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Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870, as a land-grant university and ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862,[4] the university was originally known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but was developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of Governor Rutherford B. Hayes and by 1878, the college changed its name to its current name. It has since grown into the third largest university campus in the United States.[5] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ490 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Ohio State was officially designated as the flagship institution of Ohio's public universities as part of the newly centralized University System of Ohio.[6] It is considered to be one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States.[7][8] Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State also operates a regional campus system with regional campuses in Lima, Mansfield, Marion, Newark, and Wooster. HP G62-120EG Laptop Keyboard The university is also home to an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations; intercollegiate, club and recreational sports programs; student media organizations and publications, fraternities and sororities; and an active student government association. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I (NCAA Division I-A for football) of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. SONY VAIO VGN-NW125J/T Laptop Keyboard The Ohio State Buckeyes men's ice hockey program competes in the Central Collegiate Hockey Association, and itswomen's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association (MIVA) HP G62-b10EP Laptop Keyboard while the men's lacrosse team is a member of theECAC Lacrosse League. OSU is one of only thirteen universities in the nation that plays Division I FBS football and Division I ice hockey. Alumni and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, business, science, medicine, education, sports, and entertainment. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard The Ohio State University was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university in with the Morrill Act of 1862 under the name of the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College. The school was originally situated within a farming community located on the northern edge of Columbus. While some interests in the state had hoped that the new university would focus on matriculating students of various agricultural and mechanical disciplines, Governor Rutherford B. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Hayes foresaw a more classic, comprehensive university, and manipulated both the university's location and its initial board of trustees towards that end. The university opened its doors to 24 students on September 17, 1873. In 1878, the first class of six men graduated. The first woman graduated the following year.[9] Also in 1878, in light of its expanded focus, the college permanently changed its name to the now-familiar "The Ohio State University", with "The" as part of its official name.[10] TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State began accepting graduate students in the 1880s, and in 1891, the school saw the founding of its law school, Moritz College of Law. It would later acquire colleges of medicine, dentistry, optometry, veterinary medicine, commerce, and journalism in subsequent years. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Although development had been hindered in the 1870s by hostility from the state's agricultural interests and competition for resources from Miami University andOhio University, both issues were eventually resolved. In 1906, Ohio State's status as the state's flagship campus was written into law by the Ohio legislature through the Eagleson Bill. In 1916, Ohio State was elected into membership in the Association of American Universities. GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State's 1,764 acres (7.14 km2) of main campus is approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) north of the city's downtown. Four buildings are currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Enarson Hall, Hayes Hall, Ohio Stadium, and Orton Hall. Architecture on the Ohio State campus does not conform to a unifying theme such as Gothic revival or Georgian but rather is an eclectic mix of traditional, modern and post-modern styles. HP G71-340US Laptop Keyboard The William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library, anchoring the western end of The Oval, is Ohio State library's main branch and single largest repository. The Thompson Library was designed in 1913 by the Boston firm of Allen and Collens in the Italianate Renaissance Revival style, and its placement on the Oval was suggested by the Olmsted brothers who had designed New York City's Central Park. HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop Keyboard In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million dollar renovation with the stated aims of becoming a "global benchmark twenty-first century" library while maintaining the building's classical Italian Renaissance architecture.[11]HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard Overall, Ohio State operates the 18th largest university research library in North America with a combined collection of over 5.8 million volumes. Additionally, the libraries receive approximately 35,000 serial titles on a regular basis. Its recent acquisitions were 16th among university research libraries in North America. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard An additional eight branches are located at off-campus research facilities, regional campuses, and a book storage depository near campus. In all the Ohio State library system encompasses fifty-five branches and specialty collections. Some of the more significant collections include The Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program containing the Archives of Admiral Richard E. Byrd as well as a significant collection of polar research materials, HP 550 Laptop Keyboard TheHilandar Research Library which contains the world's largest collection of medieval Slavic manuscripts on microform, The Ohio State Cartoon Library & Museum, which is the world's largest repository of original cartoons, The Lawrence and Lee Theatre Research Institute and the archives of Senator John Glenn. ASUS G60J Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Anchoring the traditional campus gateway at the eastern end of The Oval is the Wexner Center for the Arts. Designed by architects Peter Eisenman of New York and Richard Trott of Columbus, the center opened in 1989. Its founding was financed in large part by Ohio State alumnus Leslie Wexner with a gift of twenty-five million dollars in the 1980s. The center was founded to be a comprehensive visual arts center encompassing all aspects of visual and performing arts with a focus on new commissions and artist residencies. HP 535442-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Part of its design was to pay tribute to the armory that formerly had the same location. Its groundbreakingdeconstructivist architecture has resulted in it being lauded as one of the most important buildings of its generation. Its design has also been criticized as proving less than ideal for many of the art installations that it has attempted to display. The centerpiece of The Wexner Center's permanent collection isPicasso's Nude on a Black Armchair, which was purchased by alumnus Leslie Wexner at auction for forty-five million dollars and then donated to the university.  HP Pavilion dv6-2150ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan To the south of The Oval is another, somewhat smaller, expanse of greenspace commonly referred to as The South Oval. At its eastern end, it is anchored by the Ohio Union. To the west are Enarson Hall, the Kuhn Honors House, Browning Amphitheatre (a traditional stone Greek theatre) and Mirror Lake. FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard The Ohio State College of Medicine is located on the southern edge of the central campus. It is home to the James Cancer Hospital, a cancer research institute and one of the National Cancer Institute's forty-one comprehensive cancer centers, along with the Richard M. Ross Heart Hospital, a research institute for cardiovascular disease. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard In 1916, Ohio State became the first university in Ohio to be extended membership into the Association of American Universities, and remains the only public university in Ohio among the organization's 60 members. The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities (2000) by Howard and Matthew Greene listed Ohio State as one of a select number of public universities offering the highest educational quality. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard U.S. News & World Report’s widely read rankings of undergraduate colleges in America currently places Ohio State as the 18th best public university and 55th overall ranked university in America. Ohio State ranked 14th in US News' new "Up and Coming" colleges section. The list includes the top colleges in the nation "that are making improvements in academics, faculty, students, campus life, diversity, and facilities. These schools are worth watching because they are making promising and innovative changes."[17]ASUS G60J Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP 535442-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP Pavilion dv6-2150ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Internationally, in 2011 QS World University Rankings[18] ranked Ohio State University 111th in the world, and awarded the university with the maximum five stars for excellence.[19] It scored 88th in Social Sciences in the international subject rankings. Four years back, China's Shanghai Jiao Tong University placed Ohio State as the 61st ranked university in the world in their 2007 Academic Ranking of World Universities.[20]FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard The Lombardi Program on Measuring University Performance at Arizona State University detailed analysis and rankings of American universities currently places Ohio State as the 24th ranked university in America, the 10th ranked public university in the country and the top overall university in Ohio. Of their nine ranking criteria, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State ranked in the top-25 in four categories and between 26–50 in an additional four categories.[21] The Washington Monthly college rankings, which seek to evaluate colleges' contributions to American society based on factors of social mobility, cutting edge research, and service to the country by their graduates, currently place Ohio State as 12th in the nation and 10th among public universities.[22]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State is also the only public university in Ohio to which the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has given both its highest overall classification of Doctoral/Very High Research Activity and highest undergraduate admissions classification of more selective.[23] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard US News ranks the undergraduate program at Ohio State's Fisher College of Business 12th in America and the top undergraduate business school in Ohio. The graduate program of the Fisher College is ranked 21st in America and is the top graduate school of business in Ohio. The Economist ranked The Fisher College as the 29th ranked MBA program in the world in their 2005 "Which MBA?" HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard issue.[24] Fisher's Executive MBA program was ranked 3rd nationally for return on investment by The Wall Street Journal in 2008 citing a 170 percent return on an average of $66,900 invested in tuition and expenses during the 18-month program.[25] In 2006, The Public Accounting Report ranked Ohio State's accounting department 9th in the nation for undergraduate programs and 10th in the nation for graduate programs. In each case, the ranking was the highest among Ohio universities.[26]IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard The Ohio State law school is ranked by US News as top of the nine law schools in Ohio and 39th overall in America.[27] Ohio State's medical school is ranked as the top public medical school in Ohio, 31st for research, and 38th for primary care. US News ranks Ohio State's undergraduate engineering program tied for the 28th best program in America and the top undergraduate engineering program in Ohio. Its graduate program in engineering is ranked 26th in the country and highest in Ohio.  HP G61-440SG Laptop Keyboard Ohio State's College of Education was ranked 17th in America by US News and the highest in Ohio. The Counseling/Personnel Services graduate program at Ohio State is ranked 4th in America by the 2008 'US News & World Report'. The Department of Geography is ranked 5th in America. In total, US News & World Report ranked 19 Ohio State graduate programs or specialties among the nation's top ten, and 30 among the nation's top 25.[28]HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard Ohio State's political science department is ranked 13th in the country by US News & World Report, with the American politics section fifth, international politics 12th and political methodology 10th. A study by Simon Hix of The London School of Economics ranked it as the fourth best political science department in the world, SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard based on publications.[29] Foreign Policy Magazine recently ranked it as the 15th best Ph.D. program in the world for the study of international relations. Professor Alexander Wendt was ranked the most influential scholar of international relations in the world in a 2011 survey of American professors of international relations.[30] The history department was recently ranked 18th in the nation (6th among public universities) by the National Research Council.  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard Ohio State is one of a select few top American universities to offer multiple area studies programs under "Comprehensive National Resource Center" (often called "Title VI") funding from the U.S. Department of Education. The most notable of these is the Center for Slavic and East European Studies founded in 1965 by Professor Leon Twarog. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard Subsequently, Ohio State's Middle Eastern Studies Center and East Asian Studies Center also achieved Comprehensive National Resource Center status. The university is also home to the interdisciplinary Mershon Center for International Security Studies, which was founded in 1952 through a bequest of 7 million dollars (54.3 million in 2006 value) from alumnus Colonel Ralph D. Mershon. In 2003, it was decided by the United States Department of Homeland Security to base the National Academic Consortium for Homeland Security at The Mershon Center. SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 Laptop Keyboard U.S. News & World Report ranked the graduate program in Design at #5 in the nation in their 2009 rankings. Overall, the graduate Art program ranked #21, with the ceramics and glass programs at #6.[31] In its 2008 edition of "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools, the journal DesignIntelligence ranked the undergraduate Industrial Design program #3 nationwide, HP Pavilion dv7-2090eh Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the graduate program in Design #10 nationwide. The DFC conducted their research by polling 270 corporations regarding how design schools were preparing their students for the future of professional practice in design. OSU was in the top ten rankings of the corporate leaders' assessments in all regions (#4 in the south, #2 in the midwest, #7 in the east, and #4 in the west). The graduate program placed at #3 in the south and #2 in the east, resulting in 10th overall in the nation.[32]Toshiba MCF-TS5512H05-2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In a 2007 report released by the National Science Foundation, Ohio State’s research expenditures for 2006 were $652 million, placing it 7th among public universities and 11th overall, also ranking 3rd among all American universities for private industry sponsored research. Research expenditures at Ohio State were $720 million in 2007. HP Pavilion dv7-3150el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ohio State also announced in 2006, that it would be designating at least $110 million of its research efforts to what it termed "fundamental concerns" such as research towards a cure for cancer, renewable energy sources and sustainable drinking water supplies.[33]TOSHIBA Satellite L355D Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Research facilities include Aeronautical/Astronautical Research Laboratory, Byrd Polar Research Center, Center for Automotive Research (OSU CAR), Chadwick Arboretum, Biomedical Research Tower, Biological Sciences Building, David Heart and Lung Research Institute, Electroscience Laboratory, Large Binocular Telescope (LBT, originally named the Columbus Project), Mershon Center for International Security Studies, Stone Laboratory on Gibraltar Island, OH, and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/PI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Admissions and tuition Undergraduate admissions to Ohio State are classified as “more selective” by US News & World Report and The Princeton Reviewand according to the data are the most selective for any public university in Ohio. The 2009 freshman class had an acceptance rate of 52%, with 54% of students graduating in the top 10% of their high school class and 87% in the top 25% of their class. The 2007 freshman class had an acceptance rate of 52%, and the enrolled freshman class had the following composition: students graduating in the top 10% of their high school class (57%); the top 25% of their high school class (91%); Toshiba Satellite A50-109 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the top 50% of their high school class (99%). 27% of the freshman class scored in the top 3% of the SAT or ACT, while 72% scored in the top 15%. The middle 50% range of ACT scores for the enrolled class was 26–30, with an average ACT score of 27. Of the 6,122 members of the 2006 freshman class, 290 had been named valedictorian of their high school's graduating class.[34] Ohio State’s freshman class has included at least 100 National Merit Scholars for nine of the last ten years.[35][dead link]APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA896LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tuition for full-time, Ohio residents attending Ohio State for the 2010–2011 academic year is $9,420.[36] For the 2006–2007 academic year, tuition at Ohio State for Ohio residents placed it as the fifth most expensive public university and slightly beneath the weighted average tuition of $8,553 among Ohio's thirteen public four-year universities.[37] In addition to being named a Best in the Midwestselection by The Princeton Review, Ohio State was also the only public university in Ohio to make their list of America's 150 Best Value Colleges. FUJITSU LifeBook S7111 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ohio State was among the first group[38] of four public universities to raise a $1 billion endowment when it passed the $1 billion mark in 1999. At year’s end 2005, Ohio State’s endowment stood at $1.73 billion, ranking it seventh among public universities and 27th among all American universities.[39] In June 2006, the endowment passed the $2 billion mark.  SONY Vaio VGN-CR290 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In recent decades, and in response to continually shrinking state funding, Ohio State has conducted two significant multi-year fundraising campaigns. The first concluded in 1987 and raised $460 million—a record at the time for a public university. HP G62-346NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The “Affirm Thy Friendship Campaign” took place between 1995 and 2000. With an initial goal of raising $850 million, the campaign’s final tally was $1.23 billion, placing Ohio State among the small group of public universities to have successfully conducted a $1 billion campaign.[40] At his welcoming ceremony, returning President E. Gordon Gee announced that, in the Fall of 2007, Ohio State would be launching a $2.5 billion fund-raising campaign. HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Office of Student Life is responsible for many of the outside-the-classroom aspects of student life at Ohio State. Among these are student housing; food service; health, wellness and counseling; activities, organizations and leadership development; recreation and intramurals. The Office of Student Life also operates the Schottenstein Center, the Fawcett Center, the Blackwell Inn, the Ohio Union, the Drake Events Center, and the Wilce Student Health Center, named for football coach and university physician John Wilce. HP G62-b54SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ohio State has several student managed publications and media outlets. The Makio is the official yearbook.[41] The Makio’s sales plummeted by 60% during the early 1970s; the organization went bankrupt and stopped publication during the late 1970s. The book was revived from 1985 to 1994 and has since been revived again in 2000 thanks to several student organizations. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5821 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Lantern is the school's daily newspaper and has operated as a laboratory newspaper in the School of Communication (formerly the School of Journalism) since 1881. Mosaic is a literary magazine published by Ohio State, which features undergraduate fiction, poetry, and art. The Sundialis a student written and published humor magazine. SONY Vaio VGN-FS215M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Founded in 1911 it is one of the oldest humor magazines in the country, After a 17 year hiatus in which no magazine was published it has recently been revived.[42] Ohio State has two improvisational comedy groups, The 8th Floor Improv and Fishbowl Improv, who regularly perform long and short-form improv around campus and across the U.S.[43][44]  Toshiba Satellite A205-S5809 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are two student-run radio stations on campus. OHIO.FM is the music station and Scarlet and Gray Sports Radio broadcasts eleven different Ohio State sports.[45] Both stations broadcast on an Internet audio stream (no broadcast signals are available in Columbus). Students also operate a local cable TV channel known as Buckeye TV, which airs primarily on the campus closed cable system operated by the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO). HP Pavilion dv6-2120tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The marching band is also a longstanding tradition at Ohio State. It is the largest all-brass and percussion band in the world. The traditional school songs from "Carmen Ohio" to "Hang on Sloopy" to "Fight the Team Across the Field", are arranged to fit this instrumentation. The band is famous for "Script Ohio", during which the band marches single-file through the curves of the word "Ohio", much like a pen writes the word, all the while playing the French march "Le Regiment de Sambre et Meuse." At the end of the performance, the "i" in "Ohio" is "dotted" by a high-stepping senior sousaphone player. SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games are: Across the Field, The Ohio State University fight song and "Buckeye Battle Cry".IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50E Laptop Keyboard The tradition of high quality bands is not limited to the football field. OSU's School of Music contains several high quality concert bands consisting of graduate and undergraduate music majors and non-music majors. The OSU Wind Symphony, frequently receives praise on the national level, recently having been selected to perform at the 2003 College Band Directors National Association (CBDNA) Convention and at the Ohio Music Educators Association Conference in 2001, SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard 2004, 2006, and 2008; the OSU Symphonic Band performed in 2007. The OSU Wind Symphony has recently released its newest album, "Southern Harmony," the NaxosLabel in 2009. The Ohio State Jazz Ensemble performed at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1975, 1978,1986, 1996, and 2001. It has also appeared at the Mexico City International Jazz Festival in 1990 and the North Sea Jazz Festival in 1986, 1996, and 2001. In addition there is also an OSU Symphony Orchestra. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard In addition to strong bands, the university is also recognized for outstanding choral performance. The Ohio State Men's Glee Club, formed in 1875.[46] In 1990, led by Professor James Gallagher, the Men's Glee Club participated in the International Musical Eisteddfod in Llangolen, Wales and won the male chorus competition by an unprecedented 20 points before, in a unanimous decision of the judges, being named "Choir of the World"—the first American choir to win such an honor. HP HDX18-1000EO Laptop Keyboard The Glee Club is under the direction of Dr. Robert J. Ward. The Ohio State Women's Glee Club was established in 1903.[47] In the group’s recent past, under the leadership of Dr. Hilary Apfelstadt, the Glee Club has been selected to sing for state and regional conferences of the Ohio Music Education Association and the American Choral Directors Association. Beginning its season under the direction of Dr. Richard Schnipke, the OSU Women’s Glee Club was honored to have the opportunity to sing for the Ohio Choral Directors Association annual conference in June 2010. Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State's "Buckeye Bullet" electric car broke the world record for the fastest speed by an electric vehicle on October 3, 2004 with a speed of 271.737 mph (437.3 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah.[48] The vehicle also holds the US record for fastest electric vehicle with a speed of 314.958 mph (506.9 km/h), and peak timed mile speed of 321.834 mph (517.9 km/h). HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard The vehicle was designed, built and managed by a team of engineering students at the university's "Center for Automotive Research-Intelligent Transportation" (CAR-IT). In 2007, Buckeye Bullet 2 was launched. This follow-up effort was a collaboration between Ohio State engineering students and engineers from the Ford Motor Company and will seek to break the landspeed record for hydrogen cell powered vehicles.[49]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard A unique aspect to Ohio State's multi billion dollar endowment is the Student Investment Management Program. Upperclass finance students taking Business Finance 724 are given the opportunity to manage a twenty million dollar investment fund. Returns from the student managed funds often outperform the S&P 500 and frequently even the university's own professional fund managers.[50]TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard The Residence Hall Advisory Council (RHAC), which is a representative body of all students living in the University's residence halls, helps evaluate and improve the living conditions of the residence halls.According to the Student Organization Office in the Ohio Union, Agricultural Education Society is the oldest student organization on campus.  DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard Jon Stewart hosted The Daily Show's "Battlefield Ohio: The Daily Show’s Midwest Midterm Midtacular" from Ohio State's Roy Bowen Theatre during the week of October 30 to November 2, 2006.[51] Ohio State's main campus has been lauded in recent years for the racial diversity of its student body. In various surveys and rankings it has been included among the best campuses in the nation for African Americans.[52] Additionally, Ohio State ranked 10th in the nation in 2006 for the numbers of African American doctors graduated. The Advocate College Guide for LGBT Students lists Ohio State as one of the best campuses in America for LGBT students.[53]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Ohio State, despite selective admissions, has also maintained a high amount of socio-economic diversity among its students. The 2007 freshman class contained 22.7% of first generation college students which far exceeded the national norm on American campuses of 15.9%.[54]HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ohio State operates 31 on-campus residence halls divided into three geographic clusters: South Campus (site of the university's original dormitories), North Campus (largely constructed during the post-war enrollment boom) and West Campus or "The Towers." Within the residence hall system are 40 smaller living and learning environments defined by social or academic considerations. Ohio State also offers four honors residence halls: Bradley Hall, Lincoln House, Siebert Hall, and Taylor Tower. HP Pavilion dv5-1114es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Separate housing for graduate and professional students is maintained on the Southern tier of campus near the medical complex. Family housing is maintained at Buckeye Village at the far northern edge of campus beyond the athletic complex. At the university's southeast corner along High Street, and across from the Moritz College of Law, new apartments have been built for law students in conjunction with the area's Campus Gateway project. Toshiba Satellite L305-S5907 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Honors programs Ohio State offers two distinct honors programs for high ability undergraduates: Honors and Scholars. The Honors program is open to students in all majors. The Scholars program is centered around thirteen specific programs such as "Architecture Scholars", "Media, Marketing, and Communications Scholars","Biological Sciences Scholars", "International Affairs Scholars", "Business Scholars" and "Politics, Society and Law Scholars."  HP Pavilion dv6-3043tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Students in the Scholars program are expected to live and take select classes with other members of the program. Additionally, Ohio State offers the Honors Collegium with membership extended to ten incoming freshmen and following the Spring of a student's first or second year to the university's top undergraduates. Collegium students try to compete for internships, graduate schools and nationally competitive awards, such as the Marshall, Rhodes, or Truman Scholarships.  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Ohio State also administers two large-scale scholarship programs to ensure access to the university to high-ability students from low-income or traditionally underrepresented groups. The first of these, The Young Scholars Program, was initiated in 1988. 120 promising minority students from Ohio's nine largest urban public school districts are selected prior to entering high school.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The program offers a series of academic camps each summer and counseling throughout the students' high school careers. Upon completion of the program, which also mandates a college preparatory curriculum and minimum grade point average, the students are guaranteed admission to Ohio State as well as any need-based financial aid necessary. DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard The Land Grant Scholarship was initiated in 2005. This program seeks to ensure access to Ohio State to high-ability students from low-income backgrounds. Ohio State has committed to offering a full-ride scholarship each academic year to at least one student from each of Ohio's 88 counties. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State maintains an honors center in the Kuhn Honors and Scholars House which had served as the University President's residence until the 1960s. Four dormitories are designated all or in part as honors residences: Taylor, Bradley, Siebert, and Lincoln. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard The Ohio Union was the first student union built by an American public university. The Ohio Union is dedicated to the enrichment of the student experience, on and off The Ohio State University campus. The first Ohio Union, located on the south edge of the South Oval, was constructed in 1909 and was later renamed Enarson Hall. The second Ohio Union was completed in 1950 and was located prominently along High Street, southeast of the Oval.  HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard It was a center of student life at The Ohio State University for more than 50 years, providing facilities for student activities, organizations and events, and serving as an important meeting place for campus and community interaction. In addition, many student services and programs were housed in the union, along with dining and recreational facilities. The second Ohio Union was demolished in February 2007 to make way for the new Ohio Union which was finished in 2010. During this time, student activities had been relocated to Ohio Stadium and other academic buildings. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State's intercollegiate sports teams are called the "Buckeyes" (derived from the colloquial term for people from the state of Ohioand after the state tree, the Ohio Buckeye – Aesculus glabra),[56] and participate in the NCAA's Division I in all sports (Division I FBS in football) and the Big Ten Conference in most sports. (The men's hockey program competes in the Central Collegiate Hockey Association, and its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association). The school colors are scarlet and gray. Brutus Buckeye is the mascot. Ohio State currently has 36 varsity teams. SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H Laptop Keyboard Ohio State is one of only four universities (the University of Michigan, Stanford University, and the University of California at Berkeley being the others) to have won national championships in all three major men's sports (baseball, men's basketball, and football).[57] Ohio State is also one of only two universities to appear in the national championship games in both football and men's basketball in the same calendar year (the other university is the University of Florida, GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard who defeated Ohio State in both contests in 2007.) Ohio State has also won national championships in men's swimming & diving, men's outdoor track & field, men's golf, men's gymnastics, men's fencing, co-ed fencing, and multiple synchronized swimming championships.[58] The Ohio State equestrian team has won eight Intercollegiate Horse Show Association national championships.[59] Since the inception of the Athletic Director's Cup, Ohio State has finished in the top 25 each year, including top 6 finishes in three of the last five years.[60] TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard During the 2005–2006 school year Ohio State became this first Big Ten team to win conference championships in Football, Men's Basketball and Women's Basketball. Ohio State repeated the feat during the 2006–2007 school year, winning solo championships in all three sports. In 2007, Sports Illustrated nicknamed Ohio State's athletic program as being "The Program" due to the unsurpassed facilities, unparalleled amount of men's and women's sport teams, their success, and the financial support of an impressive fan base.[61]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Outstanding sports figures that were student athletes at Ohio State include 1936 Olympics gold medalist Jesse Owens "the Buckeye Bullet" (track and field), John Havlicek, Jerry Lucas, Bobby Knight, Byron Mullens, and Larry Siegfried (basketball), 2010 Olympics silver medalist Ryan Kesler (ice hockey), Katie Smith and the first 3-time player of the year in Big Ten Basketball history Jessica Davenport (women's basketball), Frank Howard (basketball and baseball), SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard Jack Nicklaus (golf); and Chic Harley (three-time All-American football running back). Ohio State football players have combined for seven Heisman Awards including the only two-time winner Archie Griffin in 1974 and 1975,Eddie George in 1995, and most recently Troy Smith in 2006. Hall of Fame coaches at Ohio State have included Paul Brown and Woody Hayes in football, Fred Taylorin basketball, Larry Snyder in track and field, and Mike Peppe in swimming and diving. Hall of fame players, in pro-football, include Sid Gillman, Lou Groza,Dante Lavelli, Jim Parker, Paul Warfield, Dick LeBeau, and Bill Willis. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA04 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State’s faculty currently includes a Nobel Prize-winning physicist, 21 members of the National Academy of Sciences or National Academy of Engineering, four members of the Institute of Medicine,[62] and 177 elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2009, 17 Ohio State faculty were elected as AAAS Fellows. Each year since 2002, Ohio State has either led or been second among all American universities in the number of their faculty elected as fellows to the AAAS.[63][64]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard In a recent study by Harvard University's Graduate School of Education, Ohio State was one of five universities rated as "exemplary" workplaces for junior faculty. In the study, 31 universities and 11 liberal arts colleges were evaluated on tenure clarity and fairness, nature of work including workloads, quality of students, and teaching environment, compensation, work and family balance, collegiality and overall satisfaction.[65]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard In the last quarter century, 32 Ohio State faculty members have been awarded the prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship, which is more than all other public and private Ohio universities combined. In 2008, three Ohio State faculty were awarded Guggenheim Fellowships, placing Ohio State among the top 15 universities in the nation.[66] Since the 2000–2001 award year, 55 Ohio State faculty members have been named as Fulbright Fellows, the highest of any Ohio university.[67]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State currently has over 525,000 living alumni located around the world[citation needed]. Ohio State alumni include Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, Olympic GamesGold Medal, and Medal of Honor recipients, ambassadors, as well as Fortune 500 CEOs and members of the Forbes 400 list of the world's wealthiest individuals. Numerous graduates have gone on to become Governors, Senators and members of Congress. Ohio State alumni have appeared on the cover of TIME twelve times, with the artwork of alumnus Roy Lichtenstein featured on an additional two TIME covers. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard Ohio State alumni are enshrined in the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York, the NFL Hall of Fame and the Basketball Hall of Fame. Its athletes have won a combined eighty-three Olympic medals and three times received the Sullivan Award as the nation's top amateur athlete. Jack Nicklaus has been called "the greatest golfer in history" while Jesse Owens has been called "the greatest Olympian in history." Twice, Ohio State alumni have graced the cover of Sports Illustrated as its Sportsman of the Year. Compaq Presario CQ60-218ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction and the United States' entry into the Second Industrial Revolution. Hayes was a reformer who began the efforts that led to civil service reform and attempted, unsuccessfully, to reconcile the divisions that had led to the American Civil War fifteen years earlier. Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010BN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Born in Delaware, Ohio, Hayes practiced law in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont) and was city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861. When the Civil War began, Hayes left a successful political career to join the Union Army. Wounded five times, most seriously at the Battle of South Mountain, Toshiba Satellite L635-S3020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he earned a reputation for bravery in combat and was promoted to the rank of major general. After the war, he served in the U.S. Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for Governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, serving from 1868 to 1872. After his second term had ended, he resumed the practice of law for a time, but returned to politics in 1876 to serve a third term as governor. HP Pavilion dv5-1132la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious and hotly disputed elections in American history. Although he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, Hayes won the presidency by the narrowest of margins after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty disputed electoral votes. The result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election and Hayes accepted the end of military occupation of the South. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes believed in meritocratic government, equal treatment without regard to race, and improvement through education. He ordered federal troops to quell the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and ordered them out of Southern capitals as Reconstruction ended. He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election. He retired to his home in Ohio and became an advocate of social and educational reform. Compaq Presario CQ40-511TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, the son of Rutherford Hayes and Sophia Birchard. Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817 but died ten weeks before his son's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, bringing up Hayes and his sister, Fanny, the only two of her four children to survive to adulthood.[1] She never remarried.[2] Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time.[3] Always close to Hayes, Sardis Birchard became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education.[4]IBM ThinkPad T41 2678 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Through both his father and mother, Hayes was of New England colonial ancestry.[5] His earliest American ancestor emigrated to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625.[6] Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son (Hayes's grandfather, also named Rutherford) left his New Haven home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont.[7] SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard His mother's ancestors arrived in Vermont at a similar time, and most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was later elected to Congress.[8] His first cousin, Mary Jane Noyes Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead.[8] John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was also a first cousin.[9]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard Education and early law career Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware, Ohio, and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio.[10] He did well at Norwalk, and the following year transferred to a preparatory school in Middletown, Connecticut, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek.[11] Returning to Ohio, Hayes entered Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838.[12] He enjoyed his time at Kenyon, and was successful scholastically;[13] while there, he joined several student societies and became interested in Whig politics.[14] He graduated with highest honors in 1842 and addressed the class as itsvaledictorian.[15]DELL Latitude E5510 Laptop Keyboard After briefly reading law in Columbus, Ohio, Hayes moved east once more to attend Harvard Law School in 1843.[16] Graduating with an LL.B, he was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1845 and opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont).[17] Business was slow at first, but he gradually attracted a few clients and also represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation.[18] In 1847, Hayes became ill with what his doctor thought to be tuberculosis. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England.[19] Returning from there, Hayes and his uncle Sardis made another long journey to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon classmate and distant relative.[20] Business remained meager on his return to Lower Sandusky, and Hayes decided to move to Cincinnati.[21]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard Hayes moved to Cincinnati in 1850, and opened a law office with John W. Herron, a lawyer from Chillicothe.[22][a] Later, Herron joined a more established firm and Hayes formed a new partnership with William K. Rogers and Richard M. Corwine.[24]Hayes found business better in Cincinnati, and enjoyed the social attractions of the larger city, joining the Cincinnati Literary Society and the Odd Fellows Club.[25] He also attended the Episcopal Church in Cincinnati but did not become a member.[25] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Hayes courted his future wife, Lucy Webb, during his time there.[26] His mother had encouraged him to get to know Lucy years earlier, but Hayes had believed she was too young and focused his attention on other women.[27] HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard Four years later, Hayes began to spend more time with Lucy. They became engaged in 1851 and married on December 30, 1852, at the house of Lucy's mother.[26] Over the next five years, Lucy gave birth to three sons: Birchard Austin (1853), Webb Cook (1856), and Rutherford Platt (1858).[24] Lucy, a Methodist, teetotaler, and abolitionist, influenced her husband's views on those issues, although he never formally joined her church.[28]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Hayes had begun his law practice dealing primarily with commercial cases but won greater prominence in Cincinnati as a criminal defense attorney,[29] defending several people accused of murder.[30] In one, he used a form of the insanity defensethat saved the accused from the gallows, confining her instead to a mental institution.[31] Hayes found his services requested to defend escaped slaves accused under the recently passed Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.[32]HP Pavilion dv7-3165el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As Cincinnati was just across theOhio River from Kentucky, a slave state, many such cases were tried in its courts. A staunch abolitionist, Hayes found his work on behalf of fugitive slaves personally gratifying as well as politically useful, as it raised his profile in the newly formed Republican party.[33] His political reputation rose with his professional plaudits. Hayes declined the Republican nomination for a judgeship in 1856.[34] Two years later,  HP ProBook 4525s Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan some Republicans proposed Hayes to fill a vacancy on the bench and he considered accepting the appointment until the office of city solicitor also became vacant.[35] The city council elected Hayes to fill the vacancy, and he won a full two-year term from the voters in April 1859 with a larger majority than other Republicans on the ticket.[36] Toshiba UDQF2RH51C1N Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As the Southern states began to secede after Lincoln's election to the Presidency in 1860, Hayes was lukewarm on the idea of a civil war to restore the Union. Considering that the two sides might be irreconcilable, he suggested that the Union "[l]et them go."[37]Although Ohio had voted for Lincoln in 1860, COMPAQ Presario V6410TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Cincinnati voters turned against the Republican party after secession, and the Democrats and Know-Nothings combined to sweep the city elections in April 1861, ejecting Hayes from the city solicitor's office.[38]Hayes formed a new law partnership with Leopold Markbreit and returned to private practice.[38] After the Confederates had fired on Fort Sumter, Hayes resolved his doubts and joined a volunteer company composed of his Literary Society friends.[39] HP Pavilion dv7t-3300 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan That June, Governor William Dennison appointed several of the officers of the volunteer company to positions in the 23rd Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Hayes was promoted to major, and his friend and college classmate Stanley Matthews was appointed lieutenant colonel;[40] also joining the regiment as a private was another future president, William McKinley.[40]IBM ThinkPad T42 2374 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After a month of training, Hayes and the 23rd Ohio set out for western Virginia in July 1861 as a part of the Kanawha Division.[41]They passed the next few months out of contact with the enemy until September, when the regiment encountered Confederates atCarnifex Ferry in present-day West Virginia and drove them back.[42] In November, Hayes was promoted to lieutenant colonel (Matthews having been promoted to colonel of another regiment) and led his troops deeper into western Virginia, HP Pavilion dv6-3020ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan where they entered winter quarters.[43] The division resumed its advanc

e the following spring, and Hayes led several raids against the rebel forces, on one of which he sustained a minor injury to his knee.[44] That September, Hayes's regiment was called east to reinforce General John Pope'sArmy of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run.[45] Although Hayes and his troops did not arrive in time for the battle, they joined the Army of the Potomac as it hurried north to cut off Robert E. HP G56-125NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which was advancing intoMaryland.[45] Marching north, the 23rd was the lead regiment encountering the Confederates at the Battle of South Mountain on September 14.[46] Hayes led a charge against an entrenched position and was shot through his left arm, fracturing the bone.[47] The regiment continued on to Antietam, but Hayes was out of action for the rest of the campaign.[48] In October, he was promoted to colonel and assigned to command of the first brigade of the Kanawha Division as a brevet brigadier general.[49]Toshiba Satellite A300-27H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The division spent the following winter and spring near Charleston, Virginia (present-day West Virginia), out of contact with the enemy.[50] Hayes saw little action until July 1863, when the division skirmished with John Hunt Morgan's cavalry at theBattle of Buffington Island.[51] Returning to Charleston for the rest of the summer, Hayes spent the fall encouraging the men of the 23rd Ohio to re-enlist, and many did so.[52] In 1864, the Army command structure in West Virginia was reorganized, HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and Hayes's division was assigned to George Crook's Army of West Virginia.[52] Advancing into southwestern Virginia, they destroyed Confederate salt and lead mines there.[53] On May 9, they engaged Confederate troops at Cloyd's Mountain, where Hayes and his men charged the enemy entrenchments and drove the rebels from the field.[53] Following the rout, the Union forces destroyed Confederate supplies and skirmished with the enemy again successfully.[53]Gateway NV78 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes and his brigade moved to the Shenandoah Valley for the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Crook's corps was attached to Major General David Hunter's Army of the Shenandoah and soon back in contact with Confederate forces, capturing Lexington, Virginiaon June 11.[54] They continued south toward Lynchburg, tearing up railroad track as they advanced.[54] Hunter believed the troops at Lynchburg were too powerful, however, and Hayes and his brigade returned to West Virginia.[54] HP ProBook 4710S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes thought that Hunter lacked aggression, writing in a letter home that "General Crook would have taken Lynchburg."[54] Before the army could make another attempt, Confederate General Jubal Early's raid into Maryland forced their recall to the north. Early's army surprised them at Kernstown on July 24, where Hayes was slightly wounded by a bullet to the shoulder.[55] Hayes also had a horse shot out from under him, and the army was defeated.[55]  HP Pavilion dv5-1299eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Retreating into Maryland, the army was reorganized again, with Major General Philip Sheridan replacing Hunter.[56] By August, Early was retreating down the valley, with Sheridan in pursuit. Hayes's troops fended off a Confederate assault at Berryville and advanced to Opequon Creek, where they broke the enemy lines and pursued them farther south.[57] They followed up the victory with another at Fisher's Hill on September 22, and one more at Cedar Creek on October 19.[58] SONY Vaio VPC-EA1S1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At Cedar Creek, Hayes sprained his ankle after being thrown from a horse and was struck in the head by a spent round, which did not cause serious damage.[58] Hayes's conduct drew the attention of his superiors, with Ulysses S. Grant later writing of Hayes that "[h]is conduct on the field was marked by conspicuous gallantry as well as the display of qualities of a higher order than that of mere personal daring."[59]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ61MN/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Cedar Creek marked the end of the campaign. Hayes was promoted to brigadier general in October 1864 and brevetted major general.[60] Around this time, Hayes learned of the birth of another son, George Crook Hayes. The army went into winter quarters once more, and in spring 1865 the war quickly came to a close with Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox. Hayes visited Washington, D.C. that May and observed the Grand Review of the Armies, after which he and the 23rd Ohio returned to their home state to be mustered out of the service.[61]SONY Vaio VGN-NR310FH Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While serving in the Army of the Shenandoah in 1864, Hayes received the Republican nomination to the House of Representativesfrom Ohio's 2nd congressional district.[62] Asked by friends in Cincinnati to leave the army to campaign, Hayes refused, saying that an "officer fit for duty who at this crisis would abandon his post to electioneer for a seat in Congress ought to be scalped."[62] Instead, Hayes wrote several letters to the voters explaining his political positions and was elected by a 2,400-vote majority over the incumbent Democrat, Alexander Long.[62]HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard When the 39th Congress assembled in December 1865, Hayes was sworn in as a part of a large Republican majority. Hayes identified with the moderate wing of the party, but was willing to vote with the radicals for the sake of party unity.[63] The major legislative effort of the Congress was the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, for which Hayes voted and which passed both houses of Congress in June 1866.[64] COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard Hayes's beliefs were in line with his fellow Republicans onReconstruction issues: that the South should be restored to the Union, but not without adequate protections for freedmen and other black southerners.[65] President Andrew Johnson, to the contrary, wanted to readmit the seceded states quickly without first ensuring that they adopted laws protecting the newly freed slaves' civil rights and granted pardons to many of the leading former Confederates.[65] DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard Hayes, along with congressional Republicans, disagreed. They worked to reject Johnson's vision of Reconstruction and to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866.[66] Re-elected in 1866, Hayes returned to the lame-duck session to vote for the Tenure of Office Act, which ensured that Johnson could not remove administration officials without the Senate's consent.[67] He also voted for a civil service reform bill that attracted the votes of many reform-minded Republicans, but did not pass.[68] Hayes continued to vote with the majority in the 40th Congress on the Reconstruction Acts, but resigned in July 1867 to campaign for governor.[69] HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard Governor of Ohio A popular Congressman and former soldier, Hayes was considered by Ohio Republicans to be an excellent standard-bearer for the 1867 election campaign.[70] Hayes's political views were more moderate than the Republican party's platform, although he agreed with the proposed amendment to the Ohio state constitution that would guarantee suffrage to black Ohioans.[70] Hayes's opponent, Allen G. Thurman, made the proposed amendment the centerpiece of the campaign, HP K031802E4US Laptop Keyboard and both men campaigned vigorously, making speeches across the state, mostly focusing on the suffrage question.[70] The election was mostly a disappointment to Republicans, as the amendment failed to pass and Democrats gained a majority in the state legislature.[71] Hayes thought at first that he, too, had lost, but the final tally showed that he had won the election by 2,983 votes of 484,603 votes cast.[71]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard As a Republican governor with a Democratic legislature, Hayes had a limited role in governing, especially since Ohio's governor had no veto power. Despite its restrictions, Hayes used his office to oversee the establishment of a school for deaf-mutes and a reform school for girls.[72] He also endorsed the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson and urged his conviction, which failed by one vote in the United States Senate.[73] LENOVO IdeaPad S10e 4068 Laptop Keyboard Nominated for a second term in 1869, Hayes campaigned once more for equal rights for black Ohioans and sought to associate his Democratic opponent, George H. Pendleton with disunion and racism.[74] Hayes was re-elected with an increased majority, and the Republicans took the legislature, SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard ensuring Ohio's ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed black suffrage.[74] With a Republican legislature, Hayes's second term was more enjoyable, and he was gratified to see suffrage expanded and a state Agricultural and Mechanical College (later to become Ohio State University) established.[75] He also proposed a reduction in state taxes and reform of the state prison system.[76] Choosing not to seek re-election, Hayes looked forward to retiring from politics in 1872.[77]SAMSUNG N128 Laptop Keyboard As Hayes prepared to leave office, several delegations of reform-minded Republicans urged him to run against the incumbent Republican, John Sherman, for United States Senate.[77] Hayes declined the offers, preferring to preserve party unity and retire to private life.[77] Hayes especially looked forward to spending time with his children,  TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard two of whom (daughter Fanny and son Scott) had been born in the past five years.[78][b] Initially, Hayes tried to promote railway extensions to his hometown, Fremont, and spent the rest of his time managing some real estate he had acquired in Duluth, Minnesota.[80] Not entirely removed from politics, Hayes held out some hope of a cabinet appointment, but was disappointed to receive only an appointment as assistant U.S. treasurer at Cincinnati, which he turned down.[81]Toshiba Tecra M5-S4333 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He also allowed himself to be nominated for his old House seat in 1872 but was not disappointed when he lost the election to Henry B. Banning, a fellow Kenyon Collegealumnus.[82] In 1873, Lucy gave birth to another son, Manning Force Hayes.[83][c] That same year, the Panic of 1873 hurt business prospects across the nation, including Hayes's. Sardis Birchard died that year and the Hayes family moved intoSpiegel Grove, the grand house Birchard had built with them in mind.[85] HP Pavilion dv7-6105sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes hoped to remain out of politics in order to pay off the debts he had incurred during the Panic, but when the Republican state convention nominated him for governor in 1875, he accepted.[86] The campaign against Democratic nominee William Allen focused primarily on Protestant fears of the possibility of state aid to Catholic schools.[87] Hayes was against such funding and, while he was not known to be personally anti-Catholic, he allowed anti-Catholic fervor to contribute to the enthusiasm for his candidacy.[87] The campaign was a success, and Hayes was returned to the governorship by a 5,544-vote majority.[87]HP Pavilion dv6-3133eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes's success in Ohio immediately elevated him to the top ranks of Republican politicians under consideration for the presidency in 1876.[88] The Ohio delegation to the 1876 Republican National Convention was united behind him, and Senator John Sherman did all in his power to bring Hayes the nomination.[89]HP 540 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In June 1876, the convention assembled with James G. Blaine ofMaine as the favorite.[90] Blaine started with a significant lead in the delegate count but could not muster a majority. As he failed to gain votes, the delegates looked elsewhere for a nominee and settled on Hayes on the seventh ballot.[91] The convention then selected Representative William A. Wheeler of New York for Vice President, a man about whom Hayes had recently asked "I am ashamed to say: who is Wheeler?"[92] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard The Democratic nominee was Samuel J. Tilden, the Governor of New York. Tilden was considered a formidable adversary who, like Hayes, had a reputation for honesty.[93] Also like Hayes, Tilden was a hard-money man and supported civil service reform.[93]The campaign, in accordance with the custom of the time, was conducted by surrogates, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard with Hayes and Tilden remaining in their respective home towns.[94] The poor economic conditions made the party in power unpopular and made Hayes suspect that he might lose the election.[95] Both candidates focused their attention on the swing states of New York and Indiana, as well as the three southern states—Louisiana, HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard South Carolina, and Florida—where Reconstruction governments still ruled.[96] The Republicans emphasized the danger of letting Democrats run the nation so soon after southern Democrats provoked the Civil War and, to a lesser extent, the danger a Democratic administration would pose to the recently won civil rights of southern blacks.[97] Democrats, for their part, trumpeted Tilden's record of reform and contrasted it with the corruption of the incumbent Grant administration.[98]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard As the returns were tallied on election day, it was clear that the race was close: Democrats had carried most of the South, as well as New York, Indiana, Connecticut, and New Jersey.[99] The popular vote also favored Tilden, but Republicans realized that if they held the three unredeemed southern states together with some of the western states, they would emerge with an electoral college majority.[100] DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 Laptop Keyboard On November 10, three days after election day, Tilden appeared to have won 184 electoral votes: one short of a majority.[101] Hayes appeared to have 166 votes, with the 19 votes of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina still in doubt.[101] Because of fraud by both parties in the three disputed states, SONY 1-480-442-21 Laptop Keyboard the results were uncertain, and Republicans and Democrats both claimed victories there.[102] To further complicate matters, one of the three electors from Oregon (a state Hayes had won) was disqualified, reducing Hayes's total to 165, and raising the disputed votes to 20. [103][d] If either candidate could claim the 20 disputed votes, he would be elected president. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard There was considerable debate about which person or house of Congress was authorized to decide between the competing slates of electors, with the Republican Senate and the Democratic House each claiming priority.[105] By January 1877, with the question still unresolved, Congress and President Grant agreed to submit the matter to a bipartisan Electoral Commission, which would be authorized to determine the fate of the disputed electoral votes. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard  [107] To ensure partisan balance, there would be seven Democrats and seven Republicans, with JusticeDavid Davis, an independent respected by both parties, as the fifteenth member.[107] The balance was upset when Democrats in the Illinois legislature elected Davis to the Senate, hoping to sway his vote.[108]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Davis disappointed Democrats by refusing to serve on the Commission because of his election to the Senate.[108] As all of the remaining Justices were Republicans, Justice Joseph P. Bradley, believed to be the most independent-minded of them, was selected to take Davis's place on the Commission.[109] The Commission met in February and the eight Republicans voted to award all 20 electoral votes to Hayes.[110] Democrats were outraged by the result and attempted a filibuster to prevent Congress from accepting the Commission's findings.[111]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard As the March 4 inauguration day neared, Republican and Democratic Congressional leaders met at Wormley's Hotel in Washington to negotiate a compromise. Republicans promised that, in exchange for Democratic acquiescence in the Committee's decision, Hayes would withdraw federal troops from the South and accept the election of Democratic governments in the last "unredeemed" states of the South.[112] The Democrats agreed, and on March 2, the filibuster was ended. Hayes was elected, but Reconstruction was finished.[113]HP G71-442NR Laptop Keyboard Because March 4, 1877 fell on a Sunday, Hayes took the oath of office privately on Saturday, March 3, in the Red Room of theWhite House, the first president to do so in the Executive Mansion.[114] He took the oath publicly on the following Monday on the East Portico of the United States Capitol.[115] In his inaugural address, Hayes attempted to soothe the passions of the past few months, saying that "he serves his party best who serves his country best".[116] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard He pledged to support "wise, honest, and peaceful local self-government" in the South, as well as reform of the civil service and a full return to the gold standard.[117] Despite his message of conciliation, many Democrats never considered Hayes's election legitimate and referred to him as "Rutherfraud" or "His Fraudulency" for the next four years.[118]HP 455264-001 Laptop Keyboard Civil rights and the end of Reconstruction Hayes had been a firm supporter of Republican Reconstruction policies throughout his political career, but the first major act of his presidency was an end to Reconstruction and the return of the South to home rule.[119] Even without the conditions of the Wormley's Hotel agreement, Hayes would have been hard-pressed to continue the policies of his predecessors. GATEWAY MX8734 Laptop Keyboard The House of Representatives in the 45th Congress was controlled by a Democratic majority that refused to appropriate enough funds for the army to continue to garrison the South.[120] Even among Republicans, devotion to continued military Reconstruction was fading.[121] Only two states were still under Reconstruction's sway when Hayes assumed the Presidency and, without troops to enforce the voting rights laws, these too soon fell.[122][e]SONY Vaio VGN-CR123E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes's later attempts to protect the rights of southern blacks were ineffective, as were his attempts to rebuild Republican strength in the South.[124] He did, however, defeat Congress's efforts to curtail federal power to monitor federal elections.[125] Democrats in Congress passed an army appropriation bill in 1879 with a rider that repealed the Force Acts.[125] Those Acts, passed during Reconstruction, made it a crime to prevent someone from voting because of his race.  HP Pavilion dv6-3257cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes was determined to preserve the law protecting black voters, and he vetoed the appropriation.[125] The Democrats did not have enough votes to override the veto, but they passed a new bill with the same rider. Hayes vetoed this as well, and the process was repeated three times more.[125] Finally, Hayes signed an appropriation without the offensive rider, but Congress refused to pass another bill to fund federal marshals, who were vital to the enforcement of the Force Acts.[125] The election laws remained in effect, but the funds to enforce them were curtailed for the time being.[126]HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hayes confronted two issues regarding the currency. The first was the coinage of silver, and its relation to gold. In 1873, the Coinage Act of 1873 stopped the coinage of silver for all coins worth a dollar or more, effectively tying the dollar to the value of gold. As a result, the money supply contracted and the effects of the Panic of 1873 grew worse, making it more expensive for debtors to pay debts they had contracted when currency was less valuable.[156]  ACER Aspire 5920-302G12Mi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Farmers and laborers, especially, clamored for the return of coinage in both metals, believing the increased money supply would restore wages and property values.[157] Democratic Representative Richard P. Bland of Missouri proposed a bill that would require the United States to coin as much silver as miners could sell the government, thus increasing the money supply and aiding debtors.[158] William B. Allison, a Republican from Iowa offered an amendment in the Senate limiting the coinage to two to four million dollars per month, HP Pavilion dv8315nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the resulting Bland–Allison Act passed both houses of Congress in 1878.[158] Hayes feared that the Act would causeinflation that would be ruinous to business, effectively impairing contracts that were based on the gold dollar, as the silver dollar proposed in the bill would have an intrinsic value of 90 to 92 percent of the existing gold dollar.[159]Further, Hayes believed that inflating the currency was an act of dishonesty, saying "[e]xpediency and justice both demand an honest currency."[159] He vetoed the bill, but Congress overrode his veto, the only time it did so during his presidency.[158]HP Pavilion dv6730ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP Pavilion dv6736nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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