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19 juillet 2013 5 19 /07 /juillet /2013 09:48

Morocco

 is the most westerly of the North African countries. It is one of three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines, and it also has a rugged mountain interior. The Arabic name al-Mamlakat al-Maghribiyyah (Arabic: المملكة المغربية‎), which translates to "The Western Kingdom", and Al-Maghrib (Arabic: المغرب‎), or Maghreb, meaning "The West", are commonly used as alternate names. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

Morocco has a population of over 32 million and an area of 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi). The political capital isRabat, although the largest city is Casablanca; other major cities include Marrakech, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, and Nador. Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Its rich culture is a blend of Arab, Berber (indigenous African) and also other African and European influences. HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

Morocco claims the non-self governing territory of the Western Sahara as the "Southern Provinces". Morocco annexed the territory in 1975 and a guerrilla war with indigenous forces was brought to a cease-fire in 1991. U.N. efforts have failed to break the political deadlock. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, including the power to dissolve the parliament. Executive power is exercised by the governmentbut the king's decisions usually override those of the government if there is a contradiction. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can also issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The main religion is Islam. The official language is Literary Arabic. Moroccan Arabic referred to as Dareja, Berber and French are also spoken.

The full Arabic name al-Mamlakat al-Maghribiyyah (المملكة المغربية) translates to "The Western Kingdom". Al-Maghrib(المغرب), meaning "The West", HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

is commonly used. For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá (المغرب الأقصى, "The Farthest West") to distinguish it from neighboring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ (المغرب الأوسط, "The Middle West", Algeria) and al-Maghrib al-Adná (المغرب الأدنى, "The Nearest West", Tunisia).[9]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The English name "Morocco" originates from Spanish "Marruecos" or the Portuguese "Marrocos", from medieval Latin"Morroch", which referred to the name of the former Almoravid and Almohad capital, Marrakech.[10] In Persian Morocco is still called "Marrakech". Until recent decades, Morocco was called "Marrakech" in Middle Eastern Arabic. In Turkish, Morocco is called "Fas" which comes from the ancient Idrisid and Marinid capital, Fez. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, at least since 200,000 BCE.[citation needed] During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling asavanna more than today's arid landscape.[11] 22,000 years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusianculture, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between theIberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains. The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by theBeaker culture in Morocco. ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

Studies have discovered a close link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia which confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age.[12] HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard

North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterraneanworld by the Phoenicians who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah,Lixus and Mogador,[13] with Mogador being a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC.[14][page needed] HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard

Morocco later became part of a North African empire head-quartered in Carthage. The earliest known independent Moroccan state was the Berber kingdom of Mauretania under king Bocchus I. This kingdom in northern Morocco, not to be confused with the present state of Mauritania, dates at least to 110 BCE.[15] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

From the 1st century BCE the region was part of the Roman Empire as Mauretania Tingitana. Christianity was introduced in the 2nd century CE and gained converts in the Roman towns, among slaves and some Berber farmers. TOSHIBA PK13CW10200 laptop keyboard

In the 5th century CE, as the Roman Empire declined, the region was invaded from the north first by the Vandals and then by the Visigoths. In the 6th century CE, northern Morocco became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire. Throughout this time, however, the Berber inhabitants in the high mountains of the interior of Morocco remained unsubdued. HP Pavilion dv6-2143ez laptop keyboard

In 670 CE, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus. TheUmayyad Muslims brought their language, their system of government, and Islam to Morocco. Many of the Berbers slowly converted to Islam, mostly after Arab rule had receded. SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

The first independent Muslim state in the area of modern Morocco, was the Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif Mountains. It was founded bySalih I ibn Mansur in 710, as a client state to the Rashidun Caliphate. HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

According to medieval legend, Idris ibn Abdallah had fled to Morocco after the Abbasids' massacre of his tribe in Iraq. He convinced the Awraba Berber tribes to break their allegiance to the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and he founded the Idrisid Dynasty in 788. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and a major regional power. DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 laptop keyboard

The Idrissids were ousted in 927 by the Fatimid Caliphate and their Miknasa allies. After Miknasa broke off relations with the Fatimids in 932, they were removed from power by the Maghrawa of Sijilmasa in 980. SONY VAIO VGN-CR12GH laptop keyboard

From the 11th century onwards, a series of powerful Berber[16][17][18] dynasties arose. Under the Almoravid dynasty [19] and the Almohad dynasty, Morocco dominated the Maghreb, much of present-day Spain and Portugal,  Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

and the western Mediterranean region. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Merinids held power in Morocco and strove to replicate the successes of theAlmohads by military campaigns in Algeria and Spain. They were followed by the Wattasids. HP SG-46100-XUA laptop keyboard

In the 15th century, theReconquista ended Muslim rule in central and southern Spain and many Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco.[20] Portuguese efforts to control the Atlantic coast in the 15th century did not greatly affect the interior of Morocco. According to Elizabeth Allo Isichei, "In 1520, Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

there was a famine in Morocco so terrible that for a long time other events were dated by it. It has been suggested that the population of Morocco fell from 5 to under 3 million between the early sixteenth and nineteenth centuries."[21] HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

In 1549, the region fell to successive Arab dynasties claiming descent from the Islamic prophet, Muhammad: first the Saadi dynasty who ruled from 1549 to 1659, and then the Alaouite dynasty, who remained in power since the 17th century. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S6959 laptop keyboard

Under the Saadi Dynasty, the country repulsed Ottoman incursions and a Portuguese invasion at the battle of Ksar el Kebir in 1578. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and a large expedition to West Africa inflicted a crushing defeat on the Songhay Empire in 1591. However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur the country was divided among his sons.  HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard

In 1666 Morocco was reunited by the Alaouite Dynasty, who have been the ruling house of Morocco ever since. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire pressing westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

it remained quite wealthy. Against the opposition of local tribes Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727) began to create a unified state.[22] With his Jaysh d'Ahl al-Rif (the RiffianArmy) he seized Tangier from the English in 1684 and drove the Spanish from Larache in 1689. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

Morocco was the first nation to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777.[23] In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships in the Atlantic Ocean were subject to attack by the Barbary Pirates. On 20 December 1777, HP Mini 210-1095TU Laptop Keyboard

Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.[24][25] HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard

In 1904, France and Spain carved out zones of influence in Morocco. Recognition by theUnited Kingdom of France's sphere of influence provoked a strong reaction from the German Empire; and a crisis loomed in 1905. The matter was resolved at the Algeciras Conferencein 1906. The Agadir Crisis provoked by the Germans, HP Envy 15-1050es Laptop Keyboard

increased tensions between European powers. The 1912 Treaty of Fez made Morocco a protectorate of France. Spain continued to operate its coastal protectorate. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role ofprotecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones.[28]

Tens of thousands of colonists entered Morocco and bought up large amounts of the rich agricultural land. DELL E141395 Laptop Keyboard

Interest groups that formed among these elements continually pressured France to increase its control over Morocco. Many Moroccan soldiers (Goumieres) served in the French army in both World War Iand World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares). ACER Aspire 5613 Laptop Keyboard

From 1921–6 a Berber uprising in the Rif Mountains, led by Abd el-Krim, led to the establishment of the Republic of the Rif. The rebellion was suppressed by French and Spanish troops.

In 1943, the Istiqlal Party (Independence Party) was founded to press for independence. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa sparked active opposition to the French and Spanish protectorates. The most notable violence occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets.  HP Envy 15-1040er Laptop Keyboard

France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year.[29] In March 1956 the French protectorate was ended and Morocco regained its independence from France and Spain as the "Kingdom of Morocco". Spain kept its two coastal enclaves. Sultan Mohammed became king in 1957. SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

Upon the death of King Mohammed, Hassan II became King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. Morocco held its first general elections in 1963. However, Hassan declared a state of emergency and suspended parliament in 1965. In 1971, there was a failed attempt to depose the king and establish a republic. HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee laptop keyboard

A truth commission set up in 2005 to investigate human rights abuses during his reign confirmed nearly 10,000 cases, ranging from death in detention to forced exile. Some 592 people were recorded killed during Hassan's rule.[citation needed] SONY VAIO VGN-N37GH/B laptop keyboard

The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was returned to Morocco in 1969. The Polisario movement was formed in 1973, with the aim of establishing an independent state in the Spanish Sahara. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M laptop keyboard

On 6 November 1975 King Hassan asked for volunteers to cross into the Spanish Sahara. Some 350,000 civilians were reported as being involved in the "Green March".[30] A month later, Spain agreed to leave the Spanish Sahara, soon to become Western Sahara, and to transfer it to joint Moroccan-Mauritanian control, despite the objections and threats of military intervention by Algeria. Moroccan forces occupied the territory.[20]  HP Pavilion DV7-3100 laptop keyboard

Moroccan and Algerian troops soon clashed in Western Sahara. Morocco and Mauritania divided up Western Sahara. Fighting between the Moroccan military and Polisario forces continued for many years. The prolonged war was a considerable financial drain on Morocco.  ACER TravelMate 4650 Series laptop keyboard

In 1983, Hassan cancelled planned elections amid political unrest and economic crisis. In 1984, Morocco left the Organisation of African Unity in protest at the SADR's admission to the body. Polisario claimed to have killed more than 5,000 Moroccan soldiers between 1982 and 1985.

Diplomatic relations with Algeria were restored in 1988. SONY VAIO VGN-FS710/W laptop keyboard

In 1991, a U.N.-monitored ceasefire began in Western Sahara, but the territory's status remains undecided and ceasefire violations are reported. The following decade saw much wrangling over a proposed referendum on the future of the territory but the deadlock was not broken.  SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997 and Morocco's first opposition-led government came to power in 1998.  HP Pavilion tx2532la laptop keyboard King Hassan II died in 1999 and was succeeded by his son, Mohammed VI. He is a cautious modernizer who has introduced some economic and social liberalization.[31]

King Mohammed paid a controversial visit to the Western Sahara in 2002. Morocco unveiled an autonomy blueprint for Western Sahara to the United Nations in 2007. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

The Polisario rejected the plan and put forward its own proposal. Morocco and the Polisario Front held U.N.-sponsored talks in New York but failed to come to any agreement. In 2010, security forces stormed a protest camp in the Western Sahara, triggering violent demonstrations in the regional capital El Aaiún.  ACER Aspire 5742ZG Laptop Keyboard

In 2002, Morocco and Spain agreed to a US-brokered resolution over the disputed island of Perejil. Spanish troops had taken the normally uninhabited island after Moroccan soldiers landed on it and set up tents and a flag. There were renewed tensions in 2005 as hundreds of African migrants tried to storm the borders of the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. TOSHIBA V072426CS1 Laptop Keyboard

Morocco deported hundreds of the illegal migrants. In 2006 the Spanish Premier Zapatero visited Spanish enclaves. He was the first Spanish leader in 25 years to make an official visit to the territories. The following year, Spanish King Juan Carlos visited Ceuta and Melilla, further angering Morocco which demanded the return of the enclaves. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard

In February 2003, a Casablanca court jailed three Saudi members of al-Qaeda for 10 years after they were accused of plotting to attack US and British warships in the Straits of Gibraltar. Three months later, more than 40 people were killed in the 2003 Casablanca bombings, when suicide bombers attacked several sites in Casablanca, including a Spanish restaurant and Jewish community centre. HP Pavilion dv6-3020tu Laptop Keyboard

Those responsible were believed to be Salafiya Jihadiya adherents linked to the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group. One of those extremists was Nourredine Nafia, leader of the GICM (Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group), who was sentenced to 20 years in prison for his role in the attacks.

In the 2007 Casablanca bombings, HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard

three suspected suicide bombers blew themselves up, a few weeks after a suicide blast in an internet cafe that injured three. More than 40 people were given long prison sentences for this bombing. Two suicide bombers blew themselves up outside the US diplomatic offices in Casablanca. HP Pavilion dv2-1003ax Laptop Keyboard

In 2008, two Moroccan men, Abdelilah Ahriz and Hicham Ahmidan, were sentenced to 20 and 10 years in jail respectively in Morocco over the Madrid train bombingsof 2004. Islamist Saad Housseini was given 15-year sentence in 2009 over the 2003 Casablanca bombings. He was also wanted in Spain over the Madrid bombings. HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard

Soon after, the alleged al-Qaeda leader in Morocco, Belgian-Moroccan Abdelkader Belliraj, was imprisoned for life on being found guilty of leading an Islamist militant group and committing six murders in Belgium. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

In the April 2011 Marrakech bombing, 17 people, mainly foreigners, were killed in a bomb attack on a Marrakech cafe. The Maghreb arm of al-Qaeda denied involvement. A man was later sentenced to death for the bombing. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

In the 2011–2012 Moroccan protests, thousands of people rallied in Rabat and other cities calling for political reform and a new constitution curbing the powers of the king. In July 2011 the King won a landslide victory in a referendum on a reformed constitution he had proposed to placate the Arab Springprotests. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Demonstrators continued to call for deeper reforms. Tens of thousands took part in a trade union rally in Casablanca in May 2012. Participants accused the government of failing to deliver on reforms. HP Pavilion dv6-3020tu laptop keyboard

Morocco has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish-controlledexclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algeria to the east, and Western Sahara to the south. Since Morocco controls most of Western Sahara, its de facto southern boundary is with Mauritania. SONY VAIO VGN-FS760/W laptop keyboard

The internationally recognized borders of the country lie between latitudes 27° and 36°N, and longitudes 1° and 14°W. Adding Western Sahara, Morocco lies mostly between 21° and 36°N, and 1° and 17°W (the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula is slightly south of 21° and west of 17°). TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3001 laptop keyboard

The geography of Morocco spans from the Atlantic Ocean, to mountainous areas, to the Sahara desert. Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara.

A large part of Morocco is mountainous. HP Envy 15-1040er laptop keyboard

The Rif Mountains are located in the north of the country. Both ranges are mainly inhabited by the Berber people. At 446,550 km2 (172,414 sq mi), Morocco is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world (after Uzbekistan). Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

Spanish territory in North Africa neighbouring Morocco comprises five enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla,Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, the Chafarinas islands, and the disputed islet PerejilSONY VAIO VGN-CR220E laptop keyboard

Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. To the north, Morocco is bordered by the Strait of Gibraltar, where international shipping has unimpeded transit passage between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard

The Rif mountains stretch over the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the northeast to the south west. Most of the southeast portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically.  GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Laptop Keyboard

Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March).[32] Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces. HP G61-424CA Laptop Keyboard

Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Other cities include Agadir, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakesh, Meknes, Mohammadia,Oujda, Ouarzazat, Safi, Salé, Tangier and Tétouan. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA.[33] This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain, .ma.[33]

The climate is Mediterranean in the North and in some mountains (West of Atlas), which becomes more extreme towards the interior regions. GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

 The terrain is such that the coastal plains are rich and accordingly, they comprise the backbone foragriculture, especially in the North. Forests cover about 12% of the land while arable land accounts for 18%; 5% is irrigated. In the Atlas (Middle Atlas), TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 Laptop Keyboard

there are several different climates: Mediterranean (with some more humid and fresher variants), Maritime Temperate (with some humid and fresher variants too) that allow different species of oaks, moss carpets, junipers, atlantic cedars and many other plants, to form extensive and very rich humid cloud forests. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The climate changes when moving east of the Atlas mountains due to the barrier, or shelter, effect of the mountain system, becoming very dry and extremely warm during the long summer, especially on the lowlands and on the valleys facing the Sahara. The Sahara Desert begins here, and it is perfectly visible, for example, on the Draa Valley, where it is possible to find oases, sand dunes and rocky desert landscapes.  DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard

Morocco is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of amulti-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco and the Assembly of Councillors.

Following the March 1998 elections, HP Pavilion DV7-3069wm laptop keyboard

a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government was the first ever government drawn primarily from opposition parties, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialists, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election.[citation needed] The current government is headed by Abdelilah Benkirane. DELL Latitude E6400 laptop keyboard

The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary. With the 2011 constitutional reforms, the King of Morocco still retains few executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged. SONY VAIO VGN-N350N laptop keyboard

The constitution grants the king honorific powers; he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the Prime Minister from the political party that has won the most seats in the parliamentary elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. GATEWAY V030946FS1 US laptop keyboard

The previous constitution of 1996 theoretically allowed the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the military. DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis an-Nuwwâb/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five-year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. SONY Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H laptop keyboard

The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine-year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The Parliament's powers, though still relatively limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 and even further in the 2011 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence. HP Pavilion DV7t-2200 CTO laptop keyboard

The latest parliamentary elections were held on November 25, 2011, and were considered by some neutral observers to be mostly free and fair. Voter turnout in these elections was estimated to be 43% of registered voters.  SONY VAIO VGN-NW15L laptop keyboard

Compulsory military service in Morocco has been officially suppressed since September 2006, and the country’s reserve obligation lasts until age 50. The country’s military consists of the Royal Armed Forces—this includes the army (the largest branch) and a small navy and air force—the National Police Force, HP Pavilion DV7-2013tx laptop keyboard

the Royal Gendarmerie (mainly responsible for rural security), and the Auxiliary Forces. Internal security is generally effective, and acts of political violence are rare (with one exception, the 2003 Casablanca bombings which killed 45 people[37]). The U.N. maintains a small observer force in Western Sahara, where a large number of Morocco’s troops are stationed. TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 laptop keyboard

The Saharawi group Polisario maintains an active militia of an estimated 5,000 fighters in Western Sahara and has engaged in intermittent warfare with Moroccan forces since the 1980s.

Morocco remains the only African state not to be a member of the African Union due to its unilateral withdrawal on November 12, 1984 HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

over the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in 1982 by the African Union as a full member without the organization of a referendum of self-determination in the disputed territory of Western Sahara.

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These small enclaves on the Mediterranean coast are surrounded by Morocco and have been administered by Spain for centuries. Morocco has been given the status of non-Nato ally by Washington.

Because of the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of both regions of "Saguia el-Hamra" and "Río de Oro" is disputed. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

The Western Sahara War saw the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement Polisario Front battling Morocco and Mauritania from 1976 to 1991. There is a ceasefire in effect since 1991, and a U.N. mission (MINURSO) is tasked with organizing a referendum on whether the territory should become independent or recognized as a part of Morocco. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Part of the territory, the Free Zone, is a mostly uninhabited area controlled by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with Headquarters at Tindouf in Algeria. As of 2006, no U.N. member state has recognized Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara.[38] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

In 2006, the government of Morocco has suggested autonomous status for the region, through the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS). The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the United States, HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

France and Spain.[39] The Security Council has called upon the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.[40]

Morocco's economy is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4047 Laptop Keyboard

the country has followed a policy of privatization of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of thegovernment.[43]

Government reforms and steady yearly growth in the region of 4–5% from 2000 to 2007, DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

including 4.9% year-on-year growth in 2003–2007 helped the Moroccan economy to become much more robust compared to a few years ago. For 2012 the World Bank forecasts a rate of 4% growth for Morocco and 4.2% for following year, 2013.[44] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry, made up of mining, construction and manufacturing, is an additional quarter. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile. SONY VAIO VGN-FS115Z laptop keyboard

Agriculture accounts for only around 14% of GDP but employs 40–45% of the Moroccan working population. With a semi-arid climate and an ill-developed irrigation system, it is difficult to assure enough irrigation. Morocco’s economy depends heavily on the weather, a typical characteristic of third-world countries. HP Mini 110-3109sl laptop keyboard

The major resources of the Moroccan economy are agriculture, phosphates, and tourism. Sales of fish and seafood are important as well. Industry and mining contribute about one-third of the annual GDP. Morocco is the world's third-largest producer of phosphorus after China and the United States,[45] and the price fluctuations of phosphates on the international market greatly influence Morocco's economy.  HP Mini 210-2070sb laptop keyboard

Morocco suffers both from unemployment (9.6% in 2008), and a large external debt estimated at around $20 billion, or half of GDP in 2002.[46]

Although Morocco runs a structural trade deficit, this is typically offset by substantial services earnings from tourism and large remittance inflows from the diaspora, and the country normally runs a small current-account surplus.[47] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In 2008, about 56% of the electricity source of Morocco came from coal.[48] However, as forecasts indicate that energy requirements in Morocco will rise 6% per year between 2012 and 2050,[49] a new law passed encouraging Moroccans to look for ways to diversify the energy supply, including more renewable resources.  Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

The Moroccan government has launched a project to build a solar thermal energy power plant[50] and is also looking into the use of natural gas as a potential source of revenue for Morocco’s government.[49] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

Morocco has embarked upon the construction of large solar energy farms to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, and to eventually export electricity to Europe.[51]

Cannabis has been cultivated in the Rif Region since the 7th century.[52] According to the U.N. 2004 World Drugs Report,  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

cultivation and transformation of Cannabis represents 0.57% of the national GDP of Morocco in 2002.[53] According to a French Ministry of the Interior 2006 report, 80% of the cannabis resin (hashish) consumed in Europe comes from the Rif region in Morocco.[54] In addition to that, Morocco is a transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.[55] HP Pavilion dv6-3023sy laptop keyboard

There are around 56,986 km (35,409 mi) of roads (national, regional and provincial) in Morocco.[56] In addition to 610.5 km (379.3 mi) kilometre of highways.[57]

The Tangier-Casablanca high-speed rail link marks the first stage of the ONCF’s high-speed rail master plan, pursuant to which over 1,500 km (930 mi) ACER Travelmate 4670 laptop keyboard

of new railway lines will be built by 2035 The high speed train -TGV- will carry 8 million passengers per year. It will have a capacity of 500 passengers. The work in the High Speed Train project has started in September 2011[58] and the infrastructure works and railway equipment will end in 2014, and the HST will be operational in December 2015.[59] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460EB laptop keyboard

Most Moroccans are of mixed Arab-Berber, Arab, Berber and Niger-Congo ethnic background. Arabs and Berbers make up about 99.1% of the Moroccan population.[2]

Berbers are the indigenous people and still make up the bulk of the population (although largely Arabized). COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

A sizeable portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa (or Gnaoua), black or mixed race. Morocco's Jewish minority (265,000 in 1948) has decreased significantly and numbers about 5,500.[61] HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

Most of the 100,000[citation needed] foreign residents are French or Spanish. Some of them are colonists' descendants, who primarily work for European multinational companies, others are married to Moroccans and preferred to settle in Morocco. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million Europeans.[62] HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

The largest concentration of Moroccan migrants outside Morocco is in France, which has reportedly over one million Moroccans of up to the third generation. The Netherlands hosts about 360,000 ACER Aspire 1410-742G16n Laptop Keyboard

Moroccans and Belgium hosts about 300,000 Moroccans. There are also large Moroccan communities in Spain (about 700,000 Moroccans),[63] Italy, Israel, Canada and the United States.[64] Moroccan Jews are thought to constitute the second biggest Jewish ethnic subgroup in Israel.

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According to Jewish community leaders, there are an estimated 3,000 to 4,000 Jews, approximately 2,500 of whom reside in Casablanca and are the remnants of a much larger community that has mostly emigrated. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

The most recent estimates put the size of the Rabat and Marrakech Jewish communities at about 100 members each. The remainder of the Jewish population is dispersed throughout the country. This population is mostly elderly, with a decreasing number of young persons.[65] HP G62-147NR Laptop Keyboard

The predominantly Roman Catholic and Protestant foreign-resident Christian community consists of approximately 5,000 practicing members, although some Protestant and Catholic clergy estimate the number to be as high as 25,000. Most foreign resident Christians reside in the Casablanca, Tangier, and Rabat urban areas. DELL NSK-DG101 Laptop Keyboard

Various local Christian leaders estimate that there are 4,000 citizen Christians (mostly ethnically Berber) who regularly attend “house” churches and live predominantly in the south. Some local Christian leaders estimate that there may be as many as 8,000 Christian citizens throughout the country, but many reportedly do not meet regularly due to fear of government surveillance and social persecution.[65]  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

There are an estimated 3,000 to 8,000 Shia Muslims, most of them foreign residents from Lebanon or Iraq, but also a few citizen converts. Followers of several Sufi Muslim orders across the Maghreb and West Africa undertake joint annual pilgrimages to the country. The Baha’i community, located in urban areas, numbers 350 to 400 persons.[65] SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

Morocco's official languages are Arabic and Berber.[66][67] The country's distinctive group of Moroccan Arabic dialects is referred to as Darija. Approximately 89.84%[4] of the whole population can communicate to some degree in Moroccan Arabic. The Berber language is spoken in three dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhit andCentral Atlas Tamazight).[68]  HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

In 2008, Frédéric Deroche estimated that there were 12 million Berber speakers, making up about 40% of the population.[69] The 2004 population census says that 28.07% of the population speak Berber.[4] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

French is widely used in governmental institutions, media, mid-size and large companies, international commerce with French speaking countries, and often in international diplomacy. French is taught as an obligatory language at all schools. In 2010, there were 10,366,000 French-speakers in Morocco, or about 32% of the population.[70] ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French.[4] English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals. Spanish is spoken by a very small population in the north of the country, especially around the Spanish enclaves Melilla and Ceuta.[citation needed] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

Recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic and non-Arabic speaking populations, HLA DNA data suggest that most Moroccans are of a Berber origin and that Arabs who invaded North Africa and Spain in the 7th century did not substantially contribute to the gene pool.[71][72] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

The Moorish refugees from Spain settled in the coast-towns.[73] According to a 2000 article in European Journal of Human Genetics, Moroccans from North-Western Africa were genetically closer to Iberians than to West Africans and Middle Easterners[74] Compaq Presario CQ56-110SE laptop keyboard

The different loci studied revealed close similarity between the Berbers and other North African groups, mainly with Moroccan Arabic-speakers, which is in accord with the hypothesis that the current Moroccan population has a strong Berber background.[75] SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard

Morocco is an ethnically diverse country with a rich culture and civilization. Through Moroccan history, it has hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans, Vandals, Andalusians, Moors and Jews). All those civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It conceived various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam. SONY VAIO VGN-CR32S laptop keyboard

Since independence a veritable blossoming has taken place in painting and sculpture, popular music, amateur theatre, and filmmaking. The Moroccan National Theatre (founded 1956) offers regular productions of Moroccan and French dramatic works. Art and music festivals take place throughout the country during the summer months, among them the World Sacred Music Festival at Fès. SONY VAIO VGN-FS790 laptop keyboard

Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage.  SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles. SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard

prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. SONY VAIO VGN-AR670 laptop keyboard

He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library.

Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard

Morocco, as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williamsand William S. Burroughs. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Abdelkrim Ghallab, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. It should be noted also, that orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Amazigh. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Moroccan music is of Amazigh, Arab and sub-Saharan origins. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is trance musicwith historical origins in Muslim music.

Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout North Africa. It probably evolved under the Moors in Cordoba, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard

and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. A genre known as Contemporary Andalusian music and art is the brainchild of Morisco visual artist/composer/ oudist Tarik Banzi founder of the Al-Andalus EnsembleSONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard

Chaabi (popular) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and particularly hip hop. Morocco participated in 1980's Eurovision Song Contest, being in penultimate position.

Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world.  HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is mainly Berber-Moorish, European, Mediterranean cuisines. The cuisine of Morocco is essentially Berber cuisine (sometimes referred to as the Moorish cuisine). It is also Influenced by Sephardic cuisine and by the Moriscos when they took refuge in Morocco after the Reconquista.  DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Spicesare used extensively in Moroccan food. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown.  DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. Couscous is the most famous Moroccan dish along with pastilla, tajine, and harira. The most popular drink is green tea with mint, Atai. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Spectator sports in Morocco traditionally centred on the art of horsemanship until European sports—football, polo, swimming, and tennis—were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Football is the country’s premier sport, DELL Vostro PP37L laptop keyboard

popular among the urban youth in particular, and in 1986 Morocco became the first Arab and African country to qualify to the second round in World Cup competition. Morocco will be hosting the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations. The host cities will include Tangier, Casablanca, Rabat, Agadir and Marrakech.[76]  SONY VAIO VGN-SZ640 laptop keyboard

At the 1984 Olympic Games, two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field events. Nawal El Moutawakel won in the 400 metres hurdles; she was the first woman from an Arab or Islamic country to win an Olympic gold medal. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

Saïd Aouita won the 5000 metres at the same games. Hicham El Guerrouj won gold medals in the 1500 metres and 5000 metres for Morocco at the 2004 Summer Olympics and holds several world records in the mile run. HP Pavilion dv6-3089la laptop keyboard\

Tennis and golf have become popular. Several Moroccan professional players have competed in international competition, and the country fielded its first Davis Cup team in 1999.

Kickboxing is also popular in Morocco. Badr Hari, heavyweight kickboxer and martial artist, is a former K-1 heavyweight champion and K-1 World Grand Prix 2008 and 2009 finalist. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

Morocco has one of the lowest rankings in the world in terms of Education. Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school. The estimated illiteracy rate for the country in 2004 was 30.8% for males and 54.7% for females.[77]

On September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries such as Cuba, Pakistan, India and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize".[78] HP Pavilion dv6-3190ee laptop keyboard

Morocco has more than four dozen universities, institutes of higher learning, and polytechnics dispersed at urban centres throughout the country. Its leading institutions include Mohammed V University in Rabat, the country’s largest university, with branches in Casablanca and Fès; the Hassan II Agriculture and Veterinary Institute in Rabat,  TOSHIBA A000014900 laptop keyboard

which conducts leading social science research in addition to its agricultural specialties; and Al-Akhawayn University in Ifrane, the first English-language university in North Africa,[79] inaugurated in 1995 with contributions from Saudi Arabia and the United States. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

The al-Qarawiyin University, founded in the city of Fez in 859 as a madrasa,[80] is considered by some sources, includingUNESCO, to be the "oldest university of the world".[81] Morocco has also some of prestigious postgraduate schools, including: École Nationale Supérieure d'Électricité et de Mecanique (ENSEM), EMI, ISCAE, INSEA, DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard

National School of Mineral Industry, École Hassania des Travaux Publics, École nationale de commerce et de gestion de Kénitra, École supérieure de technologie de Casablanca.[82]

The United Nations Charter contains a Declaration Concerning Non-Self-Governing Territories.[4] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

In Article 73e of the Charter, member States agree to report to the United Nations annually on the development of non-self-governing territories under their control. The initial List of Non-Self-Governing Territories was created by compiling lists of dependent territories submitted by the administering States themselves. In several instances, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

administering States were allowed to remove dependent territories from the list, either unilaterally (as in the case of many French overseas departments and territories), or by vote of the General Assembly (as in the cases of Puerto Rico, Greenland, the Netherlands Antilles, andSuriname). HP G62-450SV Laptop Keyboard

The list draws its origins from the period of colonialism and the Charter's concept of non-self-governing territories. As an increasing number of formerly colonized countries became UN members, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

the General Assembly increasingly asserted its authority to place additional territories on the List and repeatedly declared that only the General Assembly had the authority to authorize a territory's being removed from the list upon attainment of any status other than full independence. For example, HP G72-b52SF Laptop Keyboard

when Portugal joined the United Nations, it contended that it controlled no non-self-governing territories (because areas such as Angola and Mozambique were purported to be an integral part of the Portuguese state), IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

but the General Assembly rejected this position. Similarly, Western Sahara was added in 1963 when it was a Spanish colony. The same can be said about the situation of Namibia (removed upon its independence in 1990), GATEWAY AEPA6TAU111 Laptop Keyboard

which was seen, due to its former status as amandate territory, as a vestige of German colonial legacy in Africa. A set of criteria for determining whether a territory is to be considered "non-self-governing" was established in General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960. HP 496878-001 Laptop Keyboard

Also in 1960, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1514 (XV), promulgating the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples", which declared that all remaining non-self-governing territories and trust territories were entitled to self-determination and independence. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard

The following year, the General Assembly established the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries LENOVO V022402AS1 Laptop Keyboard

and Peoples (sometimes referred to as the Special Committee on Decolonization, or the "Committee of 24" because for much of its history the committee was composed of 24 members), which reviews the situation in non-self-governing territories each year and reports to the General Assembly. HP G62-a38SE Laptop Keyboard

Criticism

One reason for the remaining controversy is the fact that the list includes some dependencies that have democratically chosen to maintain their territorial status, and an insufficient percentage of the population voted for independence (or in some cases the territory periodically organizes referendums, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

as in the United States Virgin Islands, but there is insufficient voter participation). Other non-self-determining areas are excluded.

Gibraltar is a prime example of resident desires to remain with the status quo. HP Pavilion dv5-1160ep laptop keyboard

Gibraltar, a largely self-governing British territory on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula whose territory is claimed by Spain, has twice held a referendum to resolve its status. In the first referendum, held in 1967, the choices in the ballot were either to retain their current status or to become part of Spain. HP Pavilion DV6-1145ew laptop keyboard

The status quo was favoured by 12,138 votes to 44. In the second referendum, held in 2002, a proposal for a joint Anglo-Spanish administration of the territory was proposed, and was voted down by 17,900 votes to 187 -  HP G61-435ST laptop keyboard

the "no" vote accounting for more than 85% of Gibraltar's entire voting population.[5] Neither of the referendums, however, gained recognition from the UN. Moreover, the 1967 referendum was declared to be in contravention of previous UN resolutions.[6] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Population (or lack thereof) is also an issue regarding at least one territory included on the list: the British colony Pitcairn Islands, with a total population of 48 (many of whom are related), has simply too small a population base (and habitable landmass for expansion), to be realistically viable as an independent state. Lenovo 3000 G450 2949 laptop keyboard

Tokelau is seen as an example by some people but not by others. It is an issue which divides political opinion in New Zealand.[7] In response to attempts at decolonizing Tokelau, New Zealand journalist Michael Field wrote in 2004: "COMPAQ Presario R3000 laptop keyboard

The UN [...] is anxious to rid the world of the last remaining vestiges of colonialism by the end of the decade. It has a list of 16 territories around the world, virtually none of which wants to be independent to any degree".[8]  COMPAQ Presario CQ41-219AX laptop keyboard

Tokelau is seen by some as a case in point. Field further notes that Patuki Isaako, who was head of Tokelau's government at the time of a UN seminar on decolonization in 2004, informed the United Nations that his country had no wish to be decolonized, and that Tokelauans had opposed the idea of decolonization ever since the first visit by UN officials in 1976. HP 407218-001 laptop keyboard

In 2006, a UN-supervised referendum on decolonization was held in Tokelau, where 60% of voters supported the offer of self-government. However, the terms of the referendum required a two-thirds majority to vote in favor of self-government. When the first referendum failed, a second was held in 2007, and 64% of Tokelauans supported it again. On the second occasion, the proposition failed by just 16 votes. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 laptop keyboard

This led New Zealand politician and former diplomat John Hayes, on behalf of the National Party, to state that "Tokelau did the right thing to resist pressure from [the New Zealand government] and the United Nations to pursue self-government".[9]  SONY VAIO VGN-NW15L laptop keyboard

The United Nations most likely supported there being a referendum because clear majorities of Tokelauans support self-government in association with New Zealand. This was reinforced by the results of the referendum, which show that over 60% (60.07% in the first referendum, and 64.40% in the second) voted for self-government. In May 2008, HP 576835-001 laptop keyboard

the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories".[10] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence from New Zealand".[11] HP G62-450SV laptop keyboard

Another criticism is that a number of the listed territories, such as Bermuda, consider themselves completely autonomous and self-governing, with the "administering power" retaining limited oversight over matters such as defence and diplomacy.[citation needed] In past years, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E laptop keyboard

there were ongoing disputes between some administering powers and the Decolonization Committee over whether territories such as pre-independence Brunei and the West Indies Associated States should still be considered "non-self-governing",TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST5701 Laptop Keyboard

particularly in instances where the administering country was prepared to grant full independence whenever the territory requested it. These disputes became redundant as those territories eventually received full independence. Territories that have achieved a status described by the administering countries as internally self-governing — such as Puerto Rico, the Netherlands Antilles, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

and the Cook Islands — have been removed from the list by vote of the General Assembly,[citation needed] often under pressure of the administering countries. In 1972, for example, HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

Hong Kong (then administered by the United Kingdom) and Macau (then administered by Portugal) were removed from the list at the request of the People's Republic of China, which had just been recognized as holding China's seat at the United Nations.[12] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Some territories that have been annexed and incorporated into the legal framework of the controlling state (such as the overseas departments of France) are considered by the UN to have been decolonized, since they then no longer constitute "non-self-governing" entities; their populations are assumed to have agreed to merge with the former parent state.  HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

However, in 1961, the General Assembly voted to end this treatment for the then-"overseas provinces" of Portugal such asAngola and Mozambique, which were active foci of United Nations attention until they attained independence in the mid-1970s. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Also controversial are the criteria set down in 1960 to 1961 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV),[14] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), Principle 12 of the Annex,[15] and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)[16] which only focused on colonies of the Western world, namely Australia,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This list of administering states was not expanded afterwards.[17] TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard

Nevertheless, some of the 111 members who joined the UN after 1960 gained independence from countries not covered by Resolution 1541 and were themselves not classified as "Non-Self-Governing Territories" by the UN. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Of these that joined the UN between 1960 and 2008, 11 were independent before 1960 and 71 were included on the list (some as a group). Out of the other 29, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

seven (mostly Arab) were colonies or protectorates of the "Western" countries, six were part ofYugoslavia, two were part of Czechoslovakia, 12 were part of the Soviet Union (Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus already had UN seats before the dissolution of the USSR) and one each was part of Ethiopia and Pakistan.  ACER TravelMate 4150 Series Laptop Keyboard

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