Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
17 juillet 2013 3 17 /07 /juillet /2013 10:07

Namibia

Namibia /nəˈmɪbiə/, officially the Republic of Namibia (Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië; German:   Republik Namibia (help•info)), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

Although it does not border with Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of riverbed (essentially the Zambia/Botswana border) separates them at their closest points. It gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek. Namibia is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union(AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by Bushmen, Damara, and Namaqua, and since about the 14th century AD by immigrating Bantu who came with the Bantu expansion. It became a German Imperial protectorate in 1884 and remained a German colony until the end of World War I. In 1920, the League of Nations mandated the country to South Africa, which imposed its laws and, from 1948, its apartheid policy. ACER Aspire 1410-742G16n Laptop Keyboard

Uprisings and demands by African leaders led the UN to assume direct responsibility over the territory. It recognised the South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people in 1973. Namibia, however, remained under South African administration during this time as South-West Africa. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

Following internal violence, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990, with the exception of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, which remained under South African control until 1994. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Namibia has a population of 2.1 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture,herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the backbone of Namibia's economy. Given the presence of the arid Namib Desert, HP G62-147NR Laptop Keyboard

it is one of theleast densely populated countries in the world. Approximately half the population live below the international poverty line, and the nation has suffered heavily from the effects of HIV/AIDS, with 15% of the adult population infected with HIV in 2007. DELL NSK-DG101 Laptop Keyboard

The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by Bushmen, Damara, Nama, and since about the 14th century AD, by immigrating Bantu who came with the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onwards, Orlam clans from the Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.[6] Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were largely peaceful.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

The missionaries accompanying the Orlams were well received by them,[7] the right to use waterholes and grazing was granted against an annual payment.[8] On their way further northwards, however, the Orlams encountered clans of the Herero tribe at Windhoek, Gobabis, and Okahandja which were less accommodating. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

The Nama-Herero Warbroke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only when Imperial Germany deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo between Nama, Orlams, and Herero.[9]  HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Diasin 1486; still the region was not claimed by the Portuguese crown. However, like most of Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

when traders and settlers arrived, principally from Germany and Sweden. In the late 19th century Dorsland trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola. Some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey, even more returned to South-West African territory after the Portuguese tried to convert them to Catholicism and forbade their language at schools.[10] ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall British encroachment and was known as German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika).[11] However, the Palgrave mission by the British governor in Cape Town had determined that only the natural deep-water harbour of Walvis Bay(Walfisch in German, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

Walvis in Afrikaans, Whale in English) was worth occupying – and this was annexed to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against the Germans and in the subsequent Herero and Namaqua genocide, 10,000 Nama (half the population) and approximately 65,000 Hereros (about 80% of the population) were killed.[12][13] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

The survivors, when finally released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labour, racial segregation and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated apartheid. Most Africans were confined to so-called native territories, which later under South African rule post-1949 were turned into "homelands" (Bantustans). HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Indeed, some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia was a model used by Nazis in the Holocaust,[14] but most scholars say that episode was not especially influential for the Nazis, who were children at the time.[15] However, the father of Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring was a one-time German colonial governor of Namibia and has a street named after him in Swakopmund.[16] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

The memory of genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia and to relations with Germany.[17] Until today Germany fails to take full responsibility for its colonial past. For one reason because as a consequence Germany would have to pay relatively high sums of money as a kind of compensation. This would also be a precedent for other colonial powers.[18] HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

South Africa occupied the colony in 1915 after defeating the German force during World War I and administered it as a League of Nations mandate territory from 1919. Although the South African government desired to incorporate 'South-West Africa' into its territory, it never officially did so, although it was administered as the de facto 'fifth province', TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4047 Laptop Keyboard

 with the white minority having representation in the whites-only Parliament of South Africa, as well as electing their own local administration the SWA Legislative Assembly. The South African government also appointed the SWA administrator, who had extensive powers. SONY VAIO VGN-FS790 laptop keyboard

Following the League's supersession by the United Nations in 1946, South Africa refused to surrender its earlier mandate to be replaced by a United Nations Trusteeship agreement, requiring closer international monitoring of the territory's administration (along with a definite independence schedule).  SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

The Herero Chief's Council submitted a number of petitions to the UN calling for it to grant Namibia independence during the 1950s. During the 1960s, when European powers granted independence to their colonies and trust territories in Africa, pressure mounted on South Africa to do so in Namibia. SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard

In 1966 the International Court of Justice dismissed a complaint brought by Ethiopia and Liberia against South Africa's continued presence in the territory, but the U.N. General Assembly subsequently revoked South Africa's mandate, while in 1971 the International Court of Justice issued an "advisory opinion" declaring South Africa's continued administration to be illegal.[19] SONY VAIO VGN-AR670 laptop keyboard

HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

In response to the 1966 ruling by the International Court of Justice, South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) military wing, People's Liberation Army of Namibia, a guerrilla group began their armed struggle for independence,[20] but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its occupation[21] Compaq Presario CQ56-102SE laptop keyboard

of Namibia, in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. During the South African occupation of Namibia, white commercial farmers, most of whom came as settlers from South Africa and represented 0.2% of the national population, owned 74% of arable land.[22] Outside the central-southern area of Namibia (known as the "Police Zone" since the German era and which contained the main towns, industries, mines and best arable land), TOSHIBA Satellite C655-SP6010L laptop keyboard

the country was divided into "homelands", the version of South African bantustan applied to Namibia, although only a few were actually established due to non-cooperation by most indigenous Namibians. HP 9J.NOL82.W01 laptop keyboard

After many unsuccessful attempts by the UN to persuade South Africa to agree to the implementation of UN Resolution 435, which had been adopted by the UN Security Council in 1978 as the internationally agreed decolonisation plan for Namibia, transition to independence finally started in 1988 under the tripartite diplomatic agreement between South Africa, FUJITSU Lifebook S7210 laptop keyboard

Angola and Cuba, with the USSR and the USA as observers, under which South Africa agreed to withdraw and demobilise its forces in Namibia. As a result, Cuba agreed to pull back its troops in southern Angola sent to support the MPLA in its war for control of Angola with UNITA. Packard Bell Easynote LM94 laptop keyboard

A combined UN civilian and peace-keeping force under Finnish diplomat Martti Ahtisaari supervised the military withdrawals, the return of SWAPO exiles and the holding of Namibia's first one-person one-vote election for a constituent assembly in October 1989. This was won by SWAPO although it did not gain the two-thirds majority it had hoped for; the South African-backed Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) became the official opposition. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

HP Pavilion DV6t-4000 laptop keyboard

Following the adoption of the Namibian Constitution, including entrenched protection for human rights, compensation for state expropriations of private property, an independent judiciary and an executive presidency (the constituent assembly became the national assembly), the country officially became independent on 21 March 1990. Sam Nujoma was sworn in as the first President of Namibia watched by Nelson Mandela (who had been released from prison the previous month) and representatives from 147 countries, including 20 heads of state.[23] SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

Walvis Bay was ceded to Namibia in 1994 upon the end of Apartheid in South Africa.[citation needed] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

Since independence Namibia has successfully completed the transition from white minority apartheid rule to parliamentary democracy. Multiparty democracy was introduced and has been maintained, with local, regional and national elections held regularly. Several registered political parties are active and represented in the National Assembly, although Swapo Party has won every election since independence.[24] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

The transition from the 15-year rule of President Sam Nujoma to his successor, Hifikepunye Pohamba in 2005 went smoothly.[25]

Namibian government has promoted a policy of national reconciliation and issued an amnesty for those who had fought on either side during the liberation war. The civil war in Angola had a limited impact on Namibians living in the north of the country. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

In 1998, Namibia Defence Force (NDF) troops were sent to theDemocratic Republic of the Congo as part of a Southern African Development Community (SADC) contingent.  HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard [25]

Namibia does not have any enemies in the region but consistently spends more on its military than all of its neighbours, except Angola. Military expenditure rose from 2.7% of GDP in 2000 to 3.7% in 2009, and the arrival of 12 Chengdu J-7 Airguard jets in 2006 and 2008 made Namibia for a short time one of the top arms importers in Sub-Saharan Africa.[30]  DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The constitution of Namibia defined the role of the military as "defending the territory and national interests." Namibia formed the Namibian Defence Force(NDF), comprising former enemies in a 23-year bush war: the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) and South West African Territorial Force (SWATF).  DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

The British formulated the plan for integrating these forces and began training the NDF, which consists of a small headquarters and five battalions.

The United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG)'s Kenyan infantry battalion remained in Namibia for three months after independence to help train the NDF and to stabilise the north. According to the Namibian Defence Ministry, enlistments of both men and women will number no more than 7,500. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

The Central Plateau runs from north to south, bordered by the Skeleton Coast to the northwest, the Namib Desert and its coastal plains to the southwest, the Orange River to the south, and the Kalahari Desert to the east. The Central Plateau is home to the highest point in Namibia at Königstein elevation 2,606 meters (8,550 ft).[36] DELL Vostro PP37L laptop keyboard

Within the wide, flat Central Plateau is the majority of Namibia’s population and economic activity. Windhoek, the nation’s capital, is located here, as well as most of the arable land. Although arable land accounts for only 1% of Namibia, nearly half of the population is employed in agriculture.[37]  SONY VAIO VGN-SZ640 laptop keyboard

The abiotic conditions here are similar to those found along the Escarpment; however the topographic complexity is reduced. Summer temperatures in the area can reach 40 °C (104 °F), and frosts are common in the winter. Compaq Presario CQ56-110SE laptop keyboard

The Namib Desert is a broad expanse of hyper-arid gravel plains and dunes that stretches along Namibia's entire coastline. It varies between 100 to many hundreds of kilometres in width. Areas within the Namib include the Skeleton Coast and theKaokoveld in the north and the extensive Namib Sand Sea along the central coast.[38] SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard

The sands that make up the sand sea result from processes of erosion that take place in the Orange River valley and areas further to the south. As sand-laden waters drop their suspended loads into the Atlantic, onshore currents deposit them along the shore. The prevailing south west winds then pick up and redeposit the sand in the form of massive dunes in the widespread sand sea, forming the largest sand dunes in the world. SONY VAIO VGN-CR32S laptop keyboard

  In areas where the supply of sand is reduced because of the inability of the sand to cross riverbeds, the winds also scour the land to form large gravel plains. In many areas of the Namib Desert there is little vegetation aside from lichens found in the gravel plains and in dry river beds where plants can access subterranean water. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

The Great Escarpment swiftly rises to over 2,000 meters (6,562 ft). Average temperatures and temperature ranges increase further inland from the cold Atlantic waters, while the lingering coastal fogs slowly diminish. Although the area is rocky with poorly developed soils, it is nonetheless significantly more productive than the Namib Desert. As summer winds are forced over the Escarpment, moisture is extracted as precipitation.[39] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The water, along with rapidly changing topography, is responsible for the creation of microhabitats which offer a wide range of organisms, many of them endemic. Vegetation along the escarpment varies in both form and density, with community structure ranging from dense woodlands to more shrubby areas with scattered trees. A number of Acacia species are found here, as well as grasses and other shrubby vegetation. HP G62-450SV Laptop Keyboard

The Bushveld is found in north eastern Namibia along the Angolan border and in the Caprivi Strip which is the vestige of a narrow corridor demarcated for the German Empire to access the Zambezi River. The area receives a significantly greater amount of precipitation than the rest of the country, averaging around 400 mm (15.7 in) per year. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Temperatures are also cooler and more moderate, with approximate seasonal variations of between 10 and 30 °C (50 and 86 °F). The area is generally flat and the soils sandy, limiting their ability to retain water.[40] Located adjacent to the Bushveld in north-central Namibia is one of nature’s most spectacular features: the Etosha Pan. HP G72-b52SF Laptop Keyboard

For most of the year it is a dry, saline wasteland, but during the wet season, it forms a shallow lake covering more than 6,000 square kilometres (2,317 sq mi). The area is ecologically important and vital to the huge numbers of birds and animals from the surrounding savannah that gather in the region as summer drought forces them to the scattered waterholes that ring the pan. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

The Bushveld area has been demarcated by the World Wildlife Fund as part of the Angolan Mopane woodlands ecoregion, which extends north across theCunene River into neighbouring Angola. GATEWAY AEPA6TAU111 Laptop Keyboard

The Kalahari Desert, an arid region shared with South Africa and Botswana, is one of Namibia’s well-known geographical features. The Kalahari, while popularly known as a desert, has a variety of localized environments, including some verdant and technically non-desert areas. One of these, known as the Succulent Karoo, HP 496878-001 Laptop Keyboard

is home to over 5,000 species of plants, nearly half of them endemic; fully one-third of the world’s succulents are found in the Karoo.[citation needed]

The reason behind this high productivity and endemism may be the relatively stable nature of precipitation.[41] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard

The Karoo does not experience drought on a regular basis, so even though the area is technically desert, regular winter rains provide enough moisture to support the region’s interesting plant community. Another feature of the Kalahari, indeed many parts of Namibia, are inselbergs, isolated mountains that create micro-climates and habitat for organisms not adapted to life in the surrounding desert matrix.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Namibia’s Coastal Desert is one of the oldest deserts in the world. Its sand dunes, created by the strong onshore winds, are the highest in the world.[42]

The Namib Desert and the Namib-Naukluft National Park are located here. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Namibian coastal deserts are one of the richest sources of diamonds on earth. The area is divided into the northern Skeleton Coast and the southern Diamond Coast. Because of the location of the shoreline — at the point where the Atlantic's cold water reaches Africa — there is often extremely dense fog.[43] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Sandy beach composes 54% of the shoreline, and mixed sand and rock form another 28%. Only 16% of the total length is rocky shoreline. The coastal plains are "dune fields", gravel plains covered with lichen and some scattered salt pans. Near the coast there are areas where the dunes are vegetated with hammocks.[44]Namibia has rich coastal and marine resources that remain largely unexplored.[45] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard

Namibia extends from 17S to 25S: climatically the range of the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt, arid is the overall climate description descending from the Sub-Humid (mean rain above 500mm) through Semi-Arid between 300 and 500mm (embracing most of the waterless Kalahari) and Arid from 150mm to 300mm (these three regions are inland from the western escarpment) to the Hyper-Arid coastal plain with less than a 100mm mean. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard

An intermediate: Severely Arid, embracing the pre-Namib, covers the 100 to 150mm range. Variability is the Arid climate hallmark for both rainfall and temperature. Rainfall means, in particular, give a range from below 100mm per annum for the length of the Namib Desert,to 700 per annum for Katima Mulilo at the eastern end of the Caprivi; variability ranges from zero rain (no rain at all) to 800mm plus recorded,  COMPAQ Presario CQ41-219AX laptop keyboard

occurring during a bountiful season. Although the core of the rainy season: January to March provides some 70 per cent of the overall, while associated with the November, December and April overall measures adding as much as another 25 per cent (mid-90 per cent of the annual), rain is possible across the outlying months: September, October and May, HP 407218-001 laptop keyboard

the contribution is less than 5 per cent on average. Variability can see the seasonal spread vary from excessively wet possible months to rainless core months. It is only across the Kavango and Caprivi rainfall stations that the core month minimum denotes at least a day or two of rain. The extreme southwest, typically the Rosh Pinah stations, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 laptop keyboard

enjoys both a summer and winter regime, though the most intense falls rarely exceed 10mm in a day. Winter rains have been predictable across the southern Karas and Hardap regions providing moisture for the overall environment. The advent of a changing climate has seen a depletion of the regular winter input, while increased intensities during the March–April months (thundery showers) have been recorded.  SONY VAIO VGN-NW15L laptop keyboard

Temperature maxima are limited by the overall elevation of the entire region: only in the far south, Warmbad for instance, are mid-40C maxima recorded.[46]

Typically the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt, with frequent clear skies, provides more than 300 days of sunshine per year. It is situated at the southern edge of the tropics; the Tropic of Capricorn cuts the country about in half. HP 576835-001 laptop keyboard

The winter (June – August) is generally dry, both rainy seasons occur in summer, the small rainy season between September and November, the big one between February and April.[47] HP G62-450SV laptop keyboard

Humidity is low, and average rainfall varies from almost zero in the coastal desert to more than 600mm in the Caprivi Strip. Rainfall is however highly variable, and droughts are common.[48] The last bad rainy season with rainfall far below the annual average occurred in summer 2006/07.[49] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E laptop keyboard

Weather and climate in the coastal area are dominated by the cold, north-flowing Benguela current of the Atlantic Ocean which accounts for very lowprecipitation (50 mm per year or less), frequent dense fog, and overall lower temperatures than in the rest of the country.[48] In Winter, occasionally a condition known as Bergwind (German: SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

Mountain breeze) or Oosweer (Afrikaans: East weather) occurs, a hot dry wind blowing from the inland to the coast. As the area behind the coast is a desert, these winds can develop into sand storms with sand deposits in the Atlantic Ocean visible on satellite images.[50] HP Pavilion dv6-3089la laptop keyboard\

The Central Plateau and Kalahari areas have wide diurnal temperature ranges of up to 30C.[48]

Efundja, the annual flooding of the northern parts of the country, often causes not only damage to infrastructure but loss of life.[51] The rains that cause these floods originate in Angola, flow into Namibia's Cuvelai basin, and fill the Oshanas (Oshiwambo: flood plains) there. The worst floods so far occurred in March 2011 and displaced 21,000 people.[52] SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

Namibia’s economy is tied closely to South Africa’s due to their shared history.[53][54] The largest economic sectors are mining (10.4% of the gross domestic product in 2009), agriculture (5.0%), manufacturing (13.5%), and tourism.[55] HP Pavilion dv6-3190ee laptop keyboard

Namibia has a highly developed banking sector with modern infrastructure, such as Online Banking, Cellphone Banking, etc. The Bank of Namibia (BoN) is the central bank of Namibia responsible to perform all other functions ordinarily performed by a central bank. There are four BoN authorised commercial banks in Namibia: Bank Windhoek, First National Bank, Nedbank & Standard Bank.[56]  TOSHIBA A000014900 laptop keyboard

According to the Namibia Labour Force Survey Report 2012, conducted by the Namibia Statistics Agency, the country's unemployment rate is 27.4%. "Strict unemployment" (people actively seeking a full-time job) stood at 20.2% in 2000, 21.9% in 2004 and spiraled to 29.4% in 2008. Under a broader definition (including people that have given up searching for employment) unemployment rose to 36.7% in 2004. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

This estimate considers people in the informal economy as employed. Labour and Social Welfare Minister Immanuel Ngatjizeko praised the 2008 study as "by far superior in scope and quality to any that has been available previously",[57] DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard

 but its methodology has also received criticism.[58]

In 2004 a labour act was passed to protect people from job discrimination stemming from pregnancy and HIV/AIDS status. In early 2010 the Government tender board announced that "henceforth 100 per cent of all unskilled and semi-skilled labour must be sourced, without exception, from within Namibia".[59] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

In 2013, global business and financial news provider, Bloomberg, named Namibia the top emerging market economy in Africa and the 13th best in the world. Only four African countries made the Top 20 Emerging Markets list in the March 2013 issue of Bloomberg Markets magazine, and Namibia was rated ahead of Morocco (19th), HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

South Africa (15th) and Zambia (14th). Worldwide, Namibia also fared better than Hungary, Brazil and Mexico. Bloomberg Markets magazine ranked the top 20 based on more than a dozen criteria. The data came from Bloomberg's own financial-market statistics, IMF forecasts and the World Bank.  ACER TravelMate 4150 Series Laptop Keyboard

The countries were also rated on areas of particular interest to foreign investors: the ease of doing business, the perceived level of corruption and economic freedom. Namibia is also classified as an Upper Middle Income country by the World Bank, and ranks 87th out of 185 economies in terms of "Ease of Doing Business".HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

About half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood, but Namibia must still import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is five times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in rural areas and exist on a subsistence way of life. SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard

Namibia has one of the highest rates of income inequality in the world, due in part to the fact that there is an urban economy and a more rural cash-less economy. The inequality figures thus take into account people who do not actually rely on the formal economy for their survival.

About 4,000, mostly white, commercial farmers own almost half of Namibia's arable land. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard [61]

Agreement has been reached on the privatisation of several more enterprises in coming years, with hopes that this will stimulate much needed foreign investment. However, reinvestment of environmentally derived capital has hobbled Namibian per capita income.[62] One of the fastest growing areas of economic development in Namibia is the growth of wildlife conservancies. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard

These conservancies are particularly important to the rural generally unemployed population.

An aquifer called "Ohangwena II" has been discovered, capable of supplying the 800,000 people in the North for 400 years.[63] Experts estimate that Namibia has 7720 km3 of underground water.[64][65] LENOVO V022402AS1 Laptop Keyboard

Providing 25% of Namibia's revenue, mining is the single most important contributor to the economy.[66] Namibia is the fourth largest exporter of non-fuel minerals in Africa and the world's fourth largest producer of uranium. There has been significant investment in uranium mining and Namibia is set to become the largest exporter of uranium by 2015.[67] HP G62-a38SE Laptop Keyboard

Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds.[68] While Namibia is known predominantly for its gem diamond and uranium deposits, a number of other minerals are extracted industrially such as lead, tungsten, gold, tin, fluorspar,manganese, marble, copper and zinc. There are offshore gas deposits in the Atlantic Ocean that are planned to be extracted in the future.[55] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

According to "The Diamond Investigation", a book about the global diamond market, from 1978, De Beers, the largest diamond company, bought most of the Namibian diamonds, and would continue to do so, because "whatever government eventually comes to power they will need this revenue to survive".[69] HP Pavilion dv5-1160ep laptop keyboard

Domestic supply voltage is 220V AC. Electricity is generated mainly by thermal and hydroelectric power plants. Non-conventional methods of electricity generation also play some role. Encouraged by the rich uranium deposits the Namibian government plans to erect its first nuclear power station by 2018, also uranium enrichment is envisaged to happen locally.[70] HP Pavilion DV6-1145ew laptop keyboard

Tourism is a major contributor (14.5%) to Namibia's GDP, creating tens of thousands of jobs (18.2% of all employment) directly or indirectly and servicing over a million tourists per annum.[71] The country is among the prime destinations in Africa and is known for ecotourism which features Namibia's extensive wildlife.[72] HP G61-435ST laptop keyboard

There are many lodges and reserves to accommodate eco-tourists. Sport Hunting is also a large, and growing component of the Namibian economy, accounting for 14% of total tourism in the year 2000, or $19.6 million US dollars, with Namibia boasting numerous species sought after by international sport hunters.[73] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

In addition, extreme sports such as sandboarding, skydivingand 4x4ing have become popular, and many cities have companies that provide tours. The most visited places include theCaprivi Strip, Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei, the Skeleton Coast Park, Sesriem, Etosha Pan and the coastal towns ofSwakopmund, Walvis Bay and Lüderitz.[74] Lenovo 3000 G450 2949 laptop keyboard

Cost of living in Namibia is relatively high because most of the goods including cereals need to be imported. Business monopoly in some sectors causes higher profit bookings and further raising of prices. Its capital city, Windhoek is currently ranked as the 150th most expensive place in the world for expatriates to live.[75] COMPAQ Presario R3000 laptop keyboard

Personal income tax is applicable to total taxable income of an individual and all individuals are taxed at progressive marginal rates over a series of income brackets. While the Value added tax (VAT) is applicable to most of the commodities and services.[76] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Namibia has the second-lowest population density of any sovereign country, after Mongolia.[77] The majority of the Namibian population is of Bantu-speaking origin – mostly of the Ovambo ethnicity, which forms about half of the population – residing mainly in the north of the country, although many are now resident in towns throughout Namibia. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard

Other ethnic groups are the Herero and Himba people, who speak a similar language, and the Damara, who speak the same "click" language as theNama.

In addition to the Bantu majority, there are large groups of Khoisan (such as Nama and Bushmen), who are descendants of the original inhabitants of Southern Africa. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

The country also contains some descendants of refugees from Angola. There are also two smaller groups of people with mixed racial origins, called "Coloureds" and "Basters", who together make up 6.6% (with the Coloureds outnumbering the Basters two to one). There is a large Chinese minority in Namibia.[78] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

Whites (mainly of Afrikaner, German, British and Portuguese) make up about 6.4% of the population; they form the second-largest population of European ancestry, both in terms of percentage and actual numbers, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

in Sub-Saharan Africa after that of South Africa.[79] Most Namibian whites and nearly all those of mixed race speak Afrikaans and share similar origins, culture, and religion as the white and coloured populations of South Africa. A smaller proportion of whites (around 30,000) trace their family origins HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

directly back to German colonial settlers and maintain German cultural and educational institutions. Nearly all Portuguese settlers came to the country from the former Portuguese colony of Angola.[80] The 1960 census reported 526,004 persons in what was then South-West Africa, including 73,464 whites (14%).[81] HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard

Namibia conducts a census every ten years. After independence the first Population and Housing Census was carried out in 1991, further rounds followed in 2001 and 2011.[82] The data collection method is to count every person resident in Namibia on the census reference night, wherever they happen to be. This is called the de facto method.[83] HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard

For enumeration purposes the country is demarcated into 4,042 enumeration areas. These areas do not overlap with constituency boundaries in order to get reliable data for election purposes as well.[84] TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST5701 Laptop Keyboard

The 2011 Population and Housing Census counted 2,113,077 inhabitants of Namibia. Between 2001 and 2011 the annual population growth was 1.4%, down from 2.6% in the previous ten–year period.[85] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The official language is English. Until 1990, German and Afrikaans were also official languages. Long before Namibia's independence from South Africa, SWAPO had decided that the country should become officially monolingual, HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

consciously choosing this approach in contrast to that of its neighbour, which was regarded as "a deliberate policy of ethnolinguistic fragmentation."[87] Consequently, English became the sole official language of Namibia. Some other languages have received semi-official recognition by being allowed as medium of instruction in primary schools. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The northern majority of Namibians speak Oshiwambo as their first language, whereas the most widely understood and spoken language is Afrikaans. Among the younger generation, the most widely understood languages are English and Afrikaans. Both Afrikaans and English are used primarily as a second language reserved for public communication, but small first-language groups exist throughout the country.  HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

While the official language is English, most of the white population speaks either German or Afrikaans. Even today, 90 years after the end of the German colonial era, the German language plays a leading role as a commercial language. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Afrikaans is spoken by 60% of the white community, German is spoken by 32%, English is spoken by 7% and Portuguese by 1%.[79] Geographical proximity to Portuguese-speaking Angola explains the relatively high number of lusophones; in 2011 these were estimated to be 100,000, or 4–5% of the total population.[88]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 52.2 years in 2012 – among the lowest in the world.[89] The AIDS epidemic is a large problem in Namibia. Though its rate of infection is substantially lower than that of its eastern neighbour, Botswana, approximately 13.1% of the adult population is infected with HIV.[90TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard

 In 2001, there were an estimated 210,000 people living with HIV/AIDS, and the estimated death toll in 2003 was 16,000. According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, the epidemic in Namibia "appears to be leveling off."[91] As the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reduced the working-aged population, the number of orphans has increased. It falls to the government to provide education, food, shelter and clothing for these orphans.[92] Packard Bell Easynote TX86 laptop keyboard

The malaria problem seems to be compounded by the AIDS epidemic. Research has shown that in Namibia the risk of contracting malaria is 14.5% greater if a person is also infected with HIV. The risk of death from malaria is also raised by approximately 50% with a concurrent HIV infection.[93] Given infection rates this large, Lenovo Thinkpad X220 laptop keyboard

as well as a looming malaria problem, it may be very difficult for the government to deal with both the medical and economic impacts of this epidemic. The country had only 598 physicians in 2002.[94] Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU laptop keyboard

Namibia has compulsory free education for 10 years between the ages of 6 and 16. Grades 1–7 are primary level, grades 8–12 secondary. In 1998, there were 400,325 Namibian students in primary school and 115,237 students in secondary schools.  Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard

The pupil-teacher ratio in 1999 was estimated at 32:1, with about 8% of the GDP being spent on education.[95] Curriculum development, educational research, and professional development of teachers is centrally organised by the National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) in Okahandja.[96] HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

Most schools in Namibia are state-run, but a few private schools are also part of the country's education system. There are four teacher training colleges, three colleges of agriculture, a police training college, a Polytechnic at university level, and a National University. TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 laptop keyboard

Namibia is one of few countries in the world to specifically address conservation and protection of natural resources in its constitution.[97] Article 95 states, "The State shall actively promote and maintain the welfare of the people by adopting international policies aimed at the following: HP Pavilion dv5-1044ca laptop keyboard

maintenance of ecosystems, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity of Namibia, and utilisation of living natural resources on a sustainable basis for the benefit of all Namibians, both present and future."[97] GATEWAY NX570X laptop keyboard

In 1993, the newly formed government of Namibia received funding from the United States Agency for International Development(USAID) through its Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE) Project.[98] The Ministry of Environment and Tourism with the financial support from organisations such as USAID, Endangered Wildlife Trust,  HP Pavilion dv5-1050ed laptop keyboard

WWF, and Canadian Ambassador's Fund, together form a Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) support structure. The main goal of this project is promote sustainable natural resource management by giving local communities rights to wildlife management and tourism.[99] Lenovo 3000 G430 4153 laptop keyboard

The most popular sport in Namibia is football. The Namibia national football team qualified for the 2008 Africa Cup of Nations but has yet to qualify for any World Cups. However, the most successful national team is the Namibian rugby team, having competed in four separate World Cups. Namibia were participants in the 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011 Rugby World Cups. Cricket is also popular, with the national side having played in the 2003 Cricket World Cup.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

Inline hockey was first played in 1995 and has also become more and more popular in the last years. The Women's inline hockey National Team participated in the 2008 FIRS World Championships. Namibia is the home for one of the toughest footraces in the world, the Namibian ultra marathon. HP Pavilion G6-1B87CL laptop keyboard

The most famous athlete from Namibia is certainly Frankie Fredericks, sprinter (100 and 200 m). He won four Olympic silver medals (1992, 1996) and also has medals from several World Athletics Championships. He is also known for humanitarian activities in Namibia and further.

The Swakopmund Skydiving Club in Swakopmund was founded in 1974, and operates still today from Swakopmund Airport. HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard

The origins of SADC lie in the 1960s and 1970s, when the leaders of majority-ruled countries and national liberation movements coordinated their political, diplomatic and military struggles to bring an end to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security cooperation leg of today's SADC was the informal Frontline States (FLS) grouping. It was formed in 1980. HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was the forerunner of the socio-economic cooperation leg of today's SADC. The adoption by nine majority-ruled southern African countries of the Lusaka declaration on 1 April 1980 paved the way for the formal establishment of SADCC in April 1980. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard

Membership of the FLS and SADCC sometimes differed.

SADCC was transformed into SADC on 17 August 1992, with the adoption by the founding members of SADCC and newly independentNamibia of the Windhoek declaration and treaty establishing SADC. Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

The 1992 SADC provided for both socio-economic cooperation and political and security cooperation. In reality, the FLS was dissolved only in 1994, after South Africa's first democratic elections. Subsequent efforts to place political and security cooperation on a firm institutional footing under SADC's umbrella failed.  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

On 14 August 2001, the 1992 SADC treaty was amended. The amendment heralded the overhaul of the structures, policies and procedures of SADC, a process which is ongoing. One of the changes is that political and security cooperation is institutionalised in the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security (OPDS). SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

One of the principal SADC bodies, it is subject to the oversight of the organisation's supreme body, the Summit, which comprises the heads of state or government. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

One significant challenge is that member states also participate in other regional economic cooperation schemes and regional political and security cooperation schemes that may compete with or undermine SADC's aims. For example, South Africa and Botswana both belong to the Southern Africa Customs Union, Zambia is a part of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and Tanzania is a member of the East African Community. GATEWAY NX570X Laptop Keyboard

On Wednesday 22 October 2008, SADC joined with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and the East African Community to form the African Free Trade Zone. The leaders of the three trading blocs agreed to create a single free trade zone, the African Free Trade Zone, consisting of 26 countries with a GDP of an estimated $624bn (£382.9bn). HP G61-336NR Laptop Keyboard

It is hoped the African Free Trade Zone agreement would ease access to markets within the zone and end problems arising from the fact that several of the member countries belong to multiple groups. SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard

The African Free Trade Zone effective has been more than a hundred years in the making--a trade zone spanning the whole African continent from Cape to Cairo and envisioned by Cecil Rhodes and other British imperialists in the 1890s. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

The only difference is that the African Free Trade Zone is the creation of African Countries for the mutual benefit and development of its member countries. The idea is a free trade zone spanning the whole continent from the Cape to Cairo (Cape Town in the Republic of South Africa to Cairo in Egypt). HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

In addition to eliminating duplicative membership and the problem member states also participating in other regional economic cooperation schemes and regional political and security cooperation schemes that may compete with or undermine each other, the African Free Trade Zone further aims to strengthen the bloc's bargaining power when negotiating international deals. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Analysts believe that the African Free Trade Zone agreement will help intra-regional trade and boost growth.

The organization's current flag was created by a consensus of the people of the member countries. A competition within the member states was held to amend the flag to reflect the new acronym in the same style as used previously.  HP Compaq NW8440 Laptop Keyboard

Contest proposals ended in 1994 and in 1995 a new flag was chosen. The new flag has a Navy Blue field with a Green circle in the centre and SADC logo is in the middle of that green circle.

In the official description of the flag, Blue symbolises the sky and ocean that bring water and life, and green is for the rich Varied Flora and Fauna, SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

while the regions rich gold wealth is represented in the Logo itself. The previous Flag was a blank white field with the SADCC Logo on centered on it. The Flag was first used in the 1995 SADC Summit in the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park near Johannesburg. SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

In 2006, the AU decided to create a Committee "to consider the implementation of a rotation system between the regions" in relation to the presidency. Controversy arose at the 2006 summit when Sudan announced its candidacy for the AU's chairmanship, ACER TravelMate 2403 Series laptop keyboard

as a representative of the East African region. Several member states refused to support Sudan because of tensions over Darfur (see also below). Sudan ultimately withdrew its candidacy and President Denis Sassou-Nguesso of the Republic

of the Congo was elected to a one-year term. At the January 2007 summit, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Sassou-Nguesso was replaced by President John Agyekum Kufuor of Ghana, despite another attempt by Sudan to gain the chair. 2007 was the 50th anniversary of Ghana's independence, a symbolic moment for the country to hold the chair of the AU—and to host the mid-year summit at which the proposed Union Government was also discussed. DELL Vostro PP38L laptop keyboard

 In January 2008, President Jakaya Kikwete of Tanzania took over as chair, representing the East African region and thus apparently ending Sudan's attempt to become chair—at least till the rotation returns to East Africa.[29] The current chair is Benin. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard

One of the most serious issues to face Africa is not a dispute between nations, but rather the rapid spread of HIV and the AIDS pandemic. Sub-Saharan Africa, especially southern Africa, is by far the most affected area in the world, and the infection is now starting to claim lives by the millions. GATEWAY MX6956 laptop keyboard

While the measurement of HIV prevalence rates has proved methodologically challenging, more than 20% of the sexually active population of many countries of southern Africa may be infected, with South Africa, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe all expected to have a decrease in life expectancy by an average of 6.5 years. GATEWAY NX570X laptop keyboard

The effects on South Africa, which constitutes 30% of the AU's economy,[citation needed] threatens to significantly stunt GDP growth, and thus internal and external trade for the continent[.]IBM Thinkpad Z60m laptop keyboard

The AU attempted to mediate in the early stages of the 2011 Libyan civil war, forming an ad hoc committee of five presidents (Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso, Malian President Amadou Toumani Touré, Mauritanian President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, South African President Jacob Zuma, and Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni) to broker a truce.[30] ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

However, the beginning of the NATO-led military intervention in March 2011 prevented the committee from traveling to Libya to meet with Libyan leader and former head of the AU until 2010 Muammar Gaddafi.[31] As a body, the AU sharply dissented from the United Nations Security Council's decision to create a no-fly zone over Libya,[32]  HP G71-445US laptop keyboard

though a few member states, such as Botswana,[33] Gabon,[34] Zambia,[35] and others expressed support for the resolution.

As a result of Gaddafi's defeat at the Battle of Tripoli, the decisive battle of the war, in August 2011, Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

the Arab League voted to recognise the anti-GaddafiNational Transitional Council as the legitimate government of the country pending elections,[36] yet although the council has been recognised by several AU member states, including two countries that are also members of the Arab League,[37][38] SONY VAIO VGN-CS110D/W laptop keyboard

the AU Peace and Security Council voted on 26 August 2011 not to recognise it, insisting that a ceasefire be agreed to and a national unity government be formed by both sides in the civil war.[39] A number of AU member states led by Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Rwanda requested that the AU recognise the NTC as Libya's interim governing authority,[40][41] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

and several other AU member states have recognised the NTC regardless of the Peace and Security Council's decision.[42][43] However, AU member states Algeria[44] and Zimbabwe[45] have indicated they will not recognise the NTC, and South Africa has expressed reservations as well.[46][47]  ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

One of the objectives of the AU is to "promote peace, security, and stability on the continent".[51] Among its principles is 'Peaceful resolution of conflicts among Member States of the Union through such appropriate means as may be decided upon by the Assembly'.[52] The primary body charged with implementing these objectives and principles is the Peace and Security Council. The PSC has the power, among other things, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

to authorise peace support missions, to impose sanctions in case of unconstitutional change of government, and to "take initiatives and action it deems appropriate" in response to potential or actual conflicts. The PSC is a decision-making body in its own right, and its decisions are binding on member states. SONY Vaio PCG-K23 Laptop Keyboard

Article 4(h) of the Constitutive Act, repeated in article 4 of the Protocol to the Constitutive Act on the PSC, also recognises the right of the Union to intervene in member state in circumstances of war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity. Any decision to intervene in a member state under article 4 of the Constitutive Act will be made by the Assembly on the recommendation of the PSC. SONY 147664712 Laptop Keyboard

Since it first met in 2004, the PSC has been active in relation to the crises in Darfur, Comoros, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire and other countries. It has adopted resolutions creating the AU peacekeeping operations in Somalia and Darfur, and imposing sanctions against persons undermining peace and security (such as travel bans and asset freezes against the leaders of the rebellion in Comoros). SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

The Council is in the process of overseeing the establishment of a "standby force" to serve as a permanent African peacekeeping force.[53]

In response to the ongoing Darfur conflict in Sudan, the AU has deployed 7,000 peacekeepers, many from Rwanda and Nigeria, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard

 to Darfur. While a donor's conference in Addis Ababa in 2005 helped raise funds to sustain the peacekeepers through that year and into 2006, in July 2006 the AU said it would pull out at the end of September when its mandate expires.[54]  DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

Critics of the AU peacekeepers, including Dr. Eric Reeves, have said these forces are largely ineffective due to lack of funds, personnel, and expertise. Monitoring an area roughly the size of France has made it even more difficult to sustain an effective mission. In June 2006, the United States Congress appropriated US$173 million for the AU force. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard

Some, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, have called for United Nations (UN) orNATO intervention to augment and/or replace the AU peacekeepers. The UN has considered deploying a force, though it would not likely enter the country until at least October 2007.[55] HP G62-a20EJ Laptop Keyboard

The under-funded and badly equipped AU mission was set to expire on 31 December 2006 but was extended to 30 June 2007 and merged with theUnited Nations African Union Mission in Darfur in October 2007. In July 2009 the African Union ceased cooperation with the International Criminal Court, refusing to recognize the international arrest warrant it had issued against Sudan's leader, Omar al-Bashir, who was indicted in 2008 for War crimes[56]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

From the early 1990s up until recently, Somalia was without a functioning central government. A peace agreement aimed at ending the civil war that broke out following the collapse of the Siad Barre regime was signed in 2006 after many years of peace talks. However, the new government was almost immediately threatened by further violence. HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard

To temporarily shore up the government's military base, starting in March 2007, AU soldiers began arriving in Mogadishu as part of a peacekeeping force that was intended by the AU to eventually be 8,000 strong.[57] SONY VAIO VGN-CR231E laptop keyboard

Eritrea recalled its ambassadors to the African Union on 20 November 2009[58] after the African Union called on the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions on them due to their alleged support of Somali Islamists attempting to topple the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia, the internationally recognized government of Somalia which holds Somalia's seat on the African Union.[59] On 22 December 2009, HP Pavilion dv6-2115so laptop keyboard

the Security Council passed UNSCR 1907, which imposed an arms embargo on Eritrea, travel bans on Eritrean leaders, and asset freezes on Eritrean officials. Eritrea strongly criticised the resolution. In January 2011, Eritrea reestablished their mission to the AU in Addis Ababa.[60] HP Pavilion dv6-2141ee laptop keyboard

The historical foundations of the African Union originated in the Union of African States, an early confederation that was established by Kwame Nkrumah in the 1960s, as well as subsequent attempts to unite Africa, HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard

including the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), which was established on 25 May 1963, and the African Economic Community in 1981. Critics argued that the OAU in particular did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it the "Dictators' Club".[67] IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

The idea of creating the AU was revived in the mid-1990s under the leadership of Libyan head of state Muammar al-Gaddafi: the heads of state and government of the OAU issued the Sirte Declaration (named after Sirte, in Libya) on 9 September 1999, calling for the establishment of an African Union. The Declaration was followed by summits at Lomé in 2000, DELL Inspiron 6000 laptop keyboard

when the Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted, and at Lusaka in 2001, when the plan for the implementation of the African Union was adopted. During the same period, the initiative for the establishment of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), was also established. HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

The African Union was launched in Durban on 9 July 2002, by its first chairperson, South African Thabo Mbeki, at the first session of the Assembly of the African Union. The second session of the Assembly was in Maputo in 2003, and the third session in Addis Ababa on 6 July 2004. HP Pavilion dv6-2173cl laptop keyboard

The emblem of the African Union consists of a gold ribbon bearing small interlocking red rings, from which palm leaves shoot up around an outer gold circle and an inner green circle, within which is a gold representation of Africa.  ASUS A9R laptop keyboard

The red interlinked rings stand for African solidarity and the blood shed for the liberation of Africa; the palm leaves for peace; the gold, for Africa's wealth and bright future; the green, for African hopes and aspirations. To symbolise African unity, the silhouette of Africa is drawn without internal borders. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

The African Union adopted its new flag at its 14th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government taking place in Addis Ababa 2010. During the 8th African Union Summit which took place in Addis Ababa on 29 and 30 January 2007, the Heads of State and Government decided to launch a competition for the selection of a new flag for the Union. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

They prescribed a green background for the flag symbolising hope of Africa and stars to represent Member States.

Pursuant to this decision, the African Union Commission (AUC) organized a competition for the selection of a new flag for the African Union. The AUC received a total of 106 entries proposed by citizens of 19 African countries and 2 from the Diaspora.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

The proposals were then examined by a panel of experts put in place by the African Union Commission and selected from the five African regions for short listing according to the main directions given by the Heads of State and Government. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

At the 13th Ordinary Session of the Assembly, the Heads of State and Government examined the report of the Panel and selected one among all the proposals. The flag is now part of the paraphernalia of the African Union and replaces the old one. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard

The old flag of the African Union bears a broad green horizontal stripe, a narrow band of gold, the emblem of the African Union at the centre of a broad white stripe, another narrow gold band and a final broad green stripe. Again, the green and gold symbolise Africa's hopes and aspirations as well as its wealth and bright future, TOSHIBA Qosmio F20 Series Laptop Keyboard

and the white represents the purity of Africa's desire for friends throughout the world. The flag has led to the creation of the "national colours" of Africa of gold and green (sometimes together with white). These colours are visible in one way or another in the flags of many African nations. Together the colours green, gold, and red constitute the Pan-African colours. SONY VAIO PCG-F20 Laptop Keyboard

The African Union has adopted a new anthem, Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together, and has the chorus O sons and daughters of Africa, flesh of the sun and flesh of the sky, Let us make Africa the tree of life.  HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO[pronunciation?]) (German: Südwestafrikanische Volksorganisation, SWAVO, Afrikaans: Suidwes-Afrikaanse Volk-Organisasie, SWAVO) is a political party and former national liberation movement in Namibia. It has been the governing party in Namibia since achieving independence in 1990.  HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard

The party won 75.25% of the popular vote and 54 out of 72 seats in the parliamentary election held in November 2009.[3]

Though the organisation rejected the term "South West Africa" and insisted on replacing it with "Namibia",HP G61-425ES Laptop Keyboard

the organisation's own name—derived from the territory's old name—was already too deeply rooted to be changed. However, the original full name is no longer used and only the acronym remains; the party's official name today is SWAPO Party of Namibia.[4] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

After World War I the League of Nations gave South-West Africa, formerly a German colony, to the United Kingdom as amandate under the title of South Africa. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

SWAPO was founded on 19 April 1960 by Andimba Toivo ya Toivo as the successor of the Ovamboland People's Congress, an organisation established in 1957 and renamed the Ovamboland People's Organization in 1959. The reason for the renaming was that although the organisation had its base among the Ovambo people of northern Namibia it wanted to be representative of all Namibians.[4] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

During 1962 SWAPO had emerged as the dominant nationalist organisation for the Namibian people, co-opting other groups such as the South West Africa National Union (SWANU), and in 1976 the Namibia African People's Democratic Organisation.[8] SWAPO used guerrilla tactics to fight the South African military. HP 608558-001 Laptop Keyboard

On 26 August 1966 the first major clash of the conflict took place, when a unit of the South African Police, supported by South African Air Force, exchanged fire with SWAPO forces. This date is generally regarded as the start of what became known in South Africa as the Border War. In 1972 the United Nations General Assembly recognised SWAPO as the 'sole DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

legitimate representative' of Namibia's people.[9] The Norwegian government began giving aid directly to SWAPO in 1974.[10]

The country of Angola gained its independence on 11 November 1975 following its war for independence. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

The leftist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union, came to power. The MPLA offered SWAPO bases in Angola to launch attacks against the South African military in March 1976. ACER MP-04653U4-698 Laptop Keyboard

Various groups have claimed that SWAPO committed serious human rights abuses against suspected spies during the independence struggle. One of which includes the Breaking the Wall of Silence (BWS), which was founded by those detainees to press the SWAPO-government on the issue.[11][12] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

SWAPO denies serious infractions and claims anything that did happen was in the name of liberation. The stories of the detainees begins with a series of successful South African raids that made the SWAPO leadership believe spies existed in the movement. Hundreds of SWAPO cadres were imprisoned, tortured and interrogated.[13] GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

In 2005 the P.E.A.C.E. Centre conducted an extensive study on the situation Namibian ex-fighters and their families fifteen years after Independence. The resultant ebook investigates the post-independence situation of those who fought on both sides of the Namibian Liberation War. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Data from this research indicate that ex-fighters still exhibit symptoms of long-term post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

The findings indicate there is a correlation between the life circumstances of ex-fighters and their lack of resilience to traumatic war experiences, with resiliency being linked to a number of protective factors such as the socio-economic situation of the survivors, their socio-political environment, their social support networks and their cognitive processes.[14] HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

It is argued that in the case of Namibian ex-fighters, long term psychological distress is different from a simple PTSD diagnosis because the survivor has almost invariably gone almost two decades without seeking treatment. Moreover, during this time, the ex-fighters have also been exposed to additional social and psychological stressors which, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

for a person not suffering from long-term psychological distress would only have a fleeting impact, but for a sufferer of long-term psychological distress, each life incident could reduce the survivor's resilience to trauma as well as triggering "flashbacks".[14] HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires