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Moscow State University A few more narrowly specialized Moscow colleges, including the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Moscow State Institute of International Relations were split off from MSU at one time or another and have since established strong reputations of their own, arguably even surpassing their parent in terms of prestige and quality of education. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The establishment of the university was instigated[clarification needed] by Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov, and the decree ordering its creation was issued by Russian Empress Elizabeth on January 25 (January 12 old style), 1755. The first lectures were held on April 26. January 25 is still celebrated as Students' Day in Russia.  SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard It is disputed whether Moscow State University or St. Petersburg State University is actually theoldest higher education institution in Russia. While the former was established in 1755, the latter, which has been in continuous operation under the moniker "university" since 1819, claims to be the successor of the university established on January 24, 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great together with the Academic Gymnasium and Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B Laptop Keyboard Originally located in the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square, the university was transferred byCatherine the Great to the present Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. The main building was constructed between 1782 and 1793 in the Neo-Palladian style, designed by Matvei Kazakov, and rebuilt after the Fire of Moscow (1812) by Domenico Giliardi. HP HDX18 Laptop Keyboard In the 18th century, the university had three faculties: philosophy, medicine, and law. A college for future students was affiliated with the university before being abolished in 1812. In 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen (Благородный пансион), which was transformed into a gymnasium for the Russian nobility in 1830. The university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia — Moskovskie Vedomosti. HP Mini 110-3150ev Laptop Keyboard The university has well-established contacts with the most distinguished universities in the world, exchanging students and lecturers with the leading international institutions of higher education. It houses the UNESCO International Demography Courses, the UNESCO Hydrology Courses, the International Biotechnology Center, the International LASER Center, courses or seminars on Russian as a foreign language. In 1991 the French University College, FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard the Russian-American University and the Institute of German Science and Culture were opened. The university has awarded honorary degrees to more than 60 scientists, statesmen and politicians from abroad. Many prominent university scholars and scientists in return hold honorary degrees from foreign academies and universities. ACER Aspire 5741 Laptop Keyboard The university is commonly regarded as one of Russia's most prestigious universities and has high entry requirements for its prospective students. However, Moscow State University performs inconsistently in international and national rankings of higher education studies. While it was placed 77th overall[1] by the Academic Ranking of World Universities and 112th[2] by QS World University Rankings, it was not included among the top 200 universities[3]HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard by recent Times Higher World University Rankings and came in at 296th (based on the full THE World University Rankings in their iPhone application). On a highly-cited and consistent ranking, Moscow State University ranked 43rd in 2008, 44th in 2009-2011, and 45th among 300 Best World Universities in 2012 compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance.[4] SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard Despite its large number of faculties, Moscow State University seems to be strong mostly in natural sciences and mathematics (currently placed between 38th[2] and 75th[5] in the world) but considerably weaker in other disciplines. Despite the fact that it is still the highest ranked Russian university according to the three international rankings mentioned above TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard (with the nearest Russian competitor being Saint Petersburg State University that scored 300-400th), the university was consistently placed outside top 5 nationally in 2010-2011 by Forbes[6] and Ria Novosti / HSE.,[7] with both ratings based on data set collected by GU VSHE from Russian Unified State Exam scores averaged per all students and faculties of university. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard In 1804, medical education was split into Clinical (therapy), Surgical, and Obstetrics faculties. In 1884–1897, the Department of Medicine, supported by private donations, City Hall, and the national government, built an extensive, 1.6 kilometer long, state-of-the-art medical campus in Devichye Pole, between the Garden Ring and Novodevichy Convent. It was designed by Konstantin Bykovsky, HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard with university doctors like Nikolay Sklifosovskiy and Fyodor Erismann acting as consultants. The campus, and medical education in general, were separated from the university in 1918. Devichye Pole is now operated by the independent Moscow Medical Academy and various other state and private institutions. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1905, a social-democratic organization was created at the university calling for the tsar to be overthrown and for Russia to be turned into a republic. The Tsarist government repeatedly began closing the university. In 1911, in a protest over the introduction of troops onto the campus and mistreatment of certain professors, 130 scientists and professors resigned en masse, including prominent figures such as Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, and Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin. Thousands of students were also expelled. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard After the October Revolution in 1917, the school began allowing the admission of children of the proletariat and peasants, not just those of the well-to-do. In 1919, tuition fees were abolished, and a preparatory facility was created for children of the working class so that they would be able to pass the admission examinations. The political repressions of the 1930s and 1950s severely limited the development of scientific ideas, as Soviet scientists had virtually no contacts with their colleagues abroad. SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard Certain branches of science (e.g., genetics) were condemned for being based on anti-Communist ideologies, and a number of scientists and scholars were sentenced to life imprisonment. During the implementation of Joseph Stalin's First Five-Year Plan (1928–1932), parts of the university were constructed by prisoners of the Gulag. As stated above, the intelligensia would later be ironically mocked, repressed, and imprisoned by Stalin.  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard World War II (known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War) was one of the most difficult periods in the history of Russia. University students and staff began to enlist in the army on the third day of fighting. One of the divisions formed out of university volunteers fought defending Moscow. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Many Moscow State University professors, students, and staff were evacuated during the war first to Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, then to Sverdlovsk, returning to Moscow in 1943, after the German troops were defeated near the capital. During the war, over 3,000 specialists were trained at the university. University scientists continued their research, and their contributions to applied science allowed improvements in aircraft development, the accuracy of artillery fire, etc. Also, DELL PF236 Laptop Keyboard new explosives were invented, a study of uranium was carried out, a blood coagulant was introduced into medical practice, university geologists discovered tungsten and new oil deposits in Central Asia, and university geographers supplied the Red Army with maps and charts. University lawyers made their contribution during the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials. HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard During the post-war period, the leading role of Moscow State University in the restoration and further development of the country was fully recognized. There was a fivefold increase in state funding, and a new university campus was built on Vorobievy Gory (Sparrow Hills), where all the lecture halls and laboratories had the most modern equipment available at the time. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard After 1991, nine new faculties were established. In 1992, the university was granted a unique status: it is funded directly from the state budget (bypassing the ministry of education), which provides a significant level of independence. HP Mini 210-1014TU Laptop Keyboard On September 6, 1997, the entire front of the university was used as the backdrop for a concert by French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, who had been specially invited to perform there by the mayor of the city. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The entire front of the building was used as a giant projection screen, while fireworks, lasers, and searchlights were all launched from various points around the building. The stage was directly in front of the building, and the concert, titled "The Road To The 21st Century" in Russia, but renamed "Oxygen In Moscow" for worldwide video/DVD release, attracted a world record crowd of 3.5 million people. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard Since 1953, most of the faculties have been situated on Sparrow Hills, in the southwest of Moscow. The main building was designed by architect Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev. In the post-war era, Joseph Stalin ordered seven huge tiered neoclassic towers to be built around the city. The MSU Main building is by far the largest of these. DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard It was the tallest building in the world outside of New York City at the time of its construction, and remained thetallest building in Europe until 1990. The central tower is 240 m tall, 36 stories high, and flanked by four huge wings of student and faculty accommodations. It is said to contain a total of 33 kilometers of corridors and 5,000 rooms.  HP Pavilion dv6-3109ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Facilities available inside the building include a concert hall, a theater, a museum, various administrative services, a library, a swimming pool, a police station, a post office, a laundry, a hairdresser's salon, several canteens, bank offices and ATMs, shops, cafeterias, a bomb shelter, etc. Along with the university administration,  ASUS EEE PC 1215N Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Museum of Earth Sciences and four of the main faculties – Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, the Faculty of Geology, the Faculty of Geography, and theFaculty of Fine and Performing Arts – now reside in the Main building. The star on the top of the tower is large enough to include a small room and a viewing platform; it weighs 12 tons.  Toshiba Portege R835 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The building's facades are ornamented with giant clocks, barometers, thermometers, statues, carved wheat sheaves, and Soviet crests. It stands before a terrace featuring statues of male and female students gazing optimistically and confidently into the future. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard While the Sparrow Hills were on the outskirts of the city at the time of the construction of the main building, they are now about halfway from the Kremlin to the city limits. Several other buildings and sports facilities were later added to the campus, including the only baseball stadium in Russia. Currently, a new building is under construction for the social sciences faculties, and another new one of vast size has just been built for the library, which is the second-largest in Russia by volume (number of books). The university also has several dormitory buildings in the Southwest of Moscow, outside the campus. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard The historical building on Mokhovaya Street now mainly houses the Faculty of Journalism, the Faculty of Psychology, and The Institute of Asian and African Studies. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard The main library in the university is one of the largest in Russia, with its 9,000,000 books and the average number of readers 55,000, using 5,500,000 books per year. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university offers classes on its main campus not only in the city of Moscow, Russian Federation, but also in campuses in the countries of Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. These include the Puschino MSU campus, Podmoskovny MSU campus, Chernomorsky MSU campus and Kazakhstan MSU campus. The Ulyanovsk branch of MSU was reorganized into Ulyanovsk State University in 1996. HP Pavilion dv5-1145ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sparrow Hills (Russian: Воробьёвы го́ры, Vorobyovy Gory), known as Lenin Hills (Ле́нинские го́ры, Leninskiye Gory) between 1935 and 1991, is a hill on the right bank of the Moskva River and one of highest points in Moscow, reaching a height of 220 m (720 ft), or 60–70 m (200–230 ft) above the river level. HP Pavilion dv7-4010sl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The observation platform, which gives a good panoramic view of the city, is on a steep bank 85 m (279 ft) above the river, or 200 m (660 ft) above sea level. The Luzhniki Stadium (formerly the Lenin Stadium), where the opening and closing ceremony for the 1980 Summer Olympics took place, is right below, across the Moskva River. Next to it is the Novodevichy Convent, with its Naryshkin Baroque towers. HP Pavilion dv6-3005tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Not far from the observation platform is the Luzhniki Metro Bridge. The two-level Metro-Bridge traverses the river to link Komsomolsky Prospekt with Vernadsky Prospekt. It serves two urban transport systems: motor vehicles and the Moscow Metro subway. The glass-walled subway station Vorobyovy Gory is at the lower level of the bridge.  SONY Vaio VGN-CR140E/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SONY Vaio VGN-CR508E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Russia, the largest foreign diplomatic compound in the world, is situated not far[clarification needed] from Sparrow Hills. The hills, immortalized by many Russian poets and writers, are thought[according to whom?] to have been named after the village Vorobyovo, which was acquired by Grand Duchess Sophia Vitovtovna, Vitovt's only daughter, from the priest Vorobey in 1451. Alexander I of Russia wished to build the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour there; his successor had construction works suspended and the cathedral eventually was erected near the Kremlin. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4747 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The main landmarks of the hills are the Moscow State University (at one time the tallest building in Europe) and the Trinity Church. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian: Московский Физико-Технический институт (государственный университет)), abbreviated MIPTMIPT (SU) or informally Phystech (alternative transliterations: MFTI, Fizteh, Fiztek; МФТИ, Физтех) is a leadingRussian university, SONY VAIO PCG-FRV25 Laptop Keyboard ACER NSK-H361D Laptop Keyboard originally established in the Soviet Union. It prepares specialists in theoretical and applied physics, applied mathematics, and related disciplines. It is sometimes referred to as "the Russian MIT." FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard MIPT is famous in the countries of the former Soviet Union, but is less known abroad. This is largely due to the specifics of the MIPT educational process (see "Phystech System" below). University rankings such as The Times Higher Education Supplement are based primarily on publications and citations. With its emphasis on practical research in the educational process, MIPT "outsources" education and research beyond the first two or three years to institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard MIPT's own faculty is relatively small, and many of its distinguished lecturers are visiting professors from those institutions. Student research is typically performed outside of MIPT, and research papers do not identify the authors as MIPT students. This effectively hides MIPT from the academic radar, an effect not unwelcome during the Cold War era when leading scientists and engineers of the Soviet arms and space programs studied there. SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard The word "phystech," without the capital P, is also used in Russian to refer to Phystech students and graduates. The main MIPT campus is located in Dolgoprudny,[1] a northern suburb of Moscow. However the Aeromechanics Department is based in Zhukovsky, a suburb south-east of Moscow. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard In late 1945 and early 1946, a group of prominent Soviet scientists, including in particular the future Nobel Prize winnerPyotr Kapitsa, lobbied the government for the creation of a higher educational institution radically different from the type established in the Soviet system of higher education. Applicants, carefully selected by challenging examinations and personal interviews, would be taught by, and work together with, prominent scientists. Each student would follow a personalized curriculum created to match his or her particular areas of interest and specialization. This system would later become known as the Phystech System. HP Mini 210-1085NR Laptop Keyboard In a letter to Stalin in February 1946, Kapitsa argued for the need for such a school, which he tentatively called the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, to better maintain and develop the country's defense potential. The institute would follow the principles outlined above, and was supposed to be governed by a board of directors of the leading research institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences. On March 10, 1946, the government issued a decree mandating the establishment of a "College of Physics and Technology" (Russian: Высшая физико-техническая школа).[2]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard Kapitsa foresaw that within a traditional educational institution, the new school would encounter bureaucratic obstacles, but even though Kapitsa's original plan to create the new school as an independent organization did not come to fruition exactly as envisioned, its most important principles survived intact. The new Department enjoyed considerable autonomy within Moscow State University. Its facilities were in Dolgoprudny (the two buildings it occupied are still part of the present day campus), HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard away from the MSU campus. It had its own independent admissions and education system, different from the one centrally mandated for all other universities. It was headed by the MSU "vice rector for special issues"—a position created specifically to shield the department from the University management. HP COMPAQ NX6110 Laptop Keyboard As Kapitsa expected, the special status of the new school with its different "rules of engagement" caused much consternation and resistance within the university. The immediate cult status that Phystech gained among talented young people, drawn by the challenge and romanticism of working on the forefront of science and technology, and on projects of "government importance," many of them classified, made it an untouchable rival of every other school in the country, HP 9J.N8682.501 Laptop Keyboard including MSU's own Department of Physics. At the same time, the increasing disfavor of Kapitsa with the government (in 1950 he was essentially under house arrest), and anti-semitic repressions of the late 1940s made Phystech an easy target of intrigues and accusations of "elitism" and "rootless cosmopolitanism." In the summer of 1951, the Phystech department at MSU was shut down.[4]HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard A group of academicians, backed by Air Force general Ivan Fedorovich Petrov, who was a Phystech supporter influential enough to secure Stalin's personal approval on the issue, succeeded in re-establishing Phystech as an independent institute. On September 17, 1951, a government decree re-established Phystech as the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.[5]TOSHIBA Equium M30 Series Laptop Keyboard Apart from Kapitsa, other prominent scientists who taught at MIPT in the years that followed included Nobel prize winners Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau, Alexandr Prokhorov, Vitaly Ginzburg; and Academy of Sciences members Sergey Khristianovich, Mikhail Lavrentiev, Mstislav Keldysh, Sergey Korolyov, and Boris Rauschenbach. MIPT alumni include Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, the 2010 winners of the Nobel Prize for Physics.[6]DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard For unknown reasons, the initial plan came to a halt in the summer of 1946. The exact circumstances are not documented, but the common assumption is that Kapitsa's refusal to participate in the atomic bomb project, and his disfavor with the government and communist party that followed, cast a shadow over an independent school based largely on his ideas. Instead, a new government decree was issued on November 25, 1946 establishing the new school as a Department of Physics and Technology within Moscow State University. November 25 is celebrated as the date of MIPT's founding.[3] HP Pavilion dv6643cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (French L'Organisation des Nations unies pour l’éducation, la science et la cultureUNESCO;  /juːˈnɛskoʊ/) is a specialized agency of the United Nations(UN). Its purpose is to contribute peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamentalfreedom proclaimed in the UN Charter.[1] It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ791N/X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UNESCO has 195 Member States[2] (it recently added Palestine in November 2011) and eight Associate Members.[3][4] Most of the field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices. UNESCO pursue its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, HP Pavilion dv7-4105ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects; the promotion of cultural diversity; translations of world literature; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[5]HP Pavilion dv5-1220eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UNESCO’s aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".[6] Other priorities of the Organization include attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[7]HP Envy 17-1009tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—underpin all UNESCO’s strategies and activities.  HP Pavilion dv7-2240ef Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UNESCO and its mandate for international intellectual co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question.[8] The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, HP Pavilion dv7-6130ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan to act as the executing agency for the ICIC.[9] On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development.[10] However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II.  HP Pavilion dv6645us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conferenceproposals of 9 October 1944.  SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization(UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, Packard Bell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom.[11] At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[12] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO’s Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.[13]Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to the post of Director-General.[14] The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.[15] SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in terms of how member states would work together in the Organization’s fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO’s mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the Organization’s operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.  Acer eMachines E732 Laptop Keyboard Among the major achievements of the Organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950[16] and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.[17]In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the Organization’s publications amounted to “interference” in the country’s “racial problems.”[18] South Africa rejoined the Organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. HP Pavilion dv6-3138eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UNESCO’s early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.[19] This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.[20] In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.[21]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-457TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1990 the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.[22] Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.[23]HP Pavilion dv9000 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UNESCO’s early activities in the field of culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.[24] The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), Fes (Morocco), Kathmandu(Nepal),  HP Pavilion dv9885ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece). The Organization’s work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.[25] The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978.[26]HP Pavilion dm3-1020CA Laptop Keyboard Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage[27]) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions[28]). SONY VAIO VGN-N17G Laptop Keyboard An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN)[29] in 1954. Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.[30] In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme.[31]DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard In the field of communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.[32] In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s,  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,[33] which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).[34] Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All[35] programme and Toward Knowledge Societies[36] programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis). HP 9J.NOL82.W01 Laptop Keyboard In 2011, Palestine became a UNESCO member following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed.[37][38] Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member. As a result, it will withdraw its funding which accounts for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.[39] Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority,[40] claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".[41]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard College and university rankings are lists of institutions in higher education, ordered by combinations of factors. In addition to entire institutions, specific programs, departments, and schools are ranked. Rankings are conducted by magazines, newspapers, governments and academics. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Various rankings consider measures of research excellence and/or influence, student choices, eventual success and/or demographics, on surveys, and others. Some rankings evaluate institutions within a single country, while others assess institutions worldwide. The subject has produced much debate about rankings' usefulness and accuracy. The expanding diversity in rating methodologies and accompanying criticisms of each indicate the lack of consensus in the field. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Rankings are often consulted by prospective students in the university and college admissions process.

Academic Ranking of World Universities

Main article: Academic Ranking of World Universities The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) compiled by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and now maintained by the Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, has provided annual global rankings of universities since 2003, making it the earliest of its kind. The ranking is funded by the Chinese government and its initial purpose was to measure the gap between Chinese and "world class" universities. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard ARWU rankings have been cited by The Economist magazine.[1] It has been lauded for being "consistent and transparent" based on an article.[2] The education ministers of France, Norway and Denmark traveled to China to discuss and find ways to improve their rankings.[3]ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard ARWU does not rely on surveys and school submissions. Among other criteria, ARWU includes the number of articles published by Nature or Science and the number of Nobel Prize winners and Fields Medalists (mathematics).[4] One of the primary criticisms of ARWU's methodology is that it is biased towards the natural sciences and English language science journals over other subjects.[4]Moreover, the ARWU is known for "relying solely on research indicators", and "the ranking is heavily weighted toward institutions whose faculty or alumni have won Nobel Prizes": it does not measure "the quality of teaching or the quality of humanities."[5]HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard Times Higher Education World University Rankings Main article: Times Higher Education World University Rankings From 2004 to 2009 Times Higher Education (THE), a British publication, published the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings in association with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). THE published a table of the top 200 universities and QS ranked approximately 500 online, in book form, and via media partners.[6] On 30 October 2009, THE broke with QS and joined Thomson Reuters to provide a new set of world university rankings, called Times Higher Education World University Rankings. THE has stated that academic opinion will form part of its new offering. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard On 3 June 2010, Times Higher Education revealed the methodology which they proposed to use when compiling the new world university rankings.[7] The new methodology included 13 separate performance indicators, an increase from the six measures employed between 2004 and 2009. After further consultation the criteria were grouped under five broad overall indicators to produce the final ranking. THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years.[8] SONY VAIO VGN-FS760/W Laptop Keyboard The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings.[9][10] The Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential."[11]SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard Research published by professors at the University of Michigan in 2011 demonstrated that the early THES rankings were disproportionately influential in establishing the status order of world research universities.[12]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard The QS World University Rankings are a ranking of the world’s top universities produced by Quacquarelli Symonds and published annually since 2004. In 2011 they ranked 712 universities, with the University of Cambridge in the UK, Harvard University in the USA and MIT on top. The QS rankings should not be confused with the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. From 2004 to 2009 the QS rankings were published in collaboration with Times Higher Education and were known as the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings. ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop Keyboard In 2010 QS assumed sole publication of rankings produced with this methodology when Times Higher Education split from QS in order to create a new rankings methodology in partnership with Thomson Reuters. The QS rankings are published in the United States by US News & World Report as the "World's Best Universities."[16] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard The QS rankings use peer review data collected (in 2011) from 33,744 scholars and academics and 16,785 recruiters. These two are worth 40 per cent and 10 per cent of a university's possible score respectively. The QS rankings also incorporate citation per faculty member data from Scopus,[17] faculty/student ratios, and international staff and student numbers. The citations and faculty/student measures are worth 20 per cent of an institution's total possible score and the international staff and student data five per cent each. QS has published online material about its methodology.[18] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315E Laptop Keyboard QS published the 2011 QS World University Rankings online on September 6, 2011. The rankings also appear in book form, and via media partners including US News & World Report and The Chosun Ilbo.  SONY Vaio PCG-K215Z Laptop Keyboard QS has added to its main World University Rankings, starting in 2009 with the Asian University Rankings.[19] The QS Latin American University Rankings [20] and the QS World University Rankings by Subject [21] were published for the first time in 2011. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The subject rankings are intended to address the most frequent criticism of all world university ranking systems, that they contain too little material about specific subjects, something potential applicants are keen to see. These rankings have been drawn up on the basis of citations, academic peer review and recruiter review, with the weightings for each dependent upon the culture and practice of the subject concerned. They are published in five clusters; engineering; biomedicine; the natural sciences; the social sciences; and the arts and humanities, and cover 29 subjects in 2012.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad T61 7658 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2009, Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) launched a department of the QS Asian University Rankings in partnership with The Chosun Ilbo newspaper in Korea. They rank the top 200 Asian universities and has now appeared three times. They release an independent list of rankings each time, different to that of the QS World University Rankings. HP 450933-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan These rankings use some of the same criteria as the World University Rankings but they use other measures, such as incoming and outgoing exchange students as well. As the criteria and their weightings are different, the QS World university rankings and the QS Asian University rankings released in the same academic year may be different. For example, the University of Hong Kong being 22th in the world was regarded as the best in Asia in the QS World University Rankings (2012) but the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology was at the top of the list of the QS Asian University Rankings (2012). SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities is produced by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan(HEEACT).[27] HEEACT is designed to assess research universities. The indicators are designed to measure both long-term and short-term research performance. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard This project employs bibliometrics to analyze and rank the performance of the 500 top universities and the top 300 universities in six fields. HEEACT further provides subject rankings in science and technology fields. It also rank the top 300 universities across ten science and technology fields.[28] The ranking includes eight indicators. They are: articles published over prior 11 years; citations of those articles, "current" articles, current citations, average citations, "H-index", number of "highly–cited papers" and high impact journal articles. They represent three criteria of scientific papers performance: research productivity, research impact, and research excellence. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard The 2007 ranking methodology was alleged to have favored universities with medical schools, and in response, HEEACT added assessment criteria.[29] The six field–based rankings are based on the subject categorization of WOS, including Agriculture & Environment Sciences (AGE), Clinical Medicine (MED), Engineering, HP 516884-001 Laptop Keyboard Computing & Technology (ENG), Life Sciences (LIFE), Natural Sciences (SCI) and Social Sciences (SOC). The ten subjects include Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Geosciences, Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering (including Energy & Fuels), Materials Sciences, and Civil Engineering (including Environmental Engineering).[28]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard The High Impact Universities Research Performance Index (RPI) is a 2010 Australian initiative[30] that studies university research performance. The pilot project involved a trial of over 1,000 universities or institutions and 5,000 constituent faculties (in various disciplines) worldwide. The top 500 results for universities and faculties were reported at the project website.[30] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The project promotes simplicity, transparency and fairness. The assessment analyzes research performance as measured by publications and citations. Publication and citation data is drawn from Scopus. The project uses standard bibliometric indicators, namely the 10-year g-index and h-index. RPI equally weighs contributions from the five faculties. The five faculty scores are normalized to place them onto a common scale. The normalized scores are then averaged to arrive at a final RPI. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard The Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) publishes a human competitiveness index & analysis annually in Chasecareer Network (ChaseCareer.Net). This system is based on Human Resources & Labour Review Indexes (HRI and LRI), which measure the performance of top 300 universities' graduates.[31] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard In 2004, a couple of educational institutions voiced concerns at several events in regard to the accuracy and effectiveness of ranking bodies or lists. The HRLR ranking was pioneered in late 2005 within a working group in response to those concerns. The team was founded in January 2007 and started compiling and processing datas, resulting in the first lists in 2007-2008. [32]TOSHIBA Satellite C655-SP4163 Laptop Keyboard The new HRLR ranking innovative methods sparked intense interests from many institutions and inspired several other ranking lists and scoring which are based on professional, alumni, executives, competitiveness, human capital-oriented aspects. Nevertheless, HRLR remains to be the leader in university ranking with innovative and effective approaches, and not relying merely on those aforementioned aspects. [33]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University maintains a European and world wide ranking of the top 500 universities according including the number and impact of Web of Science-indexed publications per year. The rankings compare research institutions by taking into account differences in language, discipline and institutional size.[34] Multiple ranking lists are released according to various bibliometric normalization and impact indicators, including the number of publications, citations-per-publication, and field-averaged impact per publication.[35]TOSHIBA NSK-T4A01 Laptop Keyboard The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities is produced by Cybermetrics Lab (CCHS), a unit of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the main public research body in Spain. It offers information about more than 12,000 universities according to their web presence (an assessment of the scholarly contents, visibility and impact of universities on the web). The ranking is updated every January and July. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard The Webometrics Ranking or Ranking Web is built from a database of over 20,000 higher education institutions. The top 12,000 universities are shown in the main ranking and more are covered in regional lists. The ranking started in 2004 and is based on a composite indicator that includes both the volume of the Web contents and the visibility and impact of web publications according to the number of external links they received. A wide range of scientific activities appears exclusively on academic websites and is typically overlooked by bibliometric indicators. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Webometric indicators measure institutional commitment to Web publication. Webometric results show a high correlation with other rankings. However, North American universities are relatively common in the top 200, while small– and medium–size biomedical institutions and German, French, Italian and Japanese universities were less common in the top ranks. Possible reasons include publishing via independent research councils (CNRS, Max Planck, CNR) or the large amount of non-English web contents, which are less likely to be linked. GATEWAY MT6708 Laptop Keyboard The European Commission compiled a list of the 22 universities in the EU with the highest scientific impact.[58] This ranking was compiled as part of the Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators,[59] prepared by the Directorate General for Science and Research of the European Commission in 2003 (updated 2004).[60] It only explicitly considers the European Union's top institutions, but comparisons with the rest of the world are provided in the full report.  ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The report says, "University College London comes out on top in both publications (the number of scientific publications produced by the university) and citations (the number of times those scientific publications are cited by other researchers)" however the table lists the top scoring university as "Univ London" indicating that the authors counted the scientific output of the entire University of London, rather than its constituent colleges. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard In this ranking, the EU's top two universities are Cambridge and Oxford, as in the Jiao Tong and Times rankings. This ranking stresses the scientific quality of the institution, as opposed to its size or perceived prestige.[citation needed] Thus smaller, technical universities, such as Eindhoven (Netherlands) and Technical University Munich (Germany) are ranked third and forth, behind Cambridge, and followed by University of Edinburgh. The report does not provide a direct comparison between EU and universities in the rest of the world—although it does compute a scientific impact score, measured against the world average. SAMSUNG BA59-02489J Laptop Keyboard In December 2008, the European Commission published a call for tenders, inviting bidders to design and test a new multi-dimensional university ranking system with global outreach. The first results of the envisaged pilot project were promised for the first half of 2011.[61]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Another approach to classify the European research area is offered by 'European Research Ranking'.[62] This ranking is based on

publicly available data from the European Commissions project and funding database CORDIS to estimate the funding and networking performance of European research institutions. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard RIA Novosty / Forbes rankings are conducted under the supervision of Public Chamber of Russia in cooperation with State University – Higher School of Economics)[71][72] This ranking is considered the most objective system.[citation needed] It covers 476 higher education institutions and is based on the average score of the Unified State Examination that is required to enter a university. The ranking has separate subrankings for different subjects and clusters of universities. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard RIA Novosty rankings do not align with other local and international rankings such as Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankingswhich take into account inherited reputation from the Soviet Union.[71]Independent Rating Agency RatER publishes annual rankings based on representation of university graduates in governmental, education and business elite.[73] HP Pavilion dv6-3111sa Laptop Keyboard Interfax annually ranks "classical" (or multi-faculty) universities and higher education institutions specialising in law.[74] Interfax' methodology quantifiesseveral qualitative factors such as research, teaching standards, public opinion and social and international activity.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard The Russian Journal "Finance" produces an integrated ranking of higher education institutions specialising in economics and finance.[75] The Journal uses the average score of the Unified State Examination, the number of CFO graduates and the consolidated turnover of companies where graduate CFOs are employed. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard The Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) are the UK government's evaluation of research quality in British Universities. Each subject, called a unit of assessment, is ranked by a peer review panel. The rankings are used in the allocation of government funding. The latest assessment was made in 2008. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard The RAE provides quality ratings for research across all disciplines. Panels use a standard scale for each submission. Ratings range from 1 to 5, according to the quantity of work that is judged to reach national or international levels of excellence. Participating institutions receive grants from one of the four higher education funding bodies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. TOSHIBA Satellite P300D Series Laptop Keyboard The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) assesses undergraduate teaching. QAA is an independent body established by the UK's higher education institutions in 1997. QAA was under contract to the Higher Education Funding Council for England to assess quality for English universities. Samsung MCF-908AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This replaced Teaching Quality Assessments (TQAs) which aimed to assess the administrative, policy and procedural framework within which teaching took place and did not directly assess teaching quality. This inspection–based system was replaced by a system of information provision, including a national student survey. QAA publishes scores which have been used by the league table industry. ACER 23.TB2V1.003 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Other rankings include Times Good University Guide, Independent Complete University Guide, The Sunday Times University Guide, The Guardian—University Guide (mainly for undergraduate studies.)[80]ACER Aspire 5735z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Maclean's, a Canadian news magazine, publishes an annual ranking of Canadian Universities, called the Maclean’s University Rankings.[81] Ranking criteria include student body characteristics, classes, faculty, finances, library, and reputation. The rankings are split into three categories: schools that focus on undergraduate studies with few to no graduate programs, schools that have both extensive undergraduate studies and an extensive selection of graduate programs and schools that have a professional medical program and a selection of graduate programs.[82] HP G62-b30SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of Calgary produced a formal study examining the ranking methodology, illuminating the factors that determined its rank and criticizing certain aspects of the methodology. The University of Alberta, the University of Toronto and University of Manitoba have expressed displeasure over the ranking system.[83]HP Pavilion dv6-3013cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A notable difference between rankings in the United States and Maclean's rankings, however, is that Maclean's excludes privately–funded universities. However, the majority of Canada's institutions, including the best–known are publicly–funded.  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Beginning in September 2006, over 20 Canadian universities, including several of the most prestigious and largest universities such as the University of Toronto, University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, Concordia University, McMaster University and Dalhousie University, jointly refused to participate.[84]HP Envy 15-1008xx Laptop Keyboard University of Alberta president Indira Samarasekera wrote that Maclean's initially filed a "Freedom of Information" request but that it was "too late" for the universities to respond. Samarasekera further stated, "Most of [the universities] had already posted the data online, and we directed Maclean’sstaff to our Web sites. In instances where the magazine staff couldn’t find data on our Web site, they chose to use the previous year’s data."[85]HP Business Notebook nx9005 Laptop Keyboard (UNAM).[86] ECUM provides data on institutional participation in articles on ISI Web of Knowledge–indexed journals; faculty participation in each of Mexico's three–level National Researchers System (SNI[87]); graduate degrees within (National Council of Science and Technology's (CONACYT) register of quality graduate programs;[88] and number of academic research bodies (cuerpos academicos) according to the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) program PROMEP.[89] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard ECUM provides online access to data for 2007 and 2008 through ExECUM.[90] Institutional data can be visualized through three options: ExECUM allows users to establish comparison types and levels which they consider relevant. Data is presented in raw form with virtually no derived indicators. Users can relate variables and build indicators according to their own analytical perspectives. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard Based on this comparative study project, ECUM's creator, the Dirección General de Evaluación Institucional, published reports providing an analysis of the data for 2007 and 2008.[91][92][93] Referred to as the "granddaddy of the college rankings",[94] The American college and university rankings have been compiled since 1983 by U.S. News & World Report and are widely regarded as the most influential of all college rankings.[95] The college rankings were published in all years thereafter, except 1984. The ranking order of universities has been shown to have great effect; a one-rank improvement leads to a 0.9% increase in number of applicants.[96]HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard The US News rankings are based upon data which U.S. News collects from each educational institution either from an annual survey or from the school's website. There has been some significant controversy surrounding this annual survey, including a letter from the Annapolis Group requesting that school presidents do not participate in the US News annual survey, which led to "a majority of the approximately 80 presidents at the meeting said that they did not intend to participate in the U.S. News reputational rankings in the future."[97]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Guide is an American-college guide based on what it calls "Internet brand equity" based on data collected from the Internet and global media sources. It ranks the Top 300 United States colleges and universities. The guide includes specialty and for profit schools including Art, Business, Design, Music, and Online Education. The TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Rankings are produced twice a year by the Global Language Monitor of Austin, Texas.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard Time Magazine described internet brand equity as "a measure of who's talking about you online, based on Internet data, social media, blogs and the top 75,000 print and electronic media outlets.[106][107] GLM ranks the schools "according to their online presence -- or internet brand equity ... By focusing on online presence, the Monitor hopes to avoid the biases that characterize other rankings, which commonly rely on the opinions of university officials and college counselors rather than that of the greater public.[108]" GLM believes the rankings provide an up-to-date perspective on which schools have the most popular brand. The resulting rankings gauge the relative value of the various institutions and how they change over time. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) began grading colleges and universities based on the strength of their general education requirements. In ACTA's annual What Will They Learn? report, colleges and universities are assigned a letter grade from "A" to "F" based on how many of seven subjects are required of students. The seven subjects are composition, mathematics, foreign language, science, economics, SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard literature and American government or history.[112] The 2011-2012 edition of What Will They Learn? graded 1,007 institutions.[113] In the 2011-2012 edition, 19 schools received an "A" grade for requiring at least six of the subjects the study evaluated.[114] ACTA's rating system has been endorsed by Mel Elfin, founding editor of U.S. News & World Report’s rankings.[115] New York Times higher education blogger Stanley Fish, while agreeing that universities ought to have a strong core curriculum, disagreed with some of the subjects ACTA includes in the core.[116]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Avery et al. pioneered the use of choice modelling to rank colleges. Their methodology used a statistical analysis of the decisions of 3,240 students who applied to college in 1999.[117] MyChances.net, now called Parchment, adopted a similar approach starting in 2009,[118] stating that its method is based on this approach.[119] The study analysed students admitted to multiple colleges. The college they attended became the winner, and the others became the losers. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard An Elo rating system was used to assign points based on each win or loss, and the colleges were ranked based on their Elo points. A useful consequence of the use of Elo points is that they can be used to estimate the frequency with which students, upon being admitted to two schools, will choose one over the other. HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard Other organizations that rank US institutions include the Fiske Guide to Colleges and College Prowler. Many specialized rankings are available in guidebooks, considering individual student interests, fields of study, geographical location, financial aid and affordability. HP 530580-001 Laptop Keyboard Among the rankings dealing with individual fields of study is the Philosophical Gourmet Report or "Leiter Report",[120] a ranking of philosophy departments. This report has attracted criticism from different viewpoints. Notably, practitioners of continental philosophy, who perceive the Leiter report as unfair to their field, have compiled alternative rankings. The Gourman Report, last published in 1996, ranked the quality of undergraduate majors and graduate programs. SONY VAIO PCG-FX605 Laptop Keyboard Within the growing field of Virtual Schooling, Guide to Online Schools has been ranking online colleges and universities since 2009 and military-friendly online schools since 2012.[121]. Gallup polls ask American adults, "All in all, what would you say is the best college or university in the United States?"[122]HP Envy 17-1188el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Princeton Review, annually publishes a book of Best Colleges. In 2011, this was titled The Best 373 Colleges. Phi Beta Kappa has also sought to establish chapters at the best schools, lately numbering 280.[123] In Chile the "Comisión Nacional de Acreditación" (National Commission of Accreditation of the Universities) manages evaluation and accreditation. It also ranks universities according to accreditation levels.[125] HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SONY Vaio VPC-EE41FX/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Other commercial rankings are made by research magazines, including Qué Pasa and América EconomíaQué Pasa's ranking evaluates perception and quality following surveys of approximately 1,000 employers across the country.[126] América Economía's ranking considers quality of students, quality of teachers, rating of professors by student, research productivity, internationalization, integration with the community, student life quality and inclusion of students from lower social strata.[127]Gateway M-2414U Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SONY Vaio VGN-N250FH Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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