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The British garrison at Prairie du Chien also fought off another attack by Major Zachary Taylor. In this distant theatre, the British retained the upper hand until the end of the war, through the allegiance of several indigenous tribes that received British gifts and arms, enabling them to take control of parts of what is now Michigan and Illinois, as well as the whole of modern Wisconsin.[115]HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

In 1814 U.S. troops retreating from theBattle of Credit Island on the upper Mississippi attempted to make a stand at Fort Johnson, but the fort was soon abandoned, along with most of the upper Mississippi valley.[116]

After the U.S. was pushed out of the Upper Mississippi region, they held on to eastern Missouri and the St. Louis area. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

Two notable battles fought against the Sauk were the Battle of Cote Sans Dessein, in April 1815, at the mouth of the Osage River in the Missouri Territory, and the Battle of the Sink Hole, in May 1815, near Fort Cap au Gris.[117]

At the conclusion of peace, Mackinac and other captured territory was returned to the United States. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

At the end of the war, some British officers and Canadians objected to handing back Prairie du Chien and especially Mackinac under the terms of theTreaty of Ghent. However, the Americans retained the captured post at Fort Malden, near Amherstburg, until the British complied with the treaty.[118]

Fighting between Americans, the Sauk, and other indigenous tribes continued through 1817, well after the war ended in the east.HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The Creek war in Alabama had different origins, but it "merged with the war of 1812" and the U.S. treated it as a part of the larger war, with Jackson and his forces also in charge of defeating the Creeks .[120] During the same timeline as the War of 1812, the Patriot War and Creek War were also occurring. In March 1814, Jackson led a force of Tennessee militia,Choctaw, Cherokee warriors, and U.S. regulars southward to attack the Creek Indians. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

The Spanish gave some aid to the Creeks; the British sent aid that arrived too late. On March 26, Jackson and General John Coffee decisively defeated the Creek at Horseshoe Bend, killing 800 of 1,000 Creeks at a cost of 49 killed and 154 wounded out of approximately 2,000 American and Cherokee forces. Jackson pursued the surviving Creeks until they surrendered. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

In the autumn of 1813, an appeal was made by the Indians, to the British via the Governor of the Bahamas (George Cameron), for assistance in the Creek War. A tardy response from Lord Bathurst was sent in March 1814, resulting in HMS Orpheus andHMS Shelburne being dispatched to the bay of the Apalachicola river, to initiate first contact with the Indians in May 1814, by which time the Creek War had effectively ended. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The vessels carried gifts, and a message from Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane. John Woodbine, an auxiliary officer of Royal Marines, was appointed as the British agent to the Indians. Woodbine discovered that in addition to the Indians at the Apalachicola river, there were also refugees at Pensacola.[122] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

On 23 June 1814, Sir Alexander Cochrane transmitted to the Admiralty a letter purportedly from Indian chiefs, who had come aboard the Orpheus. They promised to join any body of 'troops that should aid them in regaining their lands, and suggesting an attack on the tower off Mobile.' Having received encouraging correspondence from the commander of the Orpheus, FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Cochrane sent a company of Royal Marines, commanded by Edward Nicolls, aboard the vessels HMS Hermes and HMS Carron,[123] with further supplies for the Indians, and a proclamation from Cochrane. In addition to training the Indians, Nicolls was tasked to raise a force from escaped slaves, as part of the Corps of Colonial Marines.[124] SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

In July 1814, General Andrew Jackson complained to the Governor of Pensacola, Mateo Gonzalez Manrique, that combatants from the Creek War were being harboured in Spanish territory, and made reference to the British presence on Spanish soil. Although he gave an angry reply to Jackson, Manrique was alarmed at the weak position he found himself in. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

He appealed to the British for help, with Woodbine arriving on 28 July, and Nicolls arriving at Pensacola on 24 August.[125][126]

During the aforementioned Patriot War, James Wilkinson captured Mobile, Alabama from the Spanish in March 1813, and built fortifications. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The first engagement between the British and their Creek allies against the Americans was the attack on Fort Bowyer, the redoubt on Mobile Point. Capturing the fort would enable the British to move on Mobile and thereby block Louisiana's trade. From Mobile, the British could move overland to Natchez to cut off New Orleans from the north.[127] The attack on Fort Bowyer was a defeat for the British. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Andrew Jackson heard reports that the British were organizing ships and armies for a large-scale invasion. The British established a military presence of up to 200 Marines at Pensacola in neutral Spanish West Florida at the end of August 1814. Jackson, with a force of 4,000 men, took the town in November.[128] This underlined the superiority of numbers of Jackson's force in the region.HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Andrew Jackson's force moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, in late 1814. Using 1,000 regulars and 3,000 to 4,000 militia, pirates and other fighters, as well as civilians and slaves sent to work on the fortifications, he built strong defences just south of the city. The 8,000 British regulars under General Edward Pakenham attacked on January 8, 1815. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The Battle of New Orleans was an American victory, as the British failed to take the fortifications on the East Bank. The British suffered high casualties: 291 dead, 1262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing[130] whereas American casualties were 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing. It was hailed as a great victory across the U.S., making Jackson a national hero and eventually propelling him to the presidency.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

In early 1815 the British gave up on New Orleans but moved to attack Mobile for a second time. In one of the last military actions of the war 1,000 British troops, having previously failed in 1814, took the fort thus winning the Battle of Fort Bowyer on February 12, 1815. When news of peace arrived the next day, they abandoned Fort Bowyer and sailed home.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

The start of 1815 was to see an offensive in the south, with Royal Marine battalions to advance westward into Georgia, and to be joined by Nicolls and his forces from the Gulf Coast.[133] These plans were overtaken by events, as peace was declared. Consequentially, with the offensive cancelled, Nicolls and his men returned to Prospect Bluff.[134] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

The British post at Prospect Bluff was handed over to the Seminoles. In April 1815 the locally recruited companies of the Corps of Colonial Marines were disbanded.[135] The greater part of the Royal Marine garrison at Apalachicola were embarked aboard HMS Cydnus on 22 April 1815,[136][137] and Edward Nicolls embarked the brig HMS Forward at Amelia Island on 29 June 'for passage to England'.[138Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

] The legacy of the Negro Fort would subsequently lead to the first of the Seminole Wars.

In May 1815, a band of British-allied Sauk, unaware that the war had ended months before, attacked a small band of U.S. soldiers northwest of St. Louis.[139]Intermittent fighting, primarily with the Sauk, continued in the Missouri Territory well into 1817, although it is unknown if the Sauk were acting on their own or on behalf of British agents.[119] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Several uncontacted isolated warships continued fighting well into 1815 and were the last American forces to take offensive action against the British.

By 1814, both sides had achieved their main war goals and were weary of a costly war that offered little but stalemate. They both sent delegations to a neutral site in Ghent, Belgium. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The negotiations began in early August and concluded on December 24, when a final agreement was signed; both sides had to ratify it before it could take effect. Meanwhile both sides planned new invasions.

In 1814 the British began blockading New England ports, reducing American foreign trade to a trickle, but hurting British interests in the West Indies and Canada that had depended on that trade. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

New England was considering secession.[140][141] But although American privateers found chances of success much reduced, with most British merchantmen now sailing in convoy, privateering continued to prove troublesome to the British, as shown by high insurance rates.[142] British landowners grew weary of high taxes, and colonial interests and merchants called on the government to reopen trade with the U.S. by ending the war. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

As the peace talks opened, the British demanded the creation of an Indian barrier state in the American Northwest Territory (the area from Ohio to Wisconsin), and they demanded that Americans not have any naval forces on the Great Lakes. The U.S. rejected the demands and there was an impasse.[144]

American public opinion was outraged when Madison published the demands; even the Federalists were now willing to fight on. DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The British had planned three invasions. One force burned Washington but failed to capture Baltimore, and sailed away when its commander was killed. In northern New York State, 10,000 British veterans were marching south until a decisive defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh forced them back to Canada.[b] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Nothing was known of the fate of the third large invasion force aimed at capturing New Orleans and southwest. The Prime Minister wanted the Duke of Wellington to command in Canada and finally win the war; Wellington said that he would go to America but he believed he was needed in Europe.

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America ... SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cessation of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power ... HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any.

The Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, aware of growing opposition to wartime taxation and the demands of Liverpool and Bristol merchants to reopen trade with America, realized Britain had little to gain and much to lose from prolonged warfare.[147] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Britain dropped its demand for an independent Indian state, which was in any case hopeless after the defeat of the British and the death of Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames; this concession allowed negotiations to resume at the end of October. The details were then easy to resolve since the basic plan was to exchange all captured territory and leave the boundary as it was before the war.[148] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

On December 24, 1814 the diplomats had finished and signed the Treaty of Ghent. The treaty was ratified by the British three days later on December 27[149] and arrived in Washington on February 17 where it was quickly ratified and went into effect, thus finally ending the war. The terms called for all occupied territory to be returned, the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States to be restored, and the Americans were to gain fishing rights in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The treaty did not mention the grievances of 1812 that led to war. The Americans were satisfied that their honour as an independent nation had been upheld.[150]The Indians issue east of the Mississippi had been resolved; impressment, ship seizures and blockades had ended when Britain's war with France ended in 1814. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Mobile and parts of western Florida were not mentioned in the treaty but remained permanently in American possession, despite objections by Spain.

British losses in the war were about 1,600 killed in action and 3,679 wounded; 3,321 British died from disease. American losses were 2,260 killed in action and 4,505 wounded. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

While the number of Americans who died from disease is not known, it is estimated that about 15,000 died from all causes directly related to the war.[152] These figures do not include deaths among Canadian militia forces or losses among native tribes.

There have been no estimates of the cost of the American war to Britain, but it did add some £25 million to the national debt.[153]HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

In the U.S., the cost was $105 million, about the same as the cost to Britain. The national debt rose from $45 million in 1812 to $127 million by the end of 1815, although by selling bonds and treasury notes at deep discounts—and often for irredeemable paper money due to the suspension of specie payment in 1814—the government received only $34 million worth of specie.[154]HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

In addition, at least 3,000 American slaves escaped to the British because of their offer of freedom, the same as they had made in the American Revolution. Many other slaves simply escaped in the chaos of war and achieved their freedom on their own. The British settled some of the newly freed slaves in Nova Scotia.[155]Four hundred freedmen were settled in New Brunswick.[156]ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

 The Americans protested that Britain's failure to return the slaves violated the Treaty of Ghent. After arbitration by the Tsar of Russia the British paid $1,204,960 in damages to Washington,[157] which reimbursed the slaveowners.

During the 19th century the popular image of the war in the United States was of an American victory, and in Canada, of a Canadian victory. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Each young country saw its self-perceived victory as an important foundation of its growing nationhood. The British, on the other hand, who had been preoccupied by Napoleon's challenge in Europe, paid little attention to what was to them a peripheral and secondary dispute, a distraction from the principal task at hand. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

In British North America (which would become the Dominion of Canada in 1867), the War of 1812 was seen by Loyalists as a victory, as they had successfully defended their borders from an American takeover. The outcome gave Empire-oriented Canadians confidence and, together with the postwar "militia myth" that the civilian militia had been primarily responsible rather than the British regulars, ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

was used to stimulate a new sense of Canadian nationalism.[159] John Strachan, the first Anglican bishop of Toronto, created the myth, telling his flock that Upper Canada had been saved from the dangerous republicanism of the American invaders by the heroism of the local citizenry.[160] [161]

A long-term implication of the militia myth—which was false, ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

but remained popular in the Canadian public at least until the First World War—was that Canada did not need a regular professional army.[162] The U.S. Army had done poorly, on the whole, in several attempts to invade Canada, and the Canadians had shown that they would fight bravely to defend their country. But the British did not doubt that the thinly populated territory would be vulnerable in a third war. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

"We cannot keep Canada if the Americans declare war against us again", Admiral Sir David Milne wrote to a correspondent in 1817. [163]

By the 21st century it was a forgotten war in Britain,[164] although still remembered in Canada, especially Ontario. In a 2009 poll, 37% of Canadians said the war was a Canadian victory, 9% said the U.S. won, 15% called it a draw, and 39%—mainly younger Canadians—said they knew too little to comment.[165] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

A February 2012 poll found that in a list of items that could be used to define Canadians' identity, the fact that Canada successfully repelled an American invasion in the War of 1812 places second (25%), only behind the fact that Canada has universal health care (53%).[166] The survey states that 77% of Canadians believe that War of 1812 Bicentennial is an important commemoration.Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

Today, American popular memory includes the British capture and the burning of Washington in August 1814,[168] which necessitated its extensive renovation. Another memory is the successful American defence of Fort McHenry in September 1814, which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner".[169] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

The successful Captains of the U.S. Navy became popular heroes with plates with the likeness of Decatur, Steward, Hull, and others, becoming popular items. Ironically, many were made in England. The Navy became a cherished institution, lauded for the victories that it won against all odds.[170]

The war was somewhat revitalized in the American popular consciousness as a result of the 1959 song "The Battle of New Orleans".Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Historians have differing and more complex interpretations. Historians agree that ending the war with neither side gaining or losing territory allowed for the peaceful settlement of boundary disputes and for the opening of a permanent era of good will and friendly relations between the U.S. and Canada. The war established distinct national identities for Canada and the United States, with a "newly significant border".[171] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

In recent decades the view of the majority of historians has been that the war ended in stalemate, with the Treaty of Ghent closing a war that had become militarily inconclusive. Neither side wanted to continue fighting since the main causes had disappeared and since there were no large lost territories for one side or the other to reclaim by force. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Insofar as they see the war's untriumphant resolution as allowing two centuries of peaceful and mutually beneficial intercourse between the U.S., Britain and Canada, these historians often conclude that all three nations were the "real winners" of the War of 1812. These writers often add that the war could have been avoided in the first place by better diplomacy. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

It is seen as a mistake for everyone concerned because it was badly planned and marked by multiple fiascoes and failures on both sides, as shown especially by the repeated American failure to seize parts of Canada, and the failed British attack on New Orleans and upstate New York.

However, other scholars hold that the war constituted a British victory and an American defeat. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

They argue that the British achieved their military objectives in 1812 (by stopping the repeated American invasions of Canada) and that Canada retained her independence of the United States. By contrast, they say, the Americans suffered a defeat when their armies failed to achieve their war goal of seizing part or all of Canada. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Additionally, they argue the U.S. lost as it failed to stop impressment, which the British refused to repeal until the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and the U.S. actions had no effect on the orders in council, which were rescinded before the war started.[174]

A second minority view is that both the U.S. and Britain won the war—that is, both achieved their main objectives, while the Indians were the losing party.[175HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

] The British won by losing no territories and achieving their great war goal, the total defeat of Napoleon. U.S. won by (1) securing her honour and successfully resisting a powerful empire once again,[c] thus winning a "second war of independence";[176] (2) ending the threat of Indian raids and the British plan for a semi-independent Indian sanctuary—thereby opening an unimpeded path for the United States' Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

westward expansion—and (3) stopping the Royal Navy from restricting American trade and impressing American sailors.

Historians generally agree that the real losers of the War of 1812 were the Indians (called "First Nations" in Canada).[178HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

] American settlers into the Middle West had been repeatedly blocked and threatened by Indian raids before 1812, and that now came to an end. Throughout the war the British had played on terror of the tomahawks and scalping knives of their Indian allies; it worked especially at Hull's surrender at Detroit. By 1813 Americans had killed Tecumseh and broken his coalition of tribes. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

Jackson then defeated the enemy Indians in the Southwest. Historian John Sugden notes that in both theatres, the Indians' strength had been broken prior to the arrival of the major British forces in 1814.[179]

Notwithstanding the sympathy and support from commanders (such as Brock,[180] Cochrane and Nicolls), the policymakers in London reneged in assisting the Indians, as making peace was a higher priority for the politicians. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

At the peace conference the British demanded an independent Indian state in the Midwest, but by late 1814 the British-Indian alliance had been defeated militarily and the British had to abandon the demand. The withdrawal of British protection gave the Americans a free hand, which resulted in the removal of most of the tribes to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).[181Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

 In that sense according to historian Alan Taylor, the final victory at New Orleans had "enduring and massive consequences".[182] It gave the Americans "continental predominence" while it left the Indians dispossessed, powerless, and vulnerable.[183]

The Creek War came to and end, with the Treaty of Fort Jackson being imposed upon the Indians. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

About half of the Creek territory was ceded to the United States, with no payment made to the Creeks. This was, in theory, invalidated by Article 9 of the Treaty of Ghent, thereby restoring to the Indians “all the possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in 1811.”[184] The British failed to uphold this, and did not take up the Indian cause as an infringement of an international treaty. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Without this support, the Indians lack of power was apparent and the stage was set for further incursions of territory by the United States in subsequent decades.

Neither side lost territory in the war,[d] nor did the treaty that ended it address the original points of contention—and yet it changed much between the United States of America and Britain. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The Rush–Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817 that provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary and was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Great Britain in the period following the War of 1812. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

It remains in effect to this day.

The Treaty of Ghent established the status quo ante bellum; that is, there were no territorial losses by either side. The issue of impressment was made moot when the Royal Navy, no longer needing sailors, stopped impressment after the defeat of Napoleon.SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Except for occasional border disputes and the circumstances of the American Civil War, relations between the U.S. and Britain remained generally peaceful for the rest of the 19th century, and the two countries became close allies in the 20th century.

Border adjustments between the U.S. and British North America were made in the Treaty of 1818. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

A border dispute along the Maine–New Brunswick border was settled by the 1842 Webster–Ashburton Treaty after the bloodless Aroostook War, and the border in the Oregon Country was settled by splitting the disputed area in half by the 1846 Oregon Treaty. A further dispute about the line of the border through the island in the Strait of Juan de Fuca resulted in another almost bloodless standoff in the Pig War of 1859. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The line of the border was finally settled by an international arbitration commission in 1872.

The U.S. suppressed the native American resistance on its western and southern borders. The nation also gained a psychological sense of complete independence as people celebrated their "second war of independence".[186] Nationalism soared after the victory at the Battle of New Orleans. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The opposition Federalist Partycollapsed, and the Era of Good Feelings ensued.[187]

No longer questioning the need for a strong Navy, the U.S. built three new 74-gun ships of the line and two new 44-gun frigates shortly after the end of the war.[188] (Another frigate had been destroyed to prevent it being captured on the stocks.)[189] In 1816, the U.S. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Congress passed into law an "Act for the gradual increase of the Navy" at a cost of $1,000,000 a year for eight years, authorizing 9 ships of the line and 12 heavy frigates.[190] The Captains and Commodores of the U.S. Navy became the heroes of their generation in the U.S. Decorated plates and pitchers of Decatur, Hull, Bainbridge, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Lawrence, Perry, and Macdonough were made in Staffordshire, England, and found a ready market in the United States. Three of the war heroes used their celebrity to win national office: Andrew Jackson (elected President in 1828 and 1832), Richard Mentor Johnson (elected Vice President in 1836), and William Henry Harrison (elected President in 1840). HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

New England states became increasingly frustrated over how the war was being conducted and how the conflict was affecting them. They complained that the U.S. government was not investing enough in the states' defences militarily and financially, and that the states should have more control over their militia. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The increased taxes, the British blockade, and the occupation of some of New England by enemy forces also agitated public opinion in the states.[191] As a result, at the Hartford Convention (December 1814 – January 1815) Federalist delegates deprecated the war effort and sought more autonomy for the New England states. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

They did not call for secession but word of the angry anti-war resolutions appeared at the same time that peace was announced and the victory at New Orleans was known. The upshot was that the Federalists were permanently discredited and quickly disappeared as a major political force.[192]

This war enabled thousands of slaves to escape to British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The planters' complacency about slave contentment was shocked by their seeing slaves who would risk so much to be free.A strong hostility to republicanism and American influences permeated western Canada after the war and shaped its policies.Immigration from the U.S. was discouraged, and favour was shown to the Anglican church as opposed to the more AmericanizedMethodist church. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

The Battle of York showed the vulnerability of Upper and Lower Canada. In the 1820s, work began on La Citadelle at Quebec City as a defence against the United States. Additionally, work began on the Halifax citadel to defend the port against American attacks. From 1826 to 1832, the Rideau Canal was built to provide a secure waterway not at risk from American cannon fire.Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

To defend the western end of the canal, the British also built Fort Henry at Kingston.

The Native Americans allied to the British lost their cause. The British proposal to create a "neutral" Indian zone in the American West was rejected at the Ghent peace conference and never resurfaced. After 1814 the natives, who lost most of their fur gathering territory, HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

became an undesirable burden to British policymakers who now looked to the United States for markets and raw materials. British agents in the field continued to meet regularly with their former American Indian partners, but they did not supply arms or encouragement and there were no American Indian campaigns to stop U.S. expansionism in the Midwest. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, American Great Lakes-area Indians ultimately migrated or reached accommodations with the American authorities and settlers.[196]

In the Southeast, Indian resistance had been crushed by General Andrew Jackson during the Creek War; as President (1829–37), Jackson systematically expelled the major tribes to reservations west of the Mississippi.,[ Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

part of which was the forced expulsion of American-allied Cherokee in the trail of tears.

Bermuda had been largely left to the defences of its own militia and privateers prior to U.S. independence, but the Royal Navy had begun buying up land and operating from there in 1795, as its location was a useful substitute for the lost U.S. ports. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war saw it rise to a new prominence. As construction work progressed through the first half of the 19th century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty and serving as a base and dockyard. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the "Gibraltar of the West". Defence infrastructure would remain the central leg of Bermuda's economy until after World War II.

The massive ongoing conflict against the French Empire under Napoleon ensured that the War of 1812 was never seen as more than a sideshow to the main event by the British.[ HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Britain's blockade of French trade had been entirely successful and the Royal Navy was the world's dominant nautical power (and would remain so for another century). While the land campaigns had contributed to saving Canada, the Royal Navy had shut down American commerce, bottled up the U.S. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Navy in port and heavily suppressed privateering. British businesses, some affected by rising insurance costs, were demanding peace so that trade could resume.[199] The peace was generally welcomed by the British, though there was disquiet at the rapid growth of the U.S. However, the two nations quickly resumed trade after the end of the war and, over time, a growing friendship.Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

f their fur gathering territory, became an undesirable burden to British policymakers who now looked to the United States for markets and raw materials. British agents in the field continued to meet regularly with their former American Indian partners, but they did not supply arms or encouragement and there were no American Indian campaigns to stop U.S. expansionism in the Midwest. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

 Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, American Great Lakes-area Indians ultimately migrated or reached accommodations with the American authorities and settlers.[196]

 In the Southeast, Indian resistance had been crushed by General Andrew Jackson during the Creek War; as President (1829–37), Jackson systematically expelled the major tribes to reservations west of the Mississippi.,[19Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

7] part of which was the forced expulsion of American-allied Cherokee in the trail of tears.

Bermuda had been largely left to the defences of its own militia and privateers prior to U.S. independence, but the Royal Navy had begun buying up land and operating from there in 1795, as its location was a useful substitute for the lost U.S. ports. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war saw it rise to a new prominence. As construction work progressed through the first half of the 19th century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty and serving as a base and dockyard. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the "Gibraltar of the West". Defence infrastructure would remain the central leg of Bermuda's economy until after World War II.

The massive ongoing conflict against the French Empire under Napoleon ensured that the War of 1812 was never seen as more than a sideshow to the main event by the British.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Britain's blockade of French trade had been entirely successful and the Royal Navy was the world's dominant nautical power (and would remain so for another century). While the land campaigns had contributed to saving Canada, the Royal Navy had shut down American commerce, bottled up the U.S. Navy in port and heavily suppressed privateering. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

British businesses, some affected by rising insurance costs, were demanding peace so that trade could resume.[199] The peace was generally welcomed by the British, though there was disquiet at the rapid growth of the U.S. However, the two nations quickly resumed trade after the end of the war and, over time, a growing friendship. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

that the 'disgusting Spaniards' lost 14,000 men at Medellín. By the time a thunderstorm ended to the carnage, at least 8,000 Spanish were dead and another 2,000 taken prisoner. Victor's soldiers carried off nine standards and twenty guns. Estimates of the French losses range between 300 and 2,000 men.[100]

 On 27 March, Spanish forces defeated the French at Vigo, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

and the French troops at Marín and Pontevedra were forced to retreat to Santiago de Compostela for fear of being outflanked. The Spanish force that besieged Vigo was based around a division of new troops called the División del Miño. Hall wrote:"On reaching the camp ... we found the patriot army exercising by divisions ... Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

When we approached a general halt was ordered, and those who had muskets presented them as well they might, while those who had none went through the motions well with their pikes or staves formed out of scythes and reaping hooks ... Under our auspices the peasantry continued to flock in from the adjacent country ...  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

we could supply a twentieth part of these patriots with arms ... And that small fraction not being supplied with officers, or disciplined, or organised in any way, it was like children playing at soldiers."[101]

Spanish forces took the initiative and most of the cities in the province of Pontevedra were recaptured. In February 1809, Reding led a reconstituted army against the French right wing and, HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

after vigorous marching and counter-marching, took a stand at the Battle of Valls and was ridden down and wounded by French cavalry.

Wellesley returned to Portugal in April 1809 to command the Anglo-Portuguese forces. He strengthened the British army with Portuguese regiments trained byGeneral Beresford and helped them adapt to the British campaign style. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

These new forces turned Soult out of Portugal at the Battle of Grijó (10–11 May) and theSecond Battle of Porto (12 May), and the other northern cities were recaptured by General Silveira. With Portugal in revolt, Soult seemed doomed, but he escaped without his heavy equipment by marching through the mountains to Orense.[99] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

On 7 June, the French army of Marshal Michel Ney was defeated at the Battle of Puente Sanpayo by Spanish forces under the command of Colonel Pablo Morillo, and Ney and his forces retreated to Lugo on 9 June while being harassed by Spanish guerrillas. In Lugo, Ney's troops joined up with those of Soult and these forces withdrew from Galicia in July 1809. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

This marked the final evacuation of Galicia by the French army and the creation of a new front.

With Portugal secured, Wellesley advanced into Spain to unite with General Cuesta's forces. The combined allied force prepared for an assault on Victor's I Corps at Talavera on 23 July. Cuesta was reluctant to agree, but was persuaded to advance on the following day.[102HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

] This delay gave the French time to withdraw. Cuesta sent his army after Victor, and was faced by the entire French army in New Castile, Victor having been reinforced by the Toledo and Madrid garrisons. The Spanish retreated, while two British divisions advanced to cover their retreat.[103]

On 27 July at the Battle of Talavera, the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times, but at a heavy cost to the British force. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Wellesley, ignoring Cuesta's urgings to proceed to a general attack, decided on a gradual retreat, leaving Talavera on 4 August. Wellesley was concerned about the imminent arrival of Soult with his army and was afraid of being cut off from his base in Portugal. He sent the Light Brigade to hold the bridge over the Tagus River at Almaraz and, on 8 August, Soult's army faced the Spanish army at Puente del Arzobispo. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

With communications and supply from Lisbon secured, Wellesley considered rejoining Cuesta, but considerable friction had developed between the British and the Spanish; after Talevera, the Spanish had abandoned the British wounded to the French. Also, actions taken by the Spanish forces resulted in Wellesley's strategic position being compromised. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

The Spanish had promised to provide supplies for the British if they advanced into Spain, but this was not done. The ensuing lack of supplies and the threat of French reinforcement in the spring led to the British decision to retreat into Portugal. By making this choice Wellesley was supported by the government perception about Talavera. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

About himself, London was all gratitude, and rewarded him with the peerage of Viscount Wellington. But considerations pointed to a careful course of action. The peace party accused the general of being outgeneraled, while insinuations were being made that Talavera was fought for no objective beyond getting an aristocratic title.[104] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

A string of embarrassments appeared about the excess of patronage where the principal exponents were the Duke of York and Lord Castlereagh. There was also much dissatisfaction with Wellington, as he was now known: considered an authoritarian, he also made himself more distrusted by writing about the conduct of theCabinet and what he perceived as not enough support from them.[105] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

By the summer of 1809, the Spanish Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom was coming under harsh criticism over its handling of the war. The Spanish people demanded that the ancient Cortes be summoned and the Junta agreed. But it was difficult to restore the old assembly and bring it into session. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

The Cádiz Cortes would be set up, but until then the Junta exercised power. Anxious to justify its continued existence, the Junta came up with what it hoped would be a war-winning strategy.[106] Undeterred by Wellesley's refusal to contribute British soldiers, the Junta planned to launch a two-pronged offensive to recapture Madrid. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

They replaced Pedro Caro with Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, Duke del Parque as commander of the troops in Galicia and Asturias. Del Parque soon massed 30,000 troops at Ciudad Rodrigo with more on the way. South of Madrid, Juan Carlos de Aréizaga assembled over 50,000 well-equipped men in the Army of La ManchaACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

The main efforts of Del Parque and Aréizaga would be aided by a third force that operated near Talavera de la Reina under José Miguel de la Cueva y de la Cerda, Duke of Albuquerque. The 10,000-man Talavera force was designed to hold French units in place while the main armies attacked Madrid.[107]

In the autumn of 1809, Del Parque's Army of the Left numbered 52,192 men in one cavalry and six infantry divisions. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Martin de la Carrera's Vanguard Division had 7,413 soldiers, Francisco Xavier Losada's 1st Division had 8,336, Conde de Belveder's 2nd Division had 6,759, Francisco Ballesteros's 3rd Division had 9,991, Nicolás de Mahy's 4th Division had 7,100, and Conde de Castrofuerte's 5th Division had 6,157. All infantry divisions included 14 battalions except the 3rd with 15 and the 5th with seven. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

The Prince of Anglona's Cavalry Division included 1,682 horsemen in six regiments. Ciudad Rodrigo was provided with a garrison of 3,817 troops and there was an unattached 937-man battalion.[108]

With Ney on leave, Jean Gabriel Marchand assumed command of the VI Corps, based at Salamanca. The corps had been forced out of Galicia earlier in 1809 and had been involved in the operations in the aftermath of the Battle of Talavera in July. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

After hard campaigning and a lack of reinforcements, VI Corps was in a poor condition to fight and Marchand's talents were not equal to those of Ney. Del Parque advanced from Ciudad Rodrigo in late September [109] with the divisions of La Carrera, Losada, Belveder, and Anglona. Marchand, overconfident and scornful of his Spanish adversaries, advanced on the village of Tamames, 56 kilometres (35 mi) southwest of Salamanca. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

In the Battle of Tamames on 18 October 1809, the French suffered an embarrassing defeat.[110] The French lost 1,400 killed and wounded out of 14,000 soldiers and 14 guns. Spanish casualties were 700 out of 21,500 men and 18 cannons. After the battle, Del Parque was joined by Ballesteros' division, giving him 30,000 troops. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

As the Spanish advanced, Marchand abandoned Salamanca and Del Parque's men occupied the city on 25 October.[111]

Marchand retreated north to Toro on the Duero River, where he was joined by François Étienne de Kellermann with 1,500 infantry in three battalions and a 3,000-trooper dragoon division. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Kellermann took command of the French force and marched upstream, crossing to the south bank at Tordesillas. Reinforced by General of Brigade Nicolas Godinot's force, Kellermann challenged Del Parque by marching on Salamanca. The Spaniard abandoned Salamanca and retreating to the south. In the meantime, the guerrillas in Province of León became very active. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

Kellermann left the VI Corps holding Salamanca and returned to León to stamp out the uprising.[112]

Albuquerque pinned down the French troops near Talavera as planned, but when he found that Aréizaga's army had been defeated at the Battle of Ocaña on 19 November, he withdrew out of reach of the French. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

Del Parque heard of the march of Godinot's and General of Brigade Pierre-Louis Binet de Marcognet's brigades toward Madrid. He had been instructed to join Albuquerque, he instead moved on Salamanca again, hustling one of the VI Corps brigades out of Alba de Tormes.[113] Del Parque occupied Salamanca on 20 November.[114] IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The French general withdrew behind the Duero and again rendezvoused with Kellermann. Hoping to get between Kellermann and Madrid, Del Parque advanced towards Medina del Campo. On 23 November at that town, Marcognet's brigade returned from Segovia while General of Brigade Mathieu Delabassée's brigade arrived from Tordesillas. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

At this moment, Del Parque's columns came into view and there was a skirmish at El Carpio. The French horsemen drove back the Spanish cavalry but were repulsed by Ballesteros' steady foot soldiers fighting in squares, prompting Marcognet and Delabassée to retreat.[115] On 24 November, Kellermann massed 16,000 French troops on the Duero near Valdestillas. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Outnumbered, the French prepared to defend themselves. But on this day the Army of the Left received news of the Ocaña disaster.[116] Understanding that the French could spare plenty of soldiers to track down his army, Del Parque fled south, intending to shelter in the mountains of central Spain.[117] On 25 November, Del Parque left so that Kellermann did not begin his pursuit until the next day. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

For two days, the French could not catch up with their adversaries but on the afternoon of 28 November, their light cavalry found the Army of the Left camped at Alba de Tormes.[116]

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