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30 août 2013 5 30 /08 /août /2013 11:22

Northern Mariana Islands

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Chamorro: Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas) is one of two insular areas that are Commonwealths of the United States; the other is Puerto Rico. HP Pavilion DV6-1122us laptop keyboard

The United States Census Bureau reports the total land area of all islands as 183.5 square miles (475.26 km2).[4] As of the 2010 census, the Commonwealth has a population of 53,883,[5]of which over 90% live on the island of Saipan. Of the fourteen other islands, only two – Tinian andRota – are permanently inhabited. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

The Commonwealth's center of government is in the village of Capital Hill on Saipan. As the island is governed as a single municipality, most publications name Saipan as the Commonwealth's capital.

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The southern islands are limestone, with level terraces and fringing coral reefs. The northern islands are volcanic, with active volcanoes on several islands, includingAnatahan, Pagan and Agrihan. The volcano on Agrihan has the highest elevation at 3,166 feet (965 m). TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5163 laptop keyboard

Anatahan Volcano is a small volcanic island 80 miles (130 km) north of Saipan. It is about 6 miles (10 km) long and 2 miles (3 km) wide. Anatahan began erupting from its east crater on May 10, 2003, at about 6 p.m. (0800 UTC). It has since alternated between eruptive and calm periods. On April 6, 2005, approximately 1,800,000 cubic feet (50,970 m3) of ash and rock were ejected, causing a large, black cloud to drift south over Saipan and Tinian. HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard

The first European exploration of the area was in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, who landed on nearby Guam and claimed the islands for Spain. The Spanish ships were met offshore by the native Chamorros, who delivered refreshments and then helped themselves to a small boat belonging to Magellan's fleet. This led to a cultural clash,  COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

since in Chamorro tradition there was little private property and taking something one needed, such as a boat for fishing, was not considered stealing. The Spanish did not understand this custom. The Spanish fought against the local Chamorro until the boat was recovered. Three days after he had been welcomed on his arrival, Magellan fled the archipelago under attack.[citation needed]  HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard

In 1565, Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Guam and took possession of the islands in the name of theSpanish Crown.[citation needed] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Guam was an important stop-over for the Manila Galleons, a convoy of ships carrying passengers and cargo such as silver, plants and animals from Acapulco (Mexico) to Manila. On the return trip from the Philippines to Mexico, the galleons did not call at Guam as the eastern winds were farther north, near the coast of Japan.[citation needed] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Most of the islands' native population (90–95%)[7] died from Spanish diseases or married non-Chamorro settlers under Spanish rule. New settlers, primarily from the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, were brought to repopulate the islands. The Chamorro population did gradually recover, and Chamorro,Filipino and Carolinian languages and other ethnic differences remain in the Marianas. Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

Spanish colonists forced the Chamorros to be concentrated on Guam to encourage assimilation and conversion to Roman Catholicism. By the time Chamorros were allowed to return to the Northern Marianas, TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard

many Carolinians from present-day eastern Yap State and western Chuuk State had settled in the Marianas. Carolinians and Chamorros now are both considered as indigenous and both languages are official in the Commonwealth, though not on Guam.[citation needed] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded Guam to the United States and sold the remainder of the Marianas, along with the Caroline Islands, to the German Empire under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany administered the islands as part of the colony of German New Guinea and did little in terms of development.  Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard

Early in World War I, the Empire of Japan declared war on Germany and invaded the Northern Marianas. In 1919, the League of Nations awarded the islands to Japan, and the Japanese administered them as part of the South Pacific Mandate. During the Japanese period, sugar cane became the main industry of the islands. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Garapan on Saipan was developed as a regional capital, and numerous Japanese (including ethnic Koreans, Okinawan and Taiwanese immigrated to the islands. In the census of December 1939, the total population of the South Pacific Mandate was 129,104, of which 77,257 were Japanese (including ethnic Taiwanese and Koreans). HP Mini 210-1014TU Laptop Keyboard

On Saipan the population before the war 29,348 Japanese settlers and 3,926 Chamorro and Caroline Islanders; Tinian had 15,700 Japanese settlers (including 2700 ethnic Koreans and 22 ethnic Chamorro). HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard

Hours after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces from the Marianas launched an invasion of Guam on December 8, 1941. Chamorros from the Northern Marianas, then under Japanese rule for more than two decades, were brought to Guam to assist the Japanese administration. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

This, combined with the harsh treatment of Guamanian Chamorros during the 31-month occupation, created a rift that would become the main reason Guamanians rejected the reunification referendum approved by the Northern Marianas in the 1960s. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

Near the end of World War II, the United States military invaded the Mariana Islands on June 15, 1944, beginning with the Battle of Saipan, which ended on July 9. Of the 30,000 Japanese troops that defended Saipan, fewer than 1,000 remained alive at battle's end.[8] Over 20,000 Japanese civilians were also killed, or committed suicide rather than be captured. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Rota was left untouched (and isolated) until the Japanese surrender in August 1945, due to its military insignificance. The war did not end for everyone with the signing of the armistice. The last group of Japanese holdouts surrendered on Saipan on December 1, 1945. On Guam, Japanese soldier Shoichi Yokoi, unaware that the war had ended, hid in a jungle cave in the Talofofo area until 1972. HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard

After the end of the war, Japanese nationals were eventually repatriated to the Japanese home islands.

The Northern Mariana Islands have a presidential representative democratic system, in which the governor is head of government, with a multi-party system. The Northern Mariana Islands are a commonwealth of the United States. Federal funds to the Commonwealth are administered by the Office of Insular Affairs of the U.S. Department of the Interior. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

Repeating the separation of powers in other U.S. territories and state governments, executive power is exercised by theGovernor of the Northern Mariana Islands. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

Some critics, including the author of the political website Saipan Sucks say that politics in the Northern Mariana Islands is often "more a function of family relationships and personal loyalties" where the size of one's extended family is more important than a candidate's personal qualifications. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard

They charge that this is nepotism carried out within the trappings of democracy.[12][13]

In April 2012, anticipating a loss of funding by 2014, the Commonwealth's public pension fund declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[14] SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

The retirement fund is a defined benefit type pension plan and was only partially funded by the government, with only $268.4 million in assets and $911 million in liabilities. The plan experienced low investment returns and a benefit structure that had been increased without raises in funding.[15] DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

In August 2012, cries for impeachment[16] arose, as the sitting governor, Benigno Fitial, Republican, was being held responsible for not paying withheld payments into the retirement fund,[17] not paying the local utility (Commonwealth Utilities or "CUC")TOSHIBA P205-S7469 laptop keyboard

for government offices,[18] cutting off funding to the only hospital in the Northern Marianas,[19][20] interfering with the delivery of a subpeona of to his attorney general,[21] withholding required funds from the Public Schools,[22][23] and for signing sole source $190 million contract for power generation.[24][25] HP 6730S laptop keyboard

After Japan's defeat, the islands were administered by the United States as part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; which gave responsibility for defense and foreign affairs to the United States. Four referenda on either integration with Guam or the islands' status were held in1958, 1961, 1963 and 1969. SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard

On each occasion a majority voted in favor of integration with Guam. However, the proposal remained unfulfilled, with Guam rejecting integration in a 1969 referendum. The people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the 1970s not to seek independence, but instead to forge closer links with the United States. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972 and a covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the United States was approved in a 1975 referendum. A new government and constitution went into effect in 1978 after being approved in a 1977 referendum. Similar to other U.S. territories, HP G42-475TU laptop keyboard

the islands do not have representation in the U.S. Senate, but are represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by a delegate (beginning January 2009 for the CNMI) who may vote in committee but not on the House floor.[9] HP G62-a25SI laptop keyboard

In 1947, the Northern Mariana Islands became part of the post–World War II United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI). The United States became the TTPI's administering authority under the terms of a trusteeship agreement. In 1976, Congress approved the mutually negotiated Covenant to establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America. IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) government adopted its own constitution in 1977, and the constitutional government took office in January 1978. The Covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard

which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents. This led to CNMI being represented in the United States (and especially Washington, D.C.) by a Resident Representative who was elected at-large by CNMI voters and whose office was paid for by the CNMI government. SONY VAIO VGN-N320E/W laptop keyboard

The Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 ("CNRA”), approved by the U.S. Congress on May 8, 2008, established a CNMI delegate's seat; Democrat Gregorio Sablan was elected in November 2008 as the first CNMI delegate and took office in the 111th Congress. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

On December 22, 1990, the United Nations Trusteeship Council terminated the TTPI as it applied to the CNMI and five other of the TTPI's original seven districts (the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap)), this was acknowledged in United Nations Security Council Resolution 683 passed on the same day. HP Pavilion dv6-2170eo laptop keyboard

Under the Covenant, in general, United States federal law applies to CNMI. However, the CNMI is outside the customs territory of the United States and, although the internal revenue code does apply in the form of a local income tax,  TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5153 laptop keyboard

the income tax system is largely locally determined. According to the Covenant, the federal minimum wage and federal immigration laws "HP Pavilion DV7-3180us laptop keyboard

will not apply to the Northern Mariana Islands except in the manner and to the extent made applicable to them by the Congress by law after termination of the Trusteeship Agreement."[26] The local control of minimum wage was superseded by the United States Congress in 2007. HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard

Prior to November 28, 2009, U.S. immigration laws did not apply in the CNMI. Rather, a separate immigration system existed in the CNMI. This system was established under the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America ("Covenant"), SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard

which was signed in 1975 and codified as 48 U.S.C. § 1801. The Covenant was unilaterally amended by the CNRA, thus altering the CNMI's immigration system. Specifically, CNRA § 702(a) amended the Covenant to state that "the provisions of the 'immigration laws' (as defined in section 101(a)(17) HP Pavilion dv6-2170ee laptop keyboard

of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(17))) shall apply to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands." 2 Further, under CNRA § 702(a), the "immigration laws," as well as the amendments to the Covenant, HP G62-367DX Laptop Keyboard

"shall...supersede and replace all laws, provisions, or programs of the Commonwealth relating to the admission of aliens and the removal of aliens from the Commonwealth."[27] Transition to U.S. immigration laws began November 28, 2009.[28][29] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

The CNMI has a United States district court which exercises jurisdiction over the District of the Northern Mariana Islands (DNMI), which is coterminous with the CNMI. The United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands was established by act of Congress in 1977 and began operations in January 1978.  SONY Vaio PCG-K33 Laptop Keyboard

The court sits on the island of Saipan, but may sit other places within the Commonwealth. The district court has the same jurisdiction as all other United States district courts, including diversity jurisdiction and bankruptcy jurisdiction. Appeals are taken to the Ninth Circuit. The district court's local rules specifically require lawyers to wear shoes to court.[30]  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands benefits from substantial subsidies and development assistance from the federal government of the United States. The economy also relies heavily on tourism, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

especially from Japan, and the rapidly dwindling garment manufacturing sector. The tourism industry has also been dwindling since late 2005. As of late 2006, tourist arrivals fell 15.23% (73,000 potential visitors) from the eleven months prior.[31] HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Northern Mariana Islands had successfully used its position as a free trade area with the DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

U.S., while at the same time not being subject to the samelabor laws. For example, the $3.05 per hour minimum wage in the Commonwealth, which lasted from 1997 to 2007, was lower than in the U.S. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

and some other worker protections are weaker, leading to lower production costs. That allowed garments to be labeled "Made in USA" without having to comply with all U.S. labor laws. However, the U.S. minimum wage law signed by President Bush on May 25, 2007, resulted in stepped increases in the Northern Marianas' minimum wage, which will allow it to reach the U.S. level by 2015.[32] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

The first step (to $3.55) became effective July 25, 2007, and a yearly increase of $0.50 will take effect every May thereafter until the CNMI minimum wage equals the nationwide minimum wage. However, a law signed in December 2009 delayed the yearly increase from May to September. As of September 30, 2010, the minimum wage is $5.05 per hour.[33] IBM 42T4026 laptop keyboard

In the extreme, the island's exemption from U.S. labor laws had led to many alleged exploitations including recent claims of sweatshops, child labor,child prostitution, and even forced abortions.[34][35] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

An immigration system mostly outside of federal U.S. control (which ended on November 28, 2009) resulted in a large number of Chinese migrant workers (about 15,000 during the peak years) employed in the islands' garment trade. However,  Packard Bell Easynote TM98 laptop keyboard

the lifting of World Trade Organization restrictions on Chinese imports to the U.S. in 2005 had put the Commonwealth-based trade under severe pressure, leading to a number of recent factory closures. Adding to the U.S.-imposed scheduled wage increases, the garment industry became extinct by 2009.[36] SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

Agricultural production, primarily of tapioca, cattle, coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons, exists, but is relatively unimportant in the economy.[citation needed] HP Pavilion DV7T-4100 laptop keyboard

Team sports popular in the United States were introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands by American soldiers during World War II. Baseball is the islands' most popular sport. CNMI teams have made appearances in the Little League World Series (in the Little, Junior, Senior and Big league divisions) as well as winning gold medals in the Micronesian Games and South Pacific Games. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215E laptop keyboard

Basketball and mixed martial arts are also popular in the islands. Trench Wars is the CNMI's Mixed Martial Arts brand.[citation needed] Fighters from the CNMI have competed in the Pacific Xtreme Combat contest, and in 2012 a Chamorro fighter from Saipan, Frank "The Crank" Camacho, became the first Chamorro fighter to fight in the UFC when he fought on the television program The Ultimate Fighter. TOSHIBA PK13AT10600 laptop keyboard

Other sports in the CNMI include volleyball, tennis, soccer, outrigger sailing, softball, beach volleyball, rugby, golf, boxing, kickboxing, tae kwon do,track and field and American football. SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

The islands have over 220 miles (350 km) of highways, three airports with paved runways (one about 9,800 feet [3,000 m] long; two around 6,600 feet [2,000 m]), three airports with unpaved runways, and one heliport. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

Mail service for the islands is provided by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Each major island has its own zip code in the 96950-96952 range, and the USPS two-letter abbreviation for the CNMI is "MP".[38][39] For phone service, the islands are included in the North American Numbering Plan, using area code 670.[38] DELL V119525BS1 laptop keyboard

Television service is provided by KPPI-LP, Channel 7, which simulcasts Guam's ABC affiliate KTGM, as well as WSZE, Channel 10, which simulcasts Guam's NBCaffiliate KUAM-TV. About 10 radio stations broadcast within the CNMI.  TOSHIBA 9J.N9282.W01 laptop keyboard

The United States Census Bureau (officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title 13 U.S.C. § 11) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

The primary mission of the Census Bureau is conducting the U.S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U.S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population.[1] TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard

In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including theAmerican Community Survey, the U.S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey.[1]  HP Pavilion DV6-1205ee laptop keyboard

Furthermore, economic and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The various censuses and surveys conducted by the Census Bureau help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, and businesses make informed decisions.[2] SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

The Census Bureau is situated within the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by thePresident of the United States. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard

The Constitution of the United States (Article I, section II) directs that the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in theHouse HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College. The Census Bureau now conducts a fullpopulation count every 10 years in years ending with a 0 (zero) and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections.[3] SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E Laptop Keyboard

In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education, transportation and much more. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard

The Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

The Census Bureau also conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, crime, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial (10-year) population counts. The Census Bureau also conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail, service, and other establishments and of domestic governments. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts.[4] The Census Act of 1840 established a central office[5] which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

typically at the 10-year intervals. In 1902 the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department.[6] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.[7] In 1929, a bill was passed mandating that the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census.[7] In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code.[8] TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5514 Laptop Keyboard

By law the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U.S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year.  GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, and guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U.S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign a sworn affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard

The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government and law enforcement agencies such as the IRS or the FBI or Interpol. "Providing quality data, for public good—while respecting individual privacy and, at the same time, protecting confidentiality—is the Census Bureau's core responsibility",  FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard

"Keeping the public's trust is critical to the Census's ability to carry out the mission as the leading source of quality data about the Nation's people and economy."[9] Only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public.[citation needed]  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

In 1918, the Census Bureau released individual information regarding several hundred young men to the Justice Department and Selective Service system for the purpose of prosecutions for draft evasion.[10][11]  SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W Laptop Keyboard

During World War II, the United States Census Bureau assisted the government's Japanese American internment efforts by providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese-Americans. The Bureau's role was denied for decades but was finally proven in 2007.[12][13]  TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4618 Laptop Keyboard

The Census Bureau has had headquarters in Suitland, Maryland, since 1942. A new headquarters complex was completed in 2007 and supports over 4,000 employees.[14]The Bureau operates regional offices in 12 cities:Boston, HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard

New York City, Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago,Kansas City, Seattle, Charlotte, Atlanta, Dallas, Denver, and Los Angeles. The National Processing Center is located in Jeffersonville, Indiana. Additional temporary processing facilities are used to facilitate the decennial census, which employs more than a million people Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard

. The cost of the 2000 Census was $4.5 billion. During the years just prior to the decennial census, parallel census offices, known as "Regional Census Centers" are opened in the field office cities. HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard

The decennial operations are carried out from these facilities. The Regional Census Centers oversee the openings and closings of smaller "Local Census Offices" within their collection jurisdictions. The estimated cost of the 2010 Census is $14.7 billion. Compaq Presario CQ56-102SE laptop keyboard

On January 1, 2013, the Census Bureau was to consolidate its 12 regional offices into 6. Increasing costs of data collection, changes in survey management tools such as laptops and the increasing use of multi-modal surveys (i.e. internet, HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

telephone, and in-person) has led the Census Bureau to consolidate.[15]The remaining regional offices are to be located in: New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, Denver, and Los Angeles.[16] TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6841 laptop keyboard

The Census Bureau also runs the Census Information Center cooperative program that involves 58 "national, regional, and local non-profit organizations." The CIC program aims to represent the interests of underserved communities.[17] HP Mini 210-1081NR laptop keyboard

The 1890 census was the first to use the electric tabulating machines invented by Herman Hollerith.[19][20] For 1890–1940 details, see Truesdell, Leon E. (1965). The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census, 1890-1940: With outlines of actual tabulation programs. HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

US GPO. In 1946, knowing of the Bureau's funding of Hollerith and, later, Powers, John Mauchly approached the Bureau about early funding for UNIVAC development.[21] A UNIVAC I computer was accepted by the Bureau in 1951.[22] TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6829 laptop keyboard

In order to reduce paper usage and reduce payroll expenses, 500,000 handheld computers (HHC's) were used for the first time in 2009 during the address canvassing portion of the 2010 Decennial Census Project. Projected savings were estimated to be over $1 billion.[23] TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6829 laptop keyboard

A survey is a method of collecting and analyzing social, economic, and geographic data. It provides information about the conditions of the United States, states, and counties. Throughout the decade between censuses, the bureau is conducts surveys to produce a general view and comprehensive study of the United States' social and economic conditions. FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 laptop keyboard

Staff from the Current Surveys Program conduct ongoing and special surveys about people and their characteristics. A network of professional field representatives gathers information from a sample of households, responding to questions about employment, consumer expenditures, health, housing, and other topics. Surveys conducted between decades:  Packard Bell NEW90 laptop keyboard

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south, bounded by Asia andAustralia in the west, and the Americas in the east. SONY VAIO VGN-FS640/W laptop keyboard

At 165.25 million square kilometres (63.8 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined.[1]  HP 405963-001 laptop keyboard

The equatorsubdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagosand Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.[2] TheMariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,797 ft).[3]  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

The eastern Pacific Ocean was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorerVasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

which he named Mar del Sur. The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish expedition of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He therefore called it Mar Pacifico in Portuguese, meaning "peaceful sea".[4] TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times, most notably those of the Polynesians from the Asian edge of the ocean to Tahiti, Hawaii, New Zealand, Easter Island and possibly even America.[6] ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard

The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in the early 16th century. Balboa's expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513.[7] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

He named it Mar del Sur (South Sea). Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific on a Spanish expedition of world circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico or "Pacific" because,  HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax Laptop Keyboard

after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, he was surprised how calm the waters became. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in 1522.[8] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

In 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpiand sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.[9] For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines, HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

via Guam, and establishing the Spanish East Indies. The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila andAcapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions also discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, theSolomon Islands and New Guinea in the South Pacific. TOSHIBA P000482730 Laptop Keyboard

Later, in the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorers in the 17th century discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatuarchipelagos, and sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea,  SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa, also engaged in discovery and trade; Abel Janszoon Tasman discoveredTasmania and New Zealand in 1642.[10] The 18th century marked the beginning of major exploration by the Russians inAlaska and the Aleutian Islands. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

In 1768 Pierre-Antoine Véron, a young astronomer accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history.[11] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

One of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789-1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia and the South Pacific. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan and United States. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMSBeagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard; HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the USS Tuscarora (1873–76); and the German Gazelle (1874–76).  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

Although the United States gained control of Guam and the Philippines from Spain in 1898,[12] Japan controlled most of the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II. However, by the end of that war, Japan was defeated and the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean. Since the end of World War II, many former colonies in the Pacific have become independent states.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

The Pacific separates Asia and Australia from the Americas. It may be further subdivided by the equator into northern (North Pacific) and southern (South Pacific) portions. It extends from the Antarctic region in the South to the Arcticin the north.[1] ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 165.2 million square kilometres (63.8 million square miles) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass of some 150 million square kilometres (58 million square miles).[13]  HP Pavilion DV7t-3100 laptop keyboard

Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean at 60°S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

kilometres (12,300 mi) fromIndonesia to the coast of Colombia – halfway across the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon.[14] The lowest known point on Earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 metres (35,797 ft or 5,966 fathoms) below sea level. Its average depth is 4,028~4,188 metres (14,000 ft or 2,333 fathoms).[1] HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard

Due to the effects of plate tectonics, the Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking by roughly an inch per year (2–3 cm/yr) on three sides, roughly averaging 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) a year. By contrast, the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size.[15][16]  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard

Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea. HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx laptop keyboard

The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean.[17] SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

As the Pacific straddles the 180th meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is in the Western Hemisphere.[18] Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard

For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many tropical storms batter the islands of the Pacific.[19] HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard

The lands around the Pacific Rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes.[20] Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns.[21] SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard

The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as Micronesia, Melanesia andPolynesia. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands in the northwest, the Caroline Islands in the centre, the Marshall Islands to the west and the islands ofKiribati in the southwest.[22][23] HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Bismarck Archipelago, theSolomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia.[24] TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

The largest area, Polynesia, stretching from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south, also encompasses Tuvalu,Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga and the Kermadec Islands to the west, the Cook Islands, Society Islands and Austral Islands in the center, and the Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu, Mangareva Islands and Easter Island to the east.[25] SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.[26] Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

The Coral reefs of the South Pacific are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

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