, and in 2003 the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was created atRhodes House, University of Oxford, to provide postgraduate scholarships to African students. Sony Vaio VGN-AW41ZF/H Battery

These projects were followed by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and the 46664 campaign against HIV/AIDS.[269] He gave the closing address at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban in 2000,[270] and in 2004, spoke at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, Thailand.[271] Sony Vaio VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery

Publicly, Mandela became more vocal in criticising Western powers. He strongly opposed the 1999 NATO intervention in Kosovo and called it an attempt by the world's powerful nations to police the entire world.[272] In 2003 he spoke out against the plans for the US and UK to launch the War in Iraq, Sony Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H Battery

describing it as "a tragedy" and lambasting US President George W. Bush and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair for undermining the UN. He attacked the US more generally, asserting that it had committed more "unspeakable atrocities" across the world than any other nation, citing the atomic bombing of Japan; Sony Vaio VGN-AW41JF/H Battery

this attracted international controversy, although he would subsequently reconcile his relationship with Blair.[273] Retaining an interest in Libyan-UK relations, he visited Megrahi inBarlinnie prison, and spoke out against the conditions of his treatment, referring to them as "psychological persecution." Sony Vaio VGN-AW31M/H Battery

In June 2004, aged 85 and amid failing health, Mandela announced that he was "retiring from retirement" and retreating from public life, remarking "Don't call me, I will call you."[275] Although continuing to meet with close friends and family, the Foundation discouraged invitations for him to appear at public events and denied most interview requests.[276] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S Battery

He retained some involvement in international affairs. In 2005, he founded the Nelson Mandela Legacy Trust,[277] travelling to the U.S., to speak before the Brookings Institute and NAACP on the need for economic assistance to Africa.[277][278] He spoke with U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton and President George W. Bush and first met then-U.S. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M Battery

Senator Barack Obama.[278]Mandela also encouraged Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe to resign over growing human rights abuses in the country. When this proved ineffective, he spoke out publicly against Mugabe in 2007, asking him to step down "with residual respect and a modicum of dignity."[279] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11ZR/B Battery

That year, Mandela, Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders in Johannesburg to contribute their wisdom and independent leadership to some of the world's toughest problems. Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Elders, in a speech delivered on his 89th birthday. Sony Vaio VGN-AW11Z/B Battery

Mandela's 90th birthday was marked across the country on 18 July 2008, with the main celebrations held at Qunu,[281] and a concert in his honour in Hyde Park, London.[282] In a speech marking the event, Mandela called for the rich to help the poor across the world.[281] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery

Throughout Mbeki's presidency, Mandela continued to support the ANC, although usually overshadowed Mbeki at any public events that the two attended. Mandela was more at ease with Mbeki's successor Jacob Zuma, although the Nelson Mandela Foundation were upset when his grandson, Sony Vaio VGN-AW11SR/B Battery

 Mandla Mandela, flew him out to the Eastern Cape to attend a pro-Zuma rally in the midst of a storm in 2009.Since 2004, Mandela had successfully campaigned for South Africa to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup, declaring that there would be "few better gifts for us in the year" marking a decade since the fall of apartheid. Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery

Despite maintaining a low-profile during the event, Mandela made a rare public appearance during the closing ceremony, where he received a "rapturous reception".[284] Between 2005 and 2013, Mandela, and later his family, were embroiled in a series of legal disputes regarding money held in family trusts for the benefit of his descendants.[285] Sony Vaio VGN-NS38E/S Battery

In mid-2013, as Mandela was hospitalised for a lung infection in Pretoria, his descendants were involved in intra-family legal dispute relating to the burial place of Mandela's deceased children, and ultimately Mandela himself.

In February 2011, he was briefly hospitalised with a respiratory infection, attracting international attention,[289] Sony Vaio VGN-NS12M/S Battery

 before being re-hospitalised for a lung infection and gallstone removal in December 2012.[290] After a successful medical procedure in early March 2013,[291] his lung infection reoccurred, and he was briefly hospitalised in Pretoria.[292] On 8 June 2013, his lung infection worsened, and he was rehospitalised in Pretoria in a serious condition.[293] Sony Vaio VGN-NS12M/W Battery

After four days, it was reported that he had stabilised and remained in a "serious, but stable condition".[294] En route to the hospital, his ambulance broke down and was stranded on the roadside for 40 minutes; the government was criticised for the incident, but Zuma countered that throughout, Mandela had "expert medical care."[295] Sony Vaio VGN-NS36E Battery

On 22 June 2013, CBS News stated that he had not opened his eyes in days and was unresponsive, and the family was discussing how much medical intervention should be given.[296] Former bodyguard Shaun van Heerden, described by CBS News as "Mandela's constant companion for the last 12 years", Sony Vaio VGN-NS10E/S Battery

had publicly asked the family to "set him free" a week prior.[297] On 23 June 2013, Zuma announced that Mandela's condition had become "critical".[Zuma, accompanied by the Deputy President of the ANC, Cyril Ramaphosa, met Mandela's wife Graça Machel at the hospital in Pretoria and discussed his condition.[301] Sony Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery

On 25 June Cape Town Archbishop Thabo Makgoba visited Mandela at the hospital and prayed with Graça Machel Mandela "at this hard time of watching and waiting".[302] The next day, Zuma visited Mandela in the hospital and canceled a visit scheduled for the next day to Mozambique.[303] Sony Vaio VGN-NS11J/S Battery

A relative of Mandela told The Daily Telegraph newspaper he is on life support.[304] On 4 July, it was reportedly claimed in court papers that Mandela was in a permanent vegetative state and life support should be shut off.[305][306] However, the South African Presidency later stated that, according to the doctors treating him, Mandela was not in a vegetative state.[ Sony Vaio VGN-NS20E/P Battery

On 10 July, Zuma's office announced that Mandela remained in critical but stable condition, and was responding to treatment.[309]

On 18 July 2013, Mandela spent his 95th birthday in hospital in Pretoria.

Across the world, Mandela came to be seen as "a moral authority" with a great "concern for truth".[311] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20J/P Battery

Considered friendly and welcoming, Mandela exhibited a "relaxed charm" when talking to others, including his opponents.[312] Although often befriending millionaires and dignitaries, he enjoyed talking with their staff when at official functions.[313] In later life, he was known for looking for the best in everyone, Sony Vaio VGN-NS20M/S Battery

even defending political opponents to his allies, though some thought him too trusting of others.[314] He was renowned for his stubbornness and loyalty,[315] and exhibited a "hot temper" which could flare up in anger in certain situations, also being "moody and dejected" away from the public eye.[316] He also had a mischievous sense of humour.[317] Sony Vaio VGN-NS30E/S Battery

Very conscious of his image, throughout his life he sought fine quality clothes, carrying himself in a "regal style" stemming from his childhood in the Thembu royal house, and during his presidency was often compared to a constitutional monarch.[318] Considered a "master of imagery and performance", Sony Vaio VGN-NS30Z/S Battery

he excelled at presenting himself well in press photographs and producing soundbites.

Mandela was an African nationalist, an ideological position he held since joining the ANC,[320] also being "a democrat, and a socialist".[321] Although he presented himself in an autocratic manner in several speeches, Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/P Battery

Mandela was a devout believer in democracy and would abide by majority decisions even when deeply disagreeing with them.[322] He held a conviction that "inclusivity, accountability and freedom of speech" were the fundamentals of democracy,[323] and was driven by a belief innatural and human rights.[324] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/S Battery

A democratic socialist, Mandela was "openly opposed to capitalism, private land-ownership and the power of big money".[325]Influenced by Marxism, during the revolution Mandela advocated scientific socialism,[326] although he denied being a communist during the Treason Trial.[327] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/W Battery

Biographer David James Smith thought this untrue, stating that Mandela "embraced communism and communists" in the late 1950s and early 1960s, though was a "fellow traveller" rather than a party member.[328]In the 1955 Freedom Charter, which Mandela had helped create, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

it called for the nationalisation of banks, gold mines, and land, believing it necessary to ensure equal distribution of wealth.[329] Despite these beliefs, Mandela nationalised nothing during his presidency, fearing that this would scare away foreign investors. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery

This decision was in part influenced by the fall of the socialist states in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc during the early 1990s.

Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children, has 17 grandchildren,[331] and a growing number of great-grandchildren.[332] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery

 He could be stern and demanding of his children, although was more affectionate with his grandchildren.[333]

Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase, who was also from the Transkei, although they met in Johannesburg before being married in October 1944.[54] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery

The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years, divorcing under the multiple strains of his adultery and constant absences, devotion to revolutionary agitation, and the fact that she was a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses, a religion requiring political neutrality.[86] Sony Vaio VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

The couple had two sons, Madiba "Thembi" Thembekile (1946–1969) and Makgatho Mandela (1950–2005), and two daughters, both named Makaziwe Mandela (known as Maki; born 1947 and 1953). Their first daughter died aged nine months, and they named their second daughter in her honour.[Sony VPCCW1S1R Battery

Mase died in 2004, and Mandela attended her funeral.[334] Makgatho's son, Mandla Mandela, became chief of the Mvezo tribal council in 2007.[335]

Mandela's second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, also came from the Transkei area, although they, too, met in Johannesburg, where she was the city's first black social worker.[336] Sony VPCCW1S1T Battery

They had two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), born 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi) Mandela-Hlongwane, born 1960.[336] Zindzi was only 18 months old when her father was sent to Robben island. Later, Winnie would be deeply torn by family discord which mirrored the country's political strife; Sony VPCCW1S1T/R Battery

whilearation (April 1992) and divorce (March 1996), fueled by political estrangement.[337] Mandela was still in prison when his daughter Zenani was married in 1973 to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini, a brother of both King Mswati III of Swaziland[338] and of Queen Mantfombi of the Zulus.[339] Sony VPCCW1S1T/W Battery

Although she had vivid memories of her father, from the age of four up until sixteen, South African authorities did not permit her to visit him.[340] In July 2012, Zenani was appointed ambassador to Argentina, becoming the first of Mandela's three remaining children to enter public life.[341] Sony VPCCW1Z4E Battery

Mandela remarried on his 80th birthday in 1998, to his third wife, Graça Machel (née Simbine), widow of Samora Machel, the former Mozambican president and ANC ally who was killed in an air crash 12 years earlier.

Within South Africa, Mandela is widely considered to be "the father of the nation",[345] Sony VPCCW12EN/BU Battery

 and "the founding father of democracy",[346] being seen as "the national liberator, the saviour, its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one".[347] In 2004, Johannesburg granted Mandela the freedom of the city,[348] and the Sandton Square shopping centre was renamed Nelson Mandela Square, after a Mandela statue was installed there.[349] Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E Battery

In 2008, another Mandela statue was unveiled at GrootDrakenstein Correctional Centre, formerly Victor Verster Prison, near Cape Town, standing on the spot where Mandela was released from the prison.[350]

He has also received international acclaim. In 1993, he received the joint Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk.[351] Sony VAIO VGN-FW139N Battery

In November 2009, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed Mandela's birthday, 18 July, as "Mandela Day", marking his contribution to the anti-apartheid struggle. It called on individuals to donate 67 minutes to doing something for others, commemorating the 67 years that Mandela had been a part of the movement.[352] Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery

Awarded the US Presidential Medal of Freedom,[353] and the Order of Canada,[354] he was the first living person to be made anhonorary Canadian citizen.[355] The last reciprocent of the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union,[356] and first reciprocent of the Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights,[357] Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery

 in 1990 he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India,[358] and in 1992 received Pakistan's Nishan-e-Pakistan.[359] In 1992 he was awarded the Atatürk Peace Award by Turkey. He refused the award, citing human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time,[360] but later accepted the award in 1999.[356] Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery

Elizabeth II awarded him the Bailiff Grand Cross of the Order of St. John and the Order of Merit.

Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. One of the most popular was from The Special AKA who recorded the song "Free Nelson Mandela" in 1983, which Elvis Costello also recorded and had a hit with. Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery

Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song "I Just Called to Say I Love You" to Mandela, resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.[362] In 1985, Youssou N'Dour's album Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artist's first US release. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190E Battery

Other artists who released songs or videos honouring Mandela include Johnny Clegg,[363] Hugh Masekela,[364] Brenda Fassie,[365] Beyond,[366]Nickelback,[367] Raffi,[368] and Ampie du Preez and AB de Villiers.

Mandela has been depicted in cinema and television on multiple occasions. Sony VAIO VPCS11B7E Battery

The 1997 film Mandela and de Klerk starred Sidney Poitier as Mandela,[370] while Dennis Haysbert played him in Goodbye Bafana (2007).[371] In the 2009 BBC television film Mrs Mandela, Nelson Mandela was portrayed by David Harewood,[372] and Morgan Freeman portrayed him in Invictus (2009). Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11M9R/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery

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