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24 juin 2013 1 24 /06 /juin /2013 09:37

controversial land redistribution of 2000.[118][119][120][121] Zimbabwe was previously an exporter of maize but has become a net importer.[112] Tobacco exports and other exports of crops have also declined sharply. The fate of the white farmers was publicised in a documentary film Mugabe and the White African. DELL 0UW739 Keyboard

Tourism was an important industry for the country, but has been failing in recent years. The Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force released a report in June 2007, estimating 60% of Zimbabwe's wildlife has died since 2000 due to poaching and deforestation. The report warns that the loss of life combined with widespread deforestation is potentially disastrous for the tourist industry.[122]

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 [125] This represented a state of hyperinflation, and the central bank introduced a new 100 billion dollar note.[126] As of November 2008, unofficial figures put Zimbabwe's annual inflation rate at 516quintillion percent, with prices doubling every 1.3 days. Zimbabwe's inflation crisis was in 2009 the second worst inflation spike in history, behind the hyperinflationary crisis of Hungary in 1946, in which prices doubled every 15.6 hours.[127] DELL 0XHKKF Keyboard

By 2005, the purchasing power of the average Zimbabwean had dropped to the same levels in real terms as 1953.[128] Local residents have largely resorted to buying essentials from neighbouring Botswana, South Africa, and Zambia. DELL 1M745 Keyboard

In 2005, the government, led by central bank governor Gideon Gono, started making overtures that white farmers could come back. There were 400 to 500 still left in the country, but much of the land that had been confiscated was no longer productive.[129] In January 2007, the government even let some white farmers sign long term leases.[130] But, at the same time, the government continued to demand that all remaining white farmers, who were given eviction notices earlier, vacate the land or risk being arrested.[131][132] DELL 1R28D Keyboard

In August 2006, a revalued Zimbabwean dollar was introduced, equal to 1000 of the prior Zimbabwean dollars. The exchange rate fell from 24 old Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar (USD) in 1998 to 250,000 prior or 250 new Zimbabwean dollars per USD at the official rate,[133] and an estimated 120,000,000 old or 120,000 revalued Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar on the parallel market,[134] in June 2007. DELL 1W367 Keyboard

In January 2009, Zimbabwe introduced a new Z$100 trillion banknote.[135] On 29 January, in an effort to counteract his country's runaway inflation, acting Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that Zimbabweans will be permitted to use other, more stable currencies (e.g. Sterling, Euro, South African Rand, and the United States Dollar) to do business, alongside the Zimbabwe dollar.[136] DELL 217587 Keyboard

On 2 February 2009, the RBZ announced that a further 12 zeros were to be taken off the currency, with 1,000,000,000,000 (third) Zimbabwe dollars being exchanged for 1 new (fourth) dollar. New banknotes were introduced with a face value of Z$1, Z$5, Z$10, Z$20, Z$50, Z$100 and Z$500. The banknotes of the fourth dollar were to circulate alongside the third dollar, which remained legal tender until 30 June 2009.[137] DELL 3609Y Keyboard

 On 6 June 2012, Zimbabwe is set for a second government of national unity. Zimbabwe is set to hold fresh polls in March 2012, to replace a fractious coalition government that was formed following the 2008 elections.[138]

Economic recovery

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Since the formation of the Unity Government in 2009, the Zimbabwean economy has been on the rebound. GDP grew by more than 5% in the year 2009 and 2011. Growth is forecast to reach 8% in 2010, buoyed by high mineral prices and the improving agriculture sector. Zimbabwe produced 119 million kg of tobacco in the 2009/10 season, double the previous year’s output.[139] DELL 08WK6F Keyboard

Zimplats, the nation's largest platinum company, has proceeded with US$500 million in expansions, and is also continuing a separate US$2 billion project, despite threats by Mugabe to nationalise the company.[140] The pan-African investment bank IMARA released a favourable report in February 2011 on investment prospects in Zimbabwe, DELL 0J483C Keyboard

citing an improved revenue base and higher tax receipts.[141] In late January 2013, the Zimbabwean finance ministry reported that they had only 217$ in their treasury and would apply for donations to finance the coming elections that is estimated to cost 107 million USD.[142][143] DELL 0JVT97 Keyboard

Mugabe points to foreign governments and alleged "sabotage" as the cause of the fall of the Zimbabwean economy, as well as the country's 80% formal unemployment rate.[144] Critics of Mugabe's administration blame Mugabe's controversial programme which sought to seize land from productive white commercial farmers. Mugabe has repeatedly blamed sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe by the European Union and the United States for the state of the Zimbabwean economy. DELL 0M711P Keyboard

According to the United States, these sanctions target only seven specific businesses owned or controlled by government officials and not ordinary citizens.[145] However, the Zimbabwean government asserts that this is not true and that the sanctions were meant to sabotage the Zimbabwean economy. An independent study has shown that the sanctions have adversely affected the welfare of ordinary citizens.[146] DELL 0NC929 Keyboard

The Zimbabwean government and its supporters attest that the idea that the loss of 4,000 white farmers led to the financial crises is Western propaganda, and in actuality it was Western policies to avenge the expulsion of their kin that sabotaged the economy, and this was motivated by racism and the wish to maintain white privilege in Zimbabwe.[147] Cynthia Mckinney, former black American congresswoman (1993-2003/2005-2007), responded to this bill in the following fashion:[148] DELL 0NK750 Keyboard

"There are many de jure and de facto one-party states in the world which are the recipients of support of the United States government. They are not the subject of Congressional legislative sanctions. To any honest observer, Zimbabwe's sin is that it has taken the position to right a wrong, whose resolution has been too long overdue – to return its land to its people. The Zimbabwean government has said that a situation where 2 percent of the population owns 85 percent of the best land is untenable. DELL 0NK831 Keyboard

Those who presently own more than one farm will no longer be able to do so. When we get right down to it, this legislation is nothing more than a formal declaration of United States complicity in a program to maintain white-skin privilege." DELL 0NU956 Keyboard

Taxes and tariffs are high for private enterprises, while state enterprises are strongly subsidised. State regulation is costly to companies; starting or closing a business is slow and costly.[149] Government spending was predicted to reach 67% of GDP in 2007.[150] DELL 0P445M Keyboard

Since 1 January 2002, the government of Zimbabwe has had its lines of credit at international financial institutions frozen, through US legislation called theZimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA). Section 4C instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to direct directors at international financial institutions to veto the extension of loans and credit to the Zimbabwean government.[151] DELL 0PF236 Keyboard

In an effort to combat inflation and foster economic growth the Zimbabwean Dollar was suspended indefinitely on 12 April 2009.[152] Zimbabwe now allows trade in the United States Dollar and various other currencies such as the South African rand, euro, Sterling, and Botswana pula. HP Pavilion G60-230 keyboard
Zimbabwe's total population is 12 million.[153] According to the United Nations World Health Organisation, the life expectancy for men was 37 years and the life expectancy for women was 34 years of age, the lowest in the world in 2006.[154] An association of doctors in Zimbabwe has made calls for President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service.[155] The HIV infection rate in Zimbabwe was estimated to be 14% for people aged 15–49 in 2009.[156] UNESCOreported a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women from 26% in 2002 to 21% in 2004.[157] HP Probook 4710S keyboard
Some 85% of Zimbabweans are Christian; 62% of the population attends religious services regularly.[158] The largest Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist[159] and Methodist. As in other African countries, Christianity may be mixed with enduring traditional beliefs. Besides Christianity, ancestral worship is the most practised non-Christian religion, HP Pavilion DV9233EU keyboard
involving spiritual intercession; the Mbira Dza Vadzimu, which means "Voice of the Ancestors", an instrument related to many lamellophones ubiquitous throughout Africa, is central to many ceremonial proceedings. Mwari simply means "God the Creator" (musika vanhu in Shona). Around 1% of the population is Muslim.[160] HP pavilion DV7-1000 keyboard
Bantu-speaking ethnic groups make up 98% of the population. The majority people, the Shona, comprise 70%. The Ndebele are the second most populous with 20% of the population.[161][162] The Ndebele descended from Zulu migrations in the 19th century and the other tribes with which they intermarried. Up to one million Ndebele may have left the country over the last five years, mainly for South Africa. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 keyboard
Other Bantu ethnic groups make up the third largest with 2 to 5%. These are Venda, Tonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau andNambya.[162]

Minority ethnic groups include white Zimbabweans, who make up less than 1% of the total population. White Zimbabweans are mostly of British origin, but there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch communities. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 keyboard
The white population dropped from a peak of around 278,000 or 4.3% of the population in 1975[163] to possibly 120,000 in 1999 and was estimated to be no more than 50,000 in 2002, and possibly much less.[164] Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom (Between 200,000 and 500,000 Britons are of Rhodesian or Zimbabwean origin), South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Mixed-race citizens form 0.5% of the population and various Asian ethnic groups, mostly of Indian and Chinese origin, are also 0.5%.[165] FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 keyboard
Shona, Sindebele and English are the principal languages of Zimbabwe. Despite English being the official language, less than 2.5%, mainly the white and Coloured(mixed race) minorities, consider it their native language. The rest of the population speak Bantu languages such as Shona (70%), Sindebele (20%) and the other minority languages of Venda, Tsonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya.[166] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S keyboard
Shona has a rich oral tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, Feso by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956.[167] English is spoken primarily in the cities, but less so in rural areas. Radio and television news now broadcast in Shona, Sindebele and English.

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The economic meltdown and repressive political measures in Zimbabwe have led to a flood of refugees into neighbouring countries. An estimated 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the population, had fled abroad by mid-2007.[168] Some 3 million of these have gone to South Africa and Botswana.[169] Compaq Presario V2000 keyboardApart from the people who fled into the neighbouring countries, there are up to one million internally displaced persons (IDPs). There is no current comprehensive survey,[170] although the following figures are available:

At independence, the policies of racial inequality were reflected in the disease patterns of the black majority. ACER Aspire 7520 keyboard

The first five years after independence saw rapid gains in areas such as immunisation coverage, access to health care, and contraceptive prevalence rate.[173] Zimbabwe was thus considered internationally to have an achieved a good record of health development.[174] The country suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases (such as plague in 1994). The gains on the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s,[175] ACER Aspire 5930 keyboard

the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic[112] and the economic crisis since the year 2000. Zimbabwe now has one of the lowest life expectancies on Earth – 44 for men and 43 for women,[176] down from 60 in 1990. The rapid drop has been ascribed mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Infant mortality has risen from 5.9% in the late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004.[112] ACER Aspire 5235 keyboard

Zimbabwe, built, it is believed, sometime between the 13th and 16th centuries by ancestors of the Shona. The ruins, which gave their name to modern Zimbabwe, cover some 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) and are the largest ancient stone construction in Zimbabwe.[226] DELL Inspiron 6400 keyboard

When the ruins of Great Zimbabwe were excavated by treasure-hunters in the late 19th century, five of the carved birds they discovered were taken to South Africa by Cecil Rhodes. Four of the statues were returned to Zimbabwe by the South African government at independence, while the fifth remains at Groote Schuur, Rhodes' former home in Cape Town.

Balancing Rocks

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Balancing Rocks are geological formations all over Zimbabwe. The rocks are perfectly balanced without other supports. They are created when ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks surrounding them erode away. They are often remarked on and have been depicted on both the banknotes of Zimbabwe and the Rhodesian dollar banknotes. The ones found on the current notes of Zimbabwe, DELL Latitude D830 keyboard

named the Banknote Rocks, are located in Epworth, approximately 9 miles (14 km) south east of Harare.[227] There are many different formations of the rocks, incorporating single and paired columns of 3 or more rocks. These formations are a feature of south and east tropical Africa from northern South Africa northwards to Sudan. The most notable formations in Zimbabwe are located in the Matobo National Park in Matabeleland.

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