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18 janvier 2011 2 18 /01 /janvier /2011 05:20

Online shopping is the process whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the Internet. If an intermediary service is present the process is called electronic commerce  (Dell XPS M1210 Batteryhttp://www.hdd-shop.co.uk .

An online shop, eshop, e-store, internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at abricks-and-mortar retailer or in a shopping mall. The process is called Business-to-Consumer (B2C) online shopping  (Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery)      .

When a business buys from another business it is called Business-to-Business (B2B) online shopping. Both B2C and B2B online shopping are forms of e-commerce  (Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery)    .


In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the first World Wide Web server and browser.It opened for commercial use in 1991. In 1994 other advances took place, such as online banking and the opening of an online pizza shop by Pizza Hut (Dell Vostro 1710 Battery)   .

During that same year, Netscape introduced SSL encryption of data transferred online, which has become essential for secure online shopping   .

Also in 1994 the German company Intershop introduced its first online shopping system. In 1995 Amazon launched its online shopping site, and in 1996 eBay appeared  (Dell KM958 battery)     .


In recent years, online shopping has become popular; however, it still caters to the middle and upper class..In order to shop online, one must be able to have access to a computer, a bank account and a debit card. Shopping has evolved with the growth of technology  (Sony VGP-BPS13 battery)  .

According to research found in the Journal of Electronic Commerce, if one focuses on the demographic characteristics of the in-home shopper, in general, the higher the level of education, income, and occupation of the head of the household, the more favourable the perception of non-store shopping., Enrique  (Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery)       .

(2005) The Impact of Internet User Shopping Patterns and Demographics on Consumer Mobile Buying Behaviour. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, An influential factor in consumer attitude towards non-store shopping is exposure to technology, since it has been demonstrated that increased exposure to technology increases the probability of developing favourable attitudes towards new shopping channels      (Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery)     .

Online shopping widened the target audience to men and women of the middle class. At first, the main users of online shopping were young men with a high level of income and a university education. This profile is changing. For example, in USA in the early years of Internet there were very few women users, but by 2001 women were 52.8% of the online population  (Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery) .


Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly, or do a search across many different vendors using a shopping search engine  (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery)      .

Once a particular product has been found on the web site of the seller, most online retailers use shopping cart software to allow the consumer to accumulate multiple items and to adjust quantities, by analogy with filling a physical shopping cart or basket in a conventional store  (Sony VGP-BPL9 battery)      .

A "checkout" process follows (continuing the physical-store analogy) in which payment and delivery information is collected, if necessary. Some stores allow consumers to sign up for a permanent online account so that some or all of this information only needs to be entered once         (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery)          .

The consumer often receives an e-mail confirmation once the transaction is complete. Less sophisticated stores may rely on consumers to phone or e-mail their orders (though credit card numbers are not accepted by e-mail, for security reasons)  Sony VGP-BPL15 battery .


Online shoppers commonly use credit card to make payments, however some systems enable users to create accounts and pay by alternative means, such as      Dell Inspiron E1505 battery :

  • Billing to mobile phones and landlines
  • Cash on delivery (C.O.D., offered by very few online stores)
  • Check
  • Debit card
  • Direct debit in some countries          Dell Latitude E6400 battery
  • Electronic money of various types
  • Gift cards
  • Postal money order
  • Wire transfer/delivery on payment        HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

Some sites will not accept international credit cards, some require both the purchaser's billing address and shipping address to be in the same country in which site does its business, and still other sites allow customers from anywhere to send gifts anywhere  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery .

The financial part of a transaction might be processed in real time (for example, letting the consumer know their credit card was declined before they log off), or might be done later as part of the fulfillment process.

Product delivery

Once a payment has been accepted the goods or services can be delivered in the following ways SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery .

  • Downloading: This is the method often used for digital media products such as software, music, movies, or images.
  • Drop shipping: The order is passed to the manufacturer or third-party distributor, who ships the item directly to the consumer, bypassing the retailer's physical location to save time, money, and space      SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery .
  • In-store pickup: The customer orders online, finds a local store using locator software and picks the product up at the closest store. This is the method often used in the bricks and clicks business model  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery .
  • Printing out, provision of a code for, or emailing of such items as admission tickets and scrip (e.g., gift certificates and coupons). The tickets, codes, or coupons may be redeemed at the appropriate physical or online premises and their content reviewed to verify their eligility   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery
  • (e.g., assurances that the right of admission or use is redeemed at the correct time and place, for the correct dollar amount, and for the correct number of uses).
  • Shipping: The product is shipped to the customer's address or that of a customer-designated third party  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ430E Battery .
  • Will call, COBO (in Care Of Box Office), or "at the door" pickup: The patron picks up pre-purchased tickets for an event, such as a play, sporting event, or concert, either just before the event or in advance. With the onset of the Internet and e-commerce sites, which allow customers to buy tickets online, the popularity of this service has increased  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery .

Shopping cart systems

  • Simple systems allow the offline administration of products and categories. The shop is then generated as HTML files and graphics that can be uploaded to a webspace. These systems do not use an online database  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery .
  • A high end solution can be bought or rented as a standalone program or as an addition to an enterprise resource planning program. It is usually installed on the company's own webserver and may integrate into the existing supply chain so that ordering, payment, delivery, accounting and warehousing can be automated to a large extent   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery .
  • Other solutions allow the user to register and create an online shop on a portal that hosts multiple shops at the same time.
  • Open source shopping cart packages include advanced platforms such as Interchange, and off the shelf solutions as Avactis, Satchmo, osCommerce, Magento, Zen Cart, VirtueMart, Batavi andPrestaShop  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery .
  • Commercial systems can also be tailored to one's needs so the shop does not have to be created from scratch. By using a pre-existing framework, software modules for various functionalities required by a web shop can be adapted and combined  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery .

Online Shopping Malls

Like many online auction websites, many websites allow small businesses to create and maintain an online shops (ecommerce online shopping carts), without the complexity that involved in purchasing and developing an expensive stand alone ecommerce software solutions   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery .


Why does electronic shopping exist? For customers it is not only because of the high level of convenience, but also because of the broader selection; competitive pricing and greater access to information     SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery .

For organizations it increases their customer value and the building of sustainable capabilities, next to the increased profits.

Information load

Designers of online shops should consider the effects of information load. Mehrabian and Russel (1974) introduced the concept of information rate (load) as the complex spatial and temporal arrangements of stimuli within a setting  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery.

The notion of information load is directly related to concerns about whether consumers can be given too much information in virtual shopping environments. Compared with conventional retail shopping, computer shopping enriches the information environment of virtual shopping by providing additional product information  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery .

such as comparative products and services, as well as various alternatives and attributes of each alternative, etc.

Two major sub-dimensions have been identified for information load: complexity and novelty. Complexity refers to the number of different elements or features of a site, which can be the result of increased information diversity  SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery .

Novelty involves the unexpected, suppressing, new, or unfamiliar aspects of the site. A research by Huang (2000) showed that the novelty dimension kept consumers exploring the shopping sites, whereas the complexity dimension has the potential to induce impulse purchases   SONY VGP-BPS13 Battery .

Consumer expectations

The main idea of online shopping is not just in having a good looking website that could be listed in a lot of search engines or the art behind the site.It also is not only just about disseminating information, because it is also about building relationships and making money         SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery .

Mostly, organizations try to adopt techniques of online shopping without understanding these techniques and/or without a sound business model. Rather than supporting the organization's culture and brand name, the website should satisfy consumer's expectations         SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery .

A majority of consumers choose online shopping for a faster and more efficient shopping experience. Many researchers notify that the uniqueness of the web has dissolved and the need for the design, which will be user centered, is very important. Companies should always remember that there are certain things  SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery ,

such as understanding the customer's wants and needs, living up to promises, never go out of style, because they give reason to come back. And the reason will stay if consumers always get what they expect. McDonaldization theory can be used in terms of online shopping  SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery ,

because online shopping is becoming more and more popular and a website that wants to gain more shoppers will use four major principles of McDonaldization: efficiency, calculability, predictability and control  SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery .

Organizations, which want people to shop more online for them, should consume extensive amounts of time and money to define, design, develop, test, implement, and maintain the website. Also if a company wants their website to be popular among online shoppers it should leave the user with a positive impression about the organization  Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery ,

so consumers can get an impression that the company cares about them.  The organization that wants to be accepted in online shopping needs to remember, that it is easier to lose a customer then to gain one. Lots of researchers state that even when a site was "top-rated"        Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery ,

it would go nowhere if the organization failed to live up to common etiquette, such as returning e-mails in a timely fashion, notifying customers of problems, being honest, and being good stewards of the customers' data. Organizations that want to keep their customers or gain new ones should try to get rid of all mistakes and be more appealing to be more desirable for online shoppers  Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery .

And this is why many designers of webshops consider research outcomes concerning consumer expectations. Research conducted by Elliot and Fowell (2000) revealed satisfactory and unsatisfactory customer experiences  Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery .

User interface

It is important to take the country and customers into account. For example, in Japan privacy is very important and emotional involvement is more important on a pension's site than on a shopping site       Dell Studio 1450 Battery .

Next to that, there is a difference in experience: experienced users focus more on the variables that directly influence the task, while novice users are focusing more on understanding the information.

There are several techniques for the inspection of the usability        Dell Studio 1457 Battery .

The ones used in the research of Chen & Macredie (2005) are Heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk through and the user testing. Every technique has its own (dis-)advantages and it is therefore important to check per situation which technique is appropriate.

When the customers went to the online shop, a couple of factors determine whether they will return to the site Dell Latitude D610 Battery .

The most important factors are the ease of use and the presence of user-friendly features.

The System Itself

The Shopping Cart system works like the name suggests. Firstly, the customer must choose the product desired from the source  Toshiba NB100 Battery .

Once this step is done, an option to add the product to the cart will be given, this step will assure that the item you desire will be bought. Once the customer has finished browsing for other potential purchases and has decided that the product he chose previously is the one that he wants to buy        Toshiba Satellite M65 battery ,

the user must then follow the steps provided by the website in order to fulfill the transaction (normally requires an active account and/or registration method). Lastly, the order will then be sent to the desired address at a predicted date, which may alter depending on the speed of the process     Toshiba Satellite M60 battery .

Market share

E-commerce B2C product sales totaled $146.4 billion in the United States in 2006, representing about 6% of retail product sales in the country. The $18.3 billion worth of clothes sold online represented about 10% of the domestic market  Dell Latitude D830 Battery.

For developing countries and low-income households in developed countries, adoption of e-commerce in place of or in addition to conventional methods is limited by a lack of affordable Internet access       Dell Latitude D620 Battery .

The position of Turkey on online shopping world

As we all become familiar, the number of the people who access the internet and become online grow day by day in Turkey. Besides, how people use the internet is changing and also the answer of why people access or how often do people visit some online pages are changing rapidly as well       Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery .

As the research of State Planning Organization of Turkey shows that people who live in Turkey are going online much predominantly and spending their time through doing search, slicking various links and mostly looking the contents that webpages presents rather than the last years       Sony VGN-FW11S Battery .

If we take into account the internet issue in terms of Turkey, we can not deny that the Web had already became an integral part of our lifes in Turkey.

As everybody experience in a day; we always encounter at least one or two mail about discount news or membership opportunities from online shopping/ online consumption web pages        Sony VGN-FW11M Battery .

Although we don’t click the link, we realize about the product&service and also those web-pages who sells online its products and services. In Turkey, while lots of different web-pages doing kind of sales through using web   Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery ;

there some kind of insufficiency because many famous brands don’t have online shoppping channel or opportunity on their pages because of the lack of infrastructure of accessing and using those channels. If we judging the issue through a broader perspective and Turkey’s demographic structure         Dell Latitude E5400 Battery ,

we see the potential population of young people which leads to ofcourse the rise on the degree of internet access and online consumption.

Before ten years ago, some brands and media professionals were aware about the online shopping, but the higher degrees of custom duties, it was hard and tough to shop online in Turkey          Dell Latitude E4200 Battery .

After the rapid spread of awareness on using internet for shopping, online shopping is rapidly becoming almost the norm and phenomenon for most of shoppers day by day who are looking for a product to by quickly and without spending time, gas and so on, while doing traditional shopping        Dell Inspiron 300M Battery .

Because online shopping started told to Turkish citizens: It’s hard to find always the right product for the right price; so I give you a few easy ways to find very appropriate products and services a the best prices and quality that you are looking for. As it can be seen in many examples        Dell Vostro A840 Battery ,

the internet has transformed many aspects of life, but perhaps nonem ore so than ‘how’ we shop for good and services. While it is still nice to stop in front of a store, look at the showcase, touch the products; the convenience and the possibilities that online shopping offers can not plunge in somewhere    Dell Studio 1737 battery .

For some services, such as booking a travel or buying concert tickets; online shopping plays an important role and its process is much easier than traditional shopping in terms of without awating one’s turn and spending gas and time   Dell Inspiron E1505 battery.

However, today ‘delivery time’ is still a problem on online shopping in Turkey. Most of online consumers are complaining about the ‘delivery time’ that web pages promises  Therefore, many brands and their online consumption pages are competing with each other through putting a notice on ‘delivery time’ and ‘promised time’ Dell RM791 battery .

Secondly, the other problem on online shopping issue is ‘the delivery of damaged product’.

According to Sehirfirsati.com’s demographic datas which is the most favorite discount online shopping web page in Turkey and under the defense of Groupon show that women are more active on online shopping(70%) rather than men( 30%)  Dell XPS M1530 battery .

Besides, according to some datas of Sehirfirsati.com online shopping leads to the active shopping in also small cities in Turkey. On the other hand, according to the report of Emre Ekmekçi, who is the general manager of Sehirfirsati.com; the distribution of opportunity sales can be arranged as 40% meal, 20% beauty and 20% activity   Dell XPS M2010 battery .



Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day, and many consumers have Internet access both at work and at home    Acer Aspire One battery .

Other establishments such as internet cafes and schools provide access as well. A visit to a conventional retail store requires travel and must take place during business hours.

In the event of a problem with the item – it is not what the consumer ordered, or it is not what they expected – consumers are concerned with the ease with which they can return an item for the correct one or for a refund  Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery .

Consumers may need to contact the retailer, visit the post office and pay return shipping, and then wait for a replacement or refund. Some online companies have more generous return policies to compensate for the traditional advantage of physical stores    SONY VGN-FZ210CE Battery .

For example, the online shoe retailer Zappos.com includes labels for free return shipping, and does not charge a restocking fee, even for returns which are not the result of merchant error. (Note: In the United Kingdom, online shops are prohibited from charging a restocking fee if the consumer cancels their order in accordance with the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Act 2000       Dell Precision M70 Battery .

Information and reviews

Online stores must describe products for sale with text, photos, and multimedia files, whereas in a physical retail store, the actual product and the manufacturer's packaging will be available for direct inspection (which might involve a test drive, fitting, or other experimentation)          Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery .

Some online stores provide or link to supplemental product information, such as instructions, safety procedures, demonstrations, or manufacturer specifications. Some provide background information, advice, or how-to guides designed to help consumers decide which product to buy        Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery .

Some stores even allow customers to comment or rate their items. There are also dedicated review sites that host user reviews for different products.

In a conventional retail store, clerks are generally available to answer questions      Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery .

Some online stores have real-time chat features, but most rely on e-mail or phone calls to handle customer questions.

Price and selection

One advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for items or services with many different vendors (though some local search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby stores)  Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery .

Search engines, online price comparison services and discovery shopping engines can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or service.

Shipping costs (if applicable) reduce the price advantage of online merchandise, though depending on the jurisdiction, a lack of sales tax may compensate for this        Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery .

Shipping a small number of items, especially from another country, is much more expensive than making the larger shipments bricks-and-mortar retailers order. Some retailers (especially those selling small, high-value items like electronics) offer free shipping on sufficiently large orders      Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery .

Another major advantage for retailers is the ability to rapidly switch suppliers and vendors without disrupting users' shopping experience.


Fraud and security concerns

Given the lack of ability to inspect merchandise before purchase, consumers are at higher risk of fraud on the part of the merchant than in a physical store         Sony Vaio PCG-5G2L Battery .

Merchants also risk fraudulent purchases using stolen credit cards or fraudulent repudiation of the online purchase. With a warehouse instead of a retail storefront, merchants face less risk from physical theft         Sony Vaio PCG-5G3L Battery .

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption has generally solved the problem of credit card numbers being intercepted in transit between the consumer and the merchant. Identity theft is still a concern for consumers when hackers break into a merchant's web site and steal names, addresses and credit card numbers  Sony Vaio PCG-5J1L Battery .

A number of high-profile break-ins in the 2000s has prompted some U.S. states to require disclosure to consumers when this happens. Computer security has thus become a major concern for merchants and e-commerce service providers, who deploy countermeasures such as firewalls and anti-virus software to protect their networks          Sony Vaio PCG-5K2L Battery .

Phishing is another danger, where consumers are fooled into thinking they are dealing with a reputable retailer, when they have actually been manipulated into feeding private information to a system operated by a malicious party. Denial of service attacks are a minor risk for merchants, as are server and network outages       Sony Vaio PCG-5J2L Battery .

Quality seals can be placed on the Shop web page if it has undergone an independent assessment and meets all requirements of the company issuing the seal. The purpose of these seals is to increase the confidence of the online shoppers; the existence of many different seals, or seals unfamiliar to consumers, may foil this effort to a certain extent       Sony Vaio PCG-5K1L Battery .

A number of resources offer advice on how consumers can protect themselves when using online retailer services. These include:

  • Sticking with known stores, or attempting to find independent consumer reviews of their experiences; also ensuring that there is comprehensive contact information on the website before using the service, and noting if the retailer has enrolled in industry oversight programs such as trust mark or trust seal     Sony Vaio PCG-5L1L Battery .
  • Before buying from a new company, evaluate the website by considering issues such as: the professionalism and user-friendliness of the site; whether or not the company lists a telephone number and/or street address along with e-contact information     Sony Vaio PCG-6S2L Battery ;
  • whether a fair and reasonable refund and return policy is clearly stated; and whether there are hidden price inflators, such as excessive shipping and handling charges.
  • Ensuring that the retailer has an acceptable privacy policy posted        Sony Vaio PCG-6S3L Battery .
  • For example note if the retailer does not explicitly state that it will not share private information with others without consent.
  • Ensuring that the vendor address is protected with SSL (see above) when entering credit card information. If it does the address on the credit card information entry screen will start with "HTTPS"  Sony Vaio PCG-6V1L Battery .
  • Using strong passwords, without personal information. Another option is a "pass phrase," which might be something along the lines: "I shop 4 good a buy!!" These are difficult to hack, and provides a variety of upper, lower, and special characters and could be site specific and easy to remember  Sony Vaio PCG-6W1L Battery .

Although the benefits of online shopping are considerable, when the process goes poorly it can create a thorny situation. A few problems that shoppers potentially face include identity theft, faulty products, and the accumulation of spyware   Sony Vaio PCG-6W2L Battery .

Whenever you purchase a product, you are going to be required to put in your credit card information and billing/shipping address. If the website is not secure a customers information can be accessible to anyone who knows how to obtain it    Sony Vaio PCG-6W3L Battery .

Most large online corporations are inventing new ways to make fraud more difficult, however, the criminals are constantly responding to these developments with new ways to manipulate the system. Even though these efforts are making it easier to protect yourself online, it is a constant fight to maintain the lead   Sony Vaio PCG-7111L Battery .

It is advisable to be aware of the most current technology and scams out there to fully protect yourself and your finances.  One of the hardest areas to deal with in online shopping is the delivery of the products. Most companies offer shipping insurance in case the product is lost or damaged        Sony Vaio PCG-7112L Battery ;

however, if the buyer opts not to purchase insurance on their products, they are generally out of luck. Some shipping companies will offer refunds or compensation for the damage, but it is up to their discretion if this will happen       Sony Vaio PCG-7113L Battery .

It is important to realize that once the product leaves the hands of the seller, they have no responsibility (provided the product is what the buyer ordered and is in the specified condition)         Sony Vaio PCG-7133L Battery .

Lack of full cost disclosure

The lack of full disclosure with regards to the total cost of purchase is one of the concerns of online shopping. While it may be easy to compare the base price of an item online, it may not be easy to see the total cost up front as additional fees such as shipping are often not be visible until the final step in the checkout process        Sony Vaio PCG-7Z2L Battery .

The problem is especially evident with cross-border purchases, where the cost indicated at the final checkout screen may not include additional fees that must be paid upon delivery such as duties and brokerage. Some services such as the Canadian based Wishabiattempts to include estimates of these additional cost         Sony Vaio PCG-8Y1L Battery ,

but nevertheless, the lack of general full cost disclosure remains a concern.


Privacy of personal information is a significant issue for some consumers        Sony Vaio PCG-8Y2L Battery .

Different legal jurisdictions have different laws concerning consumer privacy, and different levels of enforcement. Many consumers wish to avoid spam and telemarketing which could result from supplying contact information to an online merchant   Sony Vaio PCG-8Z1L Battery .

In response, many merchants promise not to use consumer information for these purposes, or provide a mechanism to opt-out of such contacts.

Many websites keep track of consumers shopping habits in order to suggest items and other websites to view   Sony Vaio PCG-8Z2L Battery .

Brick-and-mortar stores also collect consumer information. Some ask for address and phone number at checkout, though consumers may refuse to provide it. Many larger stores use the address information encoded on consumers' credit cards (often without their knowledge) to add them to a catalog mailing list    Sony VAIO PCG-5G2L Battery .

This information is obviously not accessible to the merchant when paying in cash.

Product suitability

Many successful purely virtual companies deal with digital products, (including information storage, retrieval, and modification)Sony VAIO PCG-5G3L Battery ,

music, movies, office supplies, education, communication, software, photography, and financial transactions. Other successful marketers use Drop shipping or affiliate marketing techniques to facilitate transactions of tangible goods without maintaining real inventory         Sony VAIO PCG-5J1L Battery .

Some non-digital products have been more successful than others for online stores. Profitable items often have a high value-to-weight ratio, they may involve embarrassing purchases, they may typically go to people in remote locations, and they may have shut-ins as their typical purchasers      Sony VAIO PCG-5K2L Battery .

Items which can fit in a standard mailbox — such as music CDs, DVDs and books — are particularly suitable for a virtual marketer.

Products such as spare parts, both for consumer items like washing machines and for industrial equipment like centrifugal pumps, also seem good candidates for selling online         Sony VAIO PCG-5J2L Battery .

Retailers often need to order spare parts specially, since they typically do not stock them at consumer outlets—in such cases, e-commerce solutions in spares do not compete with retail stores, only with other ordering systems    Sony VAIO PCG-5K1L Battery .

A factor for success in this niche can consist of providing customers with exact, reliable information about which part number their particular version of a product needs, for example by providing parts lists keyed by serial number   Sony VAIO PCG-5L1L Battery .

Products less suitable for e-commerce include products that have a low value-to-weight ratio, products that have a smell, taste, or touch component, products that need trial fittings — most notably clothing — and products where colour integrity appears important   Sony VAIO PCG-6S2L Battery .

Nonetheless, Tesco.com has had success delivering groceries in the UK, albeit that many of its goods are of a generic quality, and clothing sold through the internet is big business in the U.S. Also, the recycling program Cheapcycle sells goods over the internet, but avoids the low value-to-weight ratio problem by creating different groups for various regions, so that shipping costs remain low  Sony VAIO PCG-6S3L Battery .


High-volume websites, such as Yahoo!, Amazon.com and eBay, offer hosting services for online stores to all size retailers. These stores are presented within an integrated navigation framework. Collections of online stores are sometimes known as virtual shopping malls or online marketplaces       Sony VAIO PCG-6V1L Battery .

Become.com is a product price comparison service and discovery shopping search engine with a mission to help shoppers make ideal buying decisions. Dulance was a price engine that specialized in searching for hard-to-find products often sold by small independent online retailers ("The Long Tail")     Sony VAIO PCG-6W1L Battery .

Mysupermarket aggregates inventory from the UK's four leading online groceries for shoppers to compare supermarket prices.

Many companies that don't have internal resources or expertise (such as do-it-yourself-ers) work with a web development firm to handle all or some of the facets of the online shopping set-up, including integration of the e-commerce platform and hosting  Sony VAIO PCG-6W2L Battery .

Full service digital companies can design, develop and set-up ecommerce sites so that they're up and running with existing merchant accounts or new ones."

The impact of others’ review on consumer behaviour

One of the great benefits of online shopping is the ability to read others’ reviews who could be expert or simply fellow shopper on one product and service         Sony VAIO PCG-6W3L Battery .

The Nielsen Company conducted a survey in March 2010 and polled more than 27.000 internet users in 55 markets from Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East, North America and South America to look at “How consumers shop online?        Sony VAIO PCG-7111L Battery ,

“What they intend to buy?”, “How they use various online shopping web pages?”, and the impact of social media&other factors that come into play when consumers are trying to decide how to spend their money on which product or service   Sony VAIO PCG-7112L Battery .

According to that research ., revies on electronics(%57) such as Dvd-players, cell-phones or playstations and so on, reviews on cars(45%), and revies on softwares(37%) play an important role and have influences on consumer who tend to make purchase and buy online      Sony VAIO PCG-7113L Battery .

Not only online reviews, but also peer recommendations on the online shopping web pages or social media play a key role for online shoppers while researching future purchases of electronics, cars and travel or concert bookings. On the other hand, according to research of Nielsen       Sony VAIO PCG-7133L Battery .

40% of online shoppers indicate that they wouldn’t even buy electronics without consulting online reviews first. In conclusion, as it is seen online reviews plays a fundamental on consumer who want to buy some kind of product but mostly elecronics, carsand softwares Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1L Battery .

The advent of online shopping has resulted in the rapid development of a large number of rewards programs that offer incentives for shopping. These programmes may be points-based (redeemable for products or vouchers), cashback, airline frequent flyer-miles-based, hotel points, donations to charity, or even carbon offsets   Sony VAIO PCG-7Z2L Battery .

These programmes are often presented to the consumer as coalitions of large numbers of retailers, but are probably better described as competitive loyalty programmes, to differentiate them from their pre-cursors the original single retailer non-competitive loyalty program   Sony VAIO PCG-8Y1L Battery .


Rewards portals have grown very rapidly in most major markets, especially in the US, Canada, UK, and Australia. While they have roots in traditional off-line non-competitive loyalty programs      Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2L Battery ,

such portals often add considerably greater value to the customer than their traditional off-line equivalent, which accounts for their dramatic growth and high levels of customer acceptance         Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1L Battery .

The marketing model

Cash back and reward based websites operate using a marketing model known as affiliate marketing, which is a performance based marketing tool. Affiliate marketing networks make it possible to track in detail where users come from (which website is referring the customers), what users buy (down to the product) and when   Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2L Battery .

Rewards based websites track and reconcile this information with their own user database, and pass on a proportion or even all of the commission received to the customer. From the customer's perspective they are getting something back, usually at no extra cost and often with an additional discount or bonus        Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery .

From the retailer's perspective, the role and costs of marketing are passed on almost entirely to the affiliate. While hundreds of thousands of websites can easily use affiliate programmes to advertise products and retailers (from sports blogs, fanzines through to almost any niche website)          Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery ,

cash back and rewards based programmes are much fewer in number, because of the need to track, store and retrieve individual customer information with a high degree of precision.

A Typology

A related article describes a typology of incentive programs        Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery .

Online shopping programs of the sort described here tend to be consumer oriented points based or cash back programs. Traditional programs focus their proposition on extrinsic rewards {see also Extrinsic motivation}: cash back or a choice of attractive rewards. A variant, though not unique to online shopping programs, is the intrinsic reward   Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

Cause related websites, much like affinity credit cards give their users the opportunity to donate the cash back / points to a charity, or to a school or to a club. Other's still give their users a range of options. With consumer concern about climate change growing, a number of green rewards shopping portals have recently appeared       Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

Instead of cash back or points these websites offer carbon credits (also known as carbon offsets) or green gadgets to encourage consumers to shop with particular retailers or make changes to their life style.


Points based web sites may have different currencies, which makes it difficult to compare the customer benefit SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery .

Most reward websites retain a proportion of the commission, and only industry insiders are aware of the nuances of the business model used and therefore the customer benefi  SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery .

From the consumer's perspective it may not always be clear whether the benefit going to the supported cause is the most effective way of raising funds. For example, in some countries like the UK, a significant tax benefit can be provided to the charity by donating in cash       SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery .

While the majority of green reward websites also offer some useful information and advice on greener living, few of them seem to encourage more sustainable consumption       SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the Internet. The functionality of buying and selling in an auctionformat is made possible through auction software which regulates the various processes involved      SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

Several types of online auctions are possible. In an English auction the initial price starts low and is bid up by successive bidders. In a Dutch auction, multiple identical items are offered in one auction, with all winning bidders paying the same price -- the highest price at which all items will be sold (treasury bills, for example, are auctioned this way)  (SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery)     .

Currently almost all online auctions use the English auction method.

Strengths of the business model

The strategic advantages of this business model include      SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery :

  1. No time constraints. Bids can be placed at any time (24/7). Items are listed for a number of days (usually between 1 and 10, at the discretion of the seller), giving purchasers time to search, decide, and bid. This convenience increases the number of bidders        .SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery
  2. Criticism Auction sites, like garage sales, flea markets, classified advertisements and other independent sales venues, sometimes draw criminals wishing to sell stolen products, but for law enforcement organizations, finding stolen goods offered online is sometimes easier than more traditional detection methods SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

Some criticism is leveled at online auction websites for uneven representation of items offered for sale. Descriptions may omit important information, and photos may not be adequate. Potential bidders can typically protect themselves by reading the text, studying photographs and asking questions of the seller before bidding         SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Studies show that a large proportion of unsatisfactory online purchase experiences are the result of careless consumerism.

In the U.S., large retailers have lobbied Congress to require online auction sites to share private sales information about sellers, citing potential illegalities          SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Within the online auction community this is commonly viewed as an attempt at unfair market protection and trade restraint. Reduced overhead sometimes enables independent online sellers to offer goods at lower prices than large retailers   WD passport essential (500GB/640GB) .

Online auction selling has attracted millions of laid-off workers, as well as the disabled, parents of young children, retirees, pensioners and others that are unable to find employment in the mainstream workforce       WD passport essential (250GB/320GB) .

Online auction venue corporations are accused of engaging in discriminatory trade practices that unfairly impact such customers. Presently, the trading practices of online auction venue corporations is not regulated by state or federal agencies  WD  passport essential SE (750GB/1TB)          .

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