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Other publications have included the GleanerBlack VoiceNew Editor andThe Caribbean Times. The growth of such media is a response to the perceived imbalances of "mainstream" media. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery

In 2006, Sir Ian Blair, Chief Commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police, joined a long list of commentators in branding the mainstream British media as "institutionally racist" for its alleged failure to offer a proper balance in reporting affairs related to the community.[65] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery

Trinidad-born Sir Trevor McDonald is one of the community's best-known journalists, having been the main presenter (newscaster) for the national ITV network for over twenty years.[66] Other notable media figures include Gary Younge, The Guardian columnist, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

and Moira Stuart, the veteran BBC news presenter.[67]Trinidadian-born Darcus Howe has written in the New Statesman and fronted a number of documentary series including the Channel 4 current affairs programmeDevil's AdvocateSony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery

Much of Howe's work is related to the experiences of British African-Caribbeans and racism in wider British society.[68] Other notable producer/directors are Terry Jervis (Jervis Media) and Pogus Caesar (Windrush Productions); both have made multicultural, entertainment and sports programmes for Carlton TV, BBC TV and Channel 4.[69] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery

The community has a strong tradition of "underground" pirate radio broadcasters. Among the most established are London's Lightning Radio, Genesis Radio and Galaxy Radio, which play a mix of ragga, reggae, bashment, hip hop and R&B. Pirate radio stations such as Supreme Radio, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery

Galaxy Radio (which calls itself "the only de-brainwashing station"), Genesis Radio (known as "the people's station" or "the black power station") and the more recently emerged radio station Omega FM Radio are particularly highly regarded in the Afro Caribbean community for not only playing a variety of music such as soca, soul, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery

dancehall, jazz, hip hop, Reveail and Funky House, but also for dedicating time to have "talk shows" and "information shows" often taking an uncompromising stance in view. Thus giving the community the opportunity to phone in and participate in an array of subjects that mainstream radio, wider media and even other pirate radio stations refuse to address. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery

In 2002, the BBC established its digital broadcasting strand, BBC Radio 1Xtra, to focus on new Black music - which in effect means catering to the tastes of the country's African-Caribbean youth.[70] The Internet has afforded the community the opportunity to publish en-masse, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

and there are now thousands of websites and blogs produced by or for African-Caribbeans in the UK such as the BBC's Family History page,[71] and The African-Caribbean Network, Blacknet UK, launched in 1996.[72] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery

Award-winning Myrna Loy, a female poet, and published writer who has recited poetry alongside Linton Kwesi Johnson is a poet in her own right. Her poetry radiates passion for political situations, rages against hypocrisy and abuse and balances it with appreciation and gratitude. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

Myrna came second in the Bridport Prize, which is one of the UK's notable and prestigious poetry competitions; and came 2nd for her poem The Last Poem, performed at the Castillo Centre in Manhattan. Myrna is 3-times published, her book 'The Other Side of Tourism' shares her conflict between her British and Jamaican roots, Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery

and her two poetry books 'Poetry's Teacher and Poetry's Promise' share her person and professional life experiences. As a Black Britain, Myrna says: "British culture teaches us to conform, to hide our light under a bushel, to not sing our praises, so as a result I reveal "my light" through my poetry, Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery

paintings and my quarterly magazine called Blackbright News, which celebrates the wonderful works Black People (not only in Britain) have done. I may eventually be relegated to the area where tyrants and revolutions belong, but in he meantime, I intend to shout from the roof-tops what I feel and why I feel it!" Sony VPCW11S1E/T Battery

Myrna (aka Lady Loy) is a radio presenter on Jamrock Radio, and uses this arena to promote black music and black talent.

One of the most influential African-Caribbeans in the British art world has been Dr. Eddie Chambers.[73] Chambers, along withDonald Rodney, Marlene Smith and curator, artist, critic and academic Keith Piper, Sony VPCW11S1E/W Battery

founded the BLK Art Group[74] in 1982, when they were initially based in the West Midlands. According to Chambers, significant artists such as the Guyanese-born painters Aubrey Williams and Frank Bowling and the Jamaican sculptor Ronald Moody initially found that, despite achieving worldwide renown, Sony VPCW12S1E/P Battery

it was difficult to find acceptance in the highest echelons of the art establishment.[75] Chambers worked with Donald Rodney and Sonia Boyce, both of whose work is represented in the permanent collections of the London's Tate Britain museum. In 1986 the Hayward Gallery presented the exhibition "The Other Story", Sony VPCW12S1E/T Battery

which provided a survey of African-Caribbean, African and Asian artists working in the UK.Other African-Caribbean artists of note include Faisal Abdu'allah of Jamaican heritage,[76] Guyanese-born Ingrid Pollard,[77]British-based Jamaican painter Eugene Palmer, the sculptor George "Fowokan" Kelly, Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery

and Tam Joseph, whose 1983 work Spirit of Carnival was a vivid depiction of the Notting Hill Carnival.[78] The movement was also part of the impetus that led to the founding of the Association of Black Photographers by Mark Sealy. In 1999 the filmmaker Steve McQueen (not to be confused with the Hollywood filmstar) Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery

won Britain's most prestigious art prize, the Turner Prize, for his video Deadpan.[79] The artist and producer Pogus Caesar was commissioned by Artangel to direct a film based on McQueen's work. Forward Ever - Backward Never was premiered at Lumiere in London in 2002. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery

Caesar has also established the OOM Gallery Archives, based in Birmingham, which has in excess of 14,000 images including photographs of contemporary Black British culture.

There are a number of African-Caribbean academics who are especially prominent in the arts and humanities. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery

Professor Paul Gilroy, of Guyanese/English heritage, is one of Britain's leading academics, having taught sociology at Harvard as well as Goldsmiths College and the London School of Economics.[80] The Jamaican-born cultural theorist Professor Stuart Hall has also been a highly influential British intellectual since the 1960s.[81] Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

Dr. Robert Beckford has presented several national television and radio documentaries exploring African-Caribbean history, culture and religion.[82]

Other prominent academics include Guyanese born Professor Gus John, who has been active in education, schooling and political radicalism in Britain’s inner cities such as Manchester, Birmingham and London since the 1960s. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

He was involved in the organising the "Black people's day of action", a response to the 1981New Cross Fire. In 1989 he was appointed Director of Education in Hackney and was the first black person to hold such a position. He has also worked as an education consultant in Europe, the Caribbean and Africa. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

John was the co-ordinator of the Black Parents Movement in Manchester, founded the Education for Liberation book service and helped to organise the International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books in Manchester, London and Bradford. He has worked in a number of University settings, iSony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

ncluding a visiting Faculty Professor of Education at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow and is currently an associate professor of the Institute of Education at the University of London. Dr "William" Lez Henry works with young people, particularly black boys. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

He is the founder of Black Liberation Afrikan Knowledge (BLK Friday) a platform for people to give presentations to the community. In 2005, he received an Excellence In Education Award at the Challenging The Genius: Excellent Education for Children: “Our Future is Not a dream”, Conference in Chicago, USA. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

He is one of the founding members of the National Independent Education Coalition (NIEC). Henry previously hosted a fortnightly talk show on popular London pirate radio station Galaxy 102.5FM (formerly 99.5 FM) or http://www.galaxyafiwe.com/ and who is also a former lecturer of Goldsmiths College. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

Prof. Harry Goldbourne is a former member of the radical group the Black Unity and Freedom Party who went on to teach at the University of the South Bank.

Although there are hundreds of African-Caribbean teachers in the UK, it has been suggested that their under-representation in inner-city schools is a major factor in the failure, particularly of secondary-level schools, Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

to achieve a satisfactory average of achievement for the community's children (see Bernard Coardand the Swann Report of 1985).[83] Though research by the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England in 2011 showed that 66 per cent of those from Black African backgrounds went on to university, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

compared to an average of 59 per cent of British Asian (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) students,[84] which therefore suggests that as an average, more people from Black African backgrounds are now progressing to university than those of a South Asian background. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

The period of large-scale immigration brought many new musical styles to the United Kingdom. These styles gained popularity amongst Britons of all cultural origins, and aided Caribbean music in gaining international recognition. The earliest of these exponents was the calypso artist Lord Kitchener, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

who arrived in Britain on the Windrush in 1948 accompanied by fellow musician Lord Beginner.[85] Already a star in his native Trinidad, Lord Kitchener got an immediate booking at the only West Indian club in London. Six months later, he was appearing in three clubs nightly, Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

and his popularity extended beyond the West Indian and African nightclub audiences, to include music hall and variety show audiences.[85] Kitchener's recording "London is the place for me" exemplified the experience of the Windrush generation.[86] Other calypso musicians began to collaborate with African Kwela musicians and British jazz players in London clubs.[86] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

Jamaican music styles reached Britain in the 1960s, becoming the staple music for young British African-Caribbeans. Tours byska artists such as Prince Buster and the Skatalites fed the growing British-Caribbean music scene, and the success of Jamaican artists Millie Small, Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

Desmond Dekker and Bob and Marcia propelled Caribbean music and people into mainstream cultural life. British African-Caribbeans followed the changing styles of Jamaican music and began to produce homegrown music appealing to both Black and White communities. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

In 1968, The Cats released a cover of Swan Lake, which became the first top fifty hit by a British reggae group and the following year the British African-Caribbean ska band Symarip recorded "Skinhead Moonstomp" - a cover of the Derrick Morgan song Moon Hop - which had a huge effect on the British ska scene. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

The ska sound and rude boy imagery inspired a generation of white working-class youths (especially mods and skinheads), and later helped spawn Britain's multi-cultural 2 Tone movement in the late 1970s.[87]

As Jamaican ska gave way to the slower styles of rocksteady and the more politicised reggae, Sony PCG-71213M Battery

British African-Caribbeans followed suit. Sound systems to rival those in Jamaica sprung up throughout communities, and "Blues parties" - parties in private houses, where one paid at the door - became an institution. The arrival of Bob Marley to London in 1971 helped spawn a Black British music industry based on reggae. Sony PCG-71311M Battery

His association with the Rastafarian movement influenced waves of young people, reared in Britain, to discover their Caribbean roots. British Barbadian Dennis Bovell became Britain's prominent reggae band leader and producer, working with many international reggae stars, Sony PCG-71312M Battery

and introducing a reggae flavour to the British pop charts with non-reggae acts such as Dexys Midnight Runners and Bananarama. Bovell also worked extensively with London-based dub poetLinton Kwesi Johnson.

British music with reggae roots prospered in the 1980s and early 1990s. Sony PCG-71212M Battery

British African-Caribbean artists Musical Youth, Aswad, Maxi Priest and Eddy Grant had major commercial successes, and the multicultural band UB40 helped promote reggae to an international audience. Birmingham-based Steel Pulse became one of the world's foremost exponents of roots reggae and accompanying black consciousness, Sony VAIO PCG-5J4M Battery

their debut 1978 album Handsworth Revolution becoming a seminal release.[90]

British African-Caribbean music had been generally synonymous with Caribbean styles until the 1990s, although some artists had been drawing on British and American musical forms for several decades. Sony VAIO PCG-5K1M Battery

In the 1970s and 1980s, British African-Caribbean artists such asHot Chocolate and Imagination became leaders of the British disco, soul and R&B scenes.[91] By the mid-1980s British African-Caribbeans were also incorporating American hip hop and House styles, Sony VAIO PCG-5K2M Battery

becoming leading figures in Britain's developing dance music culture. This led to an explosion of musical forms. British artists created musical hybrids combining many elements including European techno, Jamaican dancehall, dub, breakbeats and contemporary American R'n'B. Sony VAIO PCG-5J5M Battery

These unique blends began to gain international acclaim through the success of Soul II Soul and the multi-racial Massive Attack.[92]

British African-Caribbeans were at the leading edge of the jungle and drum and bass movements of the 1990s. Sony VAIO PCG-5L2M Battery

Although the fast-tempo drums and loud intricate bass lines sounded fresh, Caribbean roots could still be detected.[93] Two successful exponents of these new styles were DJs Goldie and Roni Size, both of Jamaican heritage.[89][94] Later, British African-Caribbean musicians and DJs were at the forefront of the UK garage and Grime scenes. Sony VAIO PCG-6S4M Battery

British African-Caribbeans are well represented in traditional British sports such as football and rugby, and have also represented the nation at the highest level in sports where Caribbeans typically excel in the home countries such as cricket and athletics. Sony VAIO PCG-6W1M Battery

Some British African-Caribbeans have gone on to become international sports stars and top global earners in their chosen sporting field.

Britain's first Olympic sprint medals came from Harry Edward, born in Guyana, who won two individual bronze medals at the 1920 games in Antwerp.[96] Sony VAIO PCG-6W2M Battery

Many years later, sprinter Linford Christie, born in Saint Andrew Parish, Jamaica, won 23 major championship medals, more than any other British male athlete to date. Christie's career highlight was winning a gold medal in the immensely competitive 100 metres event in the 1992 Barcelona Olympics.[97] Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1M Battery

Welsh Hurdler Colin Jackson, who went to considerable lengths to explore his Jamaican heritage in a BBC documentary, held the 110 metres hurdles world record for 11 years between 1993 and 2004.[98]

Ethel Scott (1907–84) had a Jamaican father and an English mother was the first black woman to represent Great Britain in an international athletics competition. Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2M Battery

She was a sprinter active in international competitions for a brief period in the 1930s. In general, Scott's achievements are only thinly documented, and she is largely unknown to the British public and historians of sport. Jamaican-born Tessa Sanderson became the first British African-Caribbean woman to win Olympic gold, Sony VAIO PCG-8Y3M Battery

receiving the medal for her javelin performance in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Denise Lewis, of Jamaican heritage, won heptathlongold in the 2000 Sydney Olympics,[99] a games where 13 of Britain's 18 track and field representatives had Afro-Caribbean roots.[96] Four years later in theAthens Olympics, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1M Battery

Kelly Holmes, the daughter of a Jamaican-born car mechanic, achieved the rare feat of taking gold in both the 800 and 1500 metres races.[100] In the same games, Britain's men's 4 x 100 metre relay team of Marlon Devonish, Darren Campbell, Mark Lewis-Francis and Jason Gardener, all of African-Caribbean heritage, beat the favoured United States quartet to claim Olympic gold. Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2M Battery

British boxers of a Caribbean background have played a prominent role in the national boxing scene since the early 1980s. In 1995 Frank Bruno, whose mother was a Pentecostal laypreacher from Jamaica, became Britain's first world heavyweight boxing champion in the 20th century.[102Sony VAIO PCG-8Z3M Battery

] Bruno's reign was shortly followed by British-born Jamaican Lennox Lewis, who defeated Evander Holyfield and Mike Tyson to become the world's premier heavyweight during the late 1990s.[103]Middleweights Chris Eubank, who spent his early years in Jamaica, and Nigel Benn, of Barbadian descent, Sony VAIO PCG-7112M Battery

both claimed world titles and fought a series of brutal battles in the early 1990s.[104] In the Sydney Olympics of 2000, Audley Harrison (who has Jamaican heritage) became Britain's first heavyweight gold medalist.[105] Sony VGP-BPL15/B Battery

Other boxing champions from the British African-Caribbean community include the welterweight Lloyd Honeyghan, nicknamed "Ragamuffin Man" by boxing superstar Donald Curry in 1986, in reference to his (in comparison to Curry's extravagance) normal appearance; Honeyghan subsequently spectacularly defeated Curry. Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery

Cricket has long been a popular pastime among African-Caribbeans in both the West Indies and the United Kingdom, though this has waned somewhat since its peak during the 1960s-1980s.[107] After the period of widespread immigration, tours of England by the combined West Indian cricket team became cultural celebrations of Caribbean culture in Britain, Sony VGP-BPL15/S Battery

particularly at cricket grounds such as The Oval in South London.[107] Almost all the great West Indian cricketers became regular features of the domestic county game, including Garfield Sobers, Vivian Richards and Michael Holding. In turn, British cricketers of Caribbean origin also began to make an impact in English cricket. Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery

In the 1980s-1990s, players including Gladstone Small (born in Barbados),[108] Devon Malcolm (born in Jamaica)[109] and Phillip DeFreitas (born in Dominica)[110] represented England, making significant contributions to the side. Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery

Lewis Hamilton, whose paternal grandparents immigrated from Grenada, achieved the highest honour in Motorsport, winning the FIA Formula One World Championshipin 2008, only his second season in the sport, after narrowly finishing second in the championship in his debut season. Sony VGP-BPL15 Battery

The first West Indian-born footballer to play football at a high level in Britain was Andrew Watson, who played for Queen's Park(Glasgow) and went on to play for Scotland. Born in May 1857 in British Guyana, Watson lived and worked in Scotland and came to be known as one of the best players of his generation. Sony VGN-P series Battery

He played in 36 games for Queen's Park and also appeared for the London Swifts in the English FA Cup championship of 1882, making him the first Black player in English Cup history. Watson earned two Scottish Cupmedals and four Charity Cup medals during his career; Sony VGN-P11Z/Q Battery

Who's Who also acknowledged his performances in international matches. Watson's place in football history included a spell in management as Club Secretary for Queen's Park - making Watson the first Afro-Caribbean man to reach the boardroom.

Other early Caribbean footballers included Walter Tull, of Barbadian descent, Sony VGN-P11Z/R Battery

who played for the north London club Tottenham Hotspur in the early 20th century.[113] Some years later, Jamaican-born Lloyd "Lindy" Delapenha made an impact playing for Middlesbrough between 1950–57, becoming a leading goal scorer and the first Black player to win a championship medal.[114] Sony VGN-P11Z/W Battery

However, it was not until the 1970s that African-Caribbean players began to make a major impact on the game. Clyde Best (West Ham 1969–1976), born in Bermuda,[115] paved the way for players such as Cyrille Regis (born in French Guyana),[116] and Luther Blissett (born in Jamaica).[117Sony VGN-P21S/W Battery

] Blissett and Regis joined Viv Anderson to form the first wave of Black footballers to play for the England national team. Although the number of players of African-Caribbean origin in the English league was increasing far beyond proportions in wider society, Sony VGN-P21Z/G Battery

when Black players represented the English national team, they still had to endure racism from a section of England supporters. When selected to play for England, Cyril Regis received a bullet through the mail with the threat: "You'll get one of these through your knees if you step on our Wembley turf."[116] Sony VGN-P21Z/R Battery

By the 1980s the British African-Caribbean community was well represented at all playing levels of the game. John Barnes, born in Jamaica, was one of the most talented players of his generation and one of the few footballers to win every honour in the domestic English game including the PFA Players' Player of the Year.[118] Sony VGN-P29VN/Q Battery

Although Barnes played for England on 78 occasions between 1983 and 1991, his performances rarely matched his club standard.[119] Subsequently, Barnes identified a culture of racism in football during his era as a player.[118] Players of African-Caribbean origin continued to excel in English football, Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery

in the 1990s Paul Ince - whose parents were from Trinidad - went on to captain Manchester United, Liverpool F.C. and the English national team. The contribution was reciprocated when a number of British born footballers including Robbie Earle, Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery

Frank Sinclair and Darryl Powell represented theJamaica national football team in the 1998 World Cup finals.

At the turn of the millennium, British-born Black footballers constituted about 13% of the English league,[120] and a number of groups including "Kick It Out" were highlighting issues of racism still in the game.[121] Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery

In the 2006 World Cup finals, Theo Walcott, a striker of English and Jamaican parents,[122] became the youngest ever player to join an England world cup squad - a side that included African-Caribbean players in every department, goal-keeping, defence, midfield and attack.Sony VPCCW1S1R Battery

People of African descent from the Caribbean have made a significant contribution to British Black music for many generations.

Large-scale Caribbean migration to England recommenced following the Second World War in 1948. The Empire Windrushcarried almost 500 passengers from Jamaica, Sony VPCCW1S1T Battery

including Lord Kitchener, a calypso singer from Trinidad. By chance, a local newsreel company filmed him singing "London Is The Place For Me" as he got off the ship. In 2002, London Is The Place For Me: Trinidadian Calypso, 1950-1956 was finally released in Britain. Sony VPCCW1S1T/R Battery

The 1951 Festival of Britain brought the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra (TAPSO) and Roaring Lion to public attention. The smart set in Oxford and Cambridge adopted both calypso and steelband for debutante parties. In 1959, Trinidadian Claudia Jones started the Notting Hill Carnival. Sony VPCCW1S1T/W Battery

They brought Mighty Sparrow and others directly from Trinidad. Edric Connor had arrived in England from Trinidad in 1944. He starred in a West End musical called "Calypso" in 1948. A white Danish duo, Nina & Frederik, recorded several calypsos from 1958 to 1962, scoring in the charts. Sony VPCCW1Z4E Battery

Cy Grant (from Guyana) sang a song by Lord Kitchener in the TV drama A Man From the Sun in 1956. It told the story of Caribbean migrants. From 1957 to 1960, Grant sang calypsos on the BBC TV news programme Tonight. In 1962. English comedian Bernard Cribbins had a hit with "Gossip Calypso".Sony VPCCW12EN/BU Battery

Cecil Bustamante Campbell (Prince Buster) was born in 1938 in Orange Street, Kingston, Jamaica. In 1961 he signed to Blue Beat records.

In 1962, Jamaica won its independence and Island Records was founded. One of the record label's producers, Chris Blackwell, brought Millie Small to Britain in 1963. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E Battery

Her high-pitched, slightly nasal voice had wide appeal with "My Boy Lollipop", which reached number 2 in the UK. It was perceived as a novelty pop song, not the start of a boom in ska. It was not until 1969 that reggae artists began to receive significant airplay. Dave and Ansell Collins, Ken Boothe and John Holt had hits. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139N Battery

Trojan Records was founded in 1967, named after producer Duke Reid, known as "The Trojan." It brought Jamaican recordings to Britain. Their first hit was Jimmy Cliff's "Wonderful World, Beautiful People" in 1969. The label had 28 other hits. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery

The first Jamaican performers to reach number one in Britain were Desmond Dekker and the Aces with "Israelites" in 1969. The second act was Althea & Donna with "Up Town, Top Ranking" in 1977. Bob Marley came from Jamaica to London and recorded "Catch a Fire" in 1972, returning to record "Exodus" and "Kaya" in 1977. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery

Eddy Grant was born in Guyana in 1948 and grew up in Brixton. He was part of The Equals, the first multi-racial group to reach number 1 in the UK, with "Baby come Back" in 1968. He took Caribbean music further in the direction of rock than anyone else. His gritty voice took "Electric Avenue" to the top 10 twice. His studio in Barbados has been used by Sting and Elvis Costello. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery

Roots reggae was increasingly popular with the UK's black working-class youth from the 1970s onwards, its message ofRastafari and overcoming injustice striking a chord with those on the receiving end of racism and poverty. Jamaicans who had settled in the UK (and their children who had been born here) Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery

were instrumental in setting up a network of reggae soundsystems. The most popular soundsystems included Jah Shaka, Coxsone Outernational, Fatman, Jah Tubbys and Quaker City.

A number of producers such as Dennis Bovell and Mad Professor began to record UK and Jamaican artists and release their records. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190E Battery

Bands such as Aswad, Steel Pulse, Misty In Roots and Beshara released records and played gigs throughout the UK.

As roots music's popularity waned in Jamaica in the 1980s, soundsystems such as Jah Shaka kept the faith in the UK, influencing a new generation of producers, Sony VAIO VPCS11B7E Battery

soundsystems and artists, including The Disciples, Iration Steppas, Jah Warrior and The Rootsman. This scene has been referred to as "UK Dub".

The 1990s saw a resurgence of interest in 70s roots reggae and dub with a number of UK-based specialist labels such as Pressure Sounds, Soul Jazz and Blood & Fire being set up to re-release classic recordings. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

"Punky Reggae Party" is a song written by Bob Marley as a positive response to the emerging UK punk scene.

Roots and Dub music gained popularity with UK punks in the mid-70s, with Don Letts playing reggae records alongside punk ones at the Roxy nightclub and Johnny Rotten citingSony VAIO VPCS11M9R/B Battery

Dr Alimantado's "Born for a Purpose" as one of his favourite records in a radio interview. After the Sex Pistols split, Rotten was sent to Jamaica by Virgin Records as a talent scout for their Frontline reggae sub-label.

The Clash started out as a straight-ahead punk rock group, but their first album covered "Police & Thieves",Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery

a reggae track by Junior Murvin. Their bass playerPaul Simonon was a reggae enthusiast. Increasingly the group took significant influence from reggae, on tracks such as The Guns of Brixton, which used themes of impoverished criminality and a renegade lifestyle, with a punky edge. Sony VAIO VPCS12A7E Battery

Their track "White Man In Hammersmith Palais" was written about the group's experience at a reggae dance. Jamaican reggae producer Lee Perry was brought in to produce the tune "Complete Control".

The Ruts recorded the reggae-inspired "Babylon's Burning", "Jah War",Sony VAIO VPCS12A7R Battery

"Love in Vein" and "Give Youth a Chance", while The Members recorded similar "White Reggae" tracks such as "Don't Push" and "Offshore Banking Business".

Towards the end of the 1970s, punk and reggae groups would appear on the same bills at Rock Against Racism events. Sony VAIO VPCS12B7E Battery

While most of the developments in the music took place in Jamaica (dub, toasting, dancehall, ragga) there was one form that was born in Britain. Lovers rock, developed in the 1970s, was a smooth, soulful version of reggae, spearheaded by Dennis Brown. Sony VAIO VPCS12C5E Battery

The early years of "lovers rock" have two main resonances: London "blues parties" and discs by girl singers who sounded as if they were still worrying about their school reports. The record that kick-started the phenomenon was the 14-year-old Louisa Mark's plaintive reading of Robert Parker's soul hit, Sony VAIO VPCS12D7E Battery

"Caught You In A Lie", with Matumbi as backing group and production by sound-system man Lloyd Coxsone (b. Lloyd Blackwood, Jamaica); this appeared on Coxsone's Safari imprint in 1975 and was impressive enough to see release in Jamaica by Gussie Clake. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

Several of Louisa Mark's subsequent titles, including "All My Loving" (Safari) and "Six Sixth Street" (Bushays), repeated the success and have remained favourites at revive sessions ever since.

Mark's hit was followed by Ginger Williams' "Tenderness" (Third World), Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E Battery

and a genre was born-essentially Philly/Chicago soul ballads played over fat reggae basslines. The style was consolidated by the husband-and-wife team of Dennis and Eve Harris who had a big hit with the white singer T.T. Ross's massively popular "Last Date" (Lucky), another key record, and set up a new imprint, Lover's Rock, giving the genre its name.Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

Later labels such as Fashion Records and Ariwa would go on to take lovers rock to more sophisticated plains and beyond the music's original market of working-class teenagers. and while the music media largely ignored their performers-singers like Peter Hunnigale, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery

Sylvia Tella, Michael Gordon and Keith Douglas they have deservedly scored hit after hit with audiences who trust what they hear rather than read.

The influence of reggae was felt in rock almost immediately, but usually surfaced as a tangential reference in some stars' isolated songs. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery

The Beatles song 1964 "I Call Your Name," for instance, has a ska break; a few years later, they would appropriate the reggae rhythm for 1968 "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da".[1]

Chris Andrews (born 1942) was a songwriter for Sandie Shaw. The song "Yesterday Man" was inappropriate for her, so he sang it himself and it went to #3 in the British singles charts in 1965. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery

At the time, the musical style was called bluebeat, a music genre that is now recognized by most as ska or reggae. He followed this with "To Whom It Concerns" (#13 in 1965) and "Something On My Mind" (number 41 in 1966).

Paul McCartney bought Jamaican-imported singles, but this was not obvious in The Beatles' repertoire until "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" Sony Vaio VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

on the White Album. There was a gentle reggae beat in some of his later solo singles, such as "Another Day" and "Silly Love Songs". He also named one of his Christmas song covers "Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reggae". The first British top ten album to contain several reggae songs was Peter Frampton's "Frampton Comes Alive" in 1976. Sony Vaio VGN-NW31JF Battery

Other pop hits include "Sugar Sugar" by the Archies (number 1 in 1969) and "I Can See Clearly Now" by Johnny Nash (number 5 in 1972). Also in the mid-1970s, art-rockers 10cc released a few reggae-styled singles, including "Dreadlock Holiday".

Ska/reggae artist Judge Dread (named after a Prince Buster character) released his first single in 1972; Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery

the somewhat X-rated "Big Six", which went to #11. Judge Dread (born Alexander Hughes) continued his popularity with other rude songs, chiefly enjoyed by skinheads, who had always been avid fans of ska and reggae. Skinheads were preceded by the mods, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/P Battery

who were the first real white supporters of ska/bluebeat in the 1960s. Georgie Fame, a mod R&B favourite, popularised a ska feel in his music at times.

The Police's first reggae single was "Roxanne", followed by "Don't Stand So Close to Me", "Walking on the Moon" and others. Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/S Battery

Sting's somewhat interesting Jamaican accent attracted criticism, but the band was commercially successful. Blondie's "The Tide is High" was perhaps the first big white reggae hit in Britain and also draws on the lovers-rock elements of reggae. Both Harry Belafonte and Nina and Frederick had hits with "Mary's Boy Child", Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/W Battery

but it was Boney Mwho gave this slow ballad a reggae rhythm in 1978 and took it to #1 in the British charts for four weeks.

More long-term success was achieved by UB40, of Birmingham. They started life performing reggae-influenced material of their own creation, Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T Battery

but their biggest contribution is perhaps their covers of reggae originals. "Kingston Town", "Many Rivers to Cross" and "Here I Am (Come and Take Me)" are a few of the more famous. Their chart-topping cover of "Red Red Wine" was an accident of sorts - they knew a reggae version of the song, but were unaware that the American pop singer Neil Diamond was its original author. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery

Gospel music although a subgenre of black music in the UK today also arrived in England in the early post-war years, along with the large-scale immigrant influx and their wide variety of musical tastes. Pioneers in this field include an eight-piece a cappella family group from Trinidad called the Singing Stewarts - Oscar Stewart, Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/T Battery

Ashmore Stewart, Frankie Stewart, Phylis Stewart, Gloria Stewart, Timothy Stewart, Thedore Stewart and Del Stewart - who were the first to appear on a major British record label in the late 1960s. They impressed many English audiences with their unique interpretation of Negro Spirituals and traditional Gospel songs. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/S Battery

Based in the Midlands, Birmingham, they appeared on numerous radio shows and participated in the prestigious Edinburgh Festival, again increasing awareness of this genre.

In later years and decades when black people began to settle in the UK, groups such as The Doyleys, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery

Paradise, Lavine Hudson and the Bazil Meade-inspired London Community Gospel Choir began to drive the music much further towards the mainstream and out of the comfort zone of the black churches.

The Singing Stewarts are featured in the book British Black Gospel:Dell 312-0749 Battery

The Foundations of this vibrant UK sound by Steve Alexander Smith. Huddersfield-born Smith was inspired to write the book after spending time in the USA in the mid 1990's and witnessing the best that Black Gospel could offer.

While many immigrants from the Caribbean brought with them the folk music of the area, Dell FU571 Battery

it was not until the 1960s when The Spinners a folk group from Liverpool,England, who were the first multiracial singing group to have a major success in the UK brought Caribbean folk music into the mainstream.[2] Cliff Hall, their West Indian singer and guitarist, Dell KY265 Battery

born in Cuba and brought up in Jamaica, brought many songs from the Caribbean to their repertoire including "Woman Sweeter than Man", "Matty Rag" and "Linstead Market".Dell KY285 Battery

Caribbean literature is the term generally accepted for the literature of the various territories of the Caribbean region. Literature in English specifically from the former British West Indies may be referred to as Anglo-Caribbean or, in historical contexts, West Indian literature, although in modern contexts the latter term is rare.[ Dell MN631 Battery

Most of these territories have become independent nations since the 1960s, though some retain colonial ties to the United Kingdom. They all share, apart from the English language, a number of political, cultural, and social ties which make it useful to consider their literary output in a single category. Dell PT434 Battery

The more wide-ranging term "Caribbean literature" generally refers to the literature of all Caribbean territories regardless of language—whether written in English,Spanish, French, or Dutch, or one of numerous creoles.

The literature of BrianAnguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Curaçao, the Bahamas, Dell Studio 17 Battery

Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica,Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Martin, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicosand the U.S. Dell Studio 1735 Battery

Virgin Islands would normally be considered to belong to the wider category of West Indian literature. Some literary scholars might also includeBermuda, though geographically Bermuda is not part of the Caribbean and cultural ties with the region are not very strong. Dell Studio 1737 Battery

The term "West Indies" first began to achieve wide currency in the 1950s, when writers such as Samuel Selvon, John Hearne, Edgar Mittelholzer, V.S. Naipaul, andGeorge Lamming began to be published in the United Kingdom. A sense of a single literature developing across the islands was also encouraged in the 1940s by theBBC radio programme Caribbean Voices, Dell Studio 15 Battery

which featured stories and poems written by West Indian authors, recorded in London under the direction of producer Henry Swanzy, and broadcast back to the islands. Magazines such as Kyk-Over-Al in Guyana, Bim in Barbados, and Focus in Jamaica, which published work by writers from across the region, also encouraged links and helped build an audience.[1] Dell Studio 1537 Battery

Many—perhaps most—West Indian writers have found it necessary to leave their home territories and base themselves in the United Kingdom, the United States, orCanada in order to make a living from their work—in some cases spending the greater parts of their careers away from the territories of their birth. Dell Studio 1536 Battery

Critics in their adopted territories might argue that, for instance, V. S. Naipaul ought to be considered a British writer instead of a Trinidadian writer, or Jamaica Kincaid and Paule Marshall American writers, but most West Indian readers and critics still consider these writers "West Indian".Dell Studio 1555 Battery

West Indian literature ranges over subjects and themes as wide as those of any other "national" literature, but in general many West Indian writers share a special concern with questions of identity, ethnicity, and language that rise out of the Caribbean historical experience. Dell Studio 1557 Battery

One unique and pervasive characteristic of Caribbean literature is the use of "dialect" forms of the national language, often termed creole. The various local variations in the language adopted from the colonial powers such as Britain, Spain,Portugal, France and the Netherlands, Dell LATITUDE D600 Battery

have been modified over the years within each country and each has developed a blend that is unique to their country. Many Caribbean authors in their writing switch liberally between the local variation - now commonly termed nation language - and the standard form of the language.[2] Dell Latitude D610 Battery

Two West Indian writers have won the Nobel Prize for Literature: Derek Walcott (1992), born in St. Lucia, resident mostly in Trinidad during the 1960s and 70s, and partly in the United States since then; and V. S. Naipaul, born in Trinidad and resident in the United Kingdom since the 1950. Dell Latitude D620 Battery

(Saint-John Perse, who won the Nobel Prize in 1960, was born in the French territory of Guadeloupe.)

Other notable names in (anglophone) Caribbean literature have included Earl Lovelace, Austin Clarke, Claude McKay, Orlando Patterson, Andrew Salkey, Dell Latitude D630 Battery

Edward Kamau Brathwaite (who was born in Barbados and has lived in Ghana and Jamaica), Linton Kwesi Johnson, and Michelle Cliff, to name only a few. In more recent times, a number of new literary voices have emerged from the Caribbean as well as the Caribbean diaspora,Dell LATITUDE D800 Battery

including Kittitian Caryl Phillips (who has lived in the UK since one month of age), Edwidge Danticat, a Haitian immigrant to the United States; Anthony Kellman from Barbados, who divides his time between Barbados and the United States; Andrea Levy of the United Kingdom, Dell Latitude D820 Battery

Colin Channer and Marlon James, the author ofJohn Crow's DevilThe Book of Night Women, the unpublished screenplay "Dead Men", and the short story "Under Cover of Darkness", Antiguan Marie-Elena John, and Lasana M. Sekou from St. Maarten/St. Martin. Dell Latitude D830 Battery,Dell Latitude E5410 Battery,Dell Latitude E6510 Battery

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