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Pakenham and his second-in-command, General Gibbs, were fatally wounded, while on horseback, by grapeshot fired from the earthworks. With most of their senior officers dead or wounded, the British soldiers, having no orders to advance further or retreat, stood out in the open and were shot apart with grapeshot from Line Jackson. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After about 20 more minutes of bloodletting, General Lambert assumed command and eventually ordered a withdrawal.

The only British success was on the west bank of the Mississippi River, where Thornton's brigade, comprising the 85th Regiment and detachments from the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, attacked and overwhelmed the American line. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Though both Jackson and Commodore Patterson reported that the retreating forces had spiked their cannon, leaving no guns to turn on the Americans' main defense line, this is contradicted by Major Mitchell's diary which makes it clear this was not so, as he states he had "Commenced cleaning enemy's guns to form a battery to enfilade their lines on the left bank".[42Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] General Lambert ordered his Chief of Artillery, Colonel Alexander Dickson, to assess the position. Dickson reported back that no fewer than 2,000 men would be needed to hold the position. General Lambert issued orders to withdraw after the defeat of their main army on the east bank and retreated, taking a few American prisoners and cannon with them. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the end of the day, the British had 2,042 casualties: 291 killed (including Generals Pakenham and Gibbs), 1,267 wounded (including General Keane) and 484 captured or missing.The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead; 39 wounded, and 19 missing.

On January 9, British naval forces attacked Fort St. Philip which protected New Orleans from an amphibious assault from the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

American forces within the fort withstood ten days of bombardment by cannon before the British ships withdrew on January 18, 1815.

Three days after the battle, General Lambert held a council of war where he concluded that despite his request for reinforcements as well as a siege train, ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

capturing New Orleans and continuing the Louisiana campaign would be too costly and thus agreed with his officers to withdraw. On February 4, 1815, the fleet, with all of the British troops aboard, set sail toward Mobile Bay, Alabama.

The British army then attacked and captured Fort Bowyer at the mouth of Mobile Bay on February 12. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The following day, the British army was making preparations to attack Mobile when news arrived of the peace treaty. The treaty had been ratified by the British Parliament but would not be ratified by Congress and the President until mid-February. It did, however, resolve that hostilities should cease, HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and the British abandoned Fort Bowyer and sailed home to their base in the West Indies.Although the Battle of New Orleans had no influence on the terms of the Treaty of Ghent, the defeat at New Orleans did compel Britain to abide by the treaty.However, it would have been problematic for the British to continue the war in North America,  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

due to Napoleon's escape from Elba on February 26, 1815, which ensured their forces were needed in Europe. Also, since the Treaty of Ghent did not specifically mention the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, it only required both sides to give back those lands that had been taken from the other during the war. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From December 25, 1814, to January 26, 1815, British casualties during the Louisiana Campaign, apart from the assault on January 8, were 49 killed, 87 wounded and 4 missing.[52] These losses, together with those incurred on December 23 and January 8, added up to 386 killed, 1,521 wounded and 552 missing for the whole campaign. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

General Jackson reported a grand total of 55 killed, 185 wounded and 93 missing for the entire siege, including December 23 and January 8.[4]

Six currently active battalions of the Regular Army (2-7 Inf, 3-7 Inf, 1-5 FA, 1-6 FA, 1-1 Inf and 2-1 Inf) and one Mississippi Army National Guard regiment (155th Inf) are derived from American units that fought at the Battle of New Orleans. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Although the engagement was small compared to other contemporary battles such as the Battle of Waterloo, it was important for the meaning applied to it by Americans in general and Andrew Jackson in particular.[53]

Americans believed that a vastly powerful British fleet and army had sailed for New Orleans (Jackson himself thought 25,000 troops were coming), and most expected the worst. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The news of victory, one man recalled, "came upon the country like a clap of thunder in the clear azure vault of the firmament, and traveled with electromagnetic velocity, throughout the confines of the land."[54] The battle boosted the reputation of Andrew Jackson and helped to propel him to the White House. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The anniversary of the battle was celebrated as a national holiday for many years, and continues to be commemorated in south Louisiana.

In honor of Jackson, the newly organized Louisiana Historical Association dedicated its new Memorial Hall facility on January 8, 1891, the 76th anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans.[55] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

A federal park was established in 1907 to preserve the battlefield; today it features a monument and is part of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve.

"The 8th of January" became a traditional American fiddle tune, honoring the date of the battle. More than a century later, the melody was used by Jimmie Driftwood to write the song "The Battle of New Orleans", HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

which was a hit for Johnny Horton and Lonnie Donegan.

With the Americans outnumbered it seemed as though the city of New Orleans was in danger of being captured. Consequently, theUrsuline nuns along with many faithful people of New Orleans gathered in the Ursuline Convent's chapel before the statue ofOur Lady of Prompt Succor. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

They spent the night before the battle praying and crying before the holy statue, begging for the Virgin Mary's intercession.

On the morning of January 8, the Very Rev. William Dubourg, Vicar General, offered Mass at the altar on which the statue of Our Lady of Prompt Succor had been placed. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The Prioress of the Ursuline convent, Mother Ste. Marie Olivier de Vezin, made a vow to have a Mass of Thanksgiving sung annually should the American forces win. At the very moment of communion, a courier ran into the chapel to inform all those present that the British had been defeated. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

General Jackson went to the convent himself to thank the nuns for their prayers: "By the blessing of heaven, directing the valor of the troops under my command, one of the most brilliant victories in the annals of war was obtained." [56] The vow made by Mother Ste. Marie has been faithfully kept throughout the years. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

The Battle of Lake Borgne was a naval battle between the Royal Navy and the United States Navy in the American South theatre of the War of 1812. It occurred on December 14, 1814 on Lake Borgne and was part of the Britishadvance on New Orleans.

The defeat of the British attack in September on Fort Bowyer prevented the British from taking Mobile, Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Alabama, and moving to cut off U.S. trade via land towards the Mississippi River. Next, the British decided to attack New Orleans and the Americans began receiving warnings of a British fleet approaching Louisiana. The warnings reached Commodore Daniel Patterson of the New Orleans Squadron, ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

who immediately began to assemble any and all types of naval defenses to protect the state's waterways and naval ports.

When the British forces under Admiral Alexander Cochrane arrived off the Louisiana coast on December 9, Patterson dispatched Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones and a small flotilla to patrol Lake Borgne. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The American force consisted of five Jeffersonian gunboats - No. 156No. 163No. 5No. 23, and No. 162 - the schooner USS Sea Horse with Sailing-Master Johnson commanding, and two sloops-of-war, USS Alligator and USS Tickler, serving astenders. Gunboat No. 156, the flagship of the squadron, mounted one long 24-pounder, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

four 12-pounder carronades, and four swivel guns. She had a crew of forty-one men. In all, the squadron comprised 245 men, sixteen long guns, fourteen carronades, two howitzers and twelve swivel guns.

Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, British Commander-in-Chief of the North American Station, HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

ordered HMSSeahorseArmide and Sophie from Pensacola to Lake Borgne. They were to proceed to the Bayou Catalan, or De Pecheurs, at the head of the lake and 60 miles (97 km) from the troopship anchorage. This was to be the disembarkation point for the attack on New Orleans. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

The three British vessels reported that as they passed Cat Island, Mississippi, two American gun boats had fired at them. Furthermore, lookouts on the masts had seen three more. When the fleet arrived on December 11, Cochrane decided to hunt out the Americans.

Cochrane put all the boats of the British fleet under the command of Commander Nicholas Lockyer of SophieHP 606609-001 CPU Fan

with orders to find and defeat the American flotilla. The boats came from TonnantNorgeBedfordRoyal Oak,RamilliesArmideCydnusSeahorseTraveSophieBelle PouleGorgonManly and MeteorCompaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

The British deployed forty-two longboats, launches and barges with one 12, 18 or 24 pounder carronade each, as well as three gigs, each mounting a long brass 12 pounder cannon.

The force consisted of some 1200 sailors and Royal Marines At night on December 12, the British boats, under Lockyer, set off to enter Lake Borgne. Before reaching Lake Borgne, they encountered the one gun schooner Sea HorseTOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

She was on a mission to destroy a powder magazine at Bay St. Louis in order to prevent its capture by the Royal Navy. The schooner, with the protection of a shore battery, fought off two of Lockyer's longboat attacks but then was burnt later that night to prevent the main British fleet from capturing her. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

After rowing for about thirty-six hours, the British located the five American vessels drawn up in line abreast to block the channel between Malheureux Islandand Point Claire on the mainland. As the British advanced, they spotted Alligator and immediately sent a few longboats under Roberts to cut her off and the British quickly captured her. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

At 10 o'clock on the morning of December 14, the boats had closed to within long gunshot by St. Joseph’s Island. At this point Lockyer ordered the boats' crews to breakfast.

Lockyer formed the boats into three divisions. He took command of the first and gave Montresor of Manley command of the second and Roberts of Meteor command of the third. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

When the British had finished their breakfast they returned to their oars and pulled up to the enemy. The main battle came at 10:30 am. The Americans in the gunboats saw the British rowing towards them and opened fire while the boats were still out of reach. The British were rowing against a strong current and under a heavy fire of round and grapeshot. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The Americans fired as many times as possible before the range closed. They were able to sink two of the attacking longboats and damaged many others. They killed or wounded a number of Britons in the process, including most of the men in Lockyer's boat. Eventually the range closed and the British sailors and marines began to board the American vessels. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Lockyer personally boarded Gunboat No. 156, Jones's ship. In the close quarters combat the two sides usedcutlasses, pikes, bayonets and muskets. Both Lockyer and Jones sustained severe wounds.

The British captured Gunboat No. 156 and turned her guns against her sister ships. The gunboat fired her broadsides and assisted the capture of the remaining American watercraft. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

One by one the British took the other four American gunboats; boarding and capturing the entire American flotilla took five minutes.

Tickler, the small fifty ton sloop, anchored a short distance behind the five gunboats, watched the battle but stayed out of the fight as Jones ordered beforehand. When her captain saw that the British had captured all five American gunboats, he scuttled and burnt his vessel. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

It is not known if the crew was captured or escaped to New Orleans on their life boats.

In all, the engagement lasted around two hours, though the actual hand-to-hand fighting had only lasted five minutes. The British forced the greatly outnumbered American seamen to surrender but the Americans had inflicted considerable damage. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

The British won control of the lakes but the delay gave General Andrew Jacksonmore time to prepare his defenses. The Americans lost their gunboats, a sloop, six men killed, thirty-five wounded and eighty-six captured. The American casualties numbered 10 killed, 35 wounded and 86 captured according to the British, and 60 killed, wounded, HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

or captured according to the Americans. Jones was aprisoner of war for three months and would later be decorated for his bravery and delaying the British advance.

The British reported that in the fighting they had lost 17 dead and 77 wounded, some of whom died later. Captain Lockyer was among the wounded. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

The British also lost two longboats sunk and had several others damaged. Originally the Americans claimed that the British had suffered some 300 killed or wounded, as well as losing four boats sunk. Cochrane rated the captured flotilla as the equivalent of a 36-gun frigate and appointed Lockyer to its command as soon as his wounds permitted. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Montresor took command pro tem; in March 1815, Lockyer received promotion to post captain.

The British took the five gunboats into service under the names Ambush (or Ambush No. 5), FirebrandDestruction,Harlequin, and Eagle. Several of these vessels remained in Royal Navy service into June 1815, and at least one perhaps beyond. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Lake Borgne would become the landing zone for British forces preparing to attack New Orleans. After the population of the city learned of the engagement on Lake Borgne, panic overtook some of New Orlean's population so Andrew Jackson declared martial law.

The Battle of North Point was fought on September 12, 1814, between General John Stricker's Maryland Militiaand a British force led by Major General Robert Ross. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Although tactically a British victory, the battle delayed the British advance against Baltimore, buying valuable time for the defense of the city. The engagement was a part of the larger Battle of Baltimore, a strategic American victory in the War of 1812.

Major General Robert Ross had been dispatched to Chesapeake Bay with a brigade of veterans from the Duke of Wellington's army early in 1814, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

reinforced with a battalion of Royal Marines. He had defeated a hastily assembled force of Maryland and District of Columbia militia at the Battle of Bladensburg on August 24, 1814, andburned Washington. Having disrupted the American government, he withdrew to the waiting ships of the Royal Navyat the mouth of the Patuxent River before heading further up the Chesapeake Bay to the strategically more important port city of Baltimore. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Ross's army of 3,700 troops and 1,000 marines[6] landed at North Point at the end of the peninsula between thePatapsco River and the Back River on the morning of September 12, 1814, and began moving toward the city of Baltimore.

Major General Samuel Smith of the Maryland militia anticipated the British move, and dispatched Brigadier GeneralJohn Stricker's column to meet them. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Stricker's force consisted of five regiments of Maryland militia, a small militia cavalry regiment also from Maryland, a battalion of three volunteer rifle companies and a battery of six 4-pounder field guns.[8] Stricker deployed his brigade half way between Hampstead Hill, just outside Baltimore where there were earthworks and artillery emplacements, and North Point. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

At that point, several tidal creeks narrowed the peninsula to only a mile wide, and it was considered an ideal spot for opposing the British before they reached the main American defensive positions.[7]

Stricker received intelligence that the British were camped at a farm just 3 miles (4.8 km) from his headquarters.[7] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

He deployed his men between Bear Creek and Bread and Cheese Creek, which offered cover from nearby woods, and had a long wooden fence near the main road. Stricker placed the 5th Maryland Regiment and the 27th Maryland Regiment and his six guns in the front defensive line, with two regiments (the 51st and 39th) in support, and one more (the 6th) in reserve. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

He placed his men in mutually supporting positions, relying on numerous swamps and the two streams to stop a British flank attack, all of which he hoped would help avoid another disaster such as Bladensburg.[9]

The riflemen initially occupied a position some miles ahead of Stricker's main position, to delay the British advance. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

However, their commander, Captain William Dyer, hastily withdrew on hearing a rumour that British troops were landing from the Back River behind him, threatening to cut off his retreat. Stricker posted them instead on his right flank.

At about midday on the 12th, Stricker heard that the British had halted while the soldiers had a meal, while some sailors attached to Ross's force plundered some nearby farms. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

He decided it would be better to provoke a fight rather than wait for a possible British night attack. At 1:00 pm, he sent Major Richard Heath with 250 men and one cannon to draw the British to Stricker's main force.[9]

Heath advanced down the road and soon began to engage the British pickets. When Ross heard the fighting, he quickly left his meal and ran to the scene.[9] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The British attempted to drive out the concealed American riflemen. Rear Admiral George Cockburn (the second in command of the Royal Navy' American Station, who usually accompanied Ross) was cautious about advancing without more support and Ross agreed that he would leave and get the main army.[9ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

] However, Ross never got his chance, as an American sniper, or snipers shot him in the chest.[9] Ross turned his command over to Colonel Arthur Brooke and died soon after.

Brooke reorganized the British troops and prepared to assault the American positions at 3:00 pm.[9] HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

He decided to use his three cannon to cover an attempt by the4th Regiment to get around the American flank, while two more regiments and the naval brigade would assault the American center.[9] The British frontal assault took heavy casualties as the American riflemen fired right into the British assault, and the Americans loaded their cannon with pieces of broken locks, Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

nails and horseshoes, spraying scrap metal on the advancing British.[9] However, the British 4th Regiment managed to outflank the American positions and send many of the American regiments fleeing. Stricker was able to turn the flight into an organized retreat, with his men firing volleys as they continued to fall back.[9] Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Not all the militia regiments performed with equal distinction. The 51st Regiment and some of the 39th broke and ran under fire. However, the 5th and 27th held their ground and were able to retreat in good order having inflicted significant casualties on the advancing enemy.[11] Only one American gun was lost. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

Our Regiment, the 5th, carried off the praise from the other regiments engaged, so did the company to which I have the honor to belong cover itself with glory. When compared to the [other] Regiments we were the last that left the ground...had our Regiment not retreated at the time it did we should have been cut off in two minutes. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

With some of his units lost among woods and swampy creeks, and others in confusion, Brooke did not follow up the retreating Americans. He had advanced to within a mile of the main American position but he had suffered heavier casualties than the Americans, and it was getting dark, so he chose to wait until Fort McHenry was expected to be neutralized,[12Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

] while Stricker withdrew to Baltimore's main defences.

The official British Army casualty report, signed by Major Henry Debbeig, gives 39 killed and 251 wounded. Of these, 28 killed and 217 wounded belonged to the British Army; 6 killed and 20 wounded belonged to the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the Royal Marines; DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

4 killed and 11 wounded belonged to the contingents of Royal Marines detached from Cockburn's fleet; and 1 killed (Elias Taylor) and 3 wounded belonged to the Royal Marine Artillery.[4] As was normal, the Royal Navy submitted a separate casualty return for the engagement, signed by Rear-Admiral Cockburn, HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

which gives 4 sailors killed and 28 wounded but contradicts the British Army casualty report by giving 3 killed (1 and 2 from HMS Madagascar and HMS Ramillies respectively) and 15 wounded for the Royal Marines detached from the ships of the Naval fleet.[13] A subsequent casualty return from Cochrane to the Admiralty, HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

dated 22 September 1814, gives 6 sailors killed, 1 missing and 32 wounded, with Royal Marines casualties of 1 killed and 16 wounded.[14] The total British losses, as officially reported, were either 43 killed and 279 wounded or 42 killed and 283 wounded, depending on which of the two casualty returns was accurate. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Historian Franklin R. Mullaly gives still another version of the British casualties, 46 killed and 295 wounded, despite using these same sources.[15][16][17] The American loss was 24 killed, 139 wounded and 50 taken prisoner.

The battle had been costly for the British. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Apart from the other casualties, losing General Ross was a critical blow to the British. He was a respected leader of British forces in the Peninsular War and the War of 1812. Ross's death proved a blow to British morale as well. The combined effect of the blow suffered at North Point and the failure of the Royal Navy to capture or get past Fort McHenry at the entrance to Baltimore harbor,ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

despite a 25-hour bombardment, proved to be the turning point of the Battle of Baltimore. During the bombardment on Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key was detained on a British ship at the entrance to Baltimore and penned the words to "The Star-Spangled Banner". The day after the battle, Brooke advanced cautiously towards Baltimore. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

There was no more opposition from Stricker, but when the British came into view of the main defenses of Baltimore, Brooke estimated them to be manned by up to 22,000 militia, with 100 cannon. He prepared to make a night assault against the defenses at Loudenslager Hill, but asked Vice AdmiralAlexander Cochrane to send boats and bomb ketches to silence an American battery,Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

"Roger's Bastion", on the flank of his proposed attack. Despite a stiff fight between the boats, commanded by Captain Charles John Napier and the American batteries, the Bastion was unharmed and Brooke called off the attack and withdrew before dawn.[18] The British re-embarked at North Point. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Defenders Day is a legal holiday in the U.S. state of Maryland[1] It commemorates the successful defense of the city ofBaltimore on September 12, 1814 from an invading British force during the War of 1812, an event which would lead to the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem of the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

In 1814, following the burning of Washington, a British force commanded by Major General Robert Ross landed near present day Fort Howard, Maryland and began an advance on the city. He was met almost immediately by a detachment from the Baltimore garrison led by American General John Stricker, commencing the Battle of North Point. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The resulting halt of the larger British force allowed Baltimore to organize its defenses against a later attempted naval invasion. It was during this conflict, the Battle of Baltimore, that Fort McHenry was shelled by the British but refused to surrender, and an inspired Maryland lawyer named Francis Scott Key composed the words to what would later become "The Star-Spangled Banner", eventually proclaimed the national anthem of the United States. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Commemorations of the day of the victory, centering on Stricker's stand east of the city, began in the years shortly after the War. During the mid-19th century, Marylanders would informally picnic on the battlefield grounds, but later celebrations involved the entire city of Baltimore, with parades and speeches. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Initially, the commemoration of Defenders Day was divided between the two sites; one focusing on the Battle of North Point and the other on The "Star Spangled Banner" and the bombardment of Fort McHenry. The development of the holiday followed the evolution of the militia. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

The first phase was the transition from the involuntary militia system that existed prior to the War of 1812 to the Voluntary militia system that emerged during the war. The second phase was the development of the Voluntary Militia into the local parochial political-militia-business alliance that peaked with dominance of the Know Nothing (American Party) politics prior to the Civil War.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The third was the transition from parochial patriotism to national patriotism during the Civil War. Finally in the fourth phase the local militia disappeared and the local parochial patriotic traditions were largely forgotten or replaced with new national patriotic ideas and traditions.

In the first phase the local militia viewed the national government as allies. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

During the second the parochial political-militia-business alliance viewed the national government with increasing hostility, as expressed by the Maryland State Anthem "Maryland, My Maryland". During the second phase, the myth and lore of Defender's Day were used to support parochial Nativism (politics). HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

In the third phase the parochial nationalism and nativism of the pre-Civil War militia disappeared since those groups had moved to Virginia to join the Confederate Army. In the fourth phase, nativism returned with the Confederate veterans and after a struggle between the militias, formed from the Union veterans and their rival militias formed from Confederate veterans, HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

the post Civil War militias were replaced by the creation of the National Guard. The replacement of the state militias by the National Guard also produced a replacement of the politics and cultural traditions that supported the militias. Hence, the commemoration of the Battle of North Point declined in favor of the celebration of the Star Spangled Banner. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

The North Point celebrations focused on local parochial politics. These celebrations centered on the "Old Defenders" (the veterans of the Battle of North Point). The celebrations emphasized how the "Defenders" had stood against the British invader after the federal government had failed and Washington was burned. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

The Fort McHenry celebrations focused on the image of the federal fortifications providing the bastion that saved the nation.

While the "Old Defenders" survived, the commemorations of Defenders Day revolved around them. Following the War of 1812, many of the "Old Defenders" had become civic leaders in Baltimore. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

The traditional program while the "Old Defenders" survived was for a "Defenders' Day" programs that started with a rally and speeches at Baltimore’s Battle Monument. Following the speeches, the militia units would march from the "Battle Monument" to the battlefield at North Point. At North Point the militia units would have a sham battle. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

Following the sham battle the militia units would march to the former Loudenschlager's Hill (now Hampstead Hill, in what is now Patterson Park in the Highlandtown-Canton communities of East Baltimore). Hampstead Hill was the location of the final redoubts that stopped the British advance on the city. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

The march and the sham battle were intended to replicate the events of the Battle of North Point and the troop movements to and from there. One of the unfortunate results of this schedule for the commemoration of "Defenders' Day" was that more militia died from heat stroke, from the march to and from the battlefield, Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

and the occasional musket ball fired during the sham battle at the battlefield, than died during the actual battle. the commemoration in 1822 proved to be exceptionally lethal. An unusually hot September and dress parade uniforms produced a significant loss due to heat stroke, resulting in a one year break in the program.[2] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The occasional musket ball fired during the sham battle produced additional fatalities. In the years following one notable fatality a new tradition appeared in Baltimore's newspapers that lasted until the Civil War; just prior to "Defenders' Day" perennial advertisements would appear in the Baltimore newspapers stating: “now available - blank ammunition.”.[3] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

Prior to the Civil War, the "Defenders' Day" speeches held that the Battle of Baltimore to be the most noble battle in U.S. military history. The Battle of Baltimore was entirely defensive and was fought by the citizens themselves. Notable examples are the speeches given by One of the "Old Defender's" Nathaniel Williams on September 12, 1857.[4HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

]A monument, a play, and ballads to the two soldiers credited with killing Major General Robert Ross, Pvts. Daniel Wells and Henry Gough McComas of Captain Edward Asquith's Sharpshooters, were typical of this period. Today, numerous monuments to the War of 1812 remain throughout "The Monumental City" (the designation of Baltimore as the "Monument City" was made by President John Quincy Adams in 1827). Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

In 1854, a committee gathered with the notion of erecting a monument to Wells and McComas. On September 10, 1858, after securing and investing the funds for the project, the bodies of the teen militiamen were exhumed and placed in the old Maryland Institute (then located above Centre Market - or "Marsh Market" on East Baltimore Street at the Jones Falls). ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Thousands of people visited the coffins during the three days leading up to September 12, the anniversary of the Battle of North Point, when the official cornerstone for the memorial was laid. On that day, the bodies of Wells and McComas were paraded to Ashland Square, (near the intersection of North Gay, Monument, and Aisquith Streets in East Baltimore), IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

the site of interment, and placed below the obelisk’s foundation in ceremonial fashion.

As documented in the Baltimore Sun, in articles written in September 1860, the Secession Crisis prior to the 1860 election caused a change in the Defenders Day program. The federal troops that were stationed at Fort McHenry were deployed to the Mexican border leaving Fort McHenry empty, except for an old sergeant serving as a custodian. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Seeing the opportunity one of the Baltimore city secessionist militia units, the 5th Maryland, planned to seize the fort on Defenders Day 1860. The plot was discovered, an anti-secessionist militia unit (elements of the 53rd Maryland) rowed in the darkness from Fells Point to the fort the night before Defenders Day. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The 5th Maryland departed from the grounds of the Excelsior baseball club near Bolton Hill, but instead of turning to march to theBattle Monument, turned to march on the fort. When the 5th reached the fort they found it already occupied by the 53rd. Thereby the secessionist militia from one part of the city lost the race to the fort to a pro-Union militia unit from another part of the city.[5] IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

The result was a non-violent standoff that was resolved when the secessionist militia marched back to its neighborhood and the conflict was over, to be repeated in the later Secession Crisis that followed the presidential election of 1860, the crisis reached its highest point after the 6th Massachusetts was attacked by a mob in 1861. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

The same units that attempted to prevent the movement of Federal troops through Baltimore were involved in the earlier demonstration at Ft. McHenry. The secessionist unit that featured most prominently on both occasions were the Baltimore Law Greys of the 5th Maryland.[5][6] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The Law Greys as part of Baltimore's First Light Division, Maryland Volunteers were disbanded in Baltimore and reformed in Virginia as the 1st Maryland Infantry, CSA.

The move away from the Battle of North Point to Fort McHenry was suggested by the "Old Defenders" themselves when they met at Govanstown, Maryland for their annual dinner to celebrate the Defenders Day during the Civil War. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The choice of the "Old Defenders" to do this was made as an open appeal to heal the wounds of the Civil War. The "Old Defenders" noted that troops from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia had rallied to Baltimore and Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore.[7]

Nativism returned with the Confederate veterans after the Civil War. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

After the Civil War the militia in Baltimore was divided between Union veterans and initially illegal militias of Confederate veterans. Prior to the 1877 riots the Confederate militia was legalized as the 5th Maryland. Baltimore's militia on the eve of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was composed of the 4th, 5th and 6th Maryland militia regiments. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The former Confederate 5th Maryland being drawn from veterans of the 1st Maryland CSA, the 6th Maryland being composed of Union veterans and the 4th Maryland of indeterminate origins. Each militia unit had its armory close to one of the large railroad stations. The 5th at Mount Royal Station, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

the 6th across the street from Phoenix Shot Tower, near the President Street Station and the 4th at Camden Station. During the riot the 6th was attacked by a mob, the 6th broke and was chased by the mob through the streets of Baltimore, and the 6th's armory was attacked and the militia driven from their armory. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

The 6th Maryland was then disbanded and the unit blamed for all police and militia violence against the rioters. Governor Carroll then declared that the designation of "6th Maryland" would be forever stricken from the Maryland militia rolls. This left the formerly Confederate 5th Maryland as the dominant militia in Baltimore, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

thereby shaping how Defender's Day would be commemorated until the outbreak of World War I.

The post-Civil War nativism peaked just after the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and then slowly faded with the growing popularity of the National Anthem. The demise of the 6th Maryland and the ascendency of the 5th Maryland can be viewed as part of the national political changes ending the Reconstruction Era of the United States and the Compromise of 1877. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Nativism was dealt a decisive blow with the establishment of the National Guard of the United States since the creation of the National Guard effectively removed the militia as an active muscular component of local politics.

A famous photograph from the early 1880s, shows the last of "The Old Defenders" as a group of a half-dozen old be-whiskered gentlemen, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

garbed in black cut-away coats, cravat ties and top hats with gold-knobbed canes sitting on chairs in front of the steps of old "Druid Mansion", the headquarters of Druid Hill Park.

After the Spanish American War, the expansion of Baltimore's harbor defenses included building Fort Howard on North Point and moving the garrison from Fort McHenry to Fort Howard. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

The City of Baltimore began a campaign that would lead to Ft. Mc Henry being acquired by the city as a park. Before the transition of Fort McHenry to the City of Baltimore, the last of the "Old Defenders" died and the task of maintaining the traditions of Defender's Day passed to the Society of the Sons of the War of 1812. ASUS A8H CPU Fan

This also coincided with the creation of the National Guard and the dissolution of the old militia units.The largest celebration was held on the hundred year anniversary in 1914, which included fireworks reenacting of the shelling of Fort McHenry.[8] The National Star-Spangled Banner Centennial was however overshadowed by the outbreak of World War I in Europe. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

The dedication of the statue at Fort McHenry of "Orpheus with the Awkward Foot" [9] sealed the prominence of Fort McHenry in Defenders Day observances. The completion of the Orpheus statue at Fort McHenry further emphasized the story of the writing of the "Star Spangled Banner" following the bombardment of the fort by British naval forces, HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

instead of the commemoration of Battle of North Point and Baltimore’s Battle Monument.

The Great Depression of the 1930s curtailed the celebrations somewhat, and they continued to wane in popularity through World War II and the 1960s, when dissatisfaction with martial matters caused by the unpopular Vietnam War were noted. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

It was not until the 1980s and 1990s that Defenders Day began to be widely celebrated in Maryland once again, mostly through the increasing popularity of the Fort McHenry Guard, volunteers for the National Park Service, who brought new life to celebrations at Fort McHenry. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

Even Baltimore's mayor (now Maryland governor), Martin O'Malley, has donned a War of 1812 uniform as a colonel of the Fort McHenry Guard to participate in Defenders Day reenactments. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan,Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

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