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3 juin 2012 7 03 /06 /juin /2012 11:22

Owain Glyndŵr

Owain Glyndŵr (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr]), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by William Shakespeare as Owen Glendower (c. 1349 or 1359 – c. 1416), was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales. He instigated a fierce and long-running but ultimately unsuccessful revolt against the English rule of Wales.[1]HP G62-a29EA Battery

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Glyndŵr was a descendant of the Princes of Powys from his father Gruffydd Fychan II, hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, and of those of Deheubarth through his mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn. HP G62-a30SA Battery

On 16 September 1400, Glyndŵr instigated the Welsh Revolt against the rule of Henry IV of England. Although successful in terms of uniting the Welsh against their oppressors, HP G62-a38EE Battery

the uprising eventually ran out of pace due to key home ground lost whilst chasing the English army towards London — Glyndŵr was last seen in 1412 and was never captured nor tempted by royal pardons and never betrayed. His final years are a mystery. HP G62-a40SA Battery

Glyndŵr has remained a notable figure in the popular culture of both Wales and England, portrayed in Shakespeare's playHenry IV, Part 1 (as Owen Glendower) as a wild and exotic man ruled by magic and emotion ("at my nativity, The front of heaven was full of fiery shapes, HP G62-a43SA Battery

Of burning cressets, and at my birth The frame and huge foundation of the earth Shaked like a coward." — Henry IV, Part 1, Act 3, scene 1). In the late 19th century the Cymru Fydd movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism, revising the historical image of him and joining him in popular memory as a national hero on par with King Arthur. HP G62-a44EE Battery

In 2000, celebrations were held all over Wales to commemorate the 600th anniversary of the Glyndŵr rising. Owain has since been voted in at 23rd in a poll of 100 Greatest Britons in 2002, and 2nd in the 100 Welsh Heroes poll of 2003-04. HP G62-a44SA Battery

Glyndŵr was born circa 1354 (possibly 1359) to a prosperous landed family, part of the Anglo-Welsh gentry of the Welsh Marches (the border between England and Wales) in northeast Wales. This group moved easily between Welsh and English societies and languages, HP G62-a45SA Battery

occupying important offices for the Marcher Lords while maintaining their position as uchelwyr— nobles descended from the pre-conquest Welsh royal dynasties — in traditional Welsh society. His father, Gruffydd Fychan II, hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, HP G62-a50SG Battery

died some time before 1370 leaving Glyndŵr's mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn of Deheubarth a widow and Owain a young man of maybe 16 years at most. Owain probably had an elder brother called Madog, but he may have died young.[citation needed]HP G62-a53SG Battery

The young Owain ap Gruffydd was possibly fostered at the home of David Hanmer, a rising lawyer shortly to be a justice of the Kings Bench, or at the home of Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel. Owain is then thought to have been sent to London to study law at the Inns of Court. He probably studied as a legal apprentice for seven years. He was possibly in London during the Peasants' Revoltof 1381. HP G62-a60SA Battery

By 1383, he had returned to Wales, where he married David Hanmer's daughter, Margaret, started his large family and established himself as the Squire of Sycharth and Glyndyfrdwy, with all the responsibilities that entailed. HP G62-b00SA Battery

Glyndŵr entered the English king's military service in 1384 when he undertook garrison duty under the renowned 'Welshman' Sir Gregory Sais, or Sir Degory Sais, on the English–Scottish border at Berwick-upon-Tweed. In August 1385, served King Richard under the command of John of Gauntagain in Scotland. HP G62-b09SA Battery

On 3 September 1386, he was called to give evidence in the Scrope v. Grosvenor trial at Chester. In March 1387, Owain was in southeast England under Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel in the Channel at the defeat of a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet off the coast of Kent. HP G62-b10SA Battery

Upon the death of his father-in-law, Sir David Hanmer, in late 1387, knighted earlier that very year by Richard II, Glyndŵr returned to Wales as executor of his estate. He possibly served as a squire to Henry Bolingbroke (later Henry IV of England), HP G62-b11SA Battery

son of John of Gaunt, at the short, sharp Battle of Radcot Bridge in December 1387. He had gained three years concentrated military experience in different theatres and seen at first hand some key events and people. HP G62-b12SA Battery

King Richard was distracted in growing conflict with the Lords Appellant from this time on. Glyndŵr's opportunities were further limited by the death of Sir Gregory Sais in 1390 and the sidelining of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, and he probably returned to his stable Welsh estates, HP G62-b13EA Battery

living there quietly for ten years during his forties. The bard Iolo Goch ("Red Iolo"), himself a Welsh lord, visited him in the 1390s and wrote a number of odes to Owain, praising Owain's liberality, and writing of Sycharth, "Rare was it there / to see a latch or a lock." HP G62-b13SA Battery

The Welsh revolt, 1400 - 1415

For more details on this subject, see Glyndŵr Rising.

In the late 1390s, a series of events occurred that began to push Owain towards rebellion, in what was later to be called the Welsh Revolt, the Glyndŵr Rising or the Last War of Independence. His neighbour, Baron Grey de Ruthyn, had seized control of some land, HP G62-b14SA Battery

for which Glyndŵr appealed to the English Parliament. In 1400, Lord Grey informed Glyndŵr too late of a royal command to levy feudal troops for Scottish border service, thus being able to call the Welshman a traitor in London court circles.[5] HP G62-b15SA Battery

Lord Grey was a personal crony of the recently usurping King Henry IV. Glyndŵr lost the legal case, and was under personal threat. The deposed king, Richard II, had support in Wales, and in January 1400, serious civil disorder broke out in the English border city of Chester, after the public execution of an officer of Richard II.[6]HP G62-b16EA Battery

These events led to Owain being proclaimed Prince of Wales on 16 September 1400, by a small band of followers which included his eldest son, his brothers-in-law, and the Dean of St Asaph in the town of Corwen, possibly in the church of SS Mael & Sulien. HP G62-b16SA Battery

After a number of initial confrontations between King Henry IV and Owain's followers in September and October 1400, the revolt began to spread in 1401. Much of northern and central Wales went over to Owain. Henry IV appointed Henry Percy – the famous ‘Hotspur’ – to bring the country to order. HP G62-b17EO Battery

Hotspur issued an amnesty in March which applied to all rebels with the exception of Owain and his cousins, Rhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur, sons of Tudur ap Gronw (forefather of King Henry VII of England). Both the Tudurs were pardoned after their capture of Edward I’s great castle at Conwy. HP G62-b17SA Battery

In June, Owain scored his first major victory in the field at Mynydd Hyddgen on Pumlumon. Retaliation by Henry IV on theStrata Florida Abbey followed, but eventually led to Henry's retreat. HP G62-b18SA Battery

In 1402, the English Parliament issued the Penal Laws against Wales, anti-Welsh legislation designed to establish English dominance in Wales, but actually pushing many Welshmen into the rebellion. HP G62-b19SA Battery

In the same year, Owain captured his arch enemy, Baron Grey de Ruthyn. He was to hold him for almost a year until he received a substantial ransom from Henry. HP G62-b20SA Battery

In June 1402, Sir Edmund Mortimer, the uncle of the Earl of March, was captured. Glyndŵr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom but, in sharp contrast to his attitude to de Grey, Henry IV refused to pay. Mortimer's nephew could be said to have had a greater claim to the English throne than Henry himself, HP G62-B20so Battery

so his speedy release was not an option. In response, Mortimer negotiated an alliance with Owain and married one of Owain's daughters. HP G62-b21SA Battery

It is also in 1402 that mention of the French and Bretons helping Owain was first heard. The French were certainly hoping to use Wales as they had used Scotland as a base to fight the English. HP G62-b22SA Battery

1403 marks the year when the revolt became truly national in Wales. Royal officials continued to report that Welsh students at Oxford University were leaving their studies to join Owain, and Welsh labourers and craftsmen were abandoning their employers in England and returning to Wales. HP G62-b23SA Battery

Owain could also draw on Welsh troops seasoned by the English campaigns in France and Scotland. Hundreds of Welsh archers and experienced men-at-arms left English service to join the rebellion. HP G62-b24SA Battery

In 1404, to demonstrate his seriousness as a ruler, Owain held court at Harlech and appointed the brilliant Gruffydd Young as his Chancellor. Soon afterwards, he called his first Parliament (or more properly Cynulliad or "gathering") of all Wales atMachynlleth where he was crowned Prince of Wales and announced his national programme. HP G62-b25SA Battery

He declared his vision of an independent Welsh state with a parliament and separate Welsh church. There would be two national universities (one in the south and one in the north) HP G62-b26SA Battery

and return to the traditional law of Hywel Dda. Senior churchmen and important members of society flocked to his banner. English resistance was reduced to a few isolated castles, walled towns and fortified manor houses. HP G62-b27EA Battery

TRIPARTITE INDENTURE AND THE YEAR OF THE FRENCH

Owain demonstrated his new status by negotiating the "Tripartite Indenture" with Edmund Mortimer and Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. The Indenture agreed to divide England and Wales among the three of them. Wales would extend as far as the rivers Severn and Mersey including most of Cheshire, Shropshire and Herefordshire. HP G62-b27SA Battery

The Mortimer Lords of March would take all of southern and western England and the Percys would take the north of England.[7] Although most historians have dismissed the terms of the Indenture as being highly ambitious and fanciful, R. RHP G62 Battery

noted that certain internal features underscore the rootedness of Glyndŵr's political philosophy in Welsh mythology: in it, the three men invoke prophecy, and the boundaries of Wales are defined according to Merlinic literature. HP G62 Notebook PC Series Battery

Things were improving on the international front too. Although negotiations with the Scots and the lords of Ireland were unsuccessful, Owain had reasons to hope that the French and Bretons might be more welcoming. Quickly Owain dispatched Gruffydd Young and his brother-in-law, HP G62t-100 CTO Battery

John Hanmer, to negotiate with the French. The result was a formal treaty that promised French aid to Owain and the Welsh. The immediate effect seems to have been that joint Welsh and Franco-Breton forces attacked and laid siege to Kidwelly Castle. HP G62t Battery

The Welsh could also count on semi-official fraternal aid from their fellow Celts in the then independent Brittany and Scotland. Scots and French privateers were operating around Wales throughout Owain’s war. HP G72-100 Battery

Scottish ships had raided English settlements on the Llyn Peninsula in 1400 and 1401. In 1403, a Breton squadron defeated the English in the Channel and devastated Jersey, HP G72-102SA Battery

Guernsey and Plymouth while the French made a landing on the Isle of Wight. By 1404, they were raiding the coast of England, with Welsh troops on board, setting fire to Dartmouth and devastating the coast of Devon. HP G72-101SA Battery

1405 was the "Year of the French" in Wales. A formal treaty between Wales and France was negotiated. On the continent the French pressed the English as the French army invaded English Plantagenet Aquitaine. Simultaneously, the French landed in force atMilford Haven in west Wales. HP G72-105SA Battery

They marched through Herefordshire and on into Worcestershire. They met the English army just ten miles from Worcester. The armies took up battle positions daily and viewed each other from a mile without any major action for eight days. Then, for reasons that have never become clear, the English retreated, and so did the French shortly afterwards. HP G72-110EL Battery

THE REBELLION FOUNDERS

By 1406, most French forces had withdrawn after politics shifted in Paris toward the peace party. Owain's "Pennal Letter", in which he promised Charles VI of France and Avignon Pope Benedict XIII to shift the allegiance of the Welsh Church from Rome to Avignon, produced no effect due to the commitment of his senior aides to the conflict. HP G72-110EV Battery

There were other signs the revolt was encountering problems. Early in the year, the Welsh forces suffered a series of defeats - which was a bad sign as to date, the rebellion had seen many easy defeats of the English forces. King Henry made a pact that allowed his armies to engage in more and more ruthless tactics. HP G72-110SA Battery

English forces landed in Anglesey from Ireland and would over time push the Welsh back, until the resistance in Anglesey formally ended toward the end of 1406. HP G72-110SD Battery

At the same time, the English were adopting a different strategy. Rather than focusing on punitive expeditions favoured by his father, the young Prince Henry adopted a strategy of economic blockade. Using the castles that remained in English control he gradually began to retake Wales while cutting off trade and the supply of weapons. HP G72-110SO Battery

By 1407 this strategy was beginning to bear fruit, even though by this point Owain's rebel soldiers had concluded successful battles with the Kings men as far as Birmingham, where the English were in retreat. However, with Owain's eye off the real prize - the independence of Wales, one by one the lordships began to surrender. In the autumn, HP G72-110SW Battery

Owain’s Aberystwyth Castle surrendered - whilst he was out fighting for the land it stood on. In 1409, it was the turn of Harlech Castle. HP G72-120EG Battery

Edmund Mortimer died in the final battle and Owain’s wife Margaret along with two of his daughters (including Catrin) and three of Mortimer's grand-daughters were taken prisoner and incarcerated in the Tower of London. They were all to die in the Tower before 1415. HP G72-120EP Battery

Owain remained free but even though his campaign had been successful, and the English armies feared both him and the French - he had lost his ancestral home and was a hunted prince. Owain continued the rebellion, particularly wanting to avenge his wife. In 1410, after a suicide raid into rebel-controlled Shropshire, which took many English lives, some of the leading rebellion figures were thought to have been captured. HP G72-120EV Battery

In 1412, Owain led one of the final successful raiding parties with his most faithful soldiers and cut through the Kings men, and consequently captured, and later ransomed, a leading Welsh supporter of King Henry's, Dafydd Gam ("Crooked David"),HP G72-120EW Battery

in an ambush in Brecon. This was the last time that Owain was seen alive by his enemies. As late as 1414, there were rumours that the Herefordshire-based Lollard leader, Sir John Oldcastle, was communicating with Owain and reinforcements were sent to the major castles in the north and south. HP G72-120SD Battery

But by then things were changing. Henry IV died in 1413 and his son King Henry V began to adopt a more conciliatory attitude to the Welsh. Royal pardons were offered to the major leaders of the revolt and other opponents of his father's regime. HP G72-120SG Battery

Disappearance and legacy

Nothing certain is known of Owain after 1412. Despite enormous rewards being offered, he was never captured nor betrayed. He ignored royal pardons. Tradition has it that he died and was buried possibly in Corwen church of SS Mael & Sulien close to his home, HP G72-120SO Battery

or possibly at his estate in Sycharth or on the estates of his daughters' husbands — Kentchurch in south Herefordshire or Monnington in west Herefordshire. Owain's daughter, Alys, had married, secretly, Sir John Scudamore, the King's appointed Sheriff of Herefordshire. HP G72-130 Battery

Somehow he had weathered the rebellion and remained in office. It was rumoured that Owain finally retreated to their home at Kentchurch. In his book The Mystery of Jack of Kent and the Fate of Owain Glyndŵr, Alex Gibbon argues that the folk hero Jack of Kent, also known as Siôn Cent – the family chaplain of the Scudamore family – was in fact Owain Glyndŵr himself. HP G72-130EG Battery

Gibbon points out a number of similarities between Siôn Cent and Glyndŵr (including physical appearance, age, education, character) and claims that Owain spent his last years living with Alys passing himself off as an aging Franciscan friar and family tutor. There are many folktales of Glyndŵr donning disguises to gain advantage over opponents during the rebellion. HP G72-130EV Battery

A grandchild of the Scudamores was Sir John Donne of Kidwelly, a successful Yorkist courtier, diplomat and soldier, who after 1485 made an accommodation with his fellow Welshman, Henry VII. Through the Donne family, many prominent English families are then descended from Owain, including the De Vere family, successive holders of the title Earl of Oxford, and the Cavendish family as Duke of Devonshire. HP G72-130SF Battery

In 2006, Adrien Jones, the president of the Owain Glyndŵr Society, said, "Four years ago we visited a direct descendant of Glyndŵr (Sir John Scudamore), at Kentchurch Court, near Abergavenny. "He took us to Monnington Straddel, in Herefordshire, where one of Glyndŵr's daughters, HP G72-140ED Battery

Alice (Alys), had lived. (He) told us that he (Glyndŵr) spent his last days there and eventually died there. It was a family secret for 600 years and even (Sir John's) mother, who died shortly before we visited, refused to reveal the secret. There's even a mound where he is believed to be buried at Monnington Straddel."[8]HP G72-260US Battery

Adam of Usk, a one-time supporter of Glyndŵr, made the following entry in his Chronicle under the year 1415: After four years in hiding, from the king and the realm, Owain Glyndŵr died, and was buried by his followers in the darkness of night. His grave was discovered by his enemies, however, so he had to be re-buried, though it is impossible to discover where he was laid. HP G72-a30SA Battery

Marriage

Owain married Margaret Hanmer, also known by her Welsh name Marred ferch Dafydd, daughter of Sir David Hanmer of Hanmer, early in his life.[9]HP G72-b01SA Battery

Owain is perhaps best remembered outside Wales as the mysterious Welshman of 'Owen Glendower' in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 who claims to be able to "call spirits from the vasty deep," and proves later on that he can, at least, summon unearthly music. In common with the myth of Merlin this places Owain as adruidic mystic. HP G72-b02SA Battery

After Owain's death, there was little resistance to English rule until, in the 16th century, the Tudor dynasty, whilst allowing Welshmen to become more prominent in English society, saw Owain's revolt as a catastrophe for Wales. HP G72-b10SA Battery

In Henry IV Shakespeare portrays him as wild and exotic; a man ruled by magic and tradition in sharp contrast to the more logical but highly emotional Hotspur. It was not until the late 19th century that Owain's reputation was revived. HP G72-b15SA Battery

The "Young Wales" movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism. The discovery of Owain's Great Seal and his letters to the French in the Bibliothèque Nationale helped revise historical images of him as a purely local leader. HP G72-b20SA Battery

In the First World War, the Welsh Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, unveiled a statue to him in Cardiff City Hall and a postcard showing Owain at the Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen was sold to raise money for wounded Welsh soldiers. HP G72 Battery

Folk memory in Wales had always held him in high regard and almost every parish has some landmark or story about Owain. However, there is no road sign indicating the scene of one of his greatest battles at Bryn Glas in 1415. HP G72 Notebook PC Series Battery

In 1808, the Royal Navy launched a 36-gun Fifth Rate frigate, which it named the HMS Owen Glendower. She served in the Baltic during the Gunboat War where she participated in the seizure of Anholt Island, and the Channel. Between 1822 and 1824, she served in the West Africa Squadron (or 'Preventative Squadron') chasing down slave ships, capturing at least two. HP G72t Battery

He is now remembered as a national hero on a par with King Arthur and numerous small groups have adopted his symbolism to advocate independence or nationalism for Wales. For example, during the 1980s, a group calling themselves "Meibion Glyndŵr" HP Pavilion dv3-4000 Battery

claimed responsibility for the burning of English holiday homes in Wales. However, perhaps ironically, Glyndŵr was part English himself. Welsh legend states that when Wales is threatened again he will rise from his unknown resting place in order to lead the defence of Wales, HP Pavilion dv3-4010sg Battery

Wales brought him back into the spotlight and in 2000 celebrations were held all over Wales to commemorate the 600th anniversary of the rising. Stamps were issued with his likeness and streets, parks, and public squares were named after him throughout Wales. HP Pavilion dv3-4020sp Battery

Owain’s personal standard — the quartered arms of Powys and Deheubarth rampant — began to be seen all over Wales, especially at rugby union matches against the English. An energetic campaign exists to make 16 September, the date Owain raised his standard, HP Pavilion dv3-4029TX Battery

a national holiday in Wales. An annual award for achievement in the arts and literature, the Glyndŵr Award, is named after him. In 2007, popular Welsh musicians the Manic Street Preachers wrote a song entitled "1404" based on Owain Glyndŵr. HP Pavilion dv3-4031TX Battery

The song can be found on the CD single for 'Autumnsong'. A statue of Owain Glyndŵr on horseback was installed in 2007 in The Square in Corwen, Denbighshire to commemorate his life and his lasting influence on Wales. Also located on the Square in Corwen is the Owain Glyndwr Hotel. The waymarked long distance footpath Glyndŵr's Way runs through Mid Wales near to his homelands. HP Pavilion dv3-4035tx Battery

In 2008, Glyndŵr University was established in Wrexham, Wales. Originally established as the Wrexham School of Science and Art in 1887, it was until the name change known as the North East Wales Institute or "NEWI". Glyndŵr was born and lived much of his life around Wrexham and the Welsh Marches. HP Pavilion dv3-4050ea Battery

Glendower Residence, at the University of Cape Town in South Africa was named after Owain Glyndŵr. The residence was opened in 1993 having previously been the Glendower Hotel. It now houses 139 male and female undergraduate students.[10]HP Pavilion dv3-4057tx Battery

Fiction

As well as in Shakespeare, Glyndŵr, has been featured in a number of works of literature and is the subject of several historical novels, including: HP Pavilion dv3-4059tx Battery

He is also a character in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 and was the hero of James Hill's UK TV movie Owain, Prince of Wales, broadcast in 1983 in the early days of Channel 4/S4C. HP Pavilion dv3-4100 Battery

quite like the legend of King Arthur. The creation of the National Assembly for

He also has a small role as a past Knight of the Word and a ghost who serves the Lady in Terry Brooks' Word/Void trilogy. In the books, he is John Ross' ancestor. HP Pavilion dv3-4100sa Battery

He appeared as an agent of the Light in Susan Cooper's book Silver on the Tree, part of The Dark is Rising Sequence. HP Pavilion dv3-4102tx Battery

For a study of the various ways Glyndŵr has been portrayed in Welsh-language literature of the modern period, see E. Wyn James, Glyndŵr a Gobaith y Genedl: Agweddau ar y Portread o Owain Glyndŵr yn Llenyddiaeth y Cyfnod Modern (English: Glyndower and the Hope of the Nation: Attitudes to the Portrait of Owen Glyndower in Modern Age Literature) (Aberystwyth: Cymdeithas Llyfrau Ceredigion, 2007). HP Pavilion dv3-4105tx Battery

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A chef takes the name of Glyndŵr in "Gorgon's Wood", an episode of Jonathan Creek. His descendants are portrayed as early settlers in the north eastern United States in Madeleine L'Engle's 3rd book in the Time Quartet series A Swiftly Tilting Planet HP Pavilion dv3-4107tx Battery

TURINGERY

In July 1942, Turing devised a technique termed Turingery (or jokingly Turingismus)[54] for use against the Lorenz cipher messages produced by the Germans' newGeheimschreiber (secret writer) machine. This was a teleprinter rotor cipher attachment codenamed Tunny at Bletchley Park. HP Pavilion dv3-4121tx Battery

Turingery was a method of wheel-breaking, i.e. a procedure for working out the cam settings of Tunny's wheels.[55] He also introduced the Tunny team to Tommy Flowers who, under the guidance ofMax Newman, went on to build the Colossus HP Pavilion dv3-4123tx Battery

world's first programmable digital electronic computer, which replaced a simpler prior machine (theHeath Robinson), and whose superior speed allowed the statistical decryption techniques to be applied usefully to the messages.[56]HP Pavilion dv3-4124tx Battery

 Some have mistakenly said that Turing was a key figure in the design of the Colossus computer. Turingery and the statistical approach of Banburismus undoubtedly fed into the thinking about cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher,[57][58] but he was not directly involved in the Colossus development.[59]HP Pavilion dv3-4200 Battery

Following his work at Bell Labs in the US,[60] Turing pursued the idea of electronic enciphering of speech in the telephone system, and in the latter part of the war, he moved to work for the Secret Service's Radio Security Service (later HMGCC) at Hanslope ParkHP Pavilion dv3-4207tx Battery

he further developed his knowledge of electronics with the assistance of engineer Donald Bayley. Together they undertook the design and construction of a portable secure voice communications machine codenamedDelilah.[61] HP Pavilion dv3-4208tx Battery

It was intended for different applications, lacking capability for use with long-distance radio transmissions, and in any case, Delilah was completed too late to be used during the war. HP Pavilion dv5-1200 Battery

Though Turing demonstrated it to officials by encrypting and decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use.[62] Turing also consulted with Bell Labs on the development of SIGSALY, a secure voice system that was used in the later years of the war. HP Pavilion dv5-1200 Special Edition Battery

Early computers and the Turing test

From 1945 to 1947 Turing lived in Richmond, London[63] while he worked on the design of the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). He presented a paper on 19 February 1946, which was the first detailed design of a stored-program computer.[64HP Pavilion dv5-1208TX SE Battery

] Von Neumann's incomplete First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC had predated Turing's paper, but it was much less detailed and, according to John R. Womersley, Superintendent of the NPL Mathematics Division, it "contains a number of ideas which are Dr. Turing’s own".[65] HP Pavilion dv5-1209TX SE Battery

Although ACE was a feasible design, the secrecy surrounding the wartime work at Bletchley Park led to delays in starting the project and he became disillusioned. In late 1947 he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year. While he was at Cambridge, HP Pavilion dv5-1222TX Battery

 the Pilot ACE was built in his absence. It executed its first program on 10 May 1950. Although Turing's ACE was never built, a number of computers around the world owe a lot to it, for example, the English Electric DEUCE and the American Bendix G-15. HP Pavilion dv5-1222TX Battery

According to the memoirs of the German computer pioneer Heinz Billing from the Max Planck Institute for Physics, published by Genscher, Düsseldorf (1997), there was a meeting between Alan Turing and Konrad Zuse. It took place in Göttingen in 1947. HP Pavilion dv5-1232TX Battery

The interrogation had the form of a colloquium. Participants wereWomersley, Turing, Porter from England and a few German researchers like Zuse, Walther, and Billing. (For more details see Herbert Bruderer, Konrad Zuse und die Schweiz). HP Pavilion dv5-1233se Battery

In 1948, he was appointed Reader in the Mathematics Department at the University of Manchester. In 1949, he became Deputy Director of the Computing Laboratory there, working on software for one of the earliest stored-program computers—the Manchester Mark 1. HP Pavilion dv5-1241la Battery

During this time he continued to do more abstract work, and in "Computing machinery and intelligence" (Mind, October 1950), Turing addressed the problem of artificial intelligence, and proposed an experiment which became known as the Turing test, an attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called "intelligent".HP Pavilion dv5-1247la Battery

The idea was that a computer could be said to "think" if a human interrogator could not tell it apart, through conversation, from a human being.[66] In the paper, Turing suggested that rather than building a program to simulate the adult mind, HP Pavilion dv5-1250us Battery

it would be better rather to produce a simpler one to simulate a child's mind and then to subject it to a course of education. Areversed form of the Turing test is widely used on the Internet; the CAPTCHA test is intended to determine whether the user is a human or a computer. HP Pavilion dv5-1300 Battery

In 1948, Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D. G. Champernowne, began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. In 1952, lacking a computer powerful enough to execute the program, HP Pavilion dv5-2000 Battery

Turing played a game in which he simulated the computer, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded.[67] The program lost to Turing's colleague Alick Glennie, although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne's wife. HP Pavilion dv5-2034la Battery

His Turing test was a significant and characteristically provocative and lasting contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence, which continues after more than half a century.[68]HP Pavilion dv5-2045la Battery

He also invented the LU decomposition method in 1948, used today for solving matrix equations.[69]

Turing worked from 1952 until his death in 1954 on mathematical biology, specifically morphogenesis. He published one paper on the subject called The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis in 1952, putting forth the Turing hypothesis of pattern formation.[70]HP Pavilion dv5-2046la Battery

His central interest in the field was understanding Fibonacciphyllotaxis, the existence of Fibonacci numbers in plant structures. He used reaction–diffusion equations which are central to the field of pattern formation. Later papers went unpublished until 1992 when Collected Works of A.M. Turing was published. His contribution is considered a seminal piece of work in this field.[71]HP Pavilion dv5-3000 Battery

Conviction for indecency

Anthony Cave Brown's book, "C": The Secret Life of Sir Stewart Menzies, Spymaster to Winston Churchill, states: HP Pavilion dv6-3000 Battery

Menzies had known that Turing was a practicing and aggressive homosexual; this had emerged soon after his employment at Bletchley. But since he caused no offence to his colleagues at Bletchley, and since he was perhaps the only man in Menzies's service who might have been called ‘indispensable,’ his services were retained... HP Pavilion dv6-3005sa Battery

Early in 1944 a suspicion arose that he might have been the man responsible for molesting schoolboys at the main public library in Luton, a large industrial town not far from Bletchley. While no proceedings arose, it was decided that the need for good order and discipline required his removal — but not before he had done his finest work.[72]HP Pavilion dv6-3005TX Battery

In January 1952, Turing met Arnold Murray outside a cinema in Manchester. After a lunch date, Turing invited Murray to spend the weekend with him at his house, an invitation which Murray accepted although he did not show up. HP Pavilion dv6-3006TX Battery

The pair met again in Manchester the following Monday, when Murray agreed to accompany Turing to the latter's house. A few weeks later Murray visited Turing's house again, and apparently spent the night there.[73]HP Pavilion dv6-3010sa Battery

After Murray helped an accomplice to break into his house, Turing reported the crime to the police. During the investigation, Turing acknowledged a sexual relationship with Murray. Homosexual acts were illegal in the United Kingdom at that time,[74] and so both were charged with gross indecency under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885.[75]HP Pavilion dv6-3011TX Battery

Turing was given a choice between imprisonment or probation conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal treatment designed to reduce libido. He acceptedchemical castration via oestrogen hormone injections.[76]HP Pavilion dv6-3015sa Battery

Turing's conviction led to the removal of his security clearance, and barred him from continuing with his cryptographic consultancy for the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), the UK signals intelligence agency that had evolved from GCCS in 1946. HP Pavilion dv6-3020sa Battery

At the time, there was acute public anxiety about spies and homosexual entrapment by Soviet agents,[77] HP Pavilion dv6-3025sa Battery

because of the recent exposure of the first two members of the Cambridge Five, Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, as KGB double agents. Turing was never accused of espionage but, as with all who had worked at Bletchley Park, was prevented from discussing his war work.[78]HP Pavilion dv6-3026tx Battery

On 8 June 1954, Turing's cleaner found him dead; he had died the previous day. A post-mortem examination established that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. When his body was discovered an apple lay half-eaten beside his bed, HP Pavilion dv6-3030sa Battery

and although the apple was not tested for cyanide,[79] it is speculated that this was the means by which a fatal dose was delivered. An inquest determined that he had committed suicide, and he was cremated at Woking Crematorium on 12 June 1954.[80]HP Pavilion dv6-3030TX Battery

Turing's mother argued strenuously that the ingestion was accidental, caused by her son's careless storage of laboratory chemicals. Biographer Andrew Hodges suggests that Turing may have killed himself in an ambiguous way quite deliberately, HP Pavilion dv6-3031sa Battery

to give his mother some plausible deniability.[81] David Leavitt has suggested that Turing was re-enacting a scene from the 1937 film Snow White, his favourite fairy tale, pointing out that he took "an especially keen pleasure in the scene where the Wicked Witch immerses her apple in the poisonous brew."[82]HP Pavilion dv6-3032sa Battery

Recognition and tributes

A biography published by the Royal Society shortly after Turing's death (and while his wartime work was still subject to the Official Secrets Act) recorded:[1]HP Pavilion dv6-3032TX Battery

Three remarkable papers written just before the war, on three diverse mathematical subjects, show the quality of the work that might have been produced if he had settled down to work on some big problem at that critical time. For his work at the Foreign Office he was awarded the OBE. HP Pavilion dv6-3033sa Battery

Since 1966, the Turing Award has been given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person for technical contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world's highest honour, equivalent to the Nobel Prize.[84]HP Pavilion dv6-3035sa Battery

Breaking the Code is a 1986 play by Hugh Whitemore about Alan Turing. The play ran in London's West End beginning in November 1986 and on Broadway from 15 November 1987 to 10 April 1988. There was also a 1996 BBC television production. HP Pavilion dv6-3040sa Battery

In all cases,Derek Jacobi played Turing. The Broadway production was nominated for three Tony Awards including Best Actor in a Play, Best Featured Actor in a Play, and Best Direction of a Play, and for two Drama Desk Awards, for Best Actor and Best Featured Actor. HP Pavilion dv6-3042TX Battery

On 23 June 1998, on what would have been Turing's 86th birthday, Andrew Hodges, his biographer, unveiled an official English Heritage Blue Plaque at his birthplace and childhood home in Warrington Crescent, London, later the Colonnade Hotel.[85][86] To mark the 50th anniversary of his death, a memorial plaque was unveiled on 7 June 2004 at his former residence, Hollymeade, in Wilmslow, Cheshire.[87]HP Pavilion dv6-3044sa Battery

On 13 March 2000, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines issued a set of stamps to celebrate the greatest achievements of the 20th century, one of which carries a recognisable portrait of Turing against a background of repeated 0s and 1s, and is captioned: HP Pavilion dv6-3045sa Battery

"1937: Alan Turing's theory of digital computing". On 1 April 2003, Turing's work at Bletchley Park was named an IEEE Milestone.[88] On 28 October 2004, a bronze statue of Alan Turing sculpted by John W. Mills was unveiled at the University of Surrey in Guildford, marking the 50th anniversary of Turing's death; it portrays him carrying his books across the campus.[89] In 2006, Boston Pride named Turing their Honorary Grand Marshal.[90]HP Pavilion dv6-3046sa Battery

Turing was one of four mathematicians examined in the 2008 BBC documentary entitled "Dangerous Knowledge".[91] The Princeton Alumni Weekly named Turing the second most significant alumnus in the history of Princeton University, second only to President James Madison. HP Pavilion dv6-3047sa Battery

A 1.5-ton, life-size statue of Turing was unveiled on 19 June 2007 at Bletchley Park. Built from approximately half a million pieces of Welsh slate, it was sculpted by Stephen Kettle, having been commissioned by the late American billionaire Sidney Frank.[92]HP Pavilion dv6-3048sa Battery

Turing has been honoured in various ways in Manchester, the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In 1994, a stretch of the A6010 road (theManchester city intermediate ring road) was named "Alan Turing Way". Part of this road runs alongside the City of Manchester Stadium, HP Pavilion dv6-3048tx Battery

where Manchester City play their games. A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name Alan Turing Bridge. HP Pavilion dv6-3050eo Battery

A statue of Turing was unveiled in Manchester on 23 June 2001. It is in Sackville Park, between the University of Manchester building on Whitworth Street and the Canal Street gay village. The memorial statue, depicts the "father of Computer Science" sitting on a bench at a central position in the park. The statue was unveiled on Turing's birthday. HP Pavilion dv6-3050sa Battery

Turing is shown holding an apple—a symbol classically used to represent forbidden love, the object that inspired Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation, and the means of Turing's own death. The cast bronze bench carries in relief the text 'Alan Mathison Turing 1912–1954', and the motto 'Founder of Computer Science' as it would appear if encoded by an Enigma machine: 'IEKYF ROMSI ADXUO KVKZC GUBJ'. HP Pavilion dv6-3055sa Battery

A plinth at the statue's feet says 'Father of computer science, mathematician, logician, wartime codebreaker, victim of prejudice'. There is also a Bertrand Russell quotation saying 'Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, HP Pavilion dv6-3056sa Battery

but supreme beauty—a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture.' The sculptor buried his old Amstrad computer, which was an early popular home computer, under the plinth, as a tribute to "the godfather of all modern computers".[93]HP Pavilion dv6-3057sa Battery

In 1999, Time Magazine named Turing as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century for his role in the creation of the modern computer, and stated: "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine."[2] Turing is featured in the 1999 Neal Stephensonnovel "Cryptonomicon." HP Pavilion dv6-3060sa Battery

In 2002, Turing was ranked twenty-first on the BBC nationwide poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.[94]In 2010, actor/playwright Jade Esteban Estrada portrayed Turing in the solo musical, "ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 4.". HP Pavilion dv6-3065ea Battery

In February 2011, Turing's papers from the Second World War were bought for the nation with an 11th-hour bid by the National Heritage Memorial Fund, allowing them to stay at Bletchley Park.[95]HP Pavilion dv6-3067ea Battery

The logo of Apple computer is often erroneously referred to as a tribute to Alan Turing, with the bite mark a reference to his method of suicide.[96] Both the designer of the logo[97] and the company deny that there is any homage to Turing in the design of the logo.[98] HP Pavilion dv6-3068ea Battery

In Series I, Episode 13 of the British television quiz show QI presenter Stephen Fry recounted a conversation had with Steve Jobs, saying that Jobs' response was, "It isn't true, but God, we wish it were." HP Pavilion dv6-3070ea Battery

GOVERNMENT APOLOGY

In August 2009, John Graham-Cumming started a petition urging the British Government to posthumously apologise to Alan Turing for prosecuting him as a homosexual.[99][100] The petition received thousands of signatures.[101][102] HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Battery

Prime Minister Gordon Brown acknowledged the petition, releasing a statement on 10 September 2009 apologising and describing Turing's treatment as "appalling":[6][101]HP Pavilion dv6-3077la Battery

Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling way he was treated. While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can't put the clock back, HP Pavilion dv6-3088la Battery

his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him ... So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan's work I am very proud to say: we're sorry, you deserved so much better.[101][103]HP Pavilion dv6-3089la Battery

In December 2011, William Jones created an e-petition[104] requesting the British Government pardon Alan Turing for his conviction of "gross-indecency":[105]HP Pavilion dv6-3100 Battery

We ask the HM Government to grant a pardon to Alan Turing for the conviction of "gross indecency". In 1952, he was convicted of "gross indecency" with another man and was forced to undergo so-called "organo-therapy" - chemical castration. HP Pavilion dv6-3100sa Battery

Two years later, he killed himself with cyanide, aged just 41. Alan Turing was driven to a terrible despair and early death by the nation he'd done so much to save. HP Pavilion dv6-3110sa Battery

This remains a shame on the UK government and UK history. A pardon can go to some way to healing this damage. It may act as an apology to many of the other gay men, not as well known as Alan Turing, who were subjected to these laws. HP Pavilion dv6-3110ea Battery

The petition gained over 21,000 signatures, but the request was declined by Lord MacNally:[106]

A posthumous pardon was not considered appropriate as Alan Turing was properly convicted of what at the time was a criminal offence. He would have known that his offence was against the law and that he would be prosecuted. HP Pavilion dv6-3111sa Battery

It is tragic that Alan Turing was convicted of an offence which now seems both cruel and absurd—particularly poignant given his outstanding contribution to the war effort. However, the law at the time required a prosecution and, as such, HP Pavilion dv6-3112sa Battery

ng-standing policy has been to accept that such convictions took place and, rather than trying to alter the historical context and to put right what cannot be put right, ensure instead that we never again return to those <

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CENTENARY COMMEMORATION

To mark the 100th anniversary of Turing's birth, the Turing Centenary Advisory Committee (TCAC) is coordinating the Alan Turing Year, a year-long programme of events around the world honouring Turing's life and achievements. HP Pavilion dv6-3115sa Battery

The TCAC working with the University of Manchester faculty members and a broad spectrum of people from Cambridge University and Bletchley Park, is chaired by S. Barry Cooper, with Alan Turing's nephew Sir John Dermot Turing acting as TCAC Honorary President. HP Pavilion dv6-3115tx Battery

Events are scheduled in many countries around the world including the USA, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, the Philippines, New Zealand, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Italy, Portugal and Germany. The keystone events will be a three-day conference in Manchester, HP Pavilion dv6-3116sa Battery

UK in June examining Turing's mathematical and code-breaking achievements, and a Turing Centenary Conference in Cambridge organised by King's College, Cambridge and the association Computability in Europe.[113]HP Pavilion dv6-3116tx Battery

On February 23, 2012, the Royal Mail released a stamp featuring Turing as part its "Britons of Distinction" series.[114]HP Pavilion dv6-3117sa Battery

The Turing Test, an opera by Julian Wagstaff which ran at the Edinburgh fringe in 2007, will also go on a UK tour in October to mark the 100th anniversary year of Turing's birth.[115] The Turing Test is set in the near future and tells the fictional story of a brilliant young PhD student Stephanie, who is trapped in a bitter battle between two rival scientists racing to build the world's first truly intelligent computer.[116]HP Pavilion dv6-3118sa Battery

It seems a pity for them to go out of their way to build a machine to do all this stopping if it is not necessary. I am now converted to the extent of thinking that starting from scratch on the design of a Bombe, this method is about as good as our own. HP Pavilion dv6-3119sa Battery

The American Bombe program was to produce 336 Bombes, one for each wheel order. I used to smile inwardly at the conception of test (of commutators) can hardly be considered conclusive as they were not testing for the bounce with electronic stop finding devices.[51]HP Pavilion dv6-3120sa Battery

During this trip, he also assisted at Bell Labs with the development of secure speech devices.[52]

He returned to Bletchley Park in March 1943. During his absence, HP Pavilion dv6-3121sa Battery

Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Alexander had been de facto head for some time—Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section. Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park. HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Battery

Alexander wrote as follows about his contribution:

There should be no question in anyone's mind that Turing's work was the biggest factor in Hut 8's success. In the early days he was the only cryptographer who thought the problem worth tackling and not only was he primarily responsible HP Pavilion dv6-3123sa Battery

for the main theoretical work within the Hut but he also shared with Welchman and Keen the chief credit for the invention of the Bombe. It is always difficult to say that anyone is absolutely indispensable but if anyone was indispensable to Hut 8 it was Turing. HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Battery

The pioneer's work always tends to be forgotten when experience and routine later make everything seem easy and many of us in Hut 8 felt that the magnitude of Turing's contribution was never fully realized by the outside world.[53]HP Pavilion dv6-3127sa Battery

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