Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
9 mars 2013 6 09 /03 /mars /2013 06:42

Pittsburgh

In a 2012 ranking of 277 metropolitan areas in the United States, the American Lung Association ranked the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as having the sixth-worst pollution in both short-term and year-round particle pollution and the 20th worst ozone (smog) pollution. These rankings are disputed by the Allegheny County Health Department, since data from only one of Pittsburgh's 20 air quality monitors is considered by the ALA, without any context or averaging. Furthermore,  HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl Laptop Keyboard the monitor used is located immediately downwind and adjacent to U.S. Steel's Clairton Coke Works, the nation's largest coke plant.[105] Although the county was still below the "pass" threshold, the report demonstrated substantial improvement compared to previous decades on every measure of air quality. For example, there were more than 40 high ozone days reported between 1997 and 1999, a figure which fell to fewer than 15 between 2007 and 2009 and just 10 between 2008 and 2010.[106]TOSHIBA NSK-TN0SV Laptop Keyboard The Allegheny County Health Department also notes this improvement in air quality. Department spokesman Guillermo Cole stated that "It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county…We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years or more."[107]SONY VAIO VGN-FS620P/W Laptop Keyboard The local rivers have shown great improvement though continue to have levels of mercury and other pollutants exceeding EPA limits. Comparatively fish catches in the city in 2007 were found to be more than twice as free of pollutants than fish catches on the Canadian side of Lake Erie and six times as free of pollutants than New York border area Allegheny River fish catches.[108] These relatively positive results are concerns about local storm sewers and waste treatment plantsfrequently overflowing untreated sewage into local waterways due to flood conditions and antiquated infrastructure. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The city boasts 31,000 trees on 900 miles of streets, by the last count conducted in 2005. A 2011 analysis of Pittsburgh’s total tree cover, which involved sampling more than 200 small plots throughout the city, showed a value of between $10 and $13 million in annual benefits based on the "urban forest" contributions to aesthetics, energy use and air quality. Energy savings from shade, impact on city air and water quality and the boost in property values were taken into account in the analysis. The city spends $850,000/year on street tree planting and maintenance.[109]DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard The city can be broken down into the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,[110] and four main areas surrounding it. These four surrounding areas are further subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (in total, Pittsburgh contains 90 neighborhoods[111]). These areas, relative to downtown, are known as the North Side, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Downtown Pittsburgh is tight and compact, featuring many skyscrapers, nine of which top 500 feet (150 m). U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest at 841 ft (256 m).[112] The Cultural District comprises a 14-block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. It is packed with theaters and arts venues, and is seeing a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on Riverparc, a four-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers between 20 and 30 stories. The Firstside portion of downtown borders the Monongahela River and the historic Mon Wharf. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard This area is home to the distinctive PPG Place Gothic glass skyscraper complex. This area too, is seeing a growing residential sector, as new condo towers are constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use. Downtown is serviced by the Port Authority's light rail and multiple bridges leading north and south.[113] It is also home toPoint Park University, The Art Institute of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Culinary Institute, a former Robert Morris University branch campus (bought by Duquesne University in 2011) and Duquesne University which is located on the border of Downtown and Uptown. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard sburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh. Allegheny City merged with Pittsburgh under great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca Laptop Keyboard The North Side is also home to many popular attractions such as Heinz Field, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory installation art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, Highmark SportsWorks, Penn Brewery and Allegheny Observatory. The North Side is also home to Allegheny General Hospital, listed among the 1999 US News & World Report 2000 best hospitals nationwide. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The South Side was once an area composed primarily of dense inexpensive housing for mill workers, but has in recent years become a local Pittsburgher destination. The South Side is one of the most popular neighborhoods in which to own a home in Pittsburgh. The value of homes in the South Side has increased in value by about 10% annually[citation needed] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard for the past 10 years. The South Side's East Carson Street is one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, pulsing nightlife and live music venues. In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property, and worked together with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development including a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers indoor practice fields. Construction began in 1998, and the Southside Works is now open for business with many store, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters.[114]ACER NSK-H361D Laptop Keyboard The East End is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History, Frick Art & Historical Center (Clayton and the Frick art museum),Phipps Conservatory, Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods ofShadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods featuring large shopping/business districts. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Oakland, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, Schenley Park and the Petersen Events Center. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers, which is expected to benefit from the recent new construction of a new Children's Hospital. The Strip District is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods like Sheraden and Elliott. Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain an ethnic character reflecting the city's immigrant history. These include: HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages giving a more characteristic suburban feel, while other aforementioned neighborhoods, such as Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by a more diverse, urban feel. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard As of the census of 2000,[119] there were 334,563 people, 143,739 households, and 74,169 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,019.0 people per square mile (2,324.1/km2). There are 163,366 housing units at an average density of 2,939.1 per square mile (1,134.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 67.63% White, 27.12% African American, 2.75% Asian, 0.19%Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from other races, and 1.61% from two or more races. HP G62-b10SQ Laptop Keyboard Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.32% of the population. As of the American Community Survey Three-Year Estimate of 2006–2008, the city's population was 67.0% White (65.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 26.5% Black or African American, 1.0% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.5% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.7% from some other race and 2.1% from two or more races. 1.8% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[120]DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard The five largest White ethnic groups in the city of Pittsburgh are German (19.7%), Irish (15.8%), Italian (11.8%), Polish (8.4%), and English (4.6%), while the metropolitan area is approximately 22% German, and 21% Irish, and 12% Italian . Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian communities in the nation,[121] and also has the nation's fifth largest Ukrainian community[122] and the largestCroatian community in the USA. In the metro Pittsburgh area live more than 200,000 Croatian descendants[citation needed]. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard There were 143,739 households, out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.95. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard In the city the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 14.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. Males had a median income of $32,128 versus $25,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,816. About 15.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.5% of those under the age of 18 and 13.5% ages 65 or older. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 2002, it was estimated that Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.S. in terms of number of residents 25 years or older who had completed a Bachelor's degree, with 31% of such people having completed the degree.[123] The same study ranked Pittsburgh 15th of the 69 places in terms of number of residents 25 years or older who have completed a high school degree, with a figure of 84.7%.[124]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The metro area has shown greater residential integration during the last 30 years. According to the 2010 census 18 other U.S. metros rank as having greater black-white segregation while 32 other U.S. metros rank higher for black-white isolation.[125] Within city limits both Carlow University[126] and Chatham University[127] have residential gender segregation above 90%, as Duquesne University[128] and Point Park University[129] both have female populations at 60% or greater as Carnegie Mellon University has a 60% male population.[130]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard The largest law enforcement agency in the region is the Pittsburgh Police, with close to 1,000 sworn officers. Concurrent with the jurisdiction of Allegheny County is the County Police (primarily parks and airports) the Port Authority police for rapid transit, the housing and school police, and suburban departments. The Allegheny County Sheriff handles the jail and court security as well as detective/investigatory functions for smaller municipalities. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard The lead law enforcement officer for the county is Allegheny County District Attorney Stephen Zappala. Major crimes of a Federal nature is covered by the U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania. 2011 Per 100,000 persons Statistics*:TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard The growth of Pittsburgh and its economy was caused by the extensive trade in steel through the 1970s. Pittsburgh has since adapted to the collapse of the region's steel industry. The primary industries have shifted more to high technology, such asrobotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, and services. As of 2007, the total annual payroll of the region's technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeded $10.8 billion,[134]DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard and as of 2010, there were 1,600 technology companies.[12] Reflecting the citywide shift from industry to technology, some former factories have been directly renovated into modern office space. For example, Google operates an office in a former Nabisco factory, a complex known as Bakery Square.[135] Some of the factory's original equipment, such as a large dough mixer, were left standing in homage to the site's industrial roots.[136] Pittsburgh's generally successful shift away from its industrial past has led to it being characterized as "the poster child for managing industrial transition".[137] Other major cities in the northeast and mid-west have increasingly borrowed from Pittsburgh's model in order to renew their industries and economic base.[138]TOSHIBA Satellite L355 laptop keyboard Pittsburgh has grown its economic base in recent years to include technology, retail, finance, education, and medicine. Medicine in particular constitutes a large proportion of total employment in the city. The largest single employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with 48,000 employees. Combining that figure with all other hospital, outpatient clinic, and doctor's office positions, yields a count of 116,000 jobs, approximately 10% of the jobs in the region. One analyst has noted that "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s."[139]TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4777 laptop keyboard Education is another major industry in the region. The largest single employer in that industry is the University of Pittsburgh, with 10,700 employees.[140] Pittsburgh still maintains its status as a corporate headquarters city, with eight Fortune 500 companies calling the city home. This ranks Pittsburgh in a tie for the eighth most Fortune 500 headquarters in the nation.[141] In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[142]Packard Bell Easynote LM85 laptop keyboard Several Fortune 500 corporations have headquarters in the city or the surrounding area (9 by the 2012 count). These include PNC Financial Services, PPG Industries, U.S. Steel, H. J. Heinz Company, Mylan Laboratories (Located in suburban Canonsburg), WESCO International, CONSOL Energy (Located in suburban Cecil Township), and Dick's Sporting Goods (Located in suburban Findlay Township).[143]COMPAQ 486904-001 laptop keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite A105 Series laptop keyboard Pittsburgh and the surrounding region is also home to Allegheny Technologies, American Eagle Outfitters, Kennametal, Atlas America, Bayer USA and the operations center of Alcoa. Other major employers include BNY Mellon, GlaxoSmithKline, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Lanxess. The city and the surrounding region serve as the Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Nova Chemicals, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, FedEx Ground, Ariba, and the RAND Corporation. HP Mini 110-1119NR laptop keyboard 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle,Highmark, Rue 21, and Genco Supply Chain Solutions are major non-public companies with headquarters in the region. Other major companies headquartered in Pittsburgh include General Nutrition Center (GNC) and CNX Gas (CXG), a subsidiary of Consol Energy. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner being manufactured and supplied in Pittsburgh by area based companies.[144]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180D laptop keyboard The nonprofit arts and cultural industry in Allegheny County generates $341 million in economic activity and supports over 10,000 full-time equivalent jobs. Revenues of nearly $34 million are generated through local and state tax.[145] The region is also becoming a hub for natural gas and oil extraction in the Marcellus Shale formation.[146][147]ACER Aspire 5742Z laptop keyboard Among the professional music venues, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra performs in Heinz Hall, and the Pittsburgh Operaperforms in the Benedum Center. Both The Benedum Center and Heinz Hall provide venues for other groups, such as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra. Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues and bluegrass music. Lenovo 45N2106 laptop keyboard Additionally the National Negro Opera Company was founded in Pittsburgh, and was the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera. Pittsburgh has a number of small and mid-size arts organizations supported by individuals, local foundations, and the Allegheny Regional Asset District. Examples include Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Quantum Theatre, the Renaissance and Baroque Society of Pittsburgh, and the early music ensemble Chatham Baroque. TOSHIBA 9J.N99282.D01 laptop keyboard Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the internationally famous Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance. HP Pavilion dv5-1130ef laptop keyboard Lifetime's reality television show, Dance Moms, is filmed at Abby Lee Dance Company in Pittsburgh. Several major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh in the 2000s and 2010s. The Dark Knight Rises was largely filmed in Pittsburgh, including the central business district, Oakland, and the North Shore. Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a LA based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the eastern United States.[148][149][150][151]Acer eMachines G730ZG laptop keyboard Pittsburgh museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art, the Frick Art & Historical Center, Pittsburgh Center for the Arts and the Mattress Factory. Installation art is featured outdoors at ArtGardens of Pittsburgh. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History has extensive dinosaur collections and an Ancient Egypt wing. The Carnegie Science Center is technology oriented. The Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum are located in the Strip District. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 laptop keyboard The unusual and eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown. There is a quarterly Gallery Crawl in the downtown area's cultural district that is free and open to the public to enjoy the local art scene as well as the Three Rivers Arts Festival, which takes place in the same downtown area annually during the summer. ACER 9Z.N3K82.01D laptop keyboard The city is also served by the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium, Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, and the National Aviary. Pittsburgh is home to one of the several licensed casinos in the state. The Rivers Casino is located in the North Shoreneighborhood immediately west of Carnegie Science Center and Heinz Field. Its southern flank faces the Ohio River. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5363 laptop keyboard Pittsburgh's Wiz Khalifa is one of the first musical artists from Pittsburgh in recent memory to have a record at number one. His anthem "Black and Yellow" (which is itself a tribute Pittsburgh; black and yellow being the colors of the city's flag) reached number one on Billboard's "Hot 100"[152] for the Week of February 19, 2011[153] Not since grammy-winning[154] blues guitarist George Benson, has a Pittsburgh musical artist received such national acclaim. Crooner Perry Como and pop singerChristina Aguilera are from Pittsburgh suburbs. From the East End neighborhood of Point Breeze is the hip-hop artist Mac Miller who recently had his debut album Blue Slide Park reach number 1 on the Billboard's album chart; the first independent artist to do this since Snoop Dogg in 1995. DELL Inspiron 500m Laptop Keyboard Many Punk Rock and Hardcore acts, such as Aus Rotten and Anti-Flag, originated in Pittsburgh. Theatre has existed professionally in Pittsburgh since the early 1800s. Companies include Attack Theatre, Bald Theatre Company, barebones productions, Bricolage Production Company, City Theatre, Jewish Theatre of Pittsburgh, Phase 3 Productions, Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Pittsburgh Musical Theater, Pittsburgh Playwrights Theatre Company,Pittsburgh Public Theater, Prime Stage Theatre, Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, Quantum Theatre, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Hiawatha Project, Cup-A-Jo Productions, Organic Theater Pittsburgh, 12 Peers Theater, Three Rivers Theatre Company, Throughline Theatre Company, Comtra Theater, No Name Players, Terra Nova Theatre Group, Caravan Theatre of Pittsburgh, Carrnivale Theatrics, Theatre Sans Serif,The Summer Company, Stage Right, Unseam'd Shakespeare Company and Saltworks Theatre Company. Collegiate companies include the University of Pittsburgh's Repertory Theatre and Kuntu Repertory Theatre, Point Park University's resident companies at itsPittsburgh Playhouse, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard and Carnegie Mellon University's School of Drama productions and Scotch'n'Soda organization. The city's longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other locations for 20 years. The Pittsburgh New Works Festival utilizes local theatre companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays. Saint Vincent Summer Theatre, Off the Wall Productions, Mountain Playhouse, The Theatre Factory, and Stage Right! in nearby Latrobe, Carnegie, Jennerstown, Trafford, and Greensburg, respectively, employ Pittsburgh actors and contribute to the culture of the region. FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh is the birthplace of Gertrude Stein and Rachel Carson, a Chatham College (now Chatham University) graduate from the Pittsburgh suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania.[155] Modern writers include Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright August Wilson and Michael Chabon with his Pittsburgh-focused commentary on student and college life. Two-time Pultizer Prize winner and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, David McCullough was born and raised in Pittsburgh.[156]DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard Annie Dillard, a Pultizer Prize winning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Much of her memoir An American Childhood takes place in post-World War II Pittsburgh. Poet Michael Simms, founder of Autumn House Press, currently resides in the Mount Washington neighborhood of Pittsburgh. Poet Samuel John Hazo, the first poet Laureate of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, also resides in the city.John Edgar Wideman grew up in Pittsburgh and based "Brothers and Keepers," a National Book Critics awarded novel in his hometown. New writers include Chris Kuzneski who attended the University of Pittsburgh and mentions Pittsburgh in his books. Pittsburgh's unique literary style extends to playwrights,[157] as well as local graffiti and hip hop artists. HP Mini 110-1169TU Laptop Keyboard There are also specific Pittsburgh genres, most notably both the fantasy, macabre and science fiction genre popularized by film director George A. Romero, television personality Bill Cardille's Chiller Theatre,[158] film director and writer Rusty Cundieff[159] and makeup effects guru Tom Savini.[160] Today, the genre continues through the PARSEC writers organization[161] and several local Writer's Workshops including Write or Die,[162] The Pittsburgh SouthWrites,[163]and the Pittsburgh Worldwrights[164] founded by Mary Soon Lee[165] and continued by protegees Barton Paul Levenson, Kenneth Chiacchia, Chris Ferrier, Robert L. Nansel and the poet Elizabeth Humphreys Penrose. Mark Menold[166] showcases the classic Pittsburgh zombie tradition through cinematic and televised works on The It's Alive Show and by holding the annual "Zombie Fest".DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard In stark contrast to the Romero-Savini type product, Pittsburgh's position as the birthplace for community owned television and networked commercial television helped spawn the modern children's show genres exemplified by Mister Rogers' NeighborhoodWhere in the World is Carmen Sandiego?Happy's PartyCappelli & Company and The Children's Corner, all nationally broadcast. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard The Pittsburgh English dialect, commonly called Pittsburghese, was influenced by Scots-Irish, Welsh, German, Central European and Eastern European immigrants. Locals who speak the dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers" (from the local word "yinz" [var. yunz], a blended form of "you ones", similar to "y'all" and "you all" in the South). Common Pittsburghese terms are: slippy (slippery), redd up (clean up), and gum bands (rubber bands). The dialect is also notable for dropping the verb "to be". ACER K032130A1 Laptop Keyboard In Pittsburghese, for example, one would say "the car needs washed" instead of "needs to be washed", "needs washing", or "needs a wash". The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects (e.g., Erie, Baltimore), but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms. The staccato qualities of the Pittsburgh dialect have been suggested to originate either from Welsh or from Eastern European immigrants. It has so many local peculiarities that the New York Times described Pittsburgh as, "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect."[167] The lexicon itself contains notable loans fromPolish and other Slavic and European languages; examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky.[168]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation's most livable cities. After placing fourth and first in the first two editions of Places Rated Almanac, Pittsburgh finished third in 1989, fifth in 1993, 14th in 1997 and 12th in 2000, before reclaiming the number one spot in 2007.[46] The survey's primary author, David Savageau, has noted that Pittsburgh is the only city to finish in the top 20 of every edition.  HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard In 2005, 2009 and 2011, Pittsburgh was named most livable city in the United States and in those years, between the 26th and 29th most livable city worldwide by The Economist.[48][169] Pittsburgh ranked No. 28 in the book Cities Ranked and Rated(2004) by Bert Sperling and Peter Sander. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, Forbes and Yahoo! listed Pittsburgh as the most livable city in the United States.[47][170] One month later, Forbesnamed Pittsburgh the 7th best place to raise a family.[171] In August 2010, Pittsburgh was ranked the 4th best city for working mothers by Forbes[172] and the city was ranked as one of the best for entrepreneurs by Entrepreneur.[173] Also, in 2007, Forbes magazine named Pittsburgh, in an eight-way tie, the 10th cleanest city in the world.[174] In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS Money Watch and U.S. News.[175][176] In February 2013 Forbes again placed Pittsburgh as a top city on its list of 10 most romantic world locations.[177]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Livability rankings typically consider factors such as cost of living, crime, and cultural opportunities. Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other cities in the northeastern U.S. The average price for a 3- to 4-bedroom, 2-bath family home in Pittsburgh is $162,000, which is well below the national average of $264,540, as of October 2004, according to the Federal Housing Finance Board. In addition, average rent for all bedrooms in Pittsburgh was $789 at the end of the first quarter of 2010. This compares to the nationwide average of $1087.[178] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Another factor enhancing Pittsburgh's livability is that area residents face very little risk of encountering a natural disaster such as an earthquake, hurricane, wildfire, or tornado. In 2009, Forbes ranked Pittsburgh as having the second lowest natural disaster risk in the nation compared to other cities.[179]Greater Pittsburgh is not entirely free of natural disasters, however. Residents living in extremely low-lying areas near the three rivers or near one of the 1,400 creeks and streams of the region experience occasional floods,[180] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard such as those caused when the remnants of Hurricane Ivan dumped record rainfalls on the region in 2004.[181] Flooding on the three rivers is relatively rare due to federal flood control efforts on the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, which are extensively managed with locks, dams, and reservoirs.[180][182][183] Residents living near smaller tributary streams are less protected from occasional flooding, however, and the cost of a comprehensive flood control program for the region has been estimated to run a prohibitive $50 billion.[180] HP Pavilion dm3t Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Before the city transitioned from an industrial economy to a service economy, it was characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia",[184]:167 a designation which made it an anomaly compared to much of Appalachia in the 20th century, which was traditionally characterized as southern, rural, and economically distressed.[184]:167 In its post-industrial state, Pittsburgh has now been characterized as the "Paris of Appalachia",[185][186][187][188][189] recognizing the city's cultural resources such as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Symphony, and the Pittsburgh Opera, as well as its service economy built upon education, healthcare, and technology. SONY VAIO VGN NR460E laptop keyboard Pittsburgh is by far the largest metropolitan area in Appalachia proper. The next largest metropolitan area isBirmingham, Alabama, which is about half of Pittsburgh's size. While the city's status as an Appalachian city is largely undisputed, the city has been described as not belonging culturally to any of the major "regions" of the United States such as the Midwest or the East Coast.[185]:13 Pittsburgh lies only a few dozen miles from the spot where the physical boundaries of three major regions of the United States converge (40°38′19.67″N 80°31′8.37″W), namely the Northeastern United States, the Midwestern United States, and the Southern United States,[190] and in straddling these boundaries, it borrows cultural influences from a variety of sources.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa laptop keyboard Joseph Scarpaci, professor emeritus of geography at Virginia Tech, has described Pittsburgh as having "one foot in the East…and the other in the Midwest".[184]:1 In his 2009 book The Paris of Appalachia, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette writer Brian O'Neill meditates on this aspect of Pittsburgh's regional and cultural ambiguity. The title of the book is intentionally provocative: Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard "The Paris of Appalachia" some have called Pittsburgh derisively, because it's still the largest city along this gorgeous mountain chain that needs a better press agent. I've long felt we should embrace that title, though few are with me. Several tried to talk me out of slapping it on the cover, but were we called "The Paris of the Rockies," we wouldn't run from it. Sometimes we're so afraid of what others think, we're afraid to say who we are. This city is not Midwestern. It's not East Coast. It's just Pittsburgh, and there's no place like it. That's both its blessing and its curse.[185]:13SONY VGN-FE41S laptop keyboard DELL V119525BS1 laptop keyboard Historically Pittsburgh has been grouped in the "rust belt",[191] however reflective of the rebound of the region within the last generation the metro area has come to be associated with the newly rebranded "Great Lakes Basin" gaining representation in the Great Lakes Metro Chamber Coalition,[192] while the "America 2050" organization claims that Pittsburgh is one of the "principal cities" of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[193] This is despite the fact that the city is about 120 miles (190 km) from Lake Erie. Acer eMachines G730ZG laptop keyboard Pittsburgh's association with the Great Lakes region is due in part to its economic, demographic and commuter connections to Great Lakes cities like Cleveland, Erie, Toledo and even Detroit. Christopher Briem, an economist at the University of Pittsburgh's University Center for Social and Urban Research, has noted that southwestern Pennsylvania is "far more interconnected" with northeastern Ohio than it is with the eastern half of Pennsylvania, and that the industries of Pittsburgh are primarily linked to Ohioan cities such as Youngstown, Akron, and Cleveland, not to Pennsylvanian cities such as Allentown, Scranton, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard or Philadelphia.[194] He notes that, conversely, the population centers of northeastern Ohio are primarily connected with Pittsburgh and only secondarily connected to the state capital of Columbus. Briem argues that "In so many ways the state boundaries we think of as important are no more than lines on a map."[194] In recognizing their economic interdependence, Briem has popularized the term "Cleveburgh" to refer collectively to the cities of Cleveland and Pittsburgh, along with the smaller towns dotting the corridor of I-76 between the cities.[194][195][196][197][198] Robert Lang and Arthur Nelson of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech also identify the region between Cleveland and Pittsburgh as being an interconnected "megapolitan area" and refer to it as the "Steel Corridor".[199]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The scope of Pittsburgh's metropolitan influence on the surrounding area is of more than just academic interest. For example, the organization "Power of 32" focuses on addressing the issues of the 32-county metropolitan area roughly centered on Pittsburgh—a region which includes portions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland. Despite being divided into four states and three Census Bureau—defined regions, this area functions as an interdependent economic region.[200] DELL Latitude D820 Laptop Keyboard Power of 32 asserts that "[t]he 32-county region has common challenges and opportunities in the global economy, but is larger than the scope of any one single political entity, authority, or organization",[201] and that "[t]he only thing we find at artificial boundaries are problems, not solutions."[202]Power of 32 is supported in its efforts by "30 to 40 other foundations"[200] and funded by several Pittsburgh-area endowments including the Richard King MellonFoundation and The Heinz Endowments.[200]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Several teams are followed widely in the Pittsburgh area, which Sporting News named the "Best Sports City" in the United States in 2009.[203] In 2013 Sperling's Best Places also named the city among the top 15 cities for baseball.[204] Besides major pro teams in baseball, football and hockey, the University of Pittsburgh's football and basketball teams have large fanbases. Robert Morris and Duquesne provide Division I basketball as well and nearby Penn State and West Virginia University have a number of fans in the Pittsburgh region. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh's dedication to sports has a long history. All of its major professional sports teams—the Steelers of the National Football League, the Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Pirates of Major League Baseball[205]—share the same team colors, theofficial city colors of black and gold. This tradition of solidarity is unique to the city of Pittsburgh. The black-and-gold color scheme has since become widely associated with the city and personified in its famous Terrible Towel. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team, often referred to as the Bucs or sometimes the Buccos (derived from buccaneer), is the city's oldest professional sports franchise having been founded in 1882, and plays in the Central Division of the National League. The Pirates are nine-time National League Pennant winners and five-time World Series Champions. The Pirates played in the first World's Series in 1903, losing to the Boston Americans, and won in 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971,  IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard as well as in their most recent World Series appearance against the Baltimore Orioles in 1979. The team claims two pre-World Series titles in 1901 and 1902. The Pirates play in PNC Park, which is annually ranked as one of the most beautiful Major League baseball parks because of its location on the banks of the Allegheny River and the view of the Pittsburgh skyline. An ESPN.com feature remarked that "[t]his is the perfect blend of location, history, design, comfort and baseball…GATEWAY NV-59 Laptop Keyboard The best stadium in baseball is in Pittsburgh."[206] PNC Park hosted the All-Star game in 2006. Pittsburgh also has a rich history in Negro League baseball teams with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays credited with as many as 14 league titles and 11 Hall of Famers between them. In addition, the Pittsburgh Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-nonwhite lineup in 1971. One sportswriter claimed, "No city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."[207] The Pittsburgh Pirates also hold the MLB record for most consecutive losing seasons, not having won a majority of their games since the end of their three-year playoff streak in 1992. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Football is the most popular and tradition laden sport in the region with the nation's first-ever professional game being played in the city on November 12, 1892 between the Allegheny Athletic Association and the Pittsburgh Athletic Club, as well as the first pro-team in nearby Latrobe and first organized league, the NFL and their inaugural champions the Pittsburgh Stars. SONY 148024022 Laptop Keyboard High school games routinely get over 10,000 fans per contest and extensive press coverage. The Tom Cruise film All the Right Moves and ESPN's documentary Bound for Glory with Dick Butkus, both filmed in the region, capture the tradition and passion of high school football in the Pittsburgh Tri-State. College football is also popular, with the majority of residents supporting the local Division I (FBS) Panthers of the University of Pittsburgh, often referred to as "Pitt", HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard who compete in the Big East Conference. Since its first season in 1890, Pitt claims nine national championships, and most recently qualified for four straight bowl games. Pittsburgh is the closest major city/media market to both Penn State University and West Virginia University, with WVU considered part of the media market. Local universities Duquesne and Robert Morris have loyal fan bases that follow their lower (FCS) teams. Duquesne, Carnegie Mellon University and Washington & Jefferson College all posted major bowl games and AP Poll rankings from the 1920s to the 1940s as that era's equivalent of Top 25 FBS programs. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard The most popular team in the city is the NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers. The Steelers are more than a sports team to the region and its diaspora; many have noted that news of the team has preempted media coverage of elections and other major events. The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team's founding in 1933, show consistency in coaching (only three coaches since the 1960s all with the same basic philosophy) and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises on and off the field. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The Steelers have a long waiting list for season tickets, and have sold out every home game since 1972.[208] The team won four Super Bowls in a six-year span in the 1970s, a fifth Super Bowl in 2006, and a league recordsixth Super Bowl in 2009. Since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970 they have qualified for more playoff berths (25) and have played in (15) and hosted (11) more conference championship games than any other NFL franchise. Heinz Field serves as the home field for both the Steelers and Pitt Panthers,  TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4777 laptop keyboard as well as the title rounds of both the suburban and city high school football championships. Other professional football teams include the Pittsburgh Power, an Arena Football team scheduled to begin play in the Consol Energy Center in April 2011, and are heirs to the Pittsburgh Gladiators who hosted ArenaBowl I in the city, competing in two total.[209] Professional women's football team the Pittsburgh Passion has existed since 2002 plays its home games at Newman Stadium, and the city also boasted the Ed Debartolo owned Pittsburgh Maulers featuring a Heisman Trophy winner in the mid-1980s. TOSHIBA Satellite U305 laptop keyboard Ice hockey in Pittsburgh has become increasingly popular on both the amateur and professional levels during the last few decades of the 20th century, and has had a regional fan base since the semi-pro Pittsburgh Keystones of the 1890s and the first decade of the 20th century. The world's first artificial ice rink debuted in Pittsburgh at Schenley Gardens in 1898 and was later improved at the Duquesne Gardens. In 1924, the city was awarded one of the NHL's first franchises on the strength of its back-to-back USAHA championship winning Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets featuring future Hall of Famers and a Stanley Cup winning coach. HP G61-632NR laptop keyboard The NHL's Pittsburgh Pirates, who were the first Pittsburgh pro team to don the "black and gold", made several Stanley Cup playoff runs and featured a future Hall of Famer. With the Great Depression of the 1930s, the Pirates folded from financial pressures, but hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets farm team from the 1930s to 1967. The franchise qualified for the finals seven times and hoisted championship banners three times (1952, 1955, 1967); all in an era where only the "original six" were in the NHL and "farm team" talent (especially Calder Cup champions) exceeded the level on most modern day NHL playoff teams. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-PS03UK laptop keyboard In 1967, the NHL doubled its teams from six to twelve and the Pittsburgh Penguins were born. The Penguins have won fourEastern Conference championships (1991, 1992, 2008, and 2009) and three Stanley Cup championships in 1991, 1992, and 2009. Known by their fans as the Pens, the Penguins are owned by Hall of Famer Mario Lemieux, a back-to-back playoffs MVP for the Pens from 1984 to 2006. From 1967 until 2010 they played their home games at one of the NHL's oldest venues, HP G42-396TX laptop keyboard and the first retractable domed stadium in the world, Civic Arena, or in local parlance "The Igloo". The Consol Energy Center replaced the "igloo" in the 2010–2011 NHL season. Robert Morris University also fields a Division I college hockey team at the RMU Island Sports Center, and much like 100 years ago, Pittsburgh is a hotbed for semi-pro and amateur teams, with the success of the Penguins fanning interest in the sport. The number of pro-grade ice rinks have increased in the region such as the Rostraver Ice Garden and Iceoplex at Southpointe, and several native Pittsburgh players have entered the NHL recently citing the success of Pens in the late 1980s and 1990s as spurring their interest in the sport. HP Pavilion dv6-2160et laptop keyboard The Pittsburgh Hornets, Pittsburgh Junior Penguins, Pittsburgh Predators, and the Pittsburgh Viper Stars are tier 1 AAA teams in the city of Pittsburgh. All the teams have been in the top 50 rankings in the nation. Pittsburgh Hornets have been ranked top 20 in the nation for the last 7 years. ACER TravelMate 2800 Series laptop keyboard Professional basketball has played a role in the city's sports landscape since the 1910s, with "Monticello" and "Loendi" winning five national championships in the "Black Fives" league, the Pittsburgh Ironmen (inaugural season of the NBA), the Pittsburgh Rens (early 1960s), the Pittsburgh Pipers (first American Basketball Association championship in 1968), the Pittsburgh Condors (1968-1970), Pittsburgh Piranhas (CBA Finals in 1995), and recently the Pittsburgh Xplosionand Pittsburgh Phantoms (both of the ABA)  Packard Bell Easynote TK87 laptop keyboard Collegiate basketball's fanbase was fueled since the early 20th century by the Dukes of Duquesne University and the Panthersof the University of Pittsburgh. During the 1940s to the 1970s, Duquesne was the city's most successful men's college basketball program. Appearing in the 1940 Final Four, the Dukes were the city's first college basketball team to obtain a number one ranking in the AP Poll in 1954,[210] and first to win a post-season college basketball tournament, the 1955 NIT, its second straight trip to the NIT title game. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 laptop keyboard The Pitt Panthers won two pre-tournament era Helms Athletic FoundationNational Championships in 1928 and 1930, competed in a "national title game" against LSU in 1935, and made a Final Four appearance in 1941. Since joining the Big East Conference in 1982, Pitt has regularly found a place among the top 25 NCAA teams, including a number one ranking for several weeks in 2009, and has made the NCAA Men's basketball tournament for the past nine seasons, reaching the Elite Eight ln 2009. HP Pavilion dv6-3019wm Laptop Keyboard Pitt plays at the Peterson Events Center, which has been sold out every season since its opening in 2002. The school's student section refers to itself as the "Oakland Zoo", a reference to the Oakland section of the city where the university is located. Pitt and Duquesne play a heated inter-city rivalry, termed "The City Game", each season. Since the 1970s, the suburban-based Robert Morris University's Colonials have also competed in NCAA Division I basketball. Located in Moon Township close to the Pittsburgh International Airport, the team has made the NCAA Tournament every decade since the 1980s, including in 2010, while posting several conference titles. Robert Morris also plays games against Duquesne and Pitt. HP 496878-001 Laptop Keyboard Golf has deep roots in the area with the region boasting the oldest course in continuous use in the nation: Foxburg Country Club dating from 1887. The Oakmont Country Club of suburban Oakmont has hosted the U.S. Open championships (eight) more than any other course in the nation, as well as two U.S. Women's Openchampionships, three PGA Championships, and eight U.S. Amateurs. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard See also: List of people from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area#Golf Such golf legends as Arnold Palmer, Jim Furyk and Rocco Mediate learned the game and began their careers on Pittsburgh area courses. Other area courses such asLaurel Valley Golf Club and the Pittsburgh Field Club have hosted PGA Championships, the Ryder Cup, LPGA Championships and Senior PGA Championships. SONY VAIO VGN-FW180D Laptop Keyboard The city's vibrant rivers have attracted annual world title competitions of the Forrest Wood Cup in 2009 and the Bassmaster Classic in 2005. Annual events continue during the winter months at area ski resorts such as Boyce Park, Seven Springs, Hidden Valley and Wispas well as ice skating at PPG Place and North Park. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard The Pittsburgh Riverhounds are the city's professional soccer team playing in the second division of the USL. In the first division until 2004, the team reached the 2001 US Open quarterfinals after beating the Colorado of the MLS. HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh is home to the Gaelic football teams Celtics (men's) and Banshees (women's), founded in 1976 and 2002, respectively. The Celtics won the Midwest title in 2002, 2006, and won both the midwest and National titles in 2011. The Banshees won the Midwest title in 2004, 2005, and both the midwest and Junior B shield national title in 2011. The Pittsburgh Cricket Association, revived in 2004 from the long dormant 1882 Pittsburgh Cricket Club charter, comprises 16 active teams and more than 250 members. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Other teams include the Steel City Derby Demons, a roller derby team of the WFTDA and the NDL's Pittsburgh Punishers. Prior to the Civil War, Pittsburgh was largely in opposition t

o slavery. This sentiment culminated in Pittsburgh being selected as the birthplace of the national Republican Party, when the party held its first convention in February 1856. From the American Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. However, national economic turmoil combined with entrenched local GOP scandals by the 1930s brought to an end Republican rule. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1933, William N. McNair became the first Democrat to be elected mayor. With the exception of the 1973 and 1977 elections (where lifelong Democrats ran off the party ticket), Democratic candidates have been elected consecutively to the mayor's office since the Great Depression. Today, the ratio of Democratic to Republican registrations within the city is 5 to 1.[211]SONY 148738121 Laptop Keyboard The mayor and the nine-member council serve a four-year term. The government's official offices are located in the Pittsburgh City-County Building. After the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor in September 2006, City Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn in as the mayor of Pittsburgh at age 26, becoming the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. He served until a special mayoral election was held in November 2007, when he was re-elected.[212]TOSHIBA G83C0000EA10 Laptop Keyboard City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The members of the city council are: Darlene Harris (1), Theresa Kail-Smith (2), Bruce Kraus (3), Natalia Rudiak (4), Cory O'Conner (5), R. Daniel Lavelle (6),Patrick Dowd (7), Bill Peduto (8), and Rev. Ricky Burgess (9).[213] The president of city council is Darlene Harris, who was elected to the position on January 4, 2010.[214]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts and nine House Districts. Pittsburgh's State Senators include Jim Ferlo(38th District), Wayne D. Fontana (42), and Jay Costa (43). Representatives in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives include Jake Wheatley (19th District), Adam Ravenstahl (20), Dominic Costa (21), Chelsa Wagner (22), Dan Frankel (23), Ed Gainey (24), Dan Deasy (27), Paul Costa (34), and Harry Readshaw (36). SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 14th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Doyle, elected in 1994. The Pittsburgh Police Bureauis the law enforcement arm of the city and the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire is a major emergency response unit in Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh EMS provides emergency medical, heavy rescue and river rescue services to the city. ACER Aspire 5612 Laptop Keyboard By April 2008, the city and Allegheny County were discussing a plan to merge as early as 2009 in the interests of consolidating government and enhancing the status of the region.[215] If approved, the city of Pittsburgh would annex all of surrounding Allegheny County in a Metropolitan Government, and the population would stand at 1.2 million, making Pittsburgh the 10th largest city in the United States.[216] However, opposition to this plan is concerned of added bureaucracy of proposed "big government", inefficiencies and possible corruption will be extended to the newly annexed communities resulting in a loss of services and an increase in taxes due to higher debt service costs of the city. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5158 Laptop Keyboard The City of Pittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well-known of which areCarnegie Mellon University, Duquesne University, and the University of Pittsburgh. Also located in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, The Art Institute of Pittsburgh, and a branch campus of suburbanRobert Morris University as well as the Community College of Allegheny County, The Pennsylvania Culinary Institute, DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science. The greater Pittsburgh region boasts even more colleges and universities, includingClarion University of Pennsylvania, LaRoche College, Slippery Rock University, Westminster College and Grove City Collegenorth of the city, Robert Morris University and Geneva College west of the city, Washington & Jefferson College, California University of Pennsylvania and Waynesburg University to the south, and Seton Hill University, Saint Vincent College andIndiana University of Pennsylvania – the biggest state university – to the east. HP Pavilion DV6-1319tx laptop keyboard The campuses of Carlow University, Carnegie Mellon University, and the University of Pittsburgh are located adjacent to each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the traditional cultural and education center of the city. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie and is ranked No. 22 overall on US News & World Report list of America's Best National Universities.[217] Carnegie Mellon is globally respected for its computer science,engineering, business, economics, public policy, information systems, DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard fine arts, behavioral decision making,entrepreneurship, and psychology programs. The University of Pittsburgh, established in 1787 and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related school with one of the country's largest research programs.[218][219] Pitt is ranked as the 19th national public university by US News & World Report and 57th overall, and is known for its programs in philosophy,international studies, information science, engineering, business, law, medicine, and other biomedical and health-related sciences.[217][220][221][222][223]  HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard Carlow University is a small private Roman Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Chatham University, a liberal arts women's college with coeducational graduate programs, is located in the nearby Shadyside neighborhood, but also maintains a 400-acre (1.6 km2) Eden Hall Farm campus located in theNorth Hills. Duquesne University, a private Catholic university, is located in the Bluff neighborhood of Pittsburgh and is noted for its song and dance company, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard the Tamburitzans, as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy. Point Park University, which recently announced a major expansion of its downtown campus, is the youngest university in the city and well known for its Conservatory of Performing Arts and its operation of the Pittsburgh Playhouse. Robert Morris University is based in the suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania and maintains a satellite center in downtown Pittsburgh. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh Public Schools teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary offered to teachers with a BA ($34,300).[citation needed] Pittsburgh ranked fifth in the highest maximum salary offered to teachers with an MA ($66,380).[citation needed] Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori),Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Barack Obama Academy of International Studies 6-12, Pittsburgh Creative and Performing Arts 6–12, Pittsburgh Science and Technology Academy, and a school for the blind, The Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, or otherwise challenged children. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Private schools in Pittsburgh include North Catholic High School, Bishop Canevin High School, Seton-La Salle Catholic High School, Central Catholic High School,Oakland Catholic High School, Winchester Thurston School, St. Edmund's Academy, and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy maintains a PK–5 primary school campus in the Point Breeze neighborhood, in addition to its 6–12 middle and upper school campuses located in nearby suburban Fox Chapel. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh's University Library System, which rank 9th largest (public) and 18th largest (academic) in the nation, respectively.[224]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard There are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh: the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Alternative weekly papers in the region include the Pittsburgh City PaperPittsburgh CatholicThe Jewish Chronicle of PittsburghThe New People, and the New Pittsburgh Courier. Independent student-written university-based newspapers includeThe Pitt News of the University of Pittsburgh, The Tartan of Carnegie Mellon University, The Duquesne Duke of Duquesne University, and The Globe of Point Park University. The University of Pittsburgh School of Law is also home to JURIST, the world's only university-based legal news service. HP Pavilion dv5-1203em Laptop Keyboard The Pittsburgh metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).[225] The major network television affiliates are KDKA-TV 2 (CBS), WTAE 4 (ABC), WPXI 11 (NBC), WPGH-TV 53 (Fox), WPCW 19 (CW), WINP-TV 16 (Ion), WPMY 22 (MyNetworkTV), and WPCB 40 (Cornerstone). WBGN-CD 16 is an independent station owned and operated by the Bruno-Goodworth Network. ACER Aspire 7736ZG Laptop Keyboard WQED 13 is the local PBS station in Pittsburgh. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. The station has produced much original content for PBS, including Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, several National Geographic specials, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?[226]HP G56-127NR Laptop Keyboard There are a wide variety of radio stations serving the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA 1020 AM, also the world's first commercially licensed radio station, airing on November 2, 1920.[227] Other popular stations include KQV 1410 AM (news), WBGG 970 AM (sports), KDKA-FM 93.7 FM (sports), WKST-FM 96.1 FM (pop and hip-hop), WAMO-AM 660 AM (pop and hip-hop) WBZZ 100.7 FM ( Hot Adult Contemporary), WDVE 102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB 104.7 FM (talk), TOSHIBA Satellite M115 Series laptop keyboard and WXDX 105.9 FM (modern rock). There are also three public radio stations in the area; including WESA 90.5 FM (National Public Radio affiliate and jazz music station operated by Duquesne University), WQED 89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP 91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University(WRCT 88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh (WPTS 92.1 FM), and Point Park University (WPPJ 670 AM). ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard Following the passage of the Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit in 2006, activity in Pittsburgh's film industry rapidly accelerated, further diversifying the city and regional economy.[228] According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 123 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including The Mothman PropheciesWonder BoysDogmaHoffaThe Silence of the Lambs, and Zack and Miri Make a Porno. Pittsburgh became "Gotham City" in 2011 during filming of The Dark Knight Rises.[229][230] Horror director George A. Romero, a Pittsburgh native, has shot nearly all of his films in and around Pittsburgh, including the majority of his Living Dead series. Showtime's popular series Queer as Folk is also set in Pittsburgh, although actual filming is done in Toronto.[231]TOSHIBA Tecra A9 laptop keyboard Pittsburgh is a city of bridges with a total of 446—a world record for a city.[16] Pittsburgh has three bridges more thanVenice, Italy, which has historically held the title "City of Bridges."[232] Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The Smithfield Street Bridge was the world's first lenticular truss bridge. The city's Three Sisters Bridges offer a picturesque view of the city from the North. The south-western "entrance" to Downtown for travelers coming in from Interstate 79 and the Pittsburgh International Airport is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. HP Pavilion dv6-3110sl laptop keyboard The Fort Duquesne Bridge carrying Interstate 279 is the main gateway from Downtown to both PNC Park, Heinz Field and the Rivers Casino. ThePanhandle Bridge carries the Port Authority's Blue/Red/Brown subway lines across the Monongahela River. The renovated J&L Steel Company bridge has been a key traffic/running-biking trail conduit connecting the Southside Works and Pittsburgh Technology Center. Over 2,000 bridges span the landscape of Allegheny County.[233]HP Pavilion dv5-1003nr laptop keyboard Long a major rail hub link between the east coast cities and American mid-west, Pittsburgh is home to one of Norfolk Southern Railway's busiest freight corridors. The Pittsburgh Line between the city and Harrisburg operates up to 70 runs per day. The suburban Conway Rail Yard—originally built in 1889—was the largest freight rail center in the world from 1956 until the 1970s and is still one of the main hubs in the national rail network. CSX freight also serves the city. SONY Vaio PCG-K37 laptop keyboard Amtrak intercity rail service via the Capitol Limited and the Pennsylvanian serves the city from Pennsylvania Station, also known as Union Station. Enhancements to allow for highspeed rail transit connections to Philadelphia and the Northeast Corridor are underway as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard Locals refer to the interstates fanning out from downtown Pittsburgh as the "parkways." I-376 is both the "parkway east" connecting to I-76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike) and the "parkway west" connecting to I-79, the Pittsburgh International Airport, the Ohio end of the Turnpike and I-80. The "parkway north" is I-279 connecting to I-79. The "crosstown" is I-579 allowing access to the heart of downtown, the Liberty Tunnels and the CONSOL Energy Center. HP G56-127NR laptop keyboard Expressways such as Route 28 and Route 22 also carry traffic from downtown to the northeast and western suburbs, respectively. I-70, I-79 and I-76 (the Turnpike) roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway" with I-80 and I-68within the city's media market's northern and southern boundaries. Several suburban Turnpike spurs along theMonongahela River, the Airport and near Greensburg also help traffic flow. Navigation around the city and its suburbs can also be accomplished via the non-expressway Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System. GATEWAY M-1629 laptop keyboard A planned highway system called the Mon-Fayette/Southern Beltway project would allow access from the south and southwest of the city via a limited-access tolled expressway system.[234] The projects are in the planning stages with some sections already open to traffic. The projects are being planned by The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission.[235]ACER Aspire 1693 laptop keyboard The city is served by Pittsburgh International Airport (IATA: PIT) 17 miles (27 km) to the west in Findlay Township.[236] The airport was the longtime major hub for US Airways from the company's start in the 1940s until the mid-2000s. In 2000, US Airways and its regional affiliates operated over 500 daily departures from Pittsburgh to more than 110 destinations; by 2007 fewer than 70 departures to 21 destinations remained.[237] SONY 148023121 laptop keyboard However, in 2007, US Airways chose the city to house its new $25 million, 27,000 sq ft (2,500 m2), 600-employees-strong Global Flight Operations Center, consolidating its two smaller (pre-merger) centers in Phoenix, Arizona and along I-376 in metro Pittsburgh. Currently, the largest promotions at the airport is the expansion of other airlines, particularly Delta Air Lines' new direct trans-Atlantic service to Paris as well as JetBlueand Southwest Airlines rapid expansion at the complex. Lenovo 45N2240 laptop keyboard Arnold Palmer Regional Airport also offers commercial service east of the city in suburban Latrobe via Spirit Airlines to the Carolinas, Florida and Texas. Palmer has previously been served commercially by both US Airways and Delta since the 1980s.  IBM Thinkpad Z61t laptop keyboard Allegheny County Airport is the area's largest general aviation airport with 139,000 general aviation flights a year south of the city in West Mifflin. The historic landmark art deco terminal was the main commercial airport for the metropolitan area until 1952. When it opened in 1931 it was the nation's 3rd largest airport and the first in the U.S. with "hard surface" runways. SONY 148738121 laptop keyboard Smaller suburban airports that serve as private plane and corporate jet bases include Rostraver Airport, Hardy Airport and Washington County Airport to the south. Pittsburgh-Monroeville Airport and Greensburg Jeannette Airport to the east. New Castle Airport, Beaver County Airport and Zelienople Airport to the northwest. With Rock Airport, Lakehill Airport and Butler County Airport to the north. SONY VGN-FE780G laptop keyboard While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area (the nation's 20th largest metro area), it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation. Port Authority runs a network of intracity and intercity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline funicular railway (more commonly known as an "incline") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems.[238] The Duquesne Incline is operated by a non-profit preservation trust,[239] but it does accept Port Authority passes and charge standard Port Authority tolls. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Since 2007, the Port Authority cut its annual expenses by $52 million and raised its revenues by $14 million to help alleviate a gap in the state transportation budget of $472 million.[240][241] In late 2010, the Port Authority's board approved service cuts of 35% (45 routes) and fare increases for 2011.[241][242][243] On December 13, 2010, the Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission approved a plan by outgoing Governor Ed Rendell to allocate $45 million in temporary funding for the Port Authority to help reduce service cuts to only 15% on March 27, 2011.[244][245] Since Governor Tom Corbett has announced new budget plans since late 2011, the Port Authority has renewed plans to cut service by 35% if the stateSONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard The city is served by Duquesne Light, one of the original power companies founded in 1912 by George Westinghouse. Water utility service is provided by thePittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority[248] and Pennsylvania American Water. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Natural gas is widely used in the area due to large reserves existing in the region. Service in Pittsburgh is provided by Equitable Gas and Columbia Gas. Both companies offer "Customer Choice" programs in which residents may choose alternative natural gas suppliers who work under an agreement to provide natural gas in smaller service areas; these companies include Dominion Peoples Plus, Direct Energy Services LLC, and Novec Energy Solutions.[citation needed]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CS13M/W Laptop Keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires