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The Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is an object-relational database management system(ORDBMS)[2] produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation  HP 448007-001 battery .

Larry Ellison and his friends and former co-workers Bob Miner and Ed Oates started the consultancy Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed the original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes from the code-name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on while previously employed by Ampex  HP Pavilion DV7 battery .

Physical and logical structures

An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID —comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage  HP DV6-1120SA battery .

An instance—identified persistently by an instantiation number (or activation id: SYS.V_$DATABASE.ACTIVATION#)—comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor)  HP DV6-1210SA battery .

Users of the Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information such as data-buffers, SQL commands, and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (or logs), which hold transactional history  Compaq CQ50 battery .

Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.

If the Oracle database administrator has implemented Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters), then multiple instances, usually on different servers, attach to a central storage array  HP Pavilion DV8 battery .

This scenario offers advantages such as better performance, scalability and redundancy. However, support becomes more complex, and many sites do not use RAC. In version 10g, grid computing introduced shared resources where an instance can use (for example) CPU resources from another node (computer) in the grid  Sony VGP-BPS13 battery .

The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them  HP DV9700 battery .


The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files ("datafiles"). Tablespaces can contain various types of memory segments, such as Data Segments, Index Segments, etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents   Compaq CQ35-100 battery .

Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage.

There is also a partioning feature available on newer versions of the database, which allows tables to be partitioned based on different set of keys  Sony VGP-BPS11 battery .

Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM tablespace. The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary—and often (by default) indexes and clusters. A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user-objects in the database  HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery .

Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces)Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery .

Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is an American multinational computer technology corporation that specializes in developing and marketing hardware systems and enterprise software products — particularly database management systems. Headquartered in Redwood Shores  Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/P Battery ,

California,United States and employing 105,000 people worldwide as of 1 July 2010,  it has enlarged its share of the software market through organic growth and through a number of high-profile acquisitions. By 2007 Oracle had the third-largest software revenue, after Microsoft and IBM  Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/R Battery .

The corporation has arguably become best-known for its flagship product, the Oracle Database. The company also builds tools for databasedevelopment and systems of middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) andsupply chain management (SCM) software  Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/W Battery .

As of 2010, Larry Ellison, a co-founder of Oracle Corporation, has served as Oracle's CEO throughout its history. He also served as the Chairman of the Board until his replacement by Jeffrey O. Henley in 2004. On August 22, 2008 the Associated Press ranked Ellison as the top-paid chief executive in the world  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery .


Ellison took inspiration  from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems (RDBMS) named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks". He had heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Ed Oates (a future co-founder of Oracle Corporation)  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery .

System R also derived from Codd's theories, and Ellison wanted to make Oracle's product compatible with System R, but IBM stopped this by keeping the error codes for their DBMS secret. Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories (SDL)  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery .

In 1979 SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc . (RSI). In 1982, RSI renamed itselfOracle Systems to align itself more closely with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the company's senior programmer. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/W Battery .

Part of Oracle Corporation's early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products. This eased porting to different operating systems (most of which support C). This gave Oracle Corporation an advantage over companies using operating-system-specific languages   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery .

Oracle Corporation programmers wrote the first C compiler for the IBM mainframe platform in order to port to that platform.

Overall timeline

  • June 16, 1977: Software Development Laboratories (SDL) is incorporated in Santa Clara, California by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner and Ed Oates  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery .
  • 1978: Oracle Version 1, written in assembly language, runs on PDP-11 under RSX, in 128K of memory. Implementation separates Oracle code and user code. Oracle V1 is never officially released. The name Oracle comes from the code name of a CIA project which the founders had all worked on while at the Ampex Corporation   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/W Battery .
  • June 1979: SDL is renamed to Relational Software Inc. (RSI)and relocated to Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California. Oracle 2, the first version of the Oracle database software, as purchased byWright-Patterson Air Force Base, runs on PDP-11 hardwareSony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N Battery .
  • The company decides to name the first version of its flagship product "version 2" rather than "version 1" because it believes customers might hesitate to buy the initial release of its product.
  • October 1979: RSI actively promotes Oracle on the VAX platform (the software runs on the VAX in PDP-11 emulator mode)Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/R Battery .
  • 1981: Umang Gupta joins RSI, where he writes the first business plan for the company and serves as Vice President and General Manager.
  • February 1981: RSI begins developing tools for the Oracle Database, including the Interactive Application Facility (IAF), a predecessor to Oracle*Forms  Sony Vaio VGN-CR220E/R Battery .
  • 1982: RSI renames itself Oracle Systems Corporation in order to align itself more closely with its primary product.
  • March 1983: Oracle Database is rewritten in C for portability and Oracle version 3 is released.
  • April 1984: Oracle receives additional funding from Sequoia Capital  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/B Battery .
  • October 1984: Oracle version 4 is released, introducing read consistency.
  • November 1984: Oracle database software is ported to the PC platform. The MS-DOS version (4.1.4) of Oracle runs in only 512K of memory. (Oracle for MSDOS version 5, released in 1986, runs inProtected Mode on 286 machines using a technique invented by Mike Roberts, among the first products to do so.) Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/P Battery
  • April 1985: Oracle version 5 is released — one of the first RDBMSs to operate in client-server mode.
  • 1986: Oracle version 5.1 is released with support for distributed queries. Investigations into clustering begin.
  • March 12, 1986: Oracle goes public with revenues of $55 million USD  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/R Battery .
  • August 1987: Oracle founds its Applications division, building business-management software closely integrated with its database software. Oracle acquires TCI for its project management software.
  • 1988: Oracle version 6 is released with support for row-level locking and hot backups  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/L Battery .
  • The developers embedded the PL/SQL procedural language engine into the database but made no provision to store program blocks such as procedures and triggers in the database - this capability came in version 7. Users could submit PL/SQL blocks for immediate execution in the server from an environment such as SQL*Plus Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/N Battery ,
  • or via SQL statements embedded in a host program. Oracle included separate PL/SQL engines in various client tools (such as SQL*Forms and Reports).
  • 1989: Oracle moves its world headquarters to Redwood Shores, California. Revenues reach US$584 million  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/W Battery .
  • 1990: In the third quarter, Oracle reports its first ever loss; it lays off hundreds of employees. Ellison hires Michael S. Fields as President of Oracle U.S.A., Jeffrey O. Henley as CFO and Raymond Lane as COO.
  • June 1992: Oracle 7 is released with performance enhancements, administrative utilities  HP Pavilion DM3 battery ,
  • application-development tools, security features, the ability to persist PL/SQL program units in the database as stored procedures and triggers, and support for declarative referential integrity.
  • 1993: Oracle releases its "Cooperative Development Environment" (CDE), which bundles Oracle Forms, Reports, Graphics, and Book  HP Pavilion DM4 battery .
  • 1994: Oracle acquires the database-product DEC Rdb (subsequently called Oracle Rdb) from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Oracle Rdb operates only on the OpenVMS platform (also a former product of DEC).
  • June 1, 1995: Oracle Systems Corporation announces the merger of Oracle Corporation into Oracle Systems Corporation  HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery .
  • This transaction eliminates the holding company structure and streamlines the operating company, Oracle Corporation, with the public holding company, Oracle Systems Corporation. As part of the merger, Oracle Systems Corporation is renamed Oracle Corporation and is the surviving entity incorporated as a Delaware corporation  Dell N3010 battery .
  • June 21, 1995: Oracle Corporation announces new data-warehousing facilities, including parallel queries.
  • November 1995: Oracle becomes one of the first  large software companies to announce an Internet strategy when Ellison introduces the network computer concept at an IDC conference in Paris   Dell Inspiron N4010 battery .
  • April 1997: Oracle releases the first version of Discoverer.
  • June 1997: Oracle 8 is released with SQL object technology, Internet technology and support for terabytes of data Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery .
  • September 1997: Oracle Corporation announces a commitment to the Java platform, and introduces Oracle's Java integrated development environment, subsequently called "Oracle JDeveloper".
  • January 1998: Oracle releases Oracle Applications 10.7 Network Computing Architecture (NCA). All the applications in the business software now run across the web in a standard web browser  Dell XPS 1340 battery .
  • May 1998: Oracle Corporation releases Oracle Applications 11.
  • April 1998: Oracle announces that it will integrate a Java Virtual Machine with Oracle Database.
  • September 1998: Oracle 8i is released (the i stands for Internet).
  • October 1998: Oracle 8 and Oracle Application Server 4.0 are released on the Linux platform Dell Inspiron 1464 battery .
  • May 1999: Oracle releases JDeveloper 2.0, showcasing Business Components for Java (BC4J), a set of libraries and development tools for building database-aware applications.
  • 2000: OracleMobile subsidiary is founded. Oracle 9i and Application Server is released. In May, Oracle announces the Internet File System (iFS), later re-branded as Oracle Content Management SDK  Dell Inspiron 1764 battery .
  • 2001: Ellison announces that Oracle saved $1 billion by implementing and using its own business applications.
  • 2004: Oracle 10g is released (the g stands for Grid).
  • December 13, 2004: After a long battle over the control of PeopleSoft, Oracle announces that it has signed an agreement to acquire PeopleSoft for $26.50 per share (approximately $10.3 billion)  Dell Inspiron 1564 battery .
  • January 14, 2005: Oracle Corporation announces that it will reduce its combined workforce to 50,000, a reduction of approximately 5,000 following the take-over of PeopleSoft.
  • September 2005: Oracle Corporation announces that it has agreed to acquire the private company Global Logistics Technologies, Inc., a global provider of logistics and transportation management software (TMS) solutions, through a cash offe  r  Dell Inspiron 1720 battery .
  • September 12, 2005: Oracle Corporation announces its purchase of Siebel Systems, a producer of CRM technologies and a provider of business intelligence software, for $5.8 billion.
  • October 18, 2005: A serious security vulnerability in Oracle database password management is published by Joshua Wright of the Sans Institute and Carlos Cid of the University of London  Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery .
  • Oracle Corporation replies that existing safeguards and following good industry practices were sufficient defenses. Oracle didn't close the underlying security hole until its release of the 11gDBMS in 2007.
  • April 12, 2006: Oracle Corporation announces its acquisition of Portal Software, Inc  Dell LATITUDE D800 battery .
  • (OTC BB: PRSF.PK), a global provider of billing- and revenue-management solutions for the communications and media industry, at $4.90 per share, or approximately $220 million.
  • October 25, 2006: Oracle Corporation announces Unbreakable Linux  Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter .
  • November 2, 2006: Oracle Corporation announces that it has agreed to acquire Stellent, Inc. (NASDAQ: STEL), a global provider of enterprise content management (ECM) software solutions, through a cash tender offer for $13.50 per share, or approximately $440 million  SONY VAIO VGN-FWZJ/H Battery .
  • December 15, 2006: A majority of MetaSolv stockholders approves Oracle's acquisition of MetaSolv Software, a provider of operations support systems (OSS) software for the communicationsindustry.
  • 2007: Oracle 11g is released   SONY VAIO VGN-FW41M/H Battery .
  • March 1, 2007: Oracle announces an agreement to buy Hyperion Solutions Corporation (Nasdaq: HYSL), a global provider of performance-management software solutions, through a cash tender offer for $52.00 per share, or approximately $3.3 billion. The acquisition officially took place on July 1, 2007   SONY VAIO VGN-FW37J Battery .
  • March 22, 2007: Oracle files a court case against a major competitor, SAP AG, in the Californian courts for malpractice and unfair competition.
  • October 16, 2007: Oracle confirms the impending departure of John Wookey, senior vice president for application development and head of its applications strategy, raising questions concerning the planned release and future of Oracle's Fusion Applications strategy  SONY VAIO VGN-FW90NS Battery .
  • January 16, 2008: Oracle announces it will buy BEA Systems for $19.375 per share in cash for a total of "$7.2 billion net of cash".
  • September 24, 2008: Oracle announces it will market servers and storage in a co-developed and co-branded data warehouse appliance named the HP Oracle Database Machine.   SONY VAIO VGN-FW83XS Battery
  • January 27, 2010: Oracle acquires Sun Microsystems.
  • March 17, 2010: Oracle launches Enterprise Manager Ops Center, a platform for managing physical and virtual Sun environments  .
  • April 16, 2010: Oracle agrees to acquire Phase Forward for approximately $685 million  SONY VAIO VGN-FW83JS Battery .
  • July 5, 2010: Mexico Development Center begins to operate with offices in Guadalajara, Jalisco, known as the Mexican Sillicon Valley.
  • July 29, 2010: Oracle is indicted for fraud by the US Department of Justice.
  • November 23, 2010: Oracle wins $1.3 billion law suit against SAP - the largest software piracy judgment in history SONY VAIO VGN-FW30B Battery .
  • While acknowledging the wrongdoings of its unit TomorrowNow, which was accused of massive illegal downloads of Oracle software, SAP seeks reduction of the jury award.
  • March 24, 2011: Oracle announced fiscal 2011 Q3 GAAP total revenues were up 37% to $8.8 billion, while non-GAAP total revenues were up 36% to $8.8 billion  SONY VAIO VGN-AW41MF/H Battery .

Technology timeline

  • 1979: offers the first commercial SQL RDBMS
  • 1983: offers a VAX-mode database
  • 1984: offers the first database with read-consistency
  • 1986: offers a client-server DBMS  SONY VAIO VGN-AW41MF Battery
  • 1987: introduces UNIX-based Oracle applications
  • 1988: introduces PL/SQL
  • 1992: offers full applications implementation methodology
  • 1995: offers the first 64-bit RDBMS  SONY VAIO VGN-AW41JF/H Battery
  • 1996: moves towards an open standards-based, web-enabled architecture
  • 1999: offers its first DBMS with XML support
  • 2001: becomes the first to complete 3 terabyte TPC-H world record
  • 2002: offers the first database to pass 15 industry standard security evaluations
  • 2003: introduces what it calls "Enterprise Grid Computing" with Oracle10g  SONY VAIO VGN-AW41JF Battery
  • 2005: releases its first free database, Oracle Database 10g Express Edition (XE)
  • 2008: smart scans in software improve query-response in HP Oracle Database Machine / Exadata storage

Corporate acquisitions

In 2004 Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g (g standing for "grid") as the then latest version of Oracle Database SONY VAIO VGN-FW38M Battery .

(Oracle Application Server 10g using Java EE integrates with the server part of that version of the database, making it possible to deploy web-technology applications. The application server comprises the first middle-tier software designed for grid computing  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery .

The interrelationship between Oracle 10g and Java has enabled the company to allow developers to set up stored procedures written in the Java language, as well as those written in the traditional Oracle database programming language, PL/SQL.)

Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007   SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery .

Berkeley DB offers embedded database processing.

Oracle Rdb, a relational database system, runs on OpenVMS platforms. Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation. Oracle has since made many enhancements to this product and development continues today  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery .

TimesTen features in-memory database operations.

Oracle Essbase continues the Hyperion Essbase tradition of multi-dimensional database management.

MySQL, a relational database management system licensed under the GNU General Public License, initially developed by MySQL ABSONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery .

Oracle Fusion Middleware

Sales practices

In 1990 Oracle laid off 10% (about 400 people) of its work force because  of a mismatch between cash and revenues. This crisis came about because of Oracle's "up-front" marketing strategy, in which sales people urged potential customers to buy the largest possible amount of software all at once   SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery .

The sales people then booked the value of future license sales in the current quarter, thereby increasing their bonuses. This became a problem when the future sales subsequently failed to materialize. Oracle eventually had to restate its earnings twice, and also settled (out of court) class-action lawsuits arising from its having overstated its earnings   Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery .

Ellison stated in 1992 that Oracle had made "an incredible business mistake".


Although IBM dominated the mainframe relational-database market with its DB2 and SQL/DS database products, it delayed entering the market for a relational database on UNIX and Windows operating systems   Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery .

This left the door open for Sybase, Oracle, and Informix (and eventually Microsoft) to dominate mid-range and microcomputers.

Around this time , Oracle technology started to lag technically behind that of Sybase   Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

In 1990–1993 Sybase became the fastest-growing database company and the database industry's darling vendor  but soon fell victim to its merger mania and to technical issues with System X.Sybase's 1993 merger with PowerSoft resulted in its losing its focus on its core database technology   Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

In 1993, Sybase sold the rights to its database software running under the Windows operating system to Microsoft Corporation, which now markets it under the name "SQL Server."

In 1994, Informix Software overtook Sybase and became Oracle's most important rival   SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery .

The intense war between Informix CEO Phil White and Ellison made front-page news in Silicon Valley for three years. Informix claimed that Oracle had hired away Informix engineers to disclose important trade secrets about an upcoming product. Informix finally dropped its lawsuit against Oracle in 1997  SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery .

In November 2005 a book detailing the war between Oracle and Informix appeared, providing a detailed chronology of the battle of Informix against Oracle, and how Informix Software's CEO Phil White landed in jail because of his obsession with overtaking EllisonSONY VGP-BPS21B Battery .

Once it had overcome Informix and Sybase, Oracle Corporation enjoyed years of dominance in the database market until use of Microsoft SQL Server became widespread in the late 1990s and IBM acquired Informix Software in 2000 (to complement its DB2 database)  SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

Today Oracle competes for new database licenses on UNIX, Linux, and Windows operating systems primarily against IBM's DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server (which only runs on Windows). IBM's DB2 still dominates the mainframe database market  SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

In 2004 Oracle's sales grew at a rate of 14.5% to $6.2 billion, giving it 41.3% and the top share of the relational-database market (InformationWeek - March, 2005), with market share estimated at up to 44.6% in 2005 by some sources. Oracle Corporation's main competitors in the database arena remain IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server  SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery ,

and to a lesser extent Sybase and Teradata , with open-source databases such as PostgreSQL and MySQL also having a significant share of the market. EnterpriseDB, based on PostgreSQL, has recently made inroads by proclaiming that its product delivers Oracle compatibility features at a much lower price-point   SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery .

In the software-applications market, Oracle Corporation primarily competes against SAP. On March 22, 2007 Oracle sued SAP, accusing them of fraud and unfair competition.

In the market for business intelligence software, many other software companies — small and large — have successfully competed in quality with Oracle and SAP products   SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

Business intelligence vendors can be categorized into the "big four" consolidated BI firms such as Oracle, who has entered BI market through a recent trend of acquisitions (including Hyperion Solutions), and the independent "pure play" vendors such as MicroStrategy, Actuate, and SAS  SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Oracle and SAP

From 1988 Oracle Corporation and the German company SAP AG had a decade-long history of cooperation, beginning with the integration of SAP's R/3 enterprise application suite with Oracle's relational database products. The marketplace  regarded the two firms' products as complementing one another, rather than as substitutes  SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Despite the current SAP partnership with Microsoft, and the increasing integration of SAP applications with Microsoft products (such as Microsoft SQL Server, a competitor to Oracle Database), Oracle and SAP continue their cooperation. According to Oracle Corporation, the majority of SAP's customers use Oracle databases    Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery .

In recent years, however, competition between Oracle and SAP has increased, and as a result, the rivalry between the two companies has grown, even developing into a feud between the co-founders of the two companies, where one party would frequently voice strong negative comments about the other company    Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery .

In 2004 Oracle began to increase its interest in the enterprise-applications market (in 1989, Oracle had already released Oracle Financials). A series of acquisitions by Oracle Corporation began, most notably those of PeopleSoft, Siebel Systems and HyperionToshiba Satellite A200 Battery .

SAP recognized that Oracle had started to become a competitor in a market where SAP had the leadership, and saw an opportunity to lure in customers from those companies that Oracle Corporation had acquired. SAP would offer those customers special discounts on the licenses for its enterprise applications  Sony VGP-BPS21 battery .

Oracle Corporation would resort to a similar strategy, by advising SAP customers to get "OFF SAP" (a play on the words of the acronym for its middleware platform "Oracle Fusion for SAP"),  and also by providing special discounts on licenses and services to SAP customers who chose Oracle Corporation products   Sony VGP-BPS14 battery .

Currently Oracle and SAP (the latter through its recently acquired subsidiary TomorrowNow) compete in the third-party enterprise software maintenance and support market. On March 22, 2007, Oracle filed a lawsuit against SAP. The complaint alleged that TomorrowNow    Sony VGP-BPL8 battery ,

which provides discount support for legacy Oracle product lines, used the accounts of former Oracle customers to systematically download patches and support documents from Oracle's website and to appropriate them for SAP's use. Some analysts have suggested the suit could form part of a strategy by Oracle Corporation to decrease competition with SAP in the market for third-party enterprise software maintenance and support  Sony VGP-BPS22 battery .

On July 3, 2007, SAP admitted that TomorrowNow employees had made "inappropriate downloads" from the Oracle support web site. However, it claims that SAP personnel and SAP customers had no access to Oracle intellectual property via TomorrowNow Sony VGP-BPS11 battery .

SAP's CEO Henning Kagermann stated that "Even a single inappropriate download is unacceptable from my perspective. We regret very much that this occurred." Additionally, SAP announced that it had "instituted changes" in TomorrowNow's operational oversight  Sony VGP-BPS9 battery .

On 23 November 2010 a U.S. district court jury in Oakland California found that SAP AG must pay Oracle Corp $1.3 billion for copyright infringement, awarding damages that could be the largest-ever for copyright infringement. While admitting liability, SAP estimated the damages at no more than $40 million, while Oracle claimed that they are at least $1.65 billion Sony VGP-BPS10 battery.

The awarded amount is one of the 10 or 20 largest jury verdicts in U.S. legal history. SAP said they were disappointed by the verdict and might appeal.


  • As of 2008: "The Information Company"   Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery
  • "Information driven"
  • For the Oracle Database: "Can't break it, can't break in"  or "Unbreakable"
  • As of 2010: "Software. Hardware. Complete."
  • As of late 2010: "Hardware and Software, Engineered to Work Together"  Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery


In 2000 Oracle gained attention from the computer industry and the press after hiring private investigators to dig through the trash of organizations involved in an antitrust trial involving Microsoft   Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery .

The Chairman of Oracle Corporation, Larry Ellison, staunchly defended his company's hiring of an East Coast detective agency to investigate groups that supported rival Microsoft Corporation during its antitrust trial, calling the snooping a "public service"  SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery .

The investigation reportedly included a $1,200 offer to janitors at the Association for Competitive Technology to look through Microsoft's trash. Asked how he'd feel if others were looking into Oracle's business activities, Ellison said: "We will ship our garbage to Redmond, and they can go through it. We believe in full disclosure.  Dell Precision M70 Battery "

"Can't break it, can't break in"

At one point, Oracle Corporation marketed many of its products using the slogan "Can't break it, can't break in", or "Unbreakable".[58]This signifies a demand on information security. Oracle Corporation also stresses the reliability of networked databases and network access to databases as major selling points  Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh .

However, two weeks after its introduction in 2002, David Litchfield, Alexander Kornbrust, Cesar Cerrudo and others demonstrated a whole suite of successful attacks against Oracle products. Commentators criticized the slogan as unrealistic and as an invitation to crackers  Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery ,

but Oracle Corporation's chief security officer Mary Ann Davidson portrayed the criticism as unfair. Rather than representing a literal claim of Oracle's products' impregnability, she saw the campaign in the context of fourteen independent security evaluations that Oracle Corporation's database server had passed  Dell RM791 battery .

Relationship with John Ashcroft

In 2004, then-United States Attorney General John Ashcroft sued Oracle Corporation to prevent them acquiring a multi-billion dollar intelligence contract. After Ashcroft's resignation from government, he founded a lobbying firm, The Ashcroft Group, which Oracle hired in 2005    Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .

With the group's help, Oracle went on to acquire the contract.

On January 27, 2010, Oracle announced it had completed its acquisition of Sun Microsystems - valued at more than $7 billion - a move that transformed Oracle from solely a software company to a manufacturer of both software and hardware  Dell Studio 1737 battery .

The acquisition was delayed for several months by the EU Commission because of concerns about MySQL, however was unconditionally approved in the end. This acquisition was important to some in the open source community and also to some other companies, as they feared Oracle might end Sun's traditional support of open sourceprojects  Dell Inspiron 300M Battery .

Since the acquisition, Oracle has continued raising fears with acts such as discontinuing OpenSolaris and suing Google over their newly acquired Java patents from Sun.

Justice Department lawsuit

On July 29, 2010, the United States Department of Justice filed suit against Oracle Corporation alleging fraud  Dell Latitude E4200 Battery .

The lawsuit argues that the government received deals inferior to those Oracle gave to its commercial clients. The DoJ added its heft to an already existing whistleblower lawsuit filed by Paul Frascella, who was once senior director of contract services at Oracle  Dell Latitude E5400 Battery .

Acquisition of Phase Forward

On August 11, 2010, Phase Forward, a company that developed data management systems for the pharmaceutical industry, became a wholly owned subsidiary of Oracle Corporation. Some analysts believe this acquisition has a huge impact on the healthcare and life sciences software market   Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery .

For example Loraine Lawson writes that "health care isn't just another vertical. It's the vertical to watch, an area where spending has stayed strong despite economic turmoil in other sectors. It's also primed for growth in the United States, where it's the focus of major government reform efforts   Sony VGN-FW11M Battery ."

Lawsuit against Google

On August 12, 2010, Oracle announced a lawsuit against Google concerning patent and copyright infringement of Java in Google's development of Android. Oracle claims that "Google’s Android competes with Oracle America’s Java" and that "Google has been aware of Sun’s patent portfolio ... since Google hired certain former Sun Java engineers"   Sony VGN-FW11S Battery .

Oracle acquired the Java patents when it bought Sun Microsystems in January 2010. Google had developed the Android platform using Java features and concepts that are apparently not compatible with standard Java libraries. This may have been a violation of conditions under which Sun granted OpenJDK patents to use open source Java   Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery .

As of August 2010, the lawsuit is ongoing and may take several years to reach a conclusion.

Discontinuation of OpenSolaris

On August 13, 2010, an internal Oracle memo leaked to the Internet cited plans for ending the OpenSolaris operating system project and community   Dell Latitude D620 Battery .

Apparently Oracle now plans to develop Solarisonly in a closed source fashion. Some observers were not surprised by this move, as Oracle had kept delaying the release of OpenSolaris 2010 (which was subsequently never released). However a fork of OpenSolaris development now continues as a project called Illumos, started by former OpenSolaris developer Garrett D'Amore Dell Latitude D830 Battery .

Discontinuation of OpenSSO

As Oracle completed their acquisition of Sun Microsystems in February 2010, they announced that OpenSSO would no longer be their strategic product . Shortly after, OpenSSO was forked toOpenAM. and will continue to be developed and supported by ForgeRock   Toshiba Satellite M60 battery .

Hurd replaces Phillips as President

On September 6, 2010, Oracle announced that former Hewlett-Packard CEO Mark Hurd is replacing Charles Phillips as Oracle Co-President. Apparently Phillips had wanted to leave Oracle since December 2009. "Oracle is clearly capitalizing on this opportunity to get someone strong from a top hardware company," said Forrester analyst James Staten  Toshiba Satellite M65 battery .

"In terms of how this helps Oracle against IBM, there is reason to be optimistic."

On September 7, 2010, HP announced a civil lawsuit against Hurd "to protect HP’s trade secrets"  Dell Latitude D610 Battery .

The Document Foundation conflict of interest

A number of OpenOffice developers had formed The Document Foundation and had received backing by Google, Novell, Red Hat, and Canonical, as well as some others, but were unable to get Oracle to donate the brand OpenOffice.org, causing a fork in the development of OpenOffice with the foundation now developing and promoting LibreOffice   Toshiba NB100 Battery .

Oracle has expressed no interest in sponsoring the new project and has asked the OpenOffice developers that have started the project to resign from the company due to "conflicts of interest." On November 1, 2010, 33 of the OpenOffice developers gave their letters of resignation   Dell Studio 1457 Battery .


  • Larry Ellison: CEO since he co-founded the company in 1977, and Chairman from 1990 to 2004.
    • In 1997, Ellison became a director of Apple after Steve Jobs came back to that company. Ellison resigned from the Apple board in 2002, saying that he did not have the time to attend necessary formal board meetings  Dell Studio 1450 Battery .
    • On February 14, 2010, Ellison's yacht USA 17 won the second race (in the best of three "deed of gift" series) of the 33rd America's Cup, after winning the first race two days earlier. Securing a historic victory, Ellison and his BMW Oracle team became the first challengers to win a "deed of gift" match       Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery .
    • The Cup returned to American shores for the first time since 1995. Ellison was a crew member for the second race.
    • On August 4, 2010, Ellison announced that he intends to give away most of his wealth to charity as part of Bill Gates' and Warren Buffett's "Giving Pledge" initiative   SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery .
    • Ellison wrote: "Many years ago, I put virtually all of my assets into a trust with the intent of giving away at least 95 percent of my wealth to charitable causes. I have already given hundreds of millions of dollars to medical research and education, and I will give billions more over time        SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery .
    • Until now, I have done this giving quietly--because I have long believed that charitable giving is a personal and private matter."
    • On August 9, 2010, Ellison denounced Hewlett-Packard's board for firing CEO Mark Hurd, writing     SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery :
    • "The H.P. board just made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago." One month later, Ellison hired Hurd as Co-President of Oracle. Ellison and Hurd are close personal friends - Hurd often plays tennis at Ellison's house   SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery .
  • Bob Miner: Co-founder of the company and co-architect of Oracle Database. Led product design and development for Oracle Database from 1977 to 1992. Spun off a technology group within Oracle in 1992. Oracle board member until 1993.
  • Bruce Scott: One of the first employees (number 4) at Oracle (then Software Development Laboratories), Scott served as the co-author and co-architect of Oracle V1, V2 and V3.
    • He originated the sample schema "SCOTT" (containing tables like EMP and DEPT) with the password defaulted to TIGER (named after his daughter's cat)   SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery .
    • Together with Umang Gupta in 1984, Scott co-founded and became VP Engineering of Gupta Technologies, which later became Centura Software. Subsequently he founded Inquiry.com, again in the role of VP Engineering, and PointBase, Inc., where he acted as President and CEO      SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery .
    • In 2005, he moved to SenSage, Inc. as VP Engineering, and in 2006 additionally joined the advisory board of Abrevity, Inc. In 2007, Scott became VP Engineering at ParAccel, Inc.
  • Umang Gupta: Former Vice President and General Manager (joined in 1981). Wrote the first business plan for the company. Current Chairman and CEO of Keynote Systems, Inc   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery .
  • Jeff Henley: Current Chairman (since 2004). Previously CFO of Oracle (1991–2004).
  • Safra Catz: Co-President (since 2004). In 2009 she was ranked by Fortune as the 12th most powerful woman in business.
  • Charles Phillips: Past Co-President, replaced by Mark Hurd   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery .
    • In 2009 Phillips was appointed a member of US President Obama's Economic Recovery Advisory Board.
    • On January 21, 2010, Phillips' ex-mistress YaVaughnie Wilkins posted billboards in New York City, San Francisco and Atlanta, revealing their extramarital affair to the public   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery .
    • While the billboards were taken down after a number of days,  the mainstream media had already run the story. As a result, Phillips issued a statement on January 21 saying: "I had an 8½-year serious relationship with YaVaughnie Wilkins   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery .
    • My divorce proceedings began in 2008. The relationship with Ms. Wilkins has since ended and we both wish each other well."
  • Mark Hurd: Co-President (since 2010)         SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery .
    • Before Oracle, Hurd was CEO, chairman and president of Hewlett-Packard. He was responsible for turning HP into one of the world's largest and most profitable IT companies. He accomplished this through large acquisitions and aggressive cost-cutting, including major employee layoffs and pay cuts  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery .
    • On August 6, 2010, Hurd resigned from all of his positions at HP, following discovery of inappropriate conduct in an investigation into a claim of sexual harassment made by former reality TV actress Jodie Fisher.
    • On September 6, 2010, Hurd was hired by Oracle as Co-President   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery .
    • On September 7, 2010, Hurd was sued by HP "to protect HP’s trade secrets".


Oracle Corporation has its world headquarters on the San Francisco Peninsula in the Redwood Shores area of Redwood City, adjacent to Belmont, near San Carlos Airport (IATA airport code: SQL)  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery .

Oracle HQ stands on the former site of Marine World Africa USA, which moved from Redwood Shores to Vallejo in 1986. Oracle Corporation originally leased two buildings on the site, moving its finance and administration departments from the corporation's former headquarters on Davis Drive, Belmont, California  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery .

Eventually, Oracle purchased the complex and constructed a further four main buildings.

The distinctive Oracle Parkway buildings, nicknamed the "Emerald City", were used as the futuristic headquarters of the fictional company "NorthAm Robotics" in the Robin Williams filmBicentennial Man (1999)  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery .

Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is software used in organizations, such as in a business or government,  as opposed to software chosen by individuals (for example, retail software). Enterprise software is an integral part of a (Computer Based) Information System  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery .

Services provided by enterprise software are typically business-oriented tools such as online shopping and online payment processing, interactive product catalogue, automated billing systems, security, content management, IT service management, customer relationship management   Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery ,

resource planning, business intelligence, HR management, manufacturing, application integration, and forms automation.


While there is no single, widely accepted list of enterprise software characteristics,  this section is intended to summarize definitions from multiple sources   Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery .

Enterprise software describes a collection of computer programs with common business applications, tools for modeling how the entire organization works, and development tools for building applications unique to the organization  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

The software is intended to solve an enterprise-wide problem (rather than a departmental problem) and often written using an Enterprise Software Architecture. Enterprise level software aims to improve the enterprise's productivity and efficiency by providing business logic support functionality   Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery .

Capterra broadly defines enterprise software in the following manner:

  • Targets any type of organization — corporations, partnerships, sole proprietorships, nonprofits, government agencies — but does not directly target consumers.
  • Targets any industry.  Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
  • Targets both large and small organizations — from Fortune 500 to "mom and pop" businesses.
  • Includes function-specific (Accounting, HR, Supply Chain, etc.) and industry-specific (Manufacturing, Retail, Healthcare, etc.) solutions.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

Due to the cost of building or buying what is often non-free proprietary software, only large enterprises attempt to implement such enterprise software that models the entire business enterprise and is the core IT system of governing the enterprise and the core of communication within the enterprise  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

As business enterprises have similar departments and systems in common, enterprise software is often available as a suite of programs that have attached enterprise development tools to customize the programs to the specific enterprise. Generally, these tools are complex enterprise programming tools that require specialist capabilities  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery .

Thus, one often sees job listings for a programmer who is required to have specific knowledge of a particular set of enterprise tools, such as "must be an SAP developer".

Characteristics of enterprise software are performance, scalability, and robustness  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery .

Enterprise software typically has interfaces to other enterprise software (for example LDAP to directory services) and is centrally managed (a single admin page for exam


Enterprise application software

Enterprise application software is application software that performs business functions such as order processing, procurement, production scheduling, customer information management, and accounting  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .

It is typically hosted on servers and provides simultaneous services to a large number of users, typically over a computer network. This is in contrast to a single-user application that is executed on a user's personal computer and serves only one user at a time  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery .


  • Enterprise software can be designed and implemented by an information technology (IT) group within a company.
  • It may also be purchased from an independent enterprise software developer, that often installs and maintains the software for their customers   SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery .
  • Installation, customization, and maintenance can also be outsourced to an IT consulting company.
  • Another model is based on a concept called on-demand software, or Software as a Service (SaaS). The on-demand model of enterprise software is made possible through the widespread distribution of broadband access to the Internet  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .
  • Software as a Service vendors maintain enterprise software on servers within their own company data center and then provide access to the software to their enterprise customers via the Internet  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery .

Enterprise software is often categorized by the business function that it automates - such as accounting software or sales force automation software. Similarly for industries - for example, there are enterprise systems devised for the health care industry, or for manufacturing enterprises   HP Pavilion DV8000 battery .


Major organizations in the enterprise software field include SAP, IBM, BMC Software, HP Software Division, Redwood Software, UC4 Software, JBoss (Red Hat), Microsoft, Adobe Systems, Oracle Corporation, Inquest Technologies, Computer Associates, and ASG Software Solutions but there are thousands of competing vendors  HP Pavilion DV6000 battery .


The word enterprise can have various connotations. Sometimes the term is used merely as a synonym for organization, whether it be very large (e.g., a corporation with thousands of employees), very small (a sole proprietorship), or an intermediate size  HP Pavilion DV8000 battery .

Often the term is used only to refer to very large organizations, although it has become a corporate-speak buzzword and may be heard in other uses.

Some enterprise software vendors using the latter definition develop highly complex products that are often overkill for smaller organizations, and the application of these can be a very frustrating task  HP Pavilion DV6000 battery .

Thus, sometimes "enterprise" might be used sarcastically to mean overly complex software.

The adjective "enterprisey" is sometimes used to make this sarcasm explicit. In this usage, the term "enterprisey" is intended to go beyond the concern of "overkill for smaller organizations" to imply the software is overly complex even for large organizations and simpler solutions are available  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery .

An ERP system selection methodology is a formal process for selecting an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Existing methodologies include:

  • SpecIT Independent Vendor Selection Management
  • Kuiper's funnel method
  • Dobrin's 3D decision support tool
  • Clarkson Potomac method  HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery


Irrespective of whether the company is a multi-national, multi-million dollar organization or a small company with single digit million turnover, the goal of system selection is to source a system that can provide functionality for all of the business processes; that will get complete user acceptance  HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery ;

management approval and, most importantly, can provide significant return on investment for theshareholders.

Since the mid-1970s, when there was widespread introduction of computer packages into leading companies to assist in material requirements planning  software companies have strived  HP Pavilion dv8000 battery .

and for the most part succeeded, to create packages that assist in all aspects of running a business from manufacturing; supply chain management; human resources; through to financials. This led to the evolution of ERP Systems.

Accordingly, a significant number of packages purporting to be ERP systems have entered into the marketplace since 1990  HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery .

There are packages at the upper end of the market and a vast quantity of other packages that vendors claim to be ERP Systems. There are also packages that claim to be best of breed for certain processes [such as planning] and sold merely as an add-on to an ERP System      Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .

The options are many and this, in reality, creates a problem for the company who has to make a decision.

Attempting to select an ERP system is further exacerbated by the fact that some systems are geared for discrete manufacturing environment   Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

where a distinct amount of items make up a finished product while others are more suited to process industries such as chemical and food processing where the ingredients are not exact and where there might be re-work and byproducts of a process.

In the last decade, companies have also become interested in enhanced functionality such as customer relationship management and electronic commerce capability  Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

Given all of the potential solutions, it is not uncommon for companies to choose a system that is not the best fit for the business and this normally leads to a more expensive implementation. Thus, it is understandable[by whom?] that "ERP Costs can run as high as two or three percent of revenues"   Sony VGP-BPL9 battery .

A proper ERP system selection methodology will deliver, within time and budget, an ERP system that is best fit for the business processes and the user in an enterprise.

Poor system selection

Companies seldom use a fully objective selection methodology when choosing an ERP System     Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

Some common mistakes include:

Incomplete requirements

Because implementation of a new ERP system "requires people to do their job differently" (Wallace and Kremzar ), it is very important to understand user requirements   Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery .

not only for current processes, but also future processes (i.e., before and after the new system is installed). Without detailed user requirements, review of systems for functional best-fit rarely succeeds. The requirements must go into sufficient detail for complex processes, or processes that may be unique to a particular business  Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery .

Reliance on vendor demos

Vendor demonstrations tend to focus on very simplistic processes. A typical demonstration shows an ideal order to cash process where a customer orders a quantity of product that is in stock. The reality in most businesses is that most customers have varying and more complex commercial arrangements, and products are not always in stock   Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery .

Over-emphasis on system cost

According to Finlay and Servant, “The differential in purchase price between packages is unlikely to be the dominant factor". While the cost of an ERP system is significant for a company, other important decision criteria, such as functionality; future proofing; underlying infrastructure   Sony VGP-BPS13 battery ;

and e-commerce capability among others, may be understressed.

Selection bias

It is not unusual that the decision on which system to purchase is made by one individual or by one department within the companyDell Studio 1555 battery .

In these situations, an ERP system that may be excellent at one function but weak at other processes may be imposed on the entire enterprise with serious consequences for the business.

Failure to use objective professional services  Dell KM958 battery

One of the main reasons for failure in system selection is the understandable lack of knowledge within the company.Experienced consultants can provide information on all of the packages that are available in the marketplace; the latest functionality available in the most common packages and, most importantly  Dell XPS M1210 Battery ,

can assist the user in deciding whether a specific requirement would provide added value to the user and to the business.However, it is worth noting that the professional help must be provided by objective consultants who have no affiliation with ERP system vendors      SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery .

"If a consultancy has built up an expertise in the use of a particular package then it is in its interest to recommend that package to its client”

Inability to understand offering by ERP vendor

"It is estimated that approximately 90% of enterprise system implementations are late or over budget"    SONY VAIO VGN-FW33G/E1 Battery .

A plausible explanation for implementations being late and over budget is that the company did not understand the offering by the vendor before the contract was signed. A typical example of this would be the scenario where a vendor may offer 5 days of services for the purpose ofdata migration         SONY VAIO VGN-FW290JTH Battery .

The reality is that there is a huge amount of work required to input data onto a new system. The vendor will import the data into the new system but expects the company to put the data into a file that is easy to import into the system. The company are also expected to extract the data from the old system       SONY VAIO VGN-FW290JTB Battery ;

clean the data and add new data that is required by the new system. "ERP, to be successful, requires levels of data integrity far higher than most companies have ever achieved – or even considered. Inventory records, bill of materials (BOM), formulas, recipes, routings, and other data need to become highly accurate, complete and properly structured"  SONY VAIO VGN-FW29/B Battery .

This typical scenario is one of many issues that cause implementations to be delayed and invariably lead to requests for more resources.

A proper system selection methodology

To address the common mistakes that lead to a poor system selection it is important to apply key principles to the process, some of which are listed hereunder  SONY VAIO VGN-FW27T/H Battery :

Structured approach

The first step in selection of a new system is to adopt a structured approach to the process. The set of practices are presented to all the stakeholders within the enterprise before the system selection process begins   SONY VAIO VGN-FW31ZJ Battery .

Everyone needs to understand the method of gathering requirements; invitation to tender; how potential vendors will be selected; the format of demonstrations and the process for selecting the vendor. Thus, each stakeholder is aware that the decision will be made on an objective and collective basis and this will always lead to a high level of co-operation within the process SONY VAIO VGN-FW27/W Battery .

Focused demonstrations

Demonstrations by potential vendors must be relevant to the business. However, it is important to understand that there is considerable amount of preparation required by vendors to perform demonstrations that are specific to a business  SONY VAIO VGN-FW27/B Battery .

Therefore it is imperative that vendors are treated equally in requests for demonstrations and it is incumbent on the company [and the objective consultant assisting the company in the selection process] to identify sufficient demonstrations that will allow a proper decision to be made but will also ensure that vendors do not opt out of the selection process due to the extent of preparation required   SONY VAIO VGN-FW26T/B Battery .

Objective decision process

"Choosing which ERP to use is a complex decision that has significant economic consequences, thus it requires a multi-criterion approach."  There are two key points to note when the major decision makers are agreeing on selection criteria that will be used in evaluating potential vendors   SONY VAIO VGN-FW25T/B Battery .

Firstly, the criteria and the scoring system must be agreed in advance prior to viewing any potential systems. The criteria must be wide-ranging and decided upon by as many objective people as possible within and external to the enterprise. In no circumstance should people with affiliations to one or more systems be allowed to advise in this regard  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery .

Full involvement by all personnel

The decision on the system must be made by all stakeholders within the enterprise. "It requires top management leadership and participation… it involves virtually every department within the company".  Representatives of all users should SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery :

  • Be involved in the project initiation phase where the decision making process is agreed;
  • Assist in the gathering of requirements;
  • Attend the Vendor Demonstrations;
  • Have a significant participation in the short-listing and final selection of a vendor  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery .

A management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. Management information systems involve three primary resources: technology, information, and people  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery .

It's important to recognize that while all three resources are key components when studying management information systems ... the most important resource is people. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business    Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery ,

which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization  Asus M52N Battery .

Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .


Initially in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s), and gave limited and delayed information on management performance Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery .

Previously, data had to be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization. Later, data was distinguished from information, and so instead of the collection of mass of data, important and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored   Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery .

Earlier, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time, these applications became more complex and began to store increasing amount of information while also interlinking with previously separate information systems   Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery .

As more and more data was stored and linked man began to analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were developed to provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise  HP Pavilion DV7 battery .

Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to): decision support systems, resource and people management applications, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications  Dell Latitude E6500 battery .

An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of data in the form of information needed to carry out the management functions. In a way, it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. According to Philip Kotler "  Dell Latitude E6500 battery

A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers."

The terms MIS and information system are often confused. Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision making      Dell Latitude E6500 battery .

The area of study called MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline. MIS has also some differences with ERP which incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support  Dell Latitude E6500 battery .

The successful MIS must support a business's Five Year Plan or its equivalent. It must provide for reports based upon performance analysis in areas critical to that plan, with feedback loops that allow for titivation of every aspect of the business, including recruitment and training regimens    Dell Latitude E6400 Battery .

In effect, MIS must not only indicate how things are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. These reports would include performance relative to cost centers and projects that drive profit or loss, and do so in such a way that identifies individual accountability, and in virtual real-time   Dell Latitude E6400 Battery .

Anytime a business is looking at implementing a new business system it is very important to use a system development method such as System Development Life Cycle. The life cycle includes Analysis, Requirements, Design, Development, Testing and Implementation   Dell Latitude E6400 battery .

Types of information management systems

There are many types of information management systems in the market that provide a wide range of benefits for companies. Strategic information management system, customer relation management systems and enterprise resource planning systems are some of them   Dell Vostro 1310 battery .

The following are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of information management systems.

Advantages of information management systems (1) The company is able to highlight their strength and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employee performance records etc   Dell Studio 1735 battery .

The identification of these aspects can help the company to improve their business processes and operations. (2) The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers  Dell Studio 1535 battery .

The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. (3) Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world. The consumer buying trends and behaviors can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company Dell Vostro A860 battery .

An enterprise architecture (EA) is a rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g. the behavior) between them    Dell Vostro A840 battery .

EA describes the terminology, the composition of enterprise components, and their relationships with the external environment, and the guiding principles for the requirement (analysis), design, and evolution of an enterprise.This description is comprehensive, including enterprise goals, business process    Dell Studio XPS 1640 battery ,

roles, organizational structures, organizational behaviors, business information, software applications and computer systems.

Practitioners of EA call themselves "enterprise architects." An enterprise architect is a person responsible for developing the enterprise architecture and is often called upon to draw conclusions from it   Dell Vostro 1720 battery .

By producing an enterprise architecture, architects are providing a tool for identifying opportunities to improve the enterprise, in a manner that more effectively and efficiently pursues its purpose.

The scope of an enterprise architecture

The term "enterprise" is used because it is generally applicable in many circumstances, including  Dell Vostro 1710 battery

  • Public or Private Sector organizations
  • An entire business or corporation
  • A part of a larger enterprise (such as a business unit)   Dell Inspiron 1320n battery
  • A conglomerate of several organizations, such as a joint venture or partnership
  • A multiply-outsourced business operation

The term enterprise includes the whole complex, socio-technical system , including:

Defining the boundary or scope of the enterprise to be described is an important first step in creating the enterprise architecture. It should also be noted that the term "enterprise" as used in enterprise architecture generally means more than the information systems employed by an organization   Dell Inspiron 1764 battery .

Methods and frameworks

Enterprise architects use various business methods, analytical techniques and conceptual tools to understand and document the structure and dynamics of an enterprise. In doing so, they produce lists, drawings, documents and models, together called "artifacts"Dell Inspiron 1564 battery .

These artifacts describe the logical organization of business functions, business capabilities, business processes, people organization, information resources, business systems, software applications, computing capabilities, information exchange and communications infrastructure within the enterprise  Dell Inspiron 1464 battery .

A collection of these artifacts, sufficiently complete to describe the enterprise in useful ways, is considered by EA practitioners an 'enterprise' level architectural description, or enterprise architecture, for short. The UK National Computing Centre EA best practice guidance  states  Dell Inspiron N7010 battery

Normally an EA takes the form of a comprehensive set of cohesive models that describe the structure and functions of an enterprise.

and continues   Dell Inspiron N5010 battery

The individual models in an EA are arranged in a logical manner that provides an ever-increasing level of detail about the enterprise: its objectives and goals; its processes and organisation; its systems and data; the technology used and any other relevant spheres of interest   Dell Inspiron N3610 battery .

This is the definition of enterprise architecture implicit in several EA frameworks including the popular TOGAF architectural framework.

An enterprise architecture framework bundles tools, techniques, artifact descriptions, process models, reference models and guidance used by architects in the production of enterprise-specific architectural description.  Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

See the related article on enterprise architecture frameworks for further information.

In 1992, Steven Spewak described a process for creating an enterprise architecture that is widely used in educational courses  Dell Inspiron 9100 battery .

Areas of practice

Several enterprise architecture frameworks break down the practice of enterprise architecture into a number of practice areas or "domains". In his book on Enterprise Architecture, Spewak divides the practice into two domains at 'level 2': "Business Modelling" and "Current Systems and Technology" and three subordinate domains at 'level 3'  Dell Studio XPS 1340 battery :

"Data Architecture", "Applications Architecture" and "Technology Architecture". The final level of Spewak's EAP is the "Implementation" or "Methods" level, which deals with "how" to migrate the Enterprise to match the new model  Dell XPS M2010 battery .

The popular TOGAF framework divides the practice into three domains: "Business Architecture", "Information Systems Architecture" and "Technology Architecture" and then subdivides the information systems architecture into "Information Architecture and "Applications Architecture"   Dell XPS M1730 battery .

The Strategic Architecture Model allows for a flexible division into up to ten domains covering many aspects of an enterprise from its objectives and goals through its projects and programmes to its software applications and technology  Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery .

EA Domains: An enterprise architecture’s landscape is usually divided into various domains based on the attributes of the environment and the logical grouping based on Industry EA Frameworks

The dividing of the practice into a number of domains allows enterprise architects to describe an enterprise from a number of important perspectives   Hp 2230 Battery .

This practice also encourages the contributions of many individuals and allows the practice as a whole to make good use of individual domain-specific expertise and knowledge. By taking this approach, enterprise architects can ensure a holistic description is produced.  Hp cq20 Battery

The popular and most common four domains and their component parts look like this:

  1. Business:
    1. Strategy maps, goals, corporate policies, Operating Model    Hp Pavilion cq72 Battery
    2. Functional decompositions (e.g. IDEF0, SADT), business capabilities and organizational models expressed as enterprise / line of business architecture
    3. Business processes, Workflow and Rules that articulate the assigned authoritie s, responsibilities and policies
    4. Organization cycles, periods and timing  Hp Pavilion cq42 Battery
    5. Suppliers of hardware, software, and services
  2. Information:
    1. Information architecture - a holistic view on the flow of information in an enterprise
    2. Data Architecture- describes the way data will be processed, stored , data flows and used by the projects teams that will use it   Hp Pavilion cq62 Battery
    3. Master Data Management, is the authoritative, reliable foundation for data used across many applications and business processes with the goal to provide a single view of the truth no matter where the data is located
    4. Metadata - data that describes your enterprise data elements   Hp Pavilion dm4 Battery
    5. Business Intelligence Analytics & Reporting BI (Business Intelligence) is a broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help the organization users make better business decisions    Hp Pavilion dm3 Battery .
    6. These include the activities of decision support systems, query and reporting, dashboards , scorecards ,statistical analysis, forecasting, and data mining. This includes Reporting Data Stores ( Operational Data Store (ODS), Datamart and DataWarehouses)  Samsung P467 battery
    7. Data Quality helps identify, analyze, improve, and measure the data quality and data integrity issues and improvement efforts
    8. Data models: conceptual expressed as enterprise information architectures, logical, and physical
    9. Data Life Cycle Management Processes to govern how to create, classify, update, use, distribute, and archive, and obsolete data and information  Samsung R522 battery
  1. Applications:
    1. Application software inventories and diagrams, expressed as conceptual / functional or system enterprise / line of business architectures
    2. Interfaces between applications - that is: events, messages  Apple A1281 battery
  2. Technology:
    1. Inter-application mediating software or 'middleware'.
    2. Application execution environments and operating frameworks including applications server environments and operating systems, authentication and authorisation environments, security systems and operating and monitoring systems.  Apple A1280 battery
    3. Hardware, platforms, and hosting: servers, datacentres and computer rooms
    4. Local and wide area networks, Internet connectivity diagrams
    5. Intranet, Extranet, Internet, eCommerce, EDI links with parties within and outside of the organization
    6. Operating System  Ibm ThinkPad X200T Battery
    7. Infrastructure software: Application servers, DBMS
    8. Programming Languages, etc. expressed as enterprise / line of business technology architecture   .

Using an enterprise architecture

Describing the architecture of an enterprise aims primarily to improve the effectiveness or efficiency of the business itself.  HP Pavilion DV6 Battery

This includes innovations in the structure of an organization, the centralization or federation of business processes, the quality and timeliness of business information, or ensuring that money spent on information technology (IT) can be justified.

One method of using this information to improve the functioning of a business   HP Pavilion DV6-1000ET Battery ,

as described in the TOGAF architectural framework, involves developing an "architectural vision": a description of the business that represents a "target" or "future state" goal. Once this vision is well understood, a set of intermediate steps are created that illustrate the process of changing from the present situation to the target   HP Pavilion DV6-1001TX Battery .

These intermediate steps are called "transitional architectures" by TOGAF. Similar methods have been described in other enterprise architecture frameworks.

The growing use of enterprise architecture

Documenting the architecture of enterprises is done within the U.S. Federal Government in the context of the Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) process   HP Pavilion DV6-1001XX Battery .

The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) reference models serve as a framework to guide Federal agencies in the development of their architectures.Companies such as Independence Blue Cross, Intel, Volkswagen AG and InterContinental Hotels Group have also applied enterprise architecture to improve their business architectures as well as to improve business performance and productivity  HP Pavilion DV6-1002TX Battery .

Relationship to other disciplines

Enterprise architecture is a key component of the information technology governance process in organizations such Dubai Customs and AGL Energy. Organizations like Dubai Customs and AGL Energy have implemented a formal enterprise architecture process as part of their IT management strategy   HP Pavilion DV6-1003TX Battery .

While this may imply that enterprise architecture is closely tied to IT, this should be viewed in the broader context of business optimization in that it addresses business architecture, performance management and process architecture as well as more technical subjects  HP Pavilion DV6-1004TX Battery .

Depending on the organization, enterprise architecture teams may also be responsible for some aspects of performance engineering, IT portfolio management and metadata management. Recently, protagonists like Gartner and Forrester have stressed the important relationship of Enterprise Architecture with emerging holistic design practices such as Design Thinking and User Experience Design  HP Pavilion DV6-1005EA Battery .

The following image from the 2006 FEA Practice Guidance of US OMB sheds light on the relationship between enterprise architecture and segment(BPR) or Solution architectures. (This figure demonstrates that software architecture is truly a solution architecture discipline, for example.)  HP Pavilion DV6-1005EZ Battery

Published examples of enterprise architecture

It is uncommon for a commercial organization to publish rich detail from their enterprise architecture descriptions. Doing so can provide competitors information on weaknesses and organizational flaws that could hinder the company's market position HP Pavilion DV6-1005TX Battery .

However, many government agencies around the world have begun to publish the architectural descriptions that they have developed. Good examples include the US Department of the Interior, and the US Department of Defense business transformation agency  HP Pavilion DV6-1006TX Battery .

Enterprise Forms Automation is a company-wide computer system or set of systems for managing, distributing, completing and processing paper-based forms, applications, surveys, contracts and other documents. It plays a vital role towards achieving the goal of a paperless office  HP Pavilion DV6-1007TX Battery .

The term “Enterprise Forms Automation” was first used in the mid 1990’s by JetForm Corporation to describe their solution to automating paperwork. This process was later acquired by Adobe Systemsand is now part of the Adobe LiveCycle suite of products. In 2004 Efficient Technology Inc became the first company to apply this term in the Software as a Service HP Pavilion DV6-1008TX Battery .

This term is intended to refer to the automation of paper-based processes that specifically rely on documents (forms, applications, etc.) that retain their paper-based look and feel even if not printed out during the process. In order for a forms automation solution to be considered an ‘Enterprise Forms Automation’  HP Pavilion DV6-1009EL Battery .

solution it must meet the requirements of enterprise software and be specifically focused on automating paperwork and paper-based forms.


Organizations implement enterprise software solutions in order to automate major functions and large processes as these areas offer the greatest cost savings and return on investment compared to smaller projects  HP Pavilion DV6-1009TX Battery .

Enterprise-level implementations often cost well over $100,000 and therefore take many months to realize cost savings. As such, automating smaller functions are ignored due to the lack of immediate financial benefit or cost savings. As functions become more and more automated while software costs for enterprise systems drop in price  HP Pavilion DV6-1010EA Battery ,

organizations begin automating lower-level functions in order to reap additional cost savings and become more efficient. In addition, through the advent of standards like Adobe’s PDF model and service models like Quik!, automating the process of filling out forms is one such area that companies seek to automate via Enterprise Forms Automation solutions HP Pavilion DV6-1010ED Battery .

Automating forms also has a positive ‘green’ impact on the environment. In order to reduce waste and carbon emissions, companies seek ways to eliminate paper. By deploying an Enterprise Forms Automation system, companies can eliminate paper entirely or significantly reduce how much paper is used  HP Pavilion DV6-1010ET Battery ,

while greatly reducing shipping and handling costs, storage costs, and printing costs associated to pre-printed forms. In addition, automating paper-based processes greatly speeds up the time it takes to perform transactions, which results in fewer errors, rejections and revisions and has the benefit of freeing up the time spent by users on manual labor  HP Pavilion DV6-1010TX Battery .

Enterprise Forms Automation vs. Document Management Systems

In today’s implementation of the paperless office concept there are two main focuses: creating documents and managing documents. Since major systems have already displaced paper altogether (e.g.Enterprise Resource Planning, Customer Relationship Management, accounting software, etc.)   HP Pavilion DV6-1011TX Battery ,

the paper that continues to be in use is largely generated by processes that capture data, generate reports and distribute communications. As software and computers have evolved, the first problem to be addressed has been the management of existing and legacy documents through document management systems  HP Pavilion DV6-1012TX Battery .

Document management and archiving systems do offer some methods of automating forms. Typically, the point in which document management systems start working with a document is when the document is scanned and/or sent into the system  HP Pavilion DV6-1013EA Battery .

Many document management systems include the ability to read documents via optical character recognition (OCR) and use that data within the document management system’s framework. While this technology is essential to achieving a paperless office it does not address the processes that generate paper in the first place   HP Pavilion DV6-1013TX Battery .

The ultimate step towards eliminating paper is to change the way that documents are created. In 1993 Adobe Systems introduced the Portable Document Format (PDF) in order to facilitate the exchange of documents in a universal manner across most computer platforms   HP Pavilion DV6-1016EZ Battery .

This format has laid the foundation for creating, transporting, working on and archiving electronic documents and in 2008 became an ISO standard.  In addition, the PDF model established a method for automating forms that allows forms to be prefilled with existing data and manually entered on a PC screen which can greatly reduce and/or eliminate the number of paper forms being printed  HP Pavilion DV6-1018EL Battery .

Implementation Tools

A typical Enterprise Forms Automation implementation typically combines the following technologies:

  • Library of electronic versions of paper-based documents (PDF format or other comparable format)
  • Data store of existing data and/or web page to collect data to fill onto forms  HP Pavilion DV6-1020EC Battery
  • Software to pre-fill existing data from databases and data stores onto electronic forms
  • Software to save forms that are in process and/or partially completed
  • Software to capture and translate electronic form data   HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery
  • Workflow systems to manage the interaction with forms and data
  • Two-way messaging between forms and systems during submission and validation
  • Barcode software to match images of forms with electronic form data
  • Digital signature solutions to capture signatures electronically  HP Pavilion DV6-1018EL Battery

Implementation Challenges

The primary challenge to making use of these technologies is a matter of resource planning and implementation costs, however all of the necessary technologies have been in existence since at least 2000   HP Pavilion DV6-1020EC Battery .

Furthermore, the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (ESIGN Act) was signed into legislation by Congress requiring that digital signatures be accepted as valid signatures. But even with the law in effect, companies have been slow to adopt such solutions due to the cost and skills required to design, build and maintain such systems at a reasonable price  HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery .

A secondary challenge is integrating the electronic forms into an existing process, whereby existing data stores can be accessed and supplied to and from the forms. While tools to assist with the integration exist, most implementations require custom programming efforts to the specific forms and data sources  HP Pavilion DV6-1020EI Battery .

Many of these challenges are being addressed by middleware solutions, technology platforms and services that tie all the pieces together. Known as Enterprise Architecture Implementation (“EAI”), developers of EAI solutions are continually introducing new cost-effective methods to take advantage of web-based and centrally-managed HP Pavilion DV6-1020EJ Battery

capabilities plus the ability to leverage legacy system architecture.  With each advancement in EAI technologies Enterprise Forms Automation becomes easier to implement and manage.

Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts   HP Pavilion DV6-1020EK Battery .

The BI discipline was created in Germany, from the concept of "Wirtschaftsinformatik". It is an established, successful academic discipline including bachelor, master and diploma programs in Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands, Switzerland and is establishing in an increasing number of other European countries as well as Australia  HP Pavilion DV6-1020EL Battery .

BI integrates core elements from the disciplines business administration, information systems and computer science into one field.

Business Informatics as an integrative discipline

Business Informatics (BI) shows many similarities to the Information Systems (IS), which is a well established discipline originating from the Northern American hemisphere   HP Pavilion DV6-1020EQ Battery .

However, there are a few major differences that make Business Informatics a unique own discipline:

  1. Business Informatics includes Information Technology, like the relevant portions of Applied Computer Science, to a much larger extent than Information Systems does  HP Pavilion DV6-1020ET Battery .
  2. Business Informatics includes significant construction and implementation oriented elements. I.e. one major focus lies in the development of solutions for business problems rather than the ex post investigation of their impact.

Information Systems strongly focuses on empirically explaining phenomena of the real world. Often, IS has been said to have an "explanation-oriented" focus in contrast to the "solution-oriented" focus that dominates BI   HP Pavilion DV6-1022EL Battery .

IS researchers make an effort to explain phenomena of acceptance and influence of IT in organizations and the society applying an empirical approach. In order to do that usually qualitative and quantitative empirical studies are conducted and evaluated  HP Pavilion DV6-1023EF Battery .

In contrast to that, BI researchers mainly focus on the creation of IT solutions for challenges they have observed or assumed.

Tight integration between research and teaching following the Humboldtian ideal is another tradition in Business Informatics  HP Pavilion DV6-1023EM Battery .

Recent insights gained in actual research projects become part of the curricula quite fast because most researchers are also lecturers at the same time. The pace of scientific and technological progress in BI is quite rapid, therefore subjects taught are under permanent reconsideration and revision     HP Pavilion DV6-1025EF Battery .

In its evolution, the BI discipline is fairly young. Therefore, significant hurdles have to be overcome in oder to further establish its vision. HP Pavilion DV6-1025EI Battery

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