Over 700,000 blacks enlisted on the first day of the draft, but were subject to discriminatory conditions which prompted vocal protests from Du Bois.
After the East St. Louis Riot occurred in the summer of 1917, Du Bois traveled to St. Louis to report on the riots. Between 40 and 250 African Americans were massacred by whites, primarily due to resentment caused by St. Louis industry hiring blacks to replace striking white workers. HP GC057514VH-A CPU FAN
Du Bois' reporting resulted in an article "The Massacre of East St. Louis", published in the September issue of The Crisis, which contained photographs and interviews detailing the violence. Historian David Levering Lewis concluded that Du Bois distorted some of the facts in order to increase the propaganda value of the article. HP KDB0505HB CPU FAN
To publicly demonstrate the black community's outrage over the St Louis riot, Du Bois organized the Silent Parade, a march of around 9,000 African Americans down New York's Fifth avenue, the first parade of its kind in New York, and the second instance of blacks publicly demonstrating for civil rights. HP KDB05605HB CPU FAN
The Houston Riot of 1917 disturbed Du Bois and was a major setback to efforts to permit African Americans to become military officers. The riot began after Houston police arrested and beat two black soldiers; in response, over 100 black soldiers took to the streets of Houston and killed 16 whites. HP KSB0605HB CPU FAN
A military court martial was held, and 19 of the soldiers were hung, and 67 others were imprisoned. In spite of the Houston Riot, Du Bois and others successfully pressed the Army to accept the officers trained at Spingarn's camp, resulting in over 600 black officers joining the Army in October 1917. HP KSB06105HA CPU FAN
Federal officials, concerned about subversive viewpoints expressed by NAACP leaders, attempted to frighten the NAACP by threatening it with investigations.Du Bois was not intimidated, and in 1918 he predicted that World War I would lead to an overthrow of the European colonial system and to the liberation of colored people world-wide – HP MCF-811AM05 CPU FAN
in China, in India, and especially in America. NAACP chairman Joel Spingarn was enthusiastic about the war, and he persuaded Du Bois to consider an officer's commission in the Army, contingent on Du Bois writing an editorial repudiating his anti-war stance. HP MCF-W13BM05 CPU FAN
Du Bois accepted this bargain and wrote the pro-war "Close Ranks" editorial in June 1918 and soon thereafter he received a commission in the Army. Many black leaders, who wanted to leverage the war to gain civil rights for African Americans, criticized Du Bois for his sudden reversal. DELL Precision M4500 CPU FAN
officers in Du Bois' unit objected to his presence, and his commission was withdrawn.
When the war ended, Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1919 to attend the first Pan-African Congress and to interview African-American soldiers for a planned book on their experiences in World War I. DELL Precision M6400 Series CPU FAN
He was trailed by U.S. agents who were searching for evidence of treasonous activities. Du Bois discovered that the vast majority of black American soldiers were relegated to menial labor as stevedores and laborers. Some units were armed, and one in particular, the 92nd Division (the Buffalo soldiers), engaged in combat. DELL Precision M65 CPU FAN
Du Bois discovered widespread racism in the Army, and concluded that the Army command discouraged African Americans from joining the Army, discredited the accomplishments of black soldiers, and promoted bigotry.
After returning from Europe, Du Bois was more determined than ever to gain equal rights for African Americans. DELL Precision M70 Series CPU FAN
Black soldiers returning from overseas felt a new sense of power and worth, and were representative of an emerging attitude referred to as the New Negro. In the editorial "Returning Soldiers" he wrote: "But, by the God of Heaven, we are cowards and jackasses if, now that the war is over, we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner, DELL Precision M90 CPU FAN
longer, more unbending battle against the forces of hell in our own land." Many blacks moved to northern cities in search of work, and some northern white workers resented the competition. This labor strife was one of the causes of the Red Summer of 1919, a horrific series of race riots across America, in which over 300 African Americans were killed in over 30 cities. DELL Pricision M6300 CPU FAN
Du Bois documented the atrocities in the pages of The Crisis, culminating in the December publication of a gruesome photograph of a lynching that occurred during the Omaha, Nebraska race riot.
The most egregious episode during the Red Summer was a vicious attack on blacks in Elaine, Arkansas, in which nearly 200 blacks were murdered. DELL Studio 1435 CPU FAN
Reports coming out of the South blamed the blacks, alleging that they were conspiring to take over the government. Infuriated with the distortions, Du Bois published a letter in the New York World, claiming that the only crime the black sharecroppers had committed was daring to challenge their white landlords by hiring an attorney to investigate contractual irregularities. DELL Studio 1450 CPU FAN
Over 60 of the surviving blacks were arrested and tried for conspiracy, in the case known as Moore v. Dempsey. Du Bois rallied blacks across America to raise funds for the legal defense, which, six years later, resulted in a Supreme Court victory authored by Oliver Wendell Holmes. DELL Studio 1457 CPU FAN
Although the victory had little immediate impact on justice for blacks in the South, it marked the first time the Federal government used the 14th amendment guarantee of due process to prevent states from shielding mob violence.
In 1920, Du Bois published Darkwater: Voices From Within the Veil, the first of three autobiographies he would write. DELL Studio 1458 CPU FAN
The "veil" was that which covered colored people around the world. In the book, he hoped to lift the veil and show white readers what life was like behind the veil, and how it distorted the viewpoints of those looking through it – in both directions. The book contained Du Bois's feminist essay, "The Damnation of Women", which was a tribute to the dignity and worth of women, particularly black women. DELL Studio 1535 Series CPU FAN
Concerned that textbooks used by African-American children ignored black history and culture, Du Bois created a monthly children's magazine, The Brownies' Book. Initially published in 1920, it was aimed at black children, who Du Bois called "the children of the sun."
Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1921 to attend the second Pan-African Congress. DELL Studio 1536 Series CPU FAN
The assembled black leaders from around the world issued the London Resolutions and established a Pan-African Association headquarters in Paris. Under Du Bois's guidance, the resolutions insisted on racial equality, and that Africa be ruled by Africans (not, as in the 1919 congress, with the consent of Africans). DELL Studio 1537 Series CPU FAN
Du Bois restated the resolutions of the congress in his Manifesto To the League of Nations, which implored the newly formed League of Nations to address labor issues and to appoint Africans to key posts. The League took little action on the requests.
Another important African American leader of the 1920s was Marcus Garvey, DELL Studio 1555 Series CPU FAN
promoter of the Back-to-Africa movement and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Garvey denounced Du Bois's efforts to achieve equality through integration, and instead endorsed racial separatism. Du Bois initially supported the concept of Garvey's Black Star Line, a shipping company that was intended to facilitate commerce within the African diaspora. DELL Studio 17 CPU FAN
But Du Bois later became concerned that Garvey was threatening the NAACP's efforts, leading Du Bois to describe him as fraudulent and reckless. Responding to Garvey's slogan "Africa for the Africans" slogan, Du Bois said that he supported that concept, but denounced Garvey's intention that Africa be ruled by African Americans. DELL Studio 1735 CPU FAN
Du Bois wrote a series of articles in The Crisis between 1922 and 1924, attacking Garvey's movement, calling him the "most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and the world." Du Bois and Garvey never made a serious attempt to collaborate, and their dispute was partly rooted in the desire of their respective organizations (NAACP and UNIA) to capture a larger portion of the available philanthropic funding. DELL Studio 1736 CPU FAN
Harvard's decision to ban blacks from its dormitories in 1921 was decried by Du Bois as an instance of a broad effort in the U.S. to renew "the Anglo-Saxon cult; the worship of the Nordic totem, the disfranchisement of the Negro, Jews, Irishman, Italian, Hungarian, Asiate, and South Sea islander – the world rule of Nordic white through brute force." DELL Studio 1737 CPU FAN
When Du Bois sailed for Europe in 1923 for the third Pan-African Congress, the circulation of The Crisis had declined to 60,000 from its World War I high of 100,000, but it remained the preeminent periodical of the civil rights movement. President Coolidge designated Du Bois an "Envoy Extraordinary" to Liberia DELL Studio XPS 1340 CPU FAN
and – after the third congress concluded – Du Bois rode a German freighter from the Canary Islands to Africa, visiting Liberia, Sierra Leone and Senegal.
Du Bois frequently promoted African-American artistic creativity in his writings, and when the Harlem Renaissance emerged in the mid-1920s, his article "A Negro Art Renaissance" celebrated the end of the long hiatus of blacks from creative endeavors. DELL Studio XPS 1640 CPU FAN
His enthusiasm for the Harlem Renaissance waned as he came to believe that many whites visited Harlem for voyeurism, not for genuine appreciation of black art. Du Bois insisted that artists recognize their moral responsibilities, writing that "a black artist is first of all a black artist." He was also concerned that black artists were not using their art to promote black causes, DELL Studio XPS 1645 CPU FAN
saying "I do not care a damn for any art that is not used for propaganda." By the end of 1926, he stopped employing The Crisis to support the arts.
Nine years after the 1917 Russian Revolution, Du Bois extended a trip to Europe to include a visit to the Soviet Union. DELL Studio XPS 1647 CPU FAN
Du Bois was struck by the poverty and disorganization he encountered in the Soviet Union, yet was impressed by the intense labors of the officials and by the recognition given to workers. Although Du Bois was not yet familiar with the communist theories of Karl Marx or Vladimir Lenin, he concluded that socialism may be a better path towards racial equality than capitalism. DELL Vostro 1000 Series CPU FAN
Although Du Bois generally endorsed socialist principles, his politics were strictly pragmatic: In 1929, Du Bois endorsed Democrat Jimmy Walker for mayor of New York, rather than the socialist Norman Thomas, believing that Walker could do more immediate good for blacks, even though Thomas' platform was more consistent with Du Bois's views. DELL Vostro 1014 Series CPU FAN
Throughout the 1920s, Du Bois and the NAACP shifted support back and forth between the Republican party and the Democratic party, induced by promises from the candidates to fight lynchings, improve working conditions, or support voting rights in the South; invariably, the candidates failed to deliver on their promises. DELL Vostro 1015 Series CPU FAN
A rivalry emerged in 1931 between the NAACP and the Communist party, when the Communist party responded quickly and effectively to support the Scottsboro Boys, nine African-American youth arrested in 1931 in Alabama for rape. Du Bois and the NAACP felt that the case would not be beneficial to their cause, sDELL Vostro 1018 Series CPU FAN
o they chose to let the Communist party organize the defense efforts. Du Bois was impressed with the vast amount of publicity and funds the Communists devoted to the partially successful defense effort, and he came to suspect that the Communists were attempting to present their party to African Americans as a better solution than the NAACP. DELL Vostro 1088 Series CPU FAN
Responding to criticisms of the NAACP from the Communist party, Du Bois wrote articles condemning the party, claiming that it unfairly attacked the NAACP, and that it failed to fully appreciate racism in the United States. The Communist leaders, in turn, accused Du Bois of being a "class enemy",DELL Vostro 1310 CPU FAN
and claimed that the NAACP leadership was an isolated elite, disconnected from the working-class blacks they ostensibly fought for.
Du Bois did not have a good working relationship with Walter Francis White, president of the NAACP since 1931. DELL Vostro 1400 Series CPU FAN
That conflict, combined with the financial stresses of the Great Depression, precipitated a power struggle over The Crisis. Du Bois, concerned that his position as editor would be eliminated, resigned his job at The Crisis and accepted an academic position at Atlanta University in early 1933. DELL Vostro 1510 CPU FAN
The rift with the NAACP grew larger in 1934 when Du Bois reversed his stance on segregation, stating that separate but equal was an acceptable goal for African Americans. The NAACP leadership was stunned, and asked Du Bois to retract his statement, but he refused, and the dispute led to Du Bois's resignation from the NAACP. DELL Vostro 1700 CPU FAN
After arriving at his new professorship in Atlanta, Du Bois wrote a series of articles generally supportive of Marxism. He was not a strong proponent of labor unions or the Communist party, but he felt that Marx's scientific explanation of society and the economy were useful for explaining the situation of African Americans in the United States. DELL Vostro 2510 CPU FAN
Marx's atheism also struck a chord with Du Bois, who routinely criticized black churches for dulling blacks' sensitivity to racism. In his 1933 writings, Du Bois embraced socialism, but asserted that "[c]olored labor has no common ground with white labor", a controversial position that was rooted in Du Bois's dislike of American labor unions, which had systematically excluded blacks for decades. DELL Vostro 3300 CPU FAN
Du Bois did not support the Communist party in the U.S. and did not vote for their candidate in the 1932 presidential election, in spite of an African American on their ticket.
Back in the world of academia, Du Bois was able to resume his study of Reconstruction, the topic of the 1910 paper that he presented to the American Historical Association. DELL Vostro 3350 CPU FAN
In 1935, he published his magnum opus, Black Reconstruction in America. The book presented the thesis, in the words of the historian David Levering Lewis, that "black people, suddenly admitted to citizenship in an environment of feral hostility, displayed admirable volition and intelligence as well as the indolence and ignorance inherent in three centuries of bondage." DELL Vostro 3400 CPU FAN
Du Bois documented how black people were central figures in the American Civil Warand Reconstruction, and also showed how they made alliances with white politicians. He provided evidence to show that the coalition governments established public education in the South, as well as many needed social service programs. DELL Vostro 3450 CPU FAN
The book also demonstrated the ways in which black emancipation – the crux of Reconstruction – promoted a radical restructuring of United States society, as well as how and why the country failed to continue support for civil rights for blacks in the aftermath of Reconstruction. DELL Vostro 3500 CPU FAN
The book's thesis ran counter to the orthodox interpretation of Reconstruction maintained by white historians, and the book was virtually ignored by mainstream historians until the 1960s. Thereafter, however, it ignited a "revisionist" trend in the historiography of Reconstruction, which emphasized black people's search for freedom and the era's radical policy changes. DELL Vostro 3700 CPU FAN
By the twenty-first century, Black Reconstruction was widely perceived as "the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography."
In 1932, Du Bois was selected by several philanthropies – including the Phelps-Stokes Fund, the Carnegie Corporation, and the General Education Board – to be the managing editor for a proposed Encyclopedia of the Negro, a work Du Bois had been contemplating for 30 years. DELL Vostro 3700 Series CPU FAN
After several years of planning and organizing, the philanthropies cancelled the project in 1938, because some board members believed that Du Bois was too biased to produce an objective encyclopedia.
Du Bois took a trip around the world in 1936, which included visits to Nazi Germany, China and Japan. DELL Vostro 3750 CPU FAN
While in Germany, Du Bois remarked that he was treated with warmth and respect, but on his return to the United States, he voiced his ambivalence about the Nazi regime. He admired how the Nazis had improved the German economy, but he was horrified by their treatment of the Jewish people, DELL Vostro A840 CPU FAN
which he described as "an attack on civilization, comparable only to such horrors as the Spanish Inquisition and the African slave trade."
Following the 1905 Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War, Du Bois became impressed by the growing strength of Imperial Japan. He saw the victory of Japan over Tsarist Russia as an example of colored peoples defeating white peoples.[190DELL Vostro A860 CPU FAN] A representative of Japan's "Negro Propaganda Operations" traveled to the United States during the 1920s and 1930s, meeting with Du Bois and giving him a positive impression of Imperial Japan's racial policies. In 1936, the Japanese ambassador arranged a trip to Japan for Du Bois and a small group of academics. DELL XPS L501X CPU FAN
Du Bois opposed the U.S. intervention in World War II, particularly in the Pacific, because he believed that China and Japan were emerging from the clutches of white imperialists, and he felt that waging war against Japan was an opportunity for whites to reestablish their influence in Asia. DELL XPS L502X CPU FAN
The government's plan for African Americans in the armed forces was a major blow to Du Bois: Blacks were limited to 5.8 percent of the force, and there were to be no African-American combat units – virtually the same restrictions as in World War I. Blacks threatened to shift their support to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's opponent in the 1940 election, DELL XPS M1210 CPU FAN
so Roosevelt appointed a few blacks to leadership posts in the military. Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois's second autobiography, was published in 1940. The title refers to Du Bois's hope that African Americans were passing out of the darkness of racism into an era of greater equality. The work is part autobiography, part history, and part sociological treatise. DELL XPS M1330 CPU FAN
Du Bois described the book as "the autobiography of a concept of race ... elucidated and magnified and doubtless distorted in the thoughts and deeds which were mine ... Thus for all time my life is significant for all lives of men."
In 1943, at the age of 76, Du Bois's employment at Atlanta University was abruptly terminated by college president Rufus Clement. DELL XPS M140 CPU FAN
Many scholars expressed outrage, prompting Atlanta University to provide Du Bois with a lifelong pension and the title of professor emeritus. Arthur Spingarn remarked that Du Bois spent his time in Atlanta "battering his life out against ignorance, bigotry, intolerance and slothfulness, DELL XPS M1530 CPU FAN
projecting ideas nobody but he understands, and raising hopes for change which may be comprehended in a hundred years." Turning down job offers from Fisk and Howard, Du Bois re-joined the NAACP as director of the Department of Special Research. Surprising many NAACP leaders, Du Bois jumped into the job with vigor and determination. DELL XPS M170 CPU FAN
During the ten years while Du Bois was away from the NAACP, its income had increased fourfold, and its membership had soared to 325,000 members.
Du Bois was a member of the three-person delegation from the NAACP that attended the 1945 conference in San Francisco at which theUnited Nations was established. DELL XPS M1710 CPU FAN
The NAACP delegation wanted the United Nations to endorse racial equality and to bring an end to the colonial era. To push the United Nations in that direction, Du Bois drafted a proposal that pronounced "[t]he colonial system of government ... is undemocratic, socially dangerous and a main cause of wars." DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU FAN
The NAACP proposal received support from China, Russia and India, but it was virtually ignored by the other major powers, and the NAACP proposals were not included in the United Nations charter.
After the United Nations conference, Du Bois published Color and Democracy, a book that attacked colonial empires and, in the words of one reviewer, DELL Inspiron N4010 Series CPU FAN
"contains enough dynamite to blow up the whole vicious system whereby we have comforted our white souls and lined the pockets of generations of free-booting capitalists."
In late 1945, Du Bois attended the fifth, and final, Pan-African Congress, in Manchester, England. DELL Latitude 100L CPU FAN
The congress was the most productive of the five congresses, and there Du Bois met Kwame Nkrumah, the future first president of Ghana who would later invite Du Bois to Africa.
Du Bois helped to submit petitions to the UN concerning discrimination against African Americans. These culminated in the report and petition called "We Charge Genocide", submitted in 1951 with the Civil Rights Congress. DELL Latitude 120L Series CPU FAN
"We Charge Genocide" accuses the US of systematically sanctioning murders and inflicting harm against African Americans and therefore committing genocide.
When the Cold War commenced in the mid-1940s, the NAACP distanced itself from Communists, lest its funding or reputation suffer. DELL Latitude 131L Series CPU FAN
The NAACP redoubled their efforts in 1947 after Life magazine published a piece by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. claiming that the NAACP was heavily influenced by Communists. Ignoring the NAACP's desires, Du Bois continued to fraternize with communist sympathizers such as Paul Robeson, Howard Fast and Shirley Graham (his future second wife). DELL Latitude C500 CPU FAN
Du Bois wrote "I am not a communist ... On the other hand, I ... believe ... that Karl Marx ... put his finger squarely upon our difficulties ...". In 1946, Du Bois wrote articles giving his assessment of the Soviet Union; he did not embrace communism and he criticized its dictatorship. However, he felt that capitalism was responsible for poverty and racism, and felt that socialism was an alternative that might ameliorate those problems. DELL Latitude C540 CPU FAN
The soviets explicitly rejected racial distinctions and class distinctions, leading Du Bois to conclude that the USSR was the "most hopeful country on earth." Du Bois's association with prominent communists made him a liability for the NAACP, especially since the FBI was starting to aggressively investigate communist sympathizers; DELL Latitude C600 CPU FAN
so – by mutual agreement – he resigned from the NAACP for the second time in late 1948. After departing the NAACP, Du Bois started writing regularly for the leftist weekly newspaper the National Guardian, a relationship that would endure until 1961.
Du Bois was a lifelong anti-war activist, but his efforts became more pronounced after World War II. DELL Latitude C610 CPU FAN
In 1949, Du Bois spoke at the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace in New York: "I tell you, people of America, the dark world is on the move! It wants and will have Freedom, Autonomy and Equality. It will not be diverted in these fundamental rights by dialectical splitting of political hairs ... DELL Latitude C640 CPU FAN
Whites may, if they will, arm themselves for suicide. But the vast majority of the world's peoples will march on over them to freedom!"
In the spring of 1949, he spoke at World Congress of the Partisans of Peace in Paris, saying to the large crowd: "Leading this new colonial imperialism comes my own native land built by my father's toil and blood, the United States. DELL Latitude C800 Series CPU FAN
The United States is a great nation; rich by grace of God and prosperous by the hard work of its humblest citizens ... Drunk with power we are leading the world to hell in a new colonialism with the same old human slavery which once ruined us; and to a third World War which will ruin the world." DELL Latitude C810 Series CPU FAN
Du Bois affiliated himself with a leftist organization, the National Council of Arts, Sciences and Professions, and he traveled to Moscow as its representative to speak at the All-Soviet Peace Conference in late 1949.
During the 1950s, the U.S. government's anti-communist McCarthyism campaign targeted Du Bois because of his socialist leanings. DELL Latitude C840 Series CPU FAN Historian Manning Marable characterizes the government's treatment of Du Bois as "ruthless repression" and a "political assassination".
The FBI began to compile a file on Du Bois in 1942, but the most aggressive government attack against Du Bois occurred in the early 1950s, as a consequence of Du Bois's opposition to nuclear weapons. DELL Latitude D400 Series CPU FAN
In 1950 Du Bois became chairman of the newly created Peace Information Center (PIC), which worked to publicize the Stockholm Peace Appeal in the United States. The primary purpose of the appeal was to gather signatures on a petition, asking governments around the world to ban all nuclear weapons. DELL Latitude D410 Series CPU FAN
The U.S. Justice department alleged that the PIC was acting as an agent of a foreign state, and thus required the PIC to register with the federal government. Du Bois and other PIC leaders refused, and they were indicted for failure to register. After the indictment, some of Du Bois's associates distanced themselves from him, and the NAACP refused to issue a statement of support; DELL Latitude D420 CPU FAN
but many labor figures and leftists – including Langston Hughes – supported Du Bois. After a trial in 1951, with defense attorney Vito Marcantonio arguing the case, the case was dismissed. Even though Du Bois was not convicted, the government confiscated Du Bois's passport and withheld it for eight years. DELL Latitude D430 CPU FAN
Du Bois was bitterly disappointed that many of his colleagues – particularly the NAACP – did not support him during his 1951 PIC trial, whereas working class whites and blacks supported him enthusiastically. After the trial, Du Bois lived in Manhattan, writing and speaking, and continuing to associate primarily with leftist acquaintances. DELL Latitude D500 Series CPU FAN His primary concern was world peace, and he railed against military actions, such as the Korean War, which he viewed as efforts by imperialist whites to maintain colored people in a submissive state.
In 1950, at the age of 82, Du Bois ran for U.S. Senator from New York on the American Labor Party ticket and received about 200,000 votes, or 4% of the statewide total. DELL Latitude D505 Series CPU FAN
Du Bois continued to believe that capitalism was the primary culprit responsible for the subjugation of colored people around the world, and therefore – although he recognized the faults of the Soviet Union – he continued to uphold communism as a possible solution to racial problems. In the words of biographer David Lewis, Du Bois did not endorse communism for its own sake, but did so because "the enemies of his enemies were his friends." DELL Latitude D510 Series CPU FAN
The same ambiguity characterized Du Bois's opinions of Joseph Stalin: in 1940 he wrote disdainfully of the "Tyrant Stalin", but when Stalin died in 1953, Du Bois wrote a eulogy characterizing Stalin as "simple, calm and courageous", and lauding him for being the "first [to] set Russia on the road to conquer race prejudice and make one nation out of its 140 groups without destroying their individuality". DELL Latitude D531 CPU FAN
The U.S. government prevented Du Bois from attending the 1955 Bandung conference in Indonesia. The conference was the culmination of 40 years of Du Bois's dreams – a meeting of 29 nations from Africa and Asia, many recently independent, representing most of the world's colored peoples. DELL Latitude D600 Series CPU FAN
The conference celebrated their independence, as the nations began to assert their power as non-aligned nations during the cold war. In 1958, Du Bois regained his passport, and with his second wife, Shirley Graham Du Bois, he traveled around the world, visiting Russia and China. In both countries he was celebrated and given guided tours of the best aspects of communism. DELL Latitude D610 Series CPU FAN
Du Bois was blind to the defects of his host nations – even though he toured China during the tragicGreat Leap Forward – and he later wrote approvingly of the conditions in both countries. He was 90 years old.
Du Bois became incensed in 1961 when the U.S. DELL Latitude D620 CPU FAN
Supreme Court upheld the 1950 McCarran Act, a key piece of McCarthyism legislation which required communists to register with the government. To demonstrate his outrage, he joined the Communist party in October 1961, at the age of 93. Around that time, he wrote: "I believe in communism. DELL Latitude D630 CPU FAN
I mean by communism, a planned way of life in the production of wealth and work designed for building a state whose object is the highest welfare of its people and not merely the profit of a part."
Although Du Bois attended the New England Congregational church as a child, he abandoned organized religion while at Fisk college. DELL Latitude D800 Series CPU FAN
As an adult, he described himself as agnostic or a freethinker, and biographer David Lewis concluded that Du Bois was virtually an atheist. When asked to lead public prayers, Du Bois would refuse. In his autobiography, he wrote: "When I became head of a department at Atlanta, the engagement was held up because again I balked at leading in prayer ... DELL Latitude D810 Series CPU FAN
I flatly refused again to join any church or sign any church creed. ... I think the greatest gift of the Soviet Union to modern civilization was the dethronement of the clergy and the refusal to let religion be taught in the public schools." Du Bois believed that churches in America were the most discriminatory of all institutions. DELL Latitude D820 CPU FAN
Du Bois occasionally acknowledged the beneficial role religion played in African-America life – as the "basic rock" which served as an anchor for African-American communities – but in general he disparaged African-American churches and clergy because he felt they did not support the goals of racial equality and they hindered the efforts of activists. DELL Latitude D830 CPU FAN
Although Du Bois was not personally religious, he infused his writings with religious symbology, and many of his contemporaries viewed him as a prophet. His 1904 prose poem, "Credo", was written in the style of a religious creed and was widely read by the African-American community.
Ghana invited Du Bois to Africa to participate in their independence celebration in 1957, DELL Latitude E4200 Series CPU FAN
but he was unable to attend because the U.S. government had confiscated his passport in 1951. By 1960 – the "Year of Africa" – Du Bois had recovered his passport, and was able to cross the Atlantic and celebrate the creation of the Republic of Ghana. Du Bois returned to Africa in late 1960 to attend the inauguration of Nnamdi Azikiwe as the first African governor of Nigeria. DELL Latitude E4300 Series CPU FAN
While visiting Ghana in 1960, Du Bois spoke with its president about the creation of a new encyclopedia of the African diaspora, the Encyclopedia Africana. In early 1961, Ghana notified Du Bois that they had appropriated funds to support the encyclopedia project, and they invited Du Bois to come to Ghana and manage the project there. DELL LATITUDE E4310 Series CPU FAN
In October 1961, at the age of 93, Du Bois and his wife traveled to Ghana to take up residence and commence work on the encyclopedia. In early 1963, the United States refused to renew his passport, so he made the symbolic gesture of becoming a citizen of Ghana. DELL Latitude E5400 CPU FAN
His health declined during the two years he was in Ghana, and he died on August 27, 1963, in the town of Accra at the age of 95. Du Bois was buried in Accra near his home, which is now the Du Bois Memorial Centre. A day after his death, at the March on Washington, speaker Roy Wilkins asked the hundreds of thousands of marchers to honor Du Bois with a moment of silence. DELL Latitude E5500 CPU FAN
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, embodying many of the reforms Du Bois had campaigned for his entire life, was enacted a year after his death
Du Bois was organized and disciplined: His lifelong regimen was to rise at 7:15, work until 5, eat dinner and read a newspaper until 7, then read or socialize until he was in bed, invariably before 10. DELL Latitude E6400 Series CPU FAN
He was a meticulous planner, and frequently mapped out his schedules and goals on large pieces of graph paper. Many acquaintances found him to be distant and aloof, and he insisted on being addressed as "Dr. Du Bois". Although he was not gregarious, he formed several close friendships with associates such as Charles Young, Paul Laurence Dunbar, DELL Latitude E6410 CPU FAN
John Hope and Mary Ovington. His closest friend was Joel Spingarn – a white man – but Du Bois never accepted Spingarn's offer to be on a first name basis. Du Bois was something of a dandy – he dressed formally, carried a walking stick, and walked with an air of confidence and dignity. DELL Latitude E6410 Series CPU FAN
He was relatively short 5 feet 5.5 inches (166 cm) and always maintained a well-groomed mustache and goatee. He was a good singer and enjoyed playing tennis.
Du Bois was married twice, first to Nina Gomer (m. 1896, d. 1950), with whom he had two children, a son Burghardt (who died as an infant) and a daughter Yolande, who married Countee Cullen. DELL Latitude E6420 CPU FAN
As a widower, he married Shirley Graham (m. 1951, d. 1977), an author, playwright, composer and activist. She brought her son David Graham to the marriage. David grew close to Du Bois and took his stepfather's name; he also worked for African-American causes. The historian David Levering Lewis wrote that Du Bois engaged in several extramarital relationships. DELL Latitude E6500 CPU FAN
But the historian Raymond Wolters cast doubt on this, based on the lack of corroboration from Du Bois's alleged lovers.
The Souls of Black Folk is a classic work of American literature by W. E. B. Du Bois. It is a seminal work in thehistory of sociology, and a cornerstone of African-American literary history. DELL Latitude E6500 Series CPU FAN
The book, published in 1903, contains several essays on race, some of which had been previously published in Atlantic Monthly magazine. Du Bois drew from his own experiences to develop this groundbreaking work on being African-American in American society. Outside of its notable place in African-American history, DELL Latitude E6510 CPU FAN
The Souls of Black Folk also holds an important place in social science as one of the early works to deal with sociology.
Chapter I lays out an overview of Du Bois's thesis for the book. It says that the blacks of the South need the right to vote, a good education, and to be treated with equality and justice. DELL Latitude E6510 Series CPU FAN
It also defines his term double consciousness: "It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity."
The first chapter also introduces Du Bois' famous metaphor of the veil. DELL Precision M4400 Series CPU FAN
According to Du Bois, this veil is worn by all African-Americans because their view of the world and its potential economic, political, and social opportunities is so vastly different from that of white people. The veil is a visual manifestation of the colour line, a problem Du Bois worked his whole life to remedy. DELL Inspiron 4000 CPU FAN
Bois sublimates the function of the veil when he refers to it as a gift of second sight for African-Americans, thus simultaneously characterizing the veil as both a blessing and a curse.
The second chapter, "The Dawn of Freedom" covers the history of the Freedman's Bureau during reconstruction. DELL Inspiron 4100 CPU FAN
Chapters III through VI focus on education. It is here that Du Bois argues against Booker T. Washington's idea of focusing solely on industrial education for black men. He also advocates the addition of a classical education to establish leaders and educators in the black community.
Chapters VII through X are sociological studies of the black community. DELL Inspiron 5100 Series CPU FAN
Du Bois investigates the influence that segregation and discrimination have had on the black people. He argues that much of the negative stereotypes of blacks as lazy, violent, and simple-minded are results of the treatment from white people.
In "Chapter X: Of the Faith of the Fathers", Du Bois describes the rise of the Black church, DELL Inspiron 5150 CPU FAN
and examines the history and contemporary state of religion and spiritualism among African-Americans.
The final chapters of the book are devoted to narratives of individuals. "Chapter XI: Of the Passing of the First-Born" tells the story of Du Bois's own son and his untimely death. DELL Inspiron 5160 CPU FAN
In the next chapter, the life of Alexander Crummell is a short biography of a black priest in the Episcopal Church.
The penultimate chapter of The Souls of Black Folk, is a creative work, “Of the Coming of John.” This story is that of John from Altamaha, DELL Inspiron 6000 Series CPU FAN
Georgia sent off to a well-off school only to return to place where “[l]ittle had they understood of what he said, for he spoke an unknown tongue” (Du Bois 170). John’s return to the South has made him a foreigner in his own home, and he is forced to die while “softly humming the ‘Song of the Bride’” in German, in language not that is not his own (Du Bois 176). DELL Inspiron 600m Series CPU FAN
The last chapter is about Negro music and makes reference to the short musical passages at the beginning of each of the other chapters.
In chapter 14, “Of the Sorrow Songs,” Du Bois heralds the “melody of the slave songs,” or, the negro spiritual, as the “articulate message of the slave to the world.” DELL Inspiron 630m CPU FAN
They are the music, he contests, not of the joyous black slave, as a good many whites had misread them, but “of an unhappy people, of the children of disappointment; they tell of death and suffering and unvoiced longing toward a truer world, of misty wander-ings and hidden ways.”  For Du Bois, DELL Inspiron 6400 Series CPU FAN
the sorrow songs represented a black folk culture, with its origins in slavery, that was unadulterated by the civilizing impulses of a northern black church increasingly obsessed with respectability and Western aesthetic criteria.  Rather than vestiges of a backward time that should be purged from black repertoires and isolated from what Alain Locke called the “modernization of the negro” (coincident, for Locke, with urbanization), DELL Inspiron 640m CPU FAN
negro spirituals, for Du Bois, are where the souls of black folk past and present are found.
Du Bois passionately advocated for the preservation of the spiritual, along with Dvorak[disambiguation needed] and contemporary black aestheticians from Burleigh and Dett to Alain Locke and Zora Neale Hurston. DELL Inspiron 700M Series CPU FAN
It is in the retrieval of black cultural folkways-particularly the Sorrow Songs-that one of the major complications of Du Bois project and, later, the Harlem Renaissance (where Hurston and Locke debut their own retrievals) surfaces. For Du Bois' contention that the sorrow songs contain a notative excess, DELL Inspiron 710M Series CPU FAN
and untranscribable element Yolanda Pierce identifies as the "soul" of the sorrow songs. The mappings of sound and signs that make up the languages of white Western culture would prove insufficient to many black literary critics of the 1920's and beyond, and debates over the ability to retrieve, DELL Inspiron 8000 Series CPU FAN
or preserve, black folk-ways finds its roots in Du Bois' treatment of the sorrow songs, and his call for their rescue. DELL Inspiron 8100 Series CPU FAN,DELL Inspiron 8500 Series CPU FAN,DELL Inspiron 8600 Series CPU FAN
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