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14 juillet 2013 7 14 /07 /juillet /2013 11:52

Paul Kagame

The post-genocide Rwandan government took office in Kigali in July 1994.[80] It was based loosely on the Arusha Accords, but Habyarimana's party was outlawed and the positions it had been assigned were taken over by the RPF.[81] The military wing of the RPF was renamed as the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA), TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

and became the national army.[82] Paul Kagame assumed the dual roles of Vice President of Rwanda and Minister of Defence while Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu who had been a civil servant under Habyarimana before fleeing to join the RPF, was appointed president.[83][84] Bizimungu and his cabinet had some control over domestic affairs, but Kagame remained commander-in-chief of the army and was the de facto ruler of the country.[85][86]  ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

The infrastructure and economy of the country had suffered greatly during the genocide. Many buildings were uninhabitable and the former regime had carried with them all currency and moveable assets when they fled the country.[87] Human resources were also severely depleted, with over 40% of the population having been killed or fled.[87] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

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Many of the remainder were traumatised: most had lost relatives, witnessed killings or participated in the genocide.[88] The army, controlled by Kagame, maintained law and order while the government began the work of rebuilding the country's structures.[89][90] Non-governmental organisations began to move back into the country, SONY 147664712 Laptop Keyboard

but the international community did not provide significant assistance to the new regime, and most international aid was routed to the refugee camps which had formed in Zaire following the exodus of Hutu from Rwanda.[91] Kagame strove to portray the government as inclusive and not Tutsi dominated; the indication of a citizen's ethnicity was removed from national identity cards and the government began a policy of downplaying the distinction between Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa.[89] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

During the genocide and in the months following the RPF victory, RPF soldiers killed many people they accused of participating in or supporting the genocide.[92] Many of these soldiers were recent Tutsi recruits from within Rwanda, who had lost family or friends and sought revenge.[92] The scale, scope, and source of ultimate responsibility of these killings is disputed. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard

Human Rights Watch, as well as scholars such as Prunier, allege that the death toll might be as high as 100,000,[93] and that Kagame and the RPF elite either tolerated or organised the killings.[94] Kagame himself, in an interview with journalist Stephen Kinzer, acknowledged that killings occurred but stated that they were carried out by rogue soldiers and had been impossible to control.[95]  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

The RPF killings gained international attention with the 1995 Kibeho Massacre, in which soldiers opened fire on a camp for internally displaced persons in Butare Province.[96] Australian soldiers serving as part of UNAMIR estimated at least 4,000 people were killed,[97]while the Rwandan government claimed that the death toll was only 338.[98] Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Shortly after taking power, the Rwandan government began applying legal justice for crimes committed during the genocide.[99] The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, operating under a United Nations mandate, was set up in Arusha to judge the most senior leaders responsible for the genocide. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

In addition, the Rwandan government determined to prosecute all suspected perpetrators, including the many ordinary citizens who had taken part in the killings, in order to end the "culture of impunity" that it blamed for the genocide. Between 1994 and 2000, 120,000 suspects were arrested. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

The prisons were overcrowded and the courts could not process all the cases, and by 2006 only 10,000 of those arrested had been tried.[100] The government then introduced Gacaca, a village court system based on traditional Rwandan justice. The Gacaca process allowed for faster processing of cases, GATEWAY NX570X Laptop Keyboard

but lacked many safeguards and principles of international criminal law.[101]

The unity government suffered a partial collapse in 1995. The continuing violence, along with the appointing of local government officials who were almost exclusively RPF Tutsi, caused serious disagreement between Kagame and senior Hutu government members, including prime minister Faustin Twagiramungu and interior minister Seth Sendashonga.[102] HP G61-336NR Laptop Keyboard

Twagiramungu resigned in August, and Sendashonga and three others were fired the next day.[102] Pasteur Bizimungu remained president but the makeup of the new government was predominantly RPF Tutsi loyal to Kagame.[103] Twagiramungu and Sendashonga moved abroad to form a new opposition party shortly after leaving the government.[104] SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard

Following the RPF victory, approximately two million Hutu fled to refugee camps in neighbouring countries, particularly Zaire, fearing RPF reprisals for the Rwandan Genocide.[105] The camps were set up by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), but were effectively controlled by the army and government of the former Hutu regime, including many leaders of the genocide.[106] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

This regime was determined to return to power in Rwanda and began rearming, killing Tutsi residing in Zaire and launching cross-border incursions in conjunction with the Interahamwe paramilitary group.[107][108] By late 2006, the Hutu militants represented a serious threat to the new Rwandan regime, and Kagame launched a counteroffensive.[109] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Kagame's first move was to provide troops and military training[108] to aid a rebellion against Zaire by the Banyamulenge, a Tutsi group living around Bukavu in the Zairian South Kivu province.[110] With Rwandan army support, the Banyamulenge defeated local security forces and began attacking the refugee camps in the area. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

At the same time, Kagame's forces joined with Zairian Tutsi around Goma to attack two of the camps there.[110][108] Most refugees from the attacked camps moved to the large Mugunga camp, but in November 1996 the Rwandan army attacked Mugunga, causing an estimated 800,000 refugees to flee.[111] Many returned to Rwanda despite the presence of the RPF, while others ventured further west into Zaire.[112] HP Compaq NW8440 Laptop Keyboard

Despite the disbanding of the camps, the defeated forces of the former regime continued a cross-border insurgency campaign into Rwanda from North Kivu.[113] The insurgents maintained a presence in Rwanda's north-western provinces and were supported by the predominantly Hutu population, many of whom had lived in the refugee camps before they were attacked.[114] SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

 In addition to supporting the wars in the Congo, Kagame began a propaganda campaign to bring the Hutu to his side.[115] He integrated former soldiers of the deposed genocidal regime's military into the RPF-dominated national army and appointed senior Hutu to key local government positions in the areas hit by insurgency.[115] These tactics were eventually successful; by 1999, the population in the north-west had stopped supporting the insurgency and the insurgents were mostly defeated.[116] HP Pavilion dv6-2141ee laptop keyboard

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Although his primary reason for military action in Zaire was the dismantling of the refugee camps, Kagame also began planning a war to remove long time dictator President Mobutu Sese Seko from power.[108] Mobutu had supported the genocidaires based in the camps, and was also accused of allowing attacks on Tutsi within Zaire.[117] IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

Together with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni, Kagame supported the newly created Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL), an alliance of four rebel groups headed by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, which began waging the First Congo War.[118] The AFDL, helped by Rwandan and Ugandan troops, DELL Inspiron 6000 laptop keyboard

took control of North and South Kivu provinces in November 1996 and then advanced west, gaining territory from the poorly organised and demotivated Zairian army with little fighting.[119] By May 1997, they controlled almost the whole of Zaire except for the capital Kinshasa; Mobutu fled and the AFDL took the capital without fighting.[120] The country was renamed to Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Kabila became the new president.[121] HP Pavilion dv6-2124eo laptop keyboard

Kagame and the Rwandan government retained strong influence over Kabila following his inauguration, and the RPA maintained a heavy presence in Kinshasa.[122]Congolese in the capital resented this, as did many in the eastern Kivu provinces, where ethnic clashes increased sharply.[123] In July 1998, Kabila fired his Rwandan chief-of-staff, James Kabarebe, and ordered all RPA troops to leave the country.[124] HP Pavilion dv6-2173cl laptop keyboard

Kagame accused Kabila of supporting the ongoing insurgency against Rwanda from North Kivu, the same accusation he had made about Mobutu.[125] He responded to the expulsion of his soldiers by backing a new rebel group, the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD), and launching the Second Congo War.[126]  ASUS A9R laptop keyboard

The first action of the war was a blitzkrieg by the RCD and RPA, led by Kabarebe; this blitzkrieg made quick gains, advancing in twelve days from the Kivu provinces west to within 130 kilometres (81 mi) of Kinshasa.[127] The capital was saved, however, by the intervention of Angola and Zimbabwe on Kabila's side.[128] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard

Following the failure of the blitzkrieg, the conflict developed into a long term conventional war which lasted until 2003;[121] according to a report by the International Rescue Committee (IRC), this conflict led to the loss of between 3 million and 7.6 million lives, many through starvation and disease.[129] GATEWAY MX6956 laptop keyboard

Although Kagame's primary reason for the two wars in the Congo was Rwanda's security, there are allegations that he also gained economic benefit by exploiting the mineral wealth of the eastern Congo.[130] GATEWAY NX570X laptop keyboard

The 2001 United Nations Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo alleged that Kagame, along with Ugandan President Museveni, were "on the verge of becoming the godfathers of the illegal exploitation of natural resources and the continuation of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo".[131] IBM Thinkpad Z60m laptop keyboard

The report also claimed that the Rwandan Ministry of Defence contained a "Congo Desk" dedicated to collecting taxes from companies licensed to mine minerals around Kisangani, and that substantial quantities of coltan and diamonds passed through Kigali before being resold on the international market by staff on the Congo Desk.[132ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

]International NGO Global Witness also conducted field studies in early 2013, and concluded that minerals from North and South Kivu are exported illegally to Rwanda and then marketed as Rwandan.[133] Kagame dismissed these allegations as unsubstantiated and politically motivated; in a 2002 interview with newsletterAfrica Confidential Kagame said that if solid evidence against Rwandan officers was presented it would be dealt with very seriously.[134]  HP G71-445US laptop keyboard

In the late 1990s, Kagame began to disagree publicly with Bizimungu and the Hutu-led government.[135][136] Kagame accused Bizimungu of corruption and poor management,[137] while Bizimungu felt that he had no power over appointments to the cabinet and that the National Assembly was acting purely as a puppet for Kagame.[138] Bizimungu resigned from the presidency in March 2000.[139] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

Historians do not agree on the precise circumstances of Bizimungu's departure; American author Stephen Kinzer contends that "one of the president's friends called Kagame with the startling news that the president was preparing to resign"[140] while Prunier states that Bizimungu was forced to resign, having denounced the National Assembly and attempted to sow discord within the RPF.[138] Following Bizimungu's resignation, SONY VAIO VGN-CS110D/W laptop keyboard

the Supreme Court ruled that Kagame should become acting president until a permanent successor was chosen.[141]

Kagame had been de facto leader since 1994, but had focused more on military, foreign affairs and the country's security than day-to-day governance. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard

By 2000, the threat posed by cross-border rebels was much reduced and when Bizimungu resigned, Kagame decided to seek the presidency himself.[135] The transitional constitution was still in effect which meant the president was elected by government ministers and the national assembly rather than through a direct election.[142] TOSHIBA Qosmio F20 Series Laptop Keyboard

The RPF selected two candidates, Kagame and RPF secretary general Charles Murigande; the ministers and parliament then elected Kagame by eighty-one votes to three.[143] Kagame was sworn in as president in April 2000.[144] SONY VAIO PCG-F20 Laptop Keyboard

A number of Hutu politicians, including the prime minister Pierre Celestin Rwigema, left the government at around the same time as Bizimungu, leaving a cabinet dominated by those close to Kagame.[140] Bizimungu started his own party following his resignation, but this was quickly banned for "destabilising the country".[145]  HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

He was subsequently arrested[146] and convicted of corruption and inciting ethnic violence, and remained in prison until 2007, when he was pardoned by Kagame.[147]

Between 1994 and 2003, Rwanda was governed by a set of documents combining President Habyarimana's 1991 constitution,  HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard

the Arusha Accords, and some additional protocols introduced by the transitional government.[148] As required by the accords, Kagame set up a constitutional commission to draft a new permanent constitution.[149] HP G61-425ES Laptop Keyboard

The constitution was required to adhere to a set of fundamental principles including equitable power sharing and democracy.[150] The commission sought to ensure that the draft constitution was "home-grown", relevant to Rwanda's specific needs, and reflected the views of the entire population; they sent questionnaires to civil groups across the country and rejected offers of help from the international community, except for financial assistance.[151] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

The draft constitution was released in 2003; it was approved by the parliament, and was then put to a referendum in May of that year.[152] The referendum was widely promoted by the government; ultimately, 95% of eligible adults registered to vote and the turnout on voting day was 87%.[153] The constitution was overwhelmingly accepted, with 93% voting in favour.[153] The constitution provided for a two-house parliament, Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

an elected president serving seven-year terms, and multi-party politics.[153] The constitution also sought to prevent Hutu or Tutsi hegemony over political power.[153] Article 54 states that "political organizations are prohibited from basing themselves on race, ethnic group, tribe, clan, region, sex, religion or any other division which may give rise to discrimination".[154]  DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

According to Human Rights Watch, this clause, along with later laws enacted by the parliament, effectively make Rwanda a single party state, as "under the guise of preventing another genocide, the government displays a marked intolerance of the most basic forms of dissent".[155] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard

Following the adoption of the new constitution in May 2003, the government set dates for the first elections to be held under the new law. The presidential poll was set for 25 August 2003.[156] In May, the parliament voted to ban the Democratic Republican Movement (MDR), following a parliamentary commission report accusing the MDR of "divisive" iHP G62-a20EJ Laptop Keyboard

deology.[157] The MDR had been one of the coalition parties in the transitional government of national unity, and was the second largest party in the country after the RPF.[158] Amnesty Internationalcriticised this move, claiming that "the unfounded allegations against the individuals mentioned in the report appear to be part of a government-orchestrated crackdown on the political opposition".[159]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The RPF selected Paul Kagame as its presidential candidate, to run for his first full term following his three-year transitional presidency.[160] His main challenger was Faustin Twagiramungu, who had been prime minister from 1994 to 1995, when he resigned and moved toBrussels after a disagreement with Kagame. HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard

Twagiramungu had intended to run as the candidate for the MDR, but instead sought the presidency as an independent following the party's banishment.[161] Twagiramungu returned to the country in June 2003 and began campaigning in August.[161][162] Two other candidates also ran: Alvera Mukabaramba, SONY VAIO VGN-CR231E laptop keyboard

a medical doctor and former MDR member running for the newly formed Party for Progress and Concord (PPC), and Jean Nepomuscene Nayinzira, an independent and former member of parliament who cited belief in God as a central part of his campaign.[163]Mukabaramba pulled out one day before the election, HP Pavilion dv6-2115so laptop keyboard

accusing Twagiramungu of ethnic propaganda and advising her supporters to vote for Kagame.[164] The election went ahead on 25 August with Kagame, Twagiramungu and Nayinzira as candidates.[165] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

Kagame declared victory in the election on 26 August, after partial results showed he had an almost insurmountable lead,[165] and his win was later confirmed by the National Electoral Commission.[166] The final results showed that Kagame received 95.1% of the vote, Twagiramungu 3.6%, and Nayinzira 1.3%; the voter turnout was 96.6%.[166] HP 608558-001 Laptop Keyboard

The campaign, election day, and aftermath were largely peaceful, although an observer from the European Union (EU) raised concerns that opposition supporters may have been intimidated by the RPF.[167] Twagiramungu rejected the result of the election and also questioned the margin of victory, saying "Almost 100 per cent? DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

That's not possible".[167] Twagiramungu filed a petition at the Supreme Court to nullify the result, but was unsuccessful.[168] The EU observer also questioned the result, citing "numerous irregularities", but praised the election overall, describing it as a "positive step".[169] Kagame himself, in an interview with journalist Stephen Kinzer, FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

acknowledged that the opposition had been weak, but he believed the result was genuine. He told Kinzer "they wanted security first of all. Even people who didn't know the RPF program in detail saw us as the party that would guarantee that".[170] Kagame was sworn in on 12 September to begin his seven-year term.[171] ACER MP-04653U4-698 Laptop Keyboard

Kagame's first term expired and new elections were held in 2010.[172] Having served one term as elected president, Kagame was entitled to serve for one further term.[173] The election campaign began publicly in January 2010 when Victoire Ingabire, a Hutu who had been living abroad for some years, returned to Rwanda and announced her candidacy for the presidency.[174] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

Ingabire caused some controversy in the country following her arrival, with comments relating to the genocide.[175] The government accused her of breaking the country's strict laws regarding genocide denial, and she was arrested in April 2010.[175] She was released on bail, but was prohibited from running in the election.[174] GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

In May, President Kagame was officially endorsed as the RPF's candidate for the election at the party's national congress.[176] Kagame then became the first candidate to be accepted when he presented his electoral papers in July.[174] Three other candidates registered successfully for the election; they were Jean Damascene Ntawukuriryayo of the Social Democratic Party,[177] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Prosper Higiro of the Liberal Party,[178] and Alvera Mukabaramba of the Party for Progress and Concord.[179] Two other contenders failed to get official documents through and did not get accepted into the race. Human Rights Watch described Kagame's three opponents as "broadly supportive of the RPF", HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

and claimed that most Rwandans would not describe them as "real" opposition, while those who criticised the RPF were barred from the election.[180]

In the run up to the election, there was some violence and a number of incidents involving prominent opposition and media figures.  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

In February, there was a grenade attack in Kigali which killed two people. Rwandan prosecutors blamed Kayumba Nyamwasa, a dissident General who had become a critic of Kagame.[181]Nywamwasa fled to Johannesburg, South Africa, and in June he survived a shooting in the city. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Nyamwasa alleged that it was an assassination attempt, a charge Rwanda denied. Days later, journalist Jean-Léonard Rugambage, who claimed to have uncovered the regime's responsibility in the attempted murder, was shot dead.[182] In July, the vice president of the Democratic Green Party, André Kagwa Rwisereka, was beheaded in Butare. There is no concrete evidence linking Kagame with the attacks, but it was sufficient for the United Nations to demand an investigation.[183] HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

Kagame was declared the winner of the election, according to results released by the National Electoral Commission on 11 August.[184] Kagame received 93.08% of the vote, with second placed Ntawukuriryayo polling 5.15%. The turnout was 97.51% of registered voters.[185] Opposition and human rights groups later said that the election was tainted by repression, murder, and lack of credible competition. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

Kagame responded by saying "I see no problems, but there are some people who choose to see problems where there are not."[186] The election was largely peaceful, although there was a further grenade attack in Kigali hours after the election commission announced Kagame's victory, injuring about 20 people. Media reports indicated the attack may have been politically motivated and connected to earlier attacks in the same area.[187] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

In the late 1990s, Kagame began actively planning methods to achieve national development. He launched a national consultation process[188] and also sought the advice of experts from emerging nations including China, Singapore and Thailand.[189] Following these consultations, and shortly after assuming the presidency,  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Kagame launched an ambitious programme of national development called Vision 2020.[189] The major purposes of the programme were to unite the Rwandan people and to transform Rwanda from a highly impoverished into a middle income country.[188] TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

The programme consists of a list of goals which the government aims to achieve before the year 2020.[189] These include reconstruction, infrastructure and transport improvements, good governance, improving agriculture production, private sector development, and health and education improvements.[188] DELL 454RX laptop keyboard

This paper considers the progress made in the implementation of Rwanda's Vision 2020 programme since its launch in 2000. At the halfway point, the overall picture is quite encouraging. Rwanda's economy is thriving and reporAnsoms, An1; Rostagno, Donatellaed growth figures have been impressive. HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard

The country is on track to meet the Millennium Development Goals in the fields of education and health care. Its political leaders have been praised for their quality of technocratic governance and their proactive approach to creating an attractive business climate. However, some indicators remain problematic. SAMSUNG R522 laptop keyboard

This paper argues that the current strategy—one of maximum growth at any cost—is counterproductive to the objective of achieving the greatest possible poverty reduction. Strong economic growth, concentrated in the hands of a small elite, results in a highly skewed developmental path with limited trickle-down potential. HP 519265-001 laptop keyboard

A possible alternative lies in an exploration of a broad-based inclusive growth model founded on existing strengths and the notion of capacity building among rural small-scale farmers. Striving for a more inclusive concept of growth would appear to be crucial not only for successful poverty reduction, but also with a view to promoting long-term stability and peace in Rwanda. SONY VAIO VGN-N110G laptop keyboard

In 2011, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning issued a report indicating the progress of the Vision 2020 goals.[190] The report examined the stated goals of the programme and rated each one with a status of "on-track", "on-watch" or "off-track". Of 44 goals, it found that 66% were on-track, 11% were on-watch, and 22% were off-track.[190] SAMSUNG NP-NB30-KP01 laptop keyboard

The major areas identified as off-track were population, poverty and the environment.[190] An independent review of Vision 2020, carried out in 2012 by academics based in Belgium, rated progress as "quite encouraging", SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

mentioning development in the education and health sectors, as well as Kagame's fostering of a favourable business environment.[191] The review also raised concerns about the policy of "maximum growth at any cost", suggesting that this was leading to a situation in which the rich prospered while the rural poor saw little benefit.[191]  HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard

Rwanda's economy has grown rapidly under Kagame's presidency, with per-capita gross domestic product (purchasing power parity) estimated at $1,592 in 2013,[192] compared with $567 in 2000.[193] Annual growth between 2004 and 2010 averaged 8% per year.[194] Kagame's economic policy is based on liberalising the economy, privatising state owned industries, reducing red tape for businesses,[194] HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

and transforming the country from an agricultural to a knowledge-based economy.[195] Kagame has stated that he believes Rwanda can emulate the economic development of Singapore since 1960,[196] and achieving middle income country status is one of the central goals of the Vision 2020 programme.[188] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-SP6001L laptop keyboard

Kagame's economic policy has been praised by many foreign donors and investors, including Bill Clinton and Starbucks chairman Howard Schultz.[197][198] However, the DRC government and human rights groups have accused Rwanda of illegally exploiting Congolese minerals,[199] which the LondonDaily Telegraph describes as an "important part" in the success of Rwanda's economy.[197] SONY VGN-FE865E/H laptop keyboard

Rwanda is a country of few natural resources,[200] and the economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, with an estimated 90% of the working population engaged in farming.[201] Under Kagame's presidency, however, the service sector has grown strongly. In 2010, it became the country's largest sector by economic output, contributing 43.6% of the country's GDP.[201] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Key tertiary contributors include banking and finance, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, transport, storage, communication, insurance, real estate, business services, and public administration, including education and health.[202] Information and communications technology (ICT) is a Vision 2020 priority, with a goal of transforming Rwanda into an ICT hub for Africa.[195] TOSHIBA MP-06863US-9308 Laptop Keyboard

To this end, the government has completed a 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) fibre-optic telecommunications network, intended to provide broadband services and facilitate electronic commerce.[203]Tourism is one of the fastest-growing economic resources and became the country's leading foreign exchange earner in 2011.[204] ACER TravelMate 2010 laptop keyboard

In spite of the genocide's legacy, Kagame's achievement of peace and security means the country is increasingly perceived internationally as a safe destination;[205] in the first half of 2011, 16% of foreign visitors arrived from outside Africa.[206] The country's mountain gorillas attract thousands of visitors per year, who are prepared to pay high prices for permits.[207] TOSHIBA MP-06863US-9308 laptop keyboard

Rwanda ranks highly in several categories of the World Bank's ease of doing business index. In 2009, the country topped the list of reformers,[194] and was eighth on the 2012 rankings for ease of starting a business;[208] the Rwanda Development Board asserts that a business can be authorised and registered in 24 hours.[194] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The country's overall ease of doing business index ranking is fifty-second out of 185 countries worldwide, and third out of 46 in Sub-Saharan Africa.[209] The business environment and economy also benefit from relatively low corruption in the country; in 2010, Transparency International ranked Rwanda as the eighth cleanest out of 47 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and sixty-sixth cleanest out of 178 in the world.[210] TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

Kagame has made education a high priority for his administration, allocating 17% of the annual budget to the sector.[211] The Rwandan government provides free education in state-run schools for twelve years: six years in primary and six in secondary school.[212] SONY Vaio PCG-K33 laptop keyboard

The final three years of free education were introduced in 2012 following a pledge by Kagame during his 2010 re-election campaign.[213] Kagame credits his government with improvements in the tertiary education sector; the number of universities has risen from 1 in 1994 to 29 in 2010,[214] and the tertiary gross enrolment ratio increased from 4% in 2008 to 7% in 2011.[215] From 1994 until 2009,  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

secondary education was offered in either French or English;[216] since 2009, due to the country's increasing ties with the East African Community and the Commonwealth of Nations, English has been the sole language of instruction in public schools from primary school grade 4 onward.[217] The country's literacy rate, defined as those aged 15 or over who can read and write, was 71% in 2009, up from 38% in 1978 and 58% in 1991.[218] ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard

Rwanda's health profile is dominated by communicable diseases,[219] including malaria, pneumonia, and HIV/AIDS. Prevalence and mortality rates have sharply declined in the past decade[220] but the short supply or unavailability of certain medicines continues to challenge disease management.[221] Kagame's government is seeking to improve this situation as one of the Vision 2020 priorities. HP Mini 110-1150LA laptop keyboard

It has increased funding, with the health budget up from 3.2% of national expenditure in 1996 to 9.7% in 2008.[221] It also set up training institutes, including the Kigali Health Institute (KHI),[222] and in 2008 effected laws making health insurance mandatory for all individuals;[223] by 2010, over 90% of the population was covered.[224] HP AE0P7U00010 laptop keyboard

These policies have contributed to a steady increase in quality of healthcare and improvement in key indicators during Kagame's presidency. In 2010, 91 children died before their fifth birthday for every 1000 live births, down from 163 under five deaths for every 1000 live births in 1990.[225] Prevalence of some diseases is declining, including the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus[226] SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard

and a sharp reduction in malaria morbidity, mortality rate, and specific lethality.[219] In response to shortages in qualified medical personnel, in 2011 the Rwandan government launched an eight-year US$151.8 million initiative to train medical professionals.[227] TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1AO laptop keyboard

The Second Congo War, which began in 1998, was still raging when Kagame assumed the presidency in 2000. Namibia, Angola, Zimbabwe, and Chad had committed troops to the Congolese government side,[121] while Rwanda, Uganda, and Burundi were supporting rebel groups.[228] HP Mini 210-2015la laptop keyboard

The rebel group Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) had split in 1999 into two factions: theRCD-Goma, supported by Rwanda, and the RCD-Kisangani, which was allied to Uganda.[229] Uganda also supported the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC), a rebel group from the north.[229] All these rebel groups were at war with Kabila's government in Kinshasa, but were also increasingly hostile to each other.[229] HP G42-272BR laptop keyboard

Various peace meetings had been held, culminating in the July 1999 Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement which was signed by Kabila, Kagame and all the other foreign governments.[230] The rebel groups were not party to the agreement, however, and fighting continued.[230] The RPA continued to be heavily involved in the Congo War through 2000, fighting battles against the Ugandan army in Kisangani and against Kabila's army in Kasai and Katanga.[231][232] HP Pavilion dm3-1080EF laptop keyboard

In January 2001, Kabila was shot dead inside his palace.[233] The Congolese government claimed Kabila had been killed by a rogue bodyguard, who was himself killed at the scene.[234] However, according to a report published in French newspaper Le Monde, Kabila was killed by the kadogo, an army of child soldiers he was known to have assembled during the First Congo War.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

The kadogo had suffered badly during the battles in Kasai and Katanga, were poorly paid, and had become alienated by Kabila.[234] Kabila's son Joseph was appointed president and immediately began asserting his authority by dismissing his father's cabinet and senior army commanders,[235][236] Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

assembling a new government, and engaging with the international community.[237] The new government provided impetus for renewed peace negotiations, and in July 2002 a peace agreement was reached betewen Rwanda, Congo, and the other major participants, HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard

in which all foreign troops would withdraw and RCD-Goma would enter a power-sharing transitional government with Joseph Kabila as interim president until elections could be held.[238] By the end of 2002, all uniformed Rwandan troops had left Congolese territory.[239] SONY VGN-FE41M Laptop Keyboard

Despite the agreement and subsequent ceasefire, relations between Kagame and the Congolese government have remained tense. A 2003 United Nations report alleged that Rwanda was using demobilised soldiers to continue its illegal exploitation of Congolese minerals.[239] Meanwhile, Kagame blamed Kabila for failing to suppress Hutu rebels in North and South Kivu provinces.[240]  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Two major insurgencies have occurred in the eastern provinces: the first, from 2005 to 2009, was led by Congolese Tutsi Laurent Nkunda,[241] while the second, carried out by the March 23 Movement (M23) under leader Bosco Ntaganda, began in 2012;[242] Ntaganda turned himself in to the International Criminal Court in early 2013,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

and peace talks have taken place, but as of May 2013 the conflict is at risk of resuming.[243] Human Rights Watch alleges that both insurgencies were supported by Rwanda, a charge Kagame denies.[244] A leaked United Nations report in 2012 also alleges Rwandan support for M23; this report cites Kagame's defence minister James Kabarebe as being effectively the commander of the movement.[245] HP COMPAQ NX6325 Laptop Keyboard

Kagame spent most of his childhood and young adult years living in Uganda, and has a personal relationship with President Yoweri Museveni dating back to the late 1970s;[20] they fought together in the Ugandan Bush War, and Kagame was appointed head of military intelligence in Museveni's national army following the NRA victory in 1986.[29] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

When the RPF soldiers abandoned the Ugandan army and invaded Rwanda in 1990, Museveni did not explicitly support them, but according to Prunier it is likely that he had prior knowledge of the plan.[246] Museveni also allowed the RPF safe passage through Ugandan territory to the Virunga mountains after their early defeats in the war,[42] HP Mini 210-1073TU Laptop Keyboard

and revealed in a 1998 heads of state meeting that Uganda had helped the RPF materially during the Rwandan Civil War.[247] Following the RPF victory, the two countries enjoyed a close political and trade relationship.[248] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Rwanda and Uganda were allies during the First Congo War against Zaire, with both countries being instrumental in the setting up of the AFDL and committing troops to the war.[249] The two nations joined forces again at the beginning of the Second Congo War,  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

but relations soured in late 1998 as Museveni and Kagame had very different priorities in fighting the war.[250]In early 1999, the RCD rebel group split into two, with Rwanda and Uganda supporting opposing factions,[250] and in August the Rwandan and Ugandan armies battled each other with heavy artillery in the Congolese city of Kisangani.[231] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

 HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

The two sides fought again in Kisangani in May and June 2000, causing the deaths of 120 soldiers and around 640 Congolese civilians.[251] Relations slowly thawed through the 2000s, and by 2011 the two countries enjoyed a close friendship once more.[252] SONY VAIO PCG-F50/BP laptop keyboard

In 2007, Rwanda joined the East African Community, an intergovernmental organisation for the East Africa region comprising Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda. The country's accession required the signing of various agreements with the other members, including a defence intelligence sharing pact, SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

 a customs union, and measures to combat drug trafficking.[253] The countries of the Community established a common market in 2011, and plan further integration, including moves toward political federation and a possible single currency.[254][255] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

France maintained close ties with President Habyarimana during his years in power, as part of its Françafrique policy.[256] When the RPF launched the Rwandan Civil War in 1990, Habyarimana was immediately granted assistance from the President of France, François Mitterrand.[257]  TOSHIBA K000009780 laptop keyboard

France sent 600 paratroopers, who effectively ran the government's response to the invasion and were instrumental in regaining almost all territory the RPF had gained in the first days of the war.[258] France maintained this military presence throughout the war, engaging Kagame's RPF forces again in February 1993 during the offensive that doubled RPF territory.[259] HP G56 laptop keyboard

In the later stages of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, France launched Opération Turquoise, a United Nations mandated mission to create safe humanitarian areas for protection of displaced persons, refugees, and civilians in danger; many Rwandans interpreted it as a mission to protect Hutu from the RPF, including some who had participated in the genocide.[260] The French remained hostile to the RPF, and their presence temporarily stalled Kagame's advance in southwestern Rwanda.[261] HP Mini 210-1073TU laptop keyboard

France continued to shun the new RPF government following the end of the genocide and the withdrawal of Opération Turquoise.[262] Diplomatic relations were finally reestablished in January 1995, but remained tense as Rwanda accused France of aiding the genocidaires, while France defended its interventions.[263][264][265] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 6478 laptop keyboard

In 2006, French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière released a report on the assassination of President Habyarimana which concluded that Kagame had ordered the shooting of the plane. Bruguière subsequently issues arrest warrants for nine of Kagame's close aides.[266] Kagame denied the charges and immediately broke off diplomatic relations with France.[267] Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

Relations began to thaw in 2008,[268] and diplomacy was resumed in late 2009.[269] In 2010, Nicolas Sarkozy became the first French president to visit Rwanda since the genocide, admitting for the first time that France made "grave errors of judgment".[270]Kagame reciprocated with an official visit to Paris in 2011.[271] GATEWAY MT6730 Laptop Keyboard

Since the end of the Rwandan Genocide in 1994, Rwanda has enjoyed a close relationship with the English speaking world, in particular the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK). The two countries have been highly supportive of the RPF programme of stabilisation and rebuilding, with the UK donating large sums each year in budget support,[272] HP Mini 210-2004sa Laptop Keyboard

and the US providing military aid[272] as well as supporting development projects.[273] As president, Kagame has been critical of the West's lack of response to the genocide, and the UK and US have responded by admitting guilt over the issue: Bill Clinton, who was President of the United States during the genocide, has described to his failure to act against the killings as a "personal failure".[272] During the 2000s, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Clinton and UK prime minister Tony Blair praised the country's progress under Kagame, citing it as a model recipient for international development funds, and Clinton referred to Kagame as "one of the greatest leaders of our time".[272] Both Clinton and Blair have maintained support for the country beyond the end of their terms of office, Clinton via the Clinton Global Initiative and Blair through his role as an unpaid advisor to the Rwandan government.[274]  ASUS M70 Laptop Keyboard

As part of his policy of maintaining close relations with English speaking countries, Kagame sought membership of the Commonwealth of Nations, which was granted in 2009.[275] Rwanda was only the second country, after Mozambique, to join the Commonwealth having never had colonial links to the British Empire.[275]  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard

Kagame attended the subsequent Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Perth, Australia, addressing the Business Forum.[276] Rwanda also successfully applied for a rotating seat on the United Nations Security Council in 2012, taking over the presidency of that organisation in April 2013.[277] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

Kagame's relations with the US and UK have come under strain in the early 2010s, following allegations that Rwanda is supporting the M23 rebel movement in Eastern Congo.[272] The UK suspended its budgetary aid programme in 2012, freezing a £21 million donation.[278] The US has also frozen some of its military aid programme for Rwanda, although it stopped short of suspending aid altogether.[279]  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

China has been investing in Rwandan infrastructure since 1971, with early projects including hospitals in Kibungo and Masaka.[280] Under Kagame's presidency, trade between the two countries has grown rapidly. ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard

The volume of trade increased five-fold between 2005 and 2009,[281] and it doubled again in the following three years, being worth US$160 million in 2012.[282] Projects completed include the renovation of the Kigali road network, funded using a Chinese government loan and undertaken by China Road and Bridge Corporation;[283] the Kigali City Tower, which was built by China Civil Engineering Construction;[284] and a pay television service operated by Star Media.[285]  Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

Kagame has been vocal in his praise of China and its model for relations with Africa, saying in a 2009 interview that "the Chinese bring what Africa needs: investment and money for governments and companies."[286] This is in contrast to Western countries, whom Kagame accuses of focussing too heavily on giving aid to the continent rather than building a trading relationship; ACER TravelMate 3012 laptop keyboard

he also believes that they keep African products out of the world marketplace by the use of hightariffs.[286] China does not involve itself in the domestic affairs of the countries with which it trades,[286] hence has not followed the West in criticising Kagame's alleged involvement in the war in the Congo. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

Kagame's ultimate goal in international relations is to shift Rwanda from a country dependent on donor aid and loans towards self-sufficiency, trading with other countries on an equal footing. In a 2009 article, Kagame wrote that "the primary purpose of aid should ultimately be to work itself out", and should therefore focus on self-sufficiency and building private sector development.[287] HP Pavilion dv5-1120ez laptop keyboard

Kagame cited an example of donor countries providing free fertilisers to farmers; he believes this to be wrong because it undercuts local fertiliser businesses, preventing them from growing and becoming competitive.[287] In 2012, Kagame launched the Agaciro Development Fund, following proposals made at a national dialogue session in 2011.[288] HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard

Agaciro is a solidarity fund whose goal is to provide development finance sourced within Rwanda, supplementing aid already received from overseas.[289] The fund invites contributions from Rwandan citizens, within the country and in the diaspora, as well as private companies and "friends of Rwanda".[288] ASUS M70 laptop keyboard

The fund will allocate its funds based on consultations with the populace,[288] as well as financing projects contributing to the Vision 2020 programme.[290] HP Pavilion DV6-1110eg laptop keyboard

Most observers describe Kagame's personality as one of seriousness and intelligence.[197] Richard Grant, writing in London's Daily Telegraph, described Kagame as radiating "a quality of intense seriousness that is both impressive and intimidating". Roméo Dallaire, commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda during the Rwandan Genocide, ACER AEZU2R00010 laptop keyboard

described Kagame as having a "studious air that didn't quite disguise his hawk-like intensity".[291] Kagame has a highly dominant personality, which he uses to enforce his rule and to ensure that his vision for the country is followed.[197] American journalist Stephen Kinzer, who wrote the biography A Thousand Hills in collab

oration with Kagame himself, describes him as "one of the most intriguing leaders in Africa". IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

 [293] In his interview with Grant, Kagame claimed he sleeps for only four hours per night, devoting the remainder of his day to work, exercise, family, and reading academic texts and foreign newspapers.[197]  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

In Rwanda, Kagame's RPF is seen as a Tutsi-dominated party, and in the years following the 1994 genocide, it was deeply unpopular with the Hutu, who constitute 85% of the population.[112] Approximately two million Hutu lived as refugees in neighbouring countries until 1996, when Kagame forced them to return home.[112] ASUS X88S laptop keyboard

Many Hutu also supported the late 1990s cross-border insurgency against Kagame by defeated forces of the former regime.[113] By 1999, however, when the RPF had weakened the insurgents and the north-west became peaceful, the Hutu population became broadly supportive of Kagame.[116] Since becoming president in 2000,  Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

Kagame has won two presidential elections with over 90% of the vote each time. Despite criticisms over opposition repression during these elections, and accusations that the figures were inflated,[167] Kagame does receive genuine support from the population, who credit him with ensuring continued peace, stability, and economic growth.[294]  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

Kagame's image amongst international observers is varied. Human rights organisations, including Amnesty International and Freedom House, claim that Kagame suppresses the freedoms of opposition groups by restricting candidacies in elections to government-friendly parties, suppressing demonstrations, and arresting opposition leaders and journalists.[295][296] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 laptop keyboard

Human Rights Watch criticised laws criminalising genocide ideology,[155] but praised some aspects of Kagame's rule, such as the progress made in the delivery of justice and the abolition of the death penalty.[297] Kagame's image amongst foreign leaders was very positive until the late 2000s. He was credited with ending the genocide, bringing peace and security to Rwanda, and achieving development. Since 2010, however,  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

  the international community has increasingly criticised Kagame following a leaked United Nations report alleging Rwanda's support for the rebel M23 movement in Congo.[245] In 2012, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and several other countries suspended programmes of budget support to Rwanda, with many redirecting their aid to project-based assistance.[298] SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

Kagame promotes the internet as a means of communication between leadership and ordinary people. In addition to his personal website, which contains a personal blog, he has accounts on Flickr, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter.[299] In 2011, he argued with British journalist Ian Birrell on Twitter following a tweet by Birrell about media freedom in Rwanda.[300] As of 2013, he is the second most followed African leader on Twitter, with 104,082 followers.[301] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

Kagame has received a number of honours and accolades during his presidency. These include honorary degrees from the American University of the Pacific,[302],Oklahoma Christian University,[303], and the University of Glasgow,[304] the Andrew Young Medal for Capitalism and Social Progress by Georgia State University,[305] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

and a Clinton Global Citizen Award.[306] Kagame has also received the highest awards bestowed by the countries of Liberia and Benin, theDistinction of the Grand Cordon in the Most Venerable Order of the Knighthood of Pioneers,[307] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5112WH Laptop Keyboard

and the Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit[308]respectively. In September 2010, the British magazine New Statesman named Kagame one of its 50 most influential figures for that year, placing him in 49th place.[309] The Council for East and Central Africa Football Associations football tournament has been named the Kagame Interclub Cup since 2002, due to Kagame's sponsorship of the event.[310] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

The Rwandan Civil War was a conflict within the Central African nation of Rwanda, between the government of President Juvénal Habyarimana and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). The conflict began on 1 October 1990 when the RPF invaded and ostensibly ended on 4 August 1993 with the signing of the Arusha Accords to create a power-sharing government.[2] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

However, the assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 proved to be the catalyst for the Rwandan Genocide, the commonly quoted death toll for which is 800,000. The closely interrelated causes of the war and genocide led some observers to assume that the reports of mass killings were in fact some new flaring of the war, rather than a different phase. The RPF restarted its offensive,  ACER AEZU2R00010 Laptop Keyboard

eventually taking control of the country. The Hutu government-in-exile then proceeded to use refugee camps in neighboring countries to destabilize the new RPF government. The RPF and its proxy rebel forces prosecuted the First Congo War (1996–1997),  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

which led in turn to the Second Congo War (1998–2003), all of which involved a Hutu force with the objective of regaining control of Rwanda. Thus while the civil war officially lasted until 1993, some literature has the war ending with the RPF capture of Kigali in 1994 or with the disbanding of the refugee camps in 1996, while some consider the presence of small rebel groups along the Rwandan border to mean that the civil war is ongoing.  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The ethnic tensions between the Hutu majority and the Tutsi minority had their roots in the Belgian colonial era, where the ruling Belgian authorities empowered the Tutsi aristocracy, and cemented the second class status of Hutus, in what had previously been a fairly fluid social system. Upon leaving Rwanda, Belgian diplomats stirred the pot by reversing their favoritism, encouraging nationalist Hutu uprisings in the name of democracy.  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

Episodes of violent attacks and reprisals between Hutus and Tutsis flared up in the first two decades following Rwanda's independence, building tensions and resentment that would explode in the civil war and genocide of the 1990s.[3][citation needed] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

A new wave of ethnic tensions were unleashed in 1990. One of the main causes was a slumping economy and food shortages. Throughout the year, the country was subject to bad weather and lessening coffee prices. These problems helped create a dangerous political climate. Further political tension was evident following a call by the for increased democracy in Francophone Africa. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

France, though not traditionally associated with Rwanda, began to show that it would put political pressure on Rwanda if it didn't make concessions to democracy. Many Rwandans heard the call, and began forming a democracy movement which protested during the summer.[citation needed]  DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

Another source of mounting tensions in 1990, were the grumblings of the Tutsi diaspora. Those Tutsi who had been exiled over thirty years were now coming together in an organized group known as the RPF. The Hutu in Rwanda considered these Tutsi an evil aristocracy which had rightly been exiled. They pointed out that the descendants of these Tutsi no longer had any knowledge of Rwanda, and spoke English instead of French. The exiled Tutsi,  TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

however, demanded recognition of their rights as Rwandans which included the right to live there. These Tutsi began to pressure the Rwandan government, and eventually forced the Habyarimana government to make concessions.[citation needed] The RPF was under the command of Major-General Fred Rwigyema, who had risen to be deputy minister of defense in Uganda. However, SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard

growing xenophobia had led to his removal and new legislation prohibiting non-Ugandan nationals, including Rwandan refugees, from owning land. It was this "push" factor from Uganda, as much as the "pull" of their ancestral homes, that led the RPF to fight for citizenship in Rwanda.[4] SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

Habyarimana found himself forced to set up a national committee to examine the "Concept of Democracy" and to work on the formation of a "National Political Charter" which would help reconcile the Hutus and Tutsis. During this crucial point in negotiations the situation went bad. The RPF was simply unwilling to wait any longer for the Rwandan government to come through on its promises.[citation needed] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5165 laptop keyboard

At 2:30 pm on 1 October 1990, fifty RPF rebels deserted their posts and crossed the border from Uganda into Rwanda, killing a customs guard at the Kagitumba border post.[8] They were followed by hundreds more rebels, dressed in the uniforms of the Ugandan national army and carrying Ugandan weaponry, including machine guns and rocket launchers.[8] HP Pavilion dv6138TX laptop keyboard

RPF demands included an end to ethnic segregation and the system of identity cards, as well as other political and economic reforms that portrayed the RPF as a democratic and tolerant organization seeking to depose a dangerous and corrupt regime.[4] Both President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and President Habyarimana of Rwanda were in New York attending the United Nations World Summit for Children.[9] Lenovo 04W2236 laptop keyboard

The role of Uganda was immediately brought into question. It is likely that Museveni knew of the RPF and its planned invasion, but did not explicitly support it.[10] Museveni had several motives for not interfering, including stability in western Uganda and the possibility of a strengthened position in future refugee negotiations with Habyarimana.[11] TOSHIBA PK130260100 laptop keyboard

Museveni denies any knowledge however, stating years later in a conference with fellow African heads of state, that the RPF had launched the invasion "without prior consultation".[12] Museveni also said later that "faced with [a]  APPLE 607-3241-A Laptop Keyboard

fait accompli situation by our Rwandan brothers," Uganda went "to help the RPF, materially, so that they are not defeated because that would have been detrimental to the Tutsi people of Rwanda and would not have been good for Uganda's stability."[12]  HP Mini 110-1150LA Laptop Keyboard

In the first few days of fighting, the RPF made significant progress, advancing 60 km (37 mi) south to the town of Gabiro.[13] Their Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) opponents were numerically superior, with 5,200 soldiers, and possessed armoured cars and helicopters supplied by France, but the RPF benefitted from the element of surprise.[13] SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard

The RPF suffered a significant reversal on the third day, however, when commander Fred Rwigyema was killed. It is likely that Rwigyema was killed by his subcommander Peter Bayingana, following an argument over tactics,[14] although the current RPF-led Government of Rwanda contend that he was killed by a stray bullet.[15] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The offensive failed after France and Zaire militarily intervened. Zaire sent several hundred troops of the elite Special Presidential Division (DSP) to fight alongside Rwandan government troops. In a military operation code-named Noroît, France deployed the 1st and 3rd companies of the 8th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, consisting of 125 soldiers, who were based in the Central African Republic, to support the Rwandan government.[16][17] TOSHIBA NSK-TAE01 Laptop Keyboard

These forces were later joined by elements of the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment and 13th Parachute Dragoon Regiment.[17] France, which had signed a defense pact with Habyarimana in 1975, insisted that its forces had been deployed strictly to protect its nationals, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

but the parachute companies set up positions blocking the RPF advance to the capital and Kigali International Airport. Col. René Galinié had command of the initial deployment, but was replaced by Col. Jean-Claude Thomann on 19 October. France also supplied the Rwandan government with shipments of artillery, mortars and other military equipment,  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

along with financial aid. France claimed to be countering "aggression launched from an English-speaking country."[18] At first, Belgium also supported the government but cut all military aid shortly after hostilities began, citing a domestic law prohibiting their military from taking part in a civil war. France, in contrast, supported the regime and gave significant military and financial support, thus replacing Belgium as Rwanda's major foreign sponsor.[18][19] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

On 7 October 1990, the government forces launched a counter-offensive. The RPF who had only prepared for a short war began to fall back when it became clear that they did not have the heavy equipment needed to face the government forces in a conventional conflict.[citation needed] Major Paul Kagame, SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Laptop Keyboard

 who was in theUnited States taking a course at the Command and General Staff College, was contacted and returned to take control of the rebel forces. To make matters worse, on 23 October,[citation needed] two more RPF commanders Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

, Major Peter Bayingana, who had taken de facto command, and Chris Bunyenyezi, were arrested by Salim Saleh, the Ugandan president's brother, for the murder of Rwigyema and brought back to Uganda for interrogation and eventual execution.[20] The RPF force was thrown into confusion and by the end of the month, had been pushed back into Akagera National Park in the northeast corner of the country.[21][22] French spotter planes were used to find retreating RPF units so they could be destroyed by the FAR.[19] DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

On the night of 4 October, the Rwandan government staged a fake attack on Kigali with gunfire and explosions around the city. This piece of theater was intended to frighten the populace into supporting the war and encouraging the reporting of suspected RPF sympathizers among the Tutsi. Over 10,000 people were arrested. HP Mini 110-1150LA laptop keyboard

The reaction also included directed killing. A witness testified that, on 2 October, para-commandos under Major Aloys Ntabakuze separated civilians fleeing the fighting at Umutara into Hutu and Tutsi, and used grenades to kill the Tutsi. Eight days later, another witness testified that Ntabakuze ordered the ethnic cleansing of a village called Bahima. APPLE 607-3241-A laptop keyboard

Ten days after the invasion, local officials in Kibilira were told to kill the local inyenzi and burn down their homes because of the threat of the RPF offensive. At least 348 civilians were killed in 48 hours.[23] SONY VAIO VGN-CR31/P laptop keyboard

On his arrival, Koufos Shabbazzamad began to reorganize the RPF forces, which had been reduced to less than 2,000 troops, and decided to develop a guerrilla warfare in the north of the country.[24] Museveni granted permission for the RPF to retreat back into Uganda for one night, during which Kagame and the troops completed a tiring overnight march west to the Virunga mountains, a high altitude area in which the Rwandan army could not attack them.[25] TOSHIBA Satellite M30X-214 laptop keyboard

The RPF spent two months in the mountains, without engaging the government forces. Conditions were harsh and some members of the army perished due to freezing temperatures.[26]  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

The time in the Virungas was spent reorganising the army and rebuilding the leadership that had suffered so much during the fighting. Alexis Kanyarengwe, a Hutu and former ally of Habyarimana, was appointed RPF chairman; however, Tutsis continued to make up the majority of the leadership.[26] During this time, HP Pavilion dv5-1215ca laptop keyboard

the RPF also recruited from the Tutsi diaspora. In addition to Ugandans, new members arrived from Burundi, Tanzania, Zaire, the United States, and Europe.[27]By early 1991, the RPF had grown to 5,000; by 1992 it had reached 12,000 and during the 1994 genocide it numbered 25,000.[28]  HP Mini 210-1140LA laptop keyboard

In addition to recruiting personnel, the RPF carried out fund raising activity. The Tutsi diaspora worldwide contributed, as did some businessmen within Rwanda who were the victims of corruption by the Habyarimana regime.[29] The RPF rearmed itself, both by purchasing arms on the international market and relying on clandestine supply from former colleagues in officer corps of the Ugandan army.[30] Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard

By January 1991, Kagame restarted the war. The first move, on 23 January 1991, was a surprise attack on the northern town ofRuhengeri. Ruhengeri was chosen due to its proximity to the Virunga mountains and its perception as being a stronghold of the Habyarimana regime.[31] The RPF captured the town, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7222 laptop keyboard

benefiting from the element of surprise, and held it for one day before retreating back to the forests.[32] During the occupation they captured weapons and equipment from the Rwandan army and stormed Ruhengeri prison, freeing political prisoners.[32] The attack succeeded in creating a climate of fear in Rwanda.[32] Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard

Following this action the RPF withdrew and began to carry out a classic hit and run style guerrilla war. Low intensity fighting dragged on with neither side managing to inflict any major defeats on the other. The RPF started broadcasting from Uganda into Rwanda on its own radio station, called Radio Muhabura in 1991. ACER AEZU2R00010 laptop keyboard

It was monitored by the BBC starting in 1992, and was mostly a propaganda instrument for the RPF. It accused the Habyarimana government of genocide as early as January 1993, even before the Arusha accords. Over the next few years there were numerous attempts at ceasefires, though they achieved little and the fighting continued until 13 July 1992 when a cease-fire was signed in Arusha. ACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

The war dragged on for almost 2.5 years until a cease-fire accord was signed on 12 July 1992, in Arusha, Tanzania, fixing a timetable for an end to the fighting and political talks, leading to a peace accord and power sharing, and authorizing a neutral military observer group under the auspices of the Organization for African Unity. The cease-fire took effect on 31 July 1992, and political talks began 31 September 1992. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

Over the course of the following months negotiations continued, though without any serious breakthroughs and with the tension on both sides mounting. Finally, following reports of massacres of Tutsi, the RPF launched a major offensive on 8 February 1993. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

This offensive forced the government forces back in disarray, allowing the RPF to quickly capture the town of Ruhengeri, and then to turn south and begin advancing on the capital. This caused panic in Paris (a long term supporter of the Habyarimana regime) which immediately sent several hundred French troops to the country along with large amounts of ammunition for the FAR artillery. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B Laptop Keyboard

The arrival of these French troops in Kigali seriously changed the military situation on the ground. Implicit in their support for the government and their rapid deployment was the threat that, should the RPF advance on the capital, then they may find themselves fighting French paratroopers as well as Rwandan government soldiers. HP COMPAQ NC6320 Laptop Keyboard

On 20 February, with the RPF only 30 km (19 mi) north of Kigali, the rebels declared a unilateral ceasefire and over the following months pulled their forces back. By that time, over 1.5 million civilians, mostly Hutu, had left their homes. .[citation needed]

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Over the following months the peace process developed. One of the stipulations of the agreement was that the RPF would station a number of diplomats in Kigali at the CND parliament building. These men were to be protected by between 600-1000 RPF soldiers. HP Mini 210-2032tu laptop keyboard

The Tutsi diaspora miscalculated the reaction of its invasion of Rwanda. Though the Tutsi objective seemed to be to pressure the Rwandan government into making concessions which would strip Tutsi of their largely 'second class' status,[citation needed] the invasion was seen as an attempt to bring the Tutsi ethnic group back into power. The effect was to increase ethnic tensions to a level higher than they had ever been. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W laptop keyboard

Hutu rallied around the President. Habyarimana himself reacted by instituting genocidal programs, which would be directed against all Tutsi and against any Hutu seen as in league with Tutsi interests. Habyarimana justified these acts by proclaiming it was the intent of the Tutsi to restore a kind of Tutsi feudal system and to thus enslave the Hutu race.[33] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

The main RPF forces in the north began a three pronged attack on the morning of 8 April. One group moved west to Ruhengeri and Char Mobile Force commanded by col Gashumba engaged government forces there, although they would make little progress and were more likely a defensive force securing the right flank of the RPF advance south. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The second group under the command of Colonel Eugen Bagire (Commanding officer of the 7th Battalion) and Lieutenant-Colonel Fred Ibingira (Commanding officer of the 157 Battalion) moved down the eastern border of the country towards Kibungo. The third group under the command of Colonel Sam Kaka (commander of ALFA Mobile Force), Col. Charlis Ngoga (59th Battalion), Col. Musitu (21st Battalion), Compaq Presario CQ42 laptop keyboard

Charlis Muhire (101 Battalion) and Ludovic Twahirwa (known as Dodo, commander of the Bravo Mobile force) managed to make a major advance towards the capital by the evening of 11 April. Both sides began to reinforce and strengthen their positions, with the RPF beginning a slow but effective encirclement of the city. On 12 April, the provisional government fled to Gitarama in an attempt to escape the fighting.  HP G62-b12SA laptop keyboard

In the east, the RPF faced little government resistance and reached the Tanzanian border on 22 April. However, with almost all of the RPF's heavy equipment focused on the battle for Kigali, the western advance on Ruhengeri stalemated. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard

In the capital, the RPF advance continued its slow yet methodical encirclement of the city, forcing the airport to close on 5 May due to intense shelling. A further sign of the success of Kagame's troops was the cutting of the Kigali-Gitarama road on 16 May. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

This was followed six days later by the capture of Kigali International Airport. In an attempt to reverse the defeats that it was suffering, the FAR launched a counter-attack on 6 June, although this was halted almost immediately and failed to achieve any significant gains. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

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