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14 mai 2012 1 14 /05 /mai /2012 03:27

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982), is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales, and third eldest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[2]HP G62-103XX Battery

 He is second in the line of succession, behind his father, to the thrones of sixteen independent sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: HP G62-104SA Battery

the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. HP G62-105SA Battery

He was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in Chile, Belize, and countries in Africa, most notably Kenya where he has lived and holidayed several times. HP G62-106SA Battery

Prince William has also taken Kiswahili studies at universities in Kenya and Tanzania. He was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Blues and Royals regiment of the Household Cavalry—serving with his brother Prince Harry—and, HP G62-107SA Battery

two years later, earned his wings by completing pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell. In 2009, the Prince transferred to the Royal Air Force, was promoted to flight lieutenant and underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a full time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force. HP G62-110ED Battery

In Autumn 2010, he completed his general and special-to-type helicopter training and went on to RAF Valley on No. 22 Squadron performing co-pilot duties on board a Sea King search and rescuehelicopter. HP G62-110EO Battery

Prince William married his longtime girlfriend, Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey.[3]Hours prior to his wedding, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus.[4][5][6]HP G62-110EE Battery

During February and March 2012, Prince William served a six-week rotation as a search-and-rescue pilot in the British Overseas Territory of the Falkland Islands. HP G62-110SA Battery

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Because his uncle HRH Prince Andrew, Duke of York, also served there during theFalkland Islands War with Argentina in the 1980s, as a combat pilot, there were initial concerns[by whom?] that Prince William's service there would raise tensions. He returned to the UK on March 21, 2012. HP G62-110EY Battery

 

Prince William was born at St Mary's Hospital, London on 21 June 1982. He was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palaceon 4 August 1982 (the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) by the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. William's godparents are the former King Constantine II of Greece (his paternal cousin); HP G62-110SS Battery

 Princess Alexandra, The Hon Mrs Angus Ogilvy (his paternal cousin); the Duchess of Westminster; the Lady Susan Hussey; Lord Romsey (his paternal cousin); and Sir Laurens van der Post.[7] He was named after Prince William of Gloucester, his father's 7-years older cousin and personal hero, who died in 1972 in an aeroplane crash.[8]HP G62-110SW Battery

 

As a male-line grandchild of the sovereign and son of the Prince of Wales, William was styled 'His Royal Highness' 'Prince William of Wales', though he was affectionately called 'Wombat' by his parents[9] or 'Wills' (the latter a name coined by the press by which he is still known by the general public).[10] It was reported that, at age seven, HP G62-111EE Battery

the Prince said to his mother that he desired to be a police officer when he was older, so that he might be able to protect her; a statement to which his brother responded: "Oh, no you can't. You've got to be King."[11] HP G62-112EE Battery

William's first public appearance was on 1 March 1991 (Saint David's Day), during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff, Wales. After arriving by aeroplane, the Prince was taken toLlandaff Cathedral, where he signed the visitors' book, thereby demonstrating that he was left-handed. HP G62-112SO Battery

On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after having been accidentally hit on the side of the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. The Prince did not lose consciousness, but did suffer a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at the Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar.[12]HP G62-113SO Battery

 

William's mother desired her two sons should have wider experiences than are usual for royal children. Diana took William and his brother to Walt Disney World and McDonald's; in addition they visited AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless. HP G62-115SE Battery

She also bought them things typical teenagers used, such as video games.[13] Diana, Princess of Wales, who was by then divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car accident in 1997. William, along with his brother and father, was staying at Balmoral Castle at the time, HP G62-115SO Battery

and the Prince of Wales waited until early the following morning to tell his sons about their mother's death.[14] At his mother's funeral, William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather, and maternal uncle in walking behind the funeral cortège from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey. HP G62-117SO Battery

 

Education

William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London.[15] Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart.[16] At Ludgrove he also participated in football—along with swimming, HP G62-118EO Battery

basketball, clay pigeon shooting, and cross-country running. William sat for the entrance exam to Eton College and was admitted. There he studied geography, biology and history of art at A-Level, obtaining an A in geography, a C in biology and a B in history of art.[17][18]HP G62-120EC Battery

At Eton he continued to play football, captaining his house team, and took up water polo.[19] The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun (William's grandfather, father, HP G62-120EE Battery

two uncles, and two cousins all attended); it did, however, make the Prince follow in the Spencer family footsteps, as both Diana's father and brother had attended Eton.[13] It was also agreed between the Royal Family and the tabloid press that William would be allowed to study free of paparazzi intrusion in exchange for regular updates of the Prince's life. HP G62-120EG Battery

Then chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, John Wakeham, said of the arrangement: "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."[13]HP G62-120EH Battery

After completing his studies at Eton, the Prince took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize,[20] worked within English dairy farms, visited Africa,[21] and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. HP G62-120EK Battery

As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town ofTortel, the Prince lived with other young teachers, sharing in the common household chores, including cleaning the toilet, and also volunteered as the guest radio jockey for the local radio station. [20]HP G62-120EL Battery

By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled, under the name William Wales,[22][23] at the University of St Andrews. News of this caused a temporary increase in the number of applications to St Andrews, HP G62-120EP Battery

mostly from young women who wanted an opportunity to meet the Prince.[24] The extra attention did not deter him, though, and he embarked on a degree course in art history, later changing his main subject to geography, and going on to earn a Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours in geography—the best degree of any heir to the throne of Britain and the Commonwealth realms. HP G62-120EQ Battery

While at university, Prince William also represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004.[19] He was known as “Steve” by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity.[10]HP G62-120ER Battery

The Prince returned to St Andrews during February of 2011 as Patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal.[25]HP G62-120ES Battery

Royal duties and career

William began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his first overseas royal tour was with his parents to Australia and New Zealand in 1983,[26] a decision made by the Princess of Wales that was considered to be unconventional; not only was William so young, but both the first and second in line for the throne would be travelling together.[13]HP G62-120ET Battery

 However, he accompanied either both parents or his father on subsequent tours, and, upon graduation from university, began to undertake duties of his own, as well as obtaining experience in the private workforce when he worked with land management at Chatsworth House and interned at HSBC.[13]HP G62-120EY Battery

 

Having decided to follow a military career, in October 2005 William attended the four day Regular Commissions Board atWestbury in Wiltshire where he underwent selection to judge his suitability to become an Army officer. Having passed selection, HP G62-120SE Battery

William went up to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 2006.[27] Successfully completing the course, William graduated from Sandhurst on 15 December 2006, the graduation parade being attended by the Queen and the Prince of Wales, along with other members of the Royal Family, and William officially received his commission as a lieutenant at midnight. HP G62-120SL Battery

With his rank obtained, the Prince, under the name of William Wales, followed his younger brother[28] into the Blues and Royals as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent four months in training for the post at Bovington Camp, Dorset. HP G62-120SS Battery

 

Once officially enrolled and commissioned in the Armed Forces, William expressed a desire to participate in active service; in this there was a recent precedent of the service of his great-great-uncle Edward VIII who, as Prince of Wales, HP G62-120SW Battery

served in France during the First World War; his great-grandfather George VI who also served during World War I (with the Navy at theBattle of Jutland and in France with the Air Force); and his paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who served with distinction during World War II. More recently, his uncle Prince Andrew, Duke of York served in the Falklands war. HP G62-121EE Battery

 

Though Major-General Sebastian Roberts, general officer commanding the Household Division, had said William being deployed was possible, the Prince's position as second in line to the throne, and the convention of ministers advising against the person in that position being put into dangerous situations, HP G62-125EK Battery

cast doubts on William's ability to see combat. These doubts increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007, due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to training in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, obtaining his commission as a sub-lieutenant in the former and flying officer in the latter (both broadly equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the Army). HP G62-125EL Battery

With this complete, the Prince undertook an attachment with the Air Force, undergoing an intensive four-month training course at RAF Cranwell,[29][30] which, upon completing the course on 11 April 2008, he was presented with his RAF wings by his father,[31] who had himself received his wings after training at the same college.[32] HP G62-125EV Battery

It was later revealed that it had been during this secondment that Prince William had helped to man a C-17 Globemaster to Afghanistan, during which he assisted in the repatriation of the body of Trooper Robert Pearson.[33] The Prince had been affectionately known by his fellow airmen, and his callsign was designated, as Billy the Fish, a pun on his title.[34]HP G62-125SL Battery

William then moved to train with the Navy for two months, from June to August 2008, during which time he spent three weeks at the Britannia Royal Naval College, training on units of the surface fleet, and submarines, as well as with the Fleet Air Arm and Royal Marines, before deploying for a further five weeks on HMSIron Duke in the Caribbean.[35]HP G62-130 Battery

 It was during this tour that the Prince took part in a secret underwater mission,[36] as well as helping to identify and capture a small vessel that had been transporting an approximate £40 million worth of cocaine,[37][38] and taking part in other raids.[39]HP G62-130EG Battery

Owing to William's future role, a long term career in the military was considered out of the question; due to his position, his desire to see active service was always unlikely to be granted. William originally joined the military on a short-service commission lasting three years. HP G62-130EK Battery

However, it was announced in September 2008 that the Prince would be extending his time in the forces, first by taking on another secondment in the autumn of 2008 (including working at the MOD and non-operational flying with the Army Air Corps).[40] HP G62-130ET Battery

Then it was announced that he would transfer from the Army to the RAF in order to train as a full timesearch and rescue helicopter pilot;[41] this role enables him to take an active role as a member of the armed forces without him being deployed on combat operations. HP G62-130EV Battery

In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to Flight Lieutenant. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF'sSearch and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, where he had been under the instruction of Squadron Leader Craig Finch.[42] HP G62-130SD Battery

On 26 January 2010 he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley on Anglesey to receive training on theSea King search and rescue helicopter and graduated from this course 17 September 2010.[43]HP G62-130SL Battery

It was announced on 15 April 2010 that William will remain at RAF Valley for his operational tour, being assigned to No. 22 Squadron and initially performing co-pilot duties.[44] It is expected that William's operational tour will last 30 to 36 months.[45]HP G62-134CA Battery

 

William participated in his first rescue mission (as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King Helicopter) and responded on Saturday, 2 October 2010, to an emergency call from the Liverpool Coastguard. The prince, who was excited to finally take part in an active mission, HP G62-135EV Battery

and the other three members of the crew flew from their base at RAF Valley in Anglesey, North Wales, to an offshore gas rig in Morecambe Bay, northwest England. William and three other crew members picked up a man who had suffered an apparent heart attack on the rig and airlifted him to a local hospital.[46]HP G62-140EL Battery

It has been announced that William will be deployed to the Falkland Islands for a six week tour with No. 1564 Flight, beginning in February and ending in March 2012.[47][48] HP G62-140ES Battery

The deployment of the Duke to the Falklands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the conflict (2 April 1982) was condemned byArgentina as a "provocative act",[49][50] despite the fact that the RAF regularly deploys flight crews on six week tours to the Falklands.[51]HP G62-140EQ Battery

In November 2011, Prince William participated in a search and rescue mission involving a sinking cargo ship in the Irish Sea. William, the co-pilot, helped rescue two sailors, who were then transported to a hospital in Bangor.[52]HP G62-140ET Battery

In February 2012, the Duke indicated that, rather than leave the service at the end of his commission in 2013, as had been expected, he would instead remain with the RAF for a further three year commission up to at least 2016, which is when the RAF Search and Rescue Force is due to be disbanded and replaced by a private contractor.[53]HP G62-140SF Battery

ROYAL DUTIES

At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and began his royal duties by first serving in that capacity when the Queen was abroad to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2003, in Nigeria. HP G62-140SS Battery

For his 21st birthday, William also accompanied his father on a royal tour of Wales, where they visited the Anglesey Food Fair and opened a centre for the homeless in Newport.[54] By July 2005, he was on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, HP G62-140US Battery

on behalf of his grandmother in her role as Queen of New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity, The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by Ant & Dec.[54] HP G62-143CL Battery

In July 2007, Prince William accompanied his grandmother's cousin The Duke of Kent, who is President of the UK Scout Association, in opening the 21st World Scout Jamboree, celebrating the centennial of the founding of the Scout Movement. HP G62-144DX Battery

It was said in Tina Brown's 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, that Prince William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia,[55] though fulfilment of the idea was considered doubtful by then-Prime Minister of Australia John Howard, who said: "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen."[56]HP G62-145NR Battery

In 2009, a private office was set up for William by his grandmother, with Sir David Manning being appointed as his adviser.[57] Speculation in late 2009 that William would be taking over increasing numbers of the Queen's ceremonial and state duties has been denied by the Palace.[58]HP G62-147NR Battery

Manning personally accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Māori chief.[59]HP G62-149WM Battery

In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, after the recent earthquake,[60] and there addressed the memorial service at Hagley Park, on behalf of his grandmother.[61][62] Upon leaving New Zealand, William travelled to Australia, where he made a visit to areas badly affected by flooding in the states of Queensland and Victoria.[63][64] HP G62-150EE Battery

After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, the Prince, with his wife, toured the country and visited the United States in June and July 2011, attending Canada Day celebrations onParliament Hill.[65][66] On 2 November, The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre for supplying food to malnourished African children in Copenhagen, Denmark.[67][68]HP G62-150EF Battery

Personal interests

Following his parents' examples, William took interest in various causes from a relatively early age. The late Princess of Wales' work with HIV/AIDS aid and prevention, and the Prince of Wales' work with the natural environment and the inner-city disadvantaged, directed William into those areas. He also showed a desire to focus on the needy in Africa, sometimes working with his brother's charity, Sentebale. HP G62-150EQ Battery

HUMANITARIAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES

William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid 1990s, when his mother began to take her two sons to visit shelters and clinics for those suffering from the disease. In January 2005, Prince William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries that were affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami.[69] HP G62-150ET Battery

Later, in September, William granted his patronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless.[70][71] During the period when his mother had been patron of Centrepoint, he had accompanied her on visits to its headquarters and projects. HP G62-150EV Battery

William also worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden Hospital for two days of work experience in 2005, as well as helping out in the medical research, catering, and fund raising departments.[70] The same year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with a mountain rescue team.[69]HP G62-150SE Battery

 In May 2007, William became patron of both organisations (his mother had also previously been patron of the Royal Marsden Hospital) and he became attracted to Mountain Rescue England and Wales in order to, in his words, "highlight and celebrate the vital, selfless and courageous work of our mountain rescue organisations".[70]HP G62-150SF Battery

The Prince also became a patron of the Tusk Trust in December 2005,[70] a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa.[72]HP G62-150SL Battery

 William became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand when he was in Africa. Saying "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation",[73]HP G62-153CA Battery

 he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a 5,000-mile (8,000 km) bike ride across the African continent in 2007. In 2010, the Prince became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives[74]HP G62-154CA Battery

In March 2011, William and Catherine have set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who want to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities they care about instead [75]. HP G62-165SL Battery

The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple’s choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflect the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.[76][77][78][79][80]HP G62-166SB Battery

SPORTS

William plays polo for charitable causes and is a fan of football, supporting Aston Villa F.C.[70] In May 2006, he became President of England's Football Association and vice royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007 (supporting the Queen as patron of the WRU).[70] HP G62-200XX Battery

The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy, with some believing it would have been more fitting to name the trophy after Ray Gravell.[81][82][83]HP G62-201XX Battery

 

In 2006, the Prince, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in running one mile to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association.[70]HP G62-219WM Battery

William is a noted follower of various packs of foxhounds throughout England and Wales, including the Duke of Beaufort's Hunt, with his father and brother since he was a very young child. HP G62-251XX Battery

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The Prince and his brother are both enthusiastic motorcyclists, with the Prince owning a Ducati 1198 S Corse.[84]HP G62-450SA Battery

Relationship with Catherine Middleton

During his years at university, William participated in university life; of himself he said: "I'm not a party animal, despite what some people might think."[13] Like his father before him, William's private life became the subject of tabloid speculation, especially around his relationship with Catherine Middleton, who had been one of William's university flatmatesand whom William began dating in 2003. HP G62-451SA Battery

Middleton attended the Prince's passing-out parade at Sandhurst, marking the first high-profile event that she attended as William's guest. The relationship between Prince William and Middleton was followed so closely that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of a Royal Wedding and the retail chain Woolworths producedmemorabilia bearing the likenesses of the couple.[85]HP G62-452SA Battery

 

Media attention became so intense that William had to make a specific request to the paparazzi that they keep their distance from Middleton and himself. In March 2007, Kate complained of media harassment by the Daily Mirror.[85] It was reported in April 2007 that the couple had split,[85][86] though in June, Middleton attended a party at Lulworth Army Barracks as the guest of Prince William,[87] HP G62-454TU Battery

and in July the Concert for Diana, which had been organised by Princes William and Harry.[88] In August, she accompanied William on holiday in the island of Des Roches in the Seychelles, and in October she joined Prince Charles and Prince Harry for a shooting party at Balmoral. In June 2008, along with the Royal Family, Middleton attended William's investiture into the Order of the Garter. HP G62-456TU Battery

Middleton was formally introduced to public life by William on 24 February 2011 when she and William attended a lifeboatnaming ceremony in Trearddur, North Wales.[89]HP G62-460TX Battery

 

ENGAGEMENT AND WEDDING

On 16 November 2010 it was announced by Clarence House that William and Kate were to marry. The engagement ring given to Middleton was the 18 carat sapphireengagement ring of Diana, Princess of Wales. Clarence House, HP G62-467TX Battery

the official residence of Charles and his sons William and Harry, announced on the same day that the couple became engaged in Kenya in October, as Prince William confirmed in a widely circulated television interview beamed from London.[90]HP G62-468TX Battery

The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London.[3] The day was made a bank holiday in the UK.[91] Estimates of the global audience for the wedding range from 300 million to two billion people, whilst 24.5 million watched the event live in the United Kingdom.[92][93]HP G62-550EE Battery

A few hours before the wedding, it was announced that William had become Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus,[4][5][6] HP G62-a00EF Battery

as is customary for princes on the occasion of their weddings.[94] However, such title did not become official until 26 May 2011 when Letters Patent to that effect were signed and recorded in the Crown Office on the Roll of the Peerage.[95]HP G62-a00 Battery

 

Titles, styles, honours and arms

The Prince's style and title in full is His Royal Highness Prince William Arthur Philip Louis, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, Baron Carrickfergus, Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter[96] . As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. HP G62-a01SA Battery

For formal and ceremonial purposes, the children of Princes of Wales, like the children of Royal Dukes, use the title of Prince or Princess before their Christian name and their father's territorial designation after it. So Prince William was "Prince William of Wales". Such area-based surnames are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they are given a peerage of their own,[97] such as when Prince William was given his dukedom. HP G62-a03SA Battery

For the male-line grandchildren of Elizabeth II, however, there is currently some uncertainty over the correct form of family surname to use, or whether there even is a surname. The Queen has stipulated all her male-line descendants who do not bear the titular dignity of prince shall use Mountbatten-Windsor as their family surname (although Letters Patent exist stipulating the name Windsor, but with the same caveat). HP G62-a04EA Battery

According to their flight suits as seen in television interviews (before Prince William's creation as Duke of Cambridge), Princes William and Harry use Wales as their surname for military purposes. HP G62-a04SA Battery

On the morning of his wedding, the Queen conferred the titles Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, Baron Carrickfergus upon William.[4]

William succeeded Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth President of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.[98]HP G62-a10SA Battery

Military ranks

Prince William, upon his appointment to the order, became the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter;[107]he was officially invested by the Queen into the order on 16 June 2008, at a service at St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle.[108] HP G62-a13SE Battery

The last time a monarch had appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoriainvested Prince Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. HP G62-a13SA Battery

The Duke of Cambridge also holds a personal royal standard for Canada, consisting of the shield of the Canadian Royal Armsdefaced with both a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves and shells, within which is a depiction William's cypher (a W surmounted by a coronet), and a white label of three points, charged with a red shell.[117]HP G62-a15EO Battery

 

Ancestry

William is a male line descendant of Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg, and as such a member of the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses, and more specifically the cadet branch known as the House of Glücksburg, founded by his paternal ancestor Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. HP G62-a15SA Battery

William belongs to the Royal Family of Windsor. His male line ancestors include five kings—Christian I of Denmark, Frederick I of Denmark, Christian III of Denmark, Christian IX of Denmark and George I of Greece—and also 11 counts of Oldenburg, two dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, five dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and one duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.[118]HP G62-a16SA Battery

  William is also a descendant of William the Conqueror, who was crowned the first Norman King of England in 1066.[119]

Among his other recent, cognatic ancestors on his father's side are notably members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the House of Battenberg, the main line of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, the House of Hesse-Kassel and the House of Hohenzollern.[118] HP G62-a17EA Battery

Among his distant cognatic ancestors are also Henry IV andJames II and VII. Should he become king, William would be the first monarch since Queen Anne to be descended from Charles I, and the first to descend fromCharles II, as his mother was descended from two of Charles's II illegitimate sons, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and Charles Lennox, HP G62-a17SA Battery

1st Duke of Richmond. Through his father's royal family, William is of German,[118] English and Scottish descent, and through his mother's family, the noble Spencer family, the Earl Spencer and the Baron Fermoy families, William is of English descent and of remote Irish, Scottish and British-American descent.[120]HP G62-a18SA Battery

 

He is also descended from many of the pre-Union monarchs of Scotland and the pre-Conquest monarchs of England, and many notable foreign monarchs including,Peter I of Russia ("Peter the Great"), Catherine II of Russia ("Catherine the Great"), Nicholas I of Russia, Afonso I of Portugal, Andrew II of Hungary,Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Isabella I of Castile. HP G62-a19EA Battery

From the House of Stuart, by side of his mother, Prince William is a descendant of the House of Bourbon from the line Henry IV of France and of the House of Medici from the line of Marie de' Medici. He is also a descendant of powerful Italian noble families such as that of the House of Sforza who ruled as the Dukes of Milan from the line of the legendary Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì HP G62-a19SA Battery

Prince Harry of Wales

Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984), commonly known as Prince Harry,[1] is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II andPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. HP G62-a20SA Battery

As such, he is third in the line of succession (behind his father and elder brother) to the thrones of sixteen independent sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms. Consequently, as heir to the British throne, specifically, he is also third in line, again behind his father and elder brother, to the position Supreme Governor of the Church of England. HP G62-a21EA Battery

 

After an education at various schools around the United Kingdom and spending parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, Harry, unlike his elder brother, Prince William, eschewed a university education in favour of following in the footsteps of various royal men by enrolling in the military. HP G62-a21SA Battery

He was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry Regiment—serving temporarily with his brother—and completed his training as a tank commander. He served for 77 days on the front line in the Afghan War,[2] although he was pulled out following publication of the story in an Australian magazine.[3]HP G62-a22SA Battery

Harry was born at St Mary's Hospital in Paddington, London, England, on 15 September 1984. He was baptised at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, by then Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. Harry's godparents were Prince Andrew (his paternal uncle); Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones (his paternal cousin once removed); Lady Vestey; Mrs. William Bartholomew; Bryan Organ; and Gerald Ward.[4]HP G62-a22SE Battery

Persistent suggestions, based on a similarity of hair colour, have been made that Harry's father is not Charles but James Hewitt, with whom Diana had an affair. However, red hair is known to be a Spencer family trait, and Hewitt stated to the press in 2002 that Harry had already been born by the time his affair with Diana began, a statement corroborated by Diana's police bodyguard.[5][6]HP G62-a23SA Battery

There really is no possibility whatsoever that I am Harry's father. I can absolutely assure you that I am not…I can understand the interest but Harry was already walking by the time my relationship with Diana began. Admittedly the red hair is similar to mine and people say we look alike. HP G62-a24SA Battery

I have never encouraged these comparisons and although I was with Diana for a long time I must state once and for all that I'm not Harry's father. HP G62-a25EA Battery

—James Hewitt[7]

Diana wanted William and Harry to have a broader range of experiences than previous royal children and took both to venues that ranged from Disney World and McDonald's to AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless.[8] HP G62-a25SA Battery

Diana, Princess of Wales, who was by then divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car collision in 1997. Harry, his brother and their father were staying atBalmoral Castle at the time, and the Prince of Wales waited until early the following morning to tell his sons about their mother's death.[9] HP G62-a26SA Battery

At his mother's funeral, Harry accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather, and maternal uncle in walking behind the funeral cortège from Kensington Palace to Westminster Abbey.[10]HP G62-a27SA Battery

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Education

Like his father and elder brother, Harry was educated at public schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school[11] and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School, and, after passing the entrance exams, HP G62-a29EA Battery

was admitted to Eton College, where he studied geography, art history, and art at A-Level. The decision to place Harry in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun (Harry's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended); HP G62-a29SA Battery

it did, however, make the Prince follow in the Spencer family footsteps, as both Diana's father and brother had attended Eton.[8] In June 2003, he completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels[12] having decided to drop history of art after AS level.[13] He excelled in sports, particularly polo and rugby union.[citation needed]. HP G62-a30SA Battery

After graduation, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia, working (as his father had done in his youth) on a cattle station and participating in the Young England vs Young Australia Polo Test Match.[14] He also travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom.[8]HP G62-a38EE Battery

Royal duties and career

Prince Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his first overseas royal tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985.[15] The earlier decision made by the Princess of Wales to take an infant William to Australia set the precedent for young royal children going on official visits.[8]Harry then accompanied either both parents or his father on subsequent tours, HP G62-a40SA Battery

though he did not begin solo official engagements until after his military training and active service. In August 1995, at the age of 10, Prince Harry attended the 50th anniversary of Victory over Japan Day at the Cenotaph in London. There he saluted the officers in the military parade, one of the most important ceremonies in the royal family agenda. In 2008, he began to undertake royal visits to schools and organisations in Wales.[16]HP G62-a43SA Battery

MILITARY CAREER

Prince Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, and joined the Alamein Company.[17] Within a year, in April 2006, Harry completed his officer's training and was commissioned as a Cornet in the Blues and Royals, a regiment of the Household Cavalry in theBritish Army.[18] By April 2008, whereupon he reached two years' seniority, Harry was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. HP G62-a44EE Battery

The British Ministry of Defence and Clarence House made a joint announcement on 22 February 2007 that Prince Harry would be deployed with his regiment to the front line in Iraq, to serve as part of the 1st Mechanised Brigade of the 3rd Mechanised Division – a move supported by Harry, who had stated that he would leave the army if he was told to remain in safety while his regiment went to war;[19] HP G62-a44SA Battery

he said: "There's no way I'm going to put myself through Sandhurst and then sit on my arse back home while my boys are out fighting for their country."[20] Then head of the British army, General Sir Richard Dannatt, first said on 30 April 2007 that he had personally decided that the Prince would serve with his unit in Iraq,[21] HP G62-a45SA Battery

and Harry was scheduled for deployment in May or June 2007, to patrol the Maysan province.[22] By 16 May, however, Dannatt announced that Prince Harry would not serve in Iraq;[23] concerns included Harry being a high-value target (as several threats by various groups have already been made against him) and the dangers the soldiers around him would face should any attempt be made on the Prince's life or capture. HP G62-a50SG Battery

Clarence House made public the Prince's disappointment with the decision, though he said he would abide by it.[24] In May 2007, British soldiers in Iraq were reported to be wearing t-shirts bearing the statement "I'm Harry!"; HP G62-a60SA Battery

a reference to the scene in the movie Spartacus in which the survivors of Spartacus's army, defeated by Roman legions, are offered leniency by Crassus if they will identify their leader. Every survivor declares: "I'm Spartacus!"[25]HP G62-a53SG Battery

It was reported, in early June 2007, that Prince Harry had arrived in Canada to train, alongside soldiers of the Canadian Forces and British Army, at Canadian Forces base Suffield, near Medicine Hat, Alberta. It was said that this was in preparation for a tour of duty in Afghanistan, HP G62-b00SA Battery

 where Canadian and British forces were participating in the NATO led Afghan War;[26] rumours that were confirmed in February the following year, when the British Ministry of Defence revealed that Harry had secretly been deployed as a Forward Air Controller to Helmand Province in the Asian country.[27] HP G62-b09SA Battery

The revelation came after the media – notably, the German newspaper Bild and Australian magazine New Idea[28][29] – breached the blackout placed over the information by the Canadian and British authorities.[30]It was later reported that, while in Afghanistan, HP G62-b10SA Battery

Harry had called in United States Air Force air strikes,[31] helped Gurkha troops repel an attack from Talibaninsurgents,[32] and performed patrol duty in hostile areas.[33] His tour came 735 years after his ancestor, Edward I of England (then Prince Edward), HP G62-b11SA Battery

had also been on military duty in the Middle East during the Ninth crusade,[34] and also made Harry the first member of the Royal Family to have served in a war zone since his uncle, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, flew helicopters during the Falklands War. For his service, Prince Harry was decorated with the Operational Service Medal for Afghanistan by his aunt, the Princess Royal, at the Combermere Barracks in May 2008.[35]HP G62-b12SA Battery

In October 2008, the news was revealed that Prince Harry was to follow his brother, father, and uncle with the wish to fly military helicopters. After passing the initial aptitude test, he was to undertake a month-long course; depending on whether or not he passed that course he would proceed onto full flight training in early 2009.[36] HP G62-b13EA Battery

Harry had to pass his flying assessment at the Army Air Corps Base (AAC), Middle Wallop, the result of which determined if he would pass on to train as a pilot of either the Apache, Lynx, or Gazelle helicopter.[37]HP G62-b13SA Battery

Prince Harry was presented with his flying brevet (wings) by his father, on 7 May 2010 at a ceremony at the Army Air Corps Base (AAC), Middle Wallop. Prince Harry had also let it be known that he intended to fly Apache attack helicopters if he was successful in passing the rigorous Apache training course; HP G62-b14SA Battery

after which time it could be possible for him to see active military service once again on the frontline in one of the warzones.[38] During the ceremony, he switched his Blues and Royals' Officer's Service Dress cap for that of the Army Air Corps' sky blue beret with a Blues and Royals badge. HP G62-b15SA Battery

On 10 March 2011, it was revealed that Prince Harry had passed his Apache flying test and he was awarded his Apache Flying Badge on 14 April 2011. There is speculation that he shall return to Afghanistan once again before the withdrawal in 2015. On 16 April 2011 it was announced that Prince Harry had been promoted to the Army rank of Captain after having held the rank of Lieutenant since 2008.[39]HP G62-b16EA Battery

In June 2011, Clarence House announced that Prince Harry on completion of his training conversion course to use Apache helicopters in the war arena would be available for deployment, including in current operations in Afghanistan in his role as an Apache helicopter pilot. HP G62-b16SA Battery

The final decision will ultimately rest with the Ministry of Defence's senior commanders including principally the Chief of the Defence Staff in consultation with the wishes of Harry, his father the Prince of Wales and The Queen.[40] HP G62-b17EO Battery

In October, Prince Harry was transferred to a US military base in California to complete his helicopter gunship training. This final phase will include live-fire training as well as "environmental and judgment training" at naval and air force facilities in California and Arizona. HP G62-b17SA Battery

The majority of those completing the two-month Apache training are deployed to the front lines in Afghanistan.[41] In the same month it was reported that Prince Harry was said to be a natural pilot who was reportedly top of his class in the extensive training he had undertaken at the Naval Air Facility, HP G62-b18SA Battery

El Centro, California.[42] On November 2011, Prince Harry returned to England from military training in the United States. Next, he will head to Wattisham Flying Station in Suffolk, southeast England, to complete his training to fly Apache helicopters.[43]HP G62-b19SA Battery

ROYAL DUTIES

At the age of 21, Prince Harry was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and began his royal duties by first serving in that capacity when the Queen was abroad to attend the 2005 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malta. HP G62-b20SA Battery

The following year, Harry was in Lesotho to visit again Mants'ase Children's Home near Mohale's Hoek (which he first toured in 2004), and along with Prince Seeiso of Lesotho launched Sentebale: The Princes' Fund for Lesotho, a charity to aid children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. HP G62-B20so Battery

He has also granted his patronage to a number of other organisations, including WellChild, Dolen Cymru, and Map

Action.[44] To aid Sentebale, as well as the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fundand Centrepoint, Harry and his brother organised the Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium, on 1 July 2007. HP G62-b21SA Battery

Sports have also been a way that Harry has helped charities and other organisations, such as when he trained as a Rugby Development Officer for the Rugby Football Union in 2004 and then coached students in schools in order to encourage them to learn the sport. He has also participated in polo matches, like his brother and father, in order to raise money for charitable causes.[14]HP G62-b22SA Battery

On 6 January 2009, Harry and his brother Prince William were granted their own royal household by their grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II. It has three main staff members, supported by a "small" team. Sir David Manning, the former British ambassador to Washington, HP G62-b23SA Battery

will work as a part-time adviser to the princes. Previously, William and Harry's affairs had been handled by the office of their father at Clarence House in central London. The brothers' new household released a statement – complete with their own cyphers at the top – announcing that they have established their own office at nearby St. James's Palace to look after their public, military and charitable activities.[45]HP G62-b24SA Battery

 Harry's cypher is similar to his brother's, but displays an H in a shade of blue similar to that used by his mother. In September, Prince William and Prince Harry set up The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to enable The Princes to take forward their charitable ambitions.The Foundation is the culmination of The Princes’ charitable lives so far.[46][47][48]HP G62-b25SA Battery

In March 2012, Prince Harry led an official visit to Belize as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations.[49][50] He continued to the Bahamas and Jamaica, where the current Prime Minister, Portia Simpson-Miller is considering severing ties between Jamaica and the constitutional monarchy, [51] HP G62-b26SA Battery

During his visit to Jamaica, he stayed at a private five-bedroom, two-story villa with a private pool and beach access at Half Moon, A RockResort (a place that since the 1980s has been popular with the British Royal Family), located on Jamaica's North Coast near Montego Bay, and reportedly interacted well with the staff there, displaying his late mother's ability to relate to different groups of people.[52]HP G62-b27EA Battery

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Personal life and relationships

Prince Harry enjoys playing many sporting activities, playing competitive polo, as well as skiing and motocross.[14] Harry also earned a reputation in his youth for being rebellious, leading the tabloid press to label him as a "wild child".[53] HP G62 Battery

He was found at age 17 smoking cannabis and partaking in under-age drinking with his friends, would clash physically withpaparazzi outside nightclubs,[53] and was photographed at Highgrove House at a "Colonial and Native" themed costume partywearing a Nazi German Afrika Korps uniform with a swastika armband.[54] He later issued a public statement apologising for his behaviour.[55]HP G62 Notebook PC Series Battery

Prince Harry is a supporter of Arsenal Football Club.[56]

In January 2009, the British tabloid News of the World revealed a video made by Harry three years previously, in which he referred to a Pakistani fellow officer cadet as "our little Paki friend" and later called a soldier wearing a cloth on his head a "raghead". HP G62t-100 CTO Battery

These terms were described by David Cameron as "unacceptable",[57] and by The Daily Telegraph as "racist",[57] and a British Muslim youth organisation called the Prince a "thug",[58] a statement that was later retracted.[59] Clarence House immediately issued an apology from Harry, who stated that no malice was intended in his remarks.[60]HP G62t Battery

 A former British MP and Royal Marine, Rod Richards, said that such nicknames were common amongst military comrades, stating "in the Armed Forces people often used to call me Taffy. Others were called Yankie, Oz or Kiwi or whatever. HP G72-100 Battery

I consider Paki as an abbreviation for Pakistani. I don't think on this occasion it was intended to be offensive."[61] It later emerged that Prince Harry had personally apologised to the soldier.[62]HP G72-101SA Battery

While Harry's personal relationships have not been followed as much as those of his brother, most media attention has been focused on his relationship withChelsy Davy. In an interview conducted for his 21st birthday, Harry referred to Davy as his girlfriend, HP G72-102SA Battery

and the press reported at that time that the couple had been together for 18 months, contradicting earlier reports that they were no longer together.[63] Harry and Davy were also seen together publicly at the Concert for Diana. HP G72-105SA Battery

Chelsy also accompanied Harry to the wedding of Harry's cousin, Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly in May 2008, where she was introduced to the Queen for the first time. But, in early 2009 it was reported in the media that the pair had parted ways.[64HP G72-110EL Battery

] Later that year the pair were photographed together at a rugby match, seemingly going public again with their relationship.[65] As of 2010, Harry and Davy are no longer together following Davy's departure from England. In 2011, Harry confirmed the rumors by proclaiming himself "100 per cent single". [66]HP G72-110EV Battery

The Prince's style and title in full is His Royal Highness Prince Henry Charles Albert David of Wales. As a British prince, Harry holds no surname; however, as with the other male-line grandchildren of Elizabeth II, he uses the name of the area over which his father holds title; i.e., HP G72-110SA Battery

 Wales. Past precedent is that such surnames are dropped from usage in adulthood, after which either title alone, or Mountbatten-Windsor is used when necessary.[67] Prince Harry, however, continues to use Wales as his surname for military purposes and is known as Captain Harry Wales in such contexts.[68] HP G72-110SD Battery

If his father succeeds to the throne he will be known as His Royal Highness The Prince Henry. Traditionally, male-line members of British royalty receive a dukedom a few hours before their marriage, the most recent being Prince William of Wales, who became Duke of Cambridge. HP G72-110SO Battery

Military ranks

Through his maternal grandfather, Prince Harry is descended from King Henry IV of France, King Charles II and King James II and VII. Through his mother, both from The Earl Spencer and The Baron Fermoy Families, Harry is of English, Scottish, American descent and of remote Irish descent. HP G72-110SW Battery

Prince Harry is descended from the kings and queens of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom with surviving offspring from William I.[74] He is also descended from many of the pre-Union monarchs of Scotland and the pre-Conquest monarchs of England. HP G72-120EG Battery

Congregationalist churches

Congregationalist churches implement different schemes, but the officers usually have less authority than in the presbyterian or episcopalian forms. Some ordain only ministers and rotate members on an advisory board (sometimes called a board of elders or a board of deacons). Because the positions are by comparison less powerful, there is usually less rigor or fanfare in how officers are ordained. HP G72-120EP Battery

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) accepts the legal authority of clergy to perform marriages but does not recognize any other sacraments performed by ministers not ordained to the Latter-day Saint priesthood. HP G72-120EV Battery

Although the Latter-day Saints do claim a doctrine of a certain spiritual "apostolic succession," it is significantly different from that claimed by Catholics and Protestants since there is no succession or continuity between the first century and the lifetime of Joseph Smith, the founder of the LDS church. HP G72-120EW Battery

Mormons teach that the priesthood was lost in ancient times not to be restored by Christ until the nineteenth century when it was given to Joseph Smith directly. HP G72-120SD Battery

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a relatively open priesthood, ordaining nearly all worthy adult males and boys of the age of twelve and older. Latter-day Saint priesthood consists of two divisions: the Melchizedek Priesthood and Aaronic Priesthood. HP G72-120SG Battery

The Melchizedek Priesthood because Melchizedek was such a great high priest. Before his day it was called the Holy Priesthood, after the Order of the Son of God. But out of respect or reverence to the name of the Supreme Being, to avoid the too frequent repetition of his name, the church, in ancient days, called that priesthood after Melchizedek. HP G72-120SO Battery

The lesser priesthood is an appendage to the Melchizedek Priesthood. It is called the Aaronic Priesthood because it was conferred on Aaron and his sons throughout all their generations.[13] The offices, or ranks, of the Melchizedek order (in roughly descending order) include apostle, HP G72-130 Battery

seventy, patriarch, high priest, and elder. The offices of the Aaronic order are bishop, priest, teacher, and deacon. The manner of ordination consists of the laying on of hands by two or more men holding at least the office being conferred while one acts as voice in conferring the priesthood and/or office and usually pronounces a blessing upon the recipient. HP G72-130EG Battery

Teachers and deacons do not have the authority to ordain others to the priesthood. All church members are authorized to teach and preach regardless of priesthood ordination so long as they maintain good standing within the church. The church does not use the term "holy orders." HP G72-130EV Battery

Community of Christ

Community of Christ has a largely volunteer priesthood, and all members of the priesthood are free to marry (as traditionally defined by the Christian community). The priesthood is divided into two orders, the Aaronic priesthood and the Melchisedec priesthood. HP G72-130SF Battery

 The Aaronic order consists of the offices of deacon, teacher and priest. The Melchisedec Order consists of the offices of elder (including the specialized office of seventy) and high priest (including the specialized offices of evangelist, bishop, apostle, & prophet). HP G72-140ED Battery

Paid ministers include “appointees” and the general officers of the church, which include some specialized priesthood offices (such as the office of president, reserved for the three top members of the church leadership team). HP G72-260US Battery

As of 1984, women have been eligible for priesthood, which is conferred through the sacrament of ordination by the laying-on-of-hands. While there is technically no age requirement for any office of priesthood, there is no automatic ordination or progression as in the LDS Church. HP G72-a30SA Battery

Young people are occasionally ordained as deacon, and sometimes teacher or priest, but generally most priesthood members are called following completion of post secondary school education. In March 2007 a woman was ordained for the first time to the office of president. HP G72-b01SA Battery

  Ordination of women

The Roman Catholic Church does not ordain women to any of the orders and has officially declared that it does not have authority to ordain women as priests or bishops. "Ordaining" women as deaconesses is not a possibility in any sacramental sense of the diaconate, HP G72-b02SA Battery

for a deaconess is not a female deacon but instead holds a position of lay service. As such, she does not receive the sacrament of Holy Orders. Many Anglican and Protestant churches ordain women, but in many cases, only to the office of deacon. HP G72-b10SA Battery

Various branches of the Orthodox churches, including the Greek Orthodox, currently set aside women as deaconesses. Some churches are internally divided on whether the Scriptures permit the ordination of women. When one considers the relative size of the churches (1.1 billion Roman Catholics, 300 million Orthodox, 590 million Anglicans and Protestants), HP G72-b15SA Battery

it is a minority of Christian churches that ordain women. Protestants constitute about 27 percent of Christians worldwide, and most of their churches that do ordain women have only done so within the past century. HP G72-b20SA Battery

In some traditions women may be ordained to the same orders as men. In others women are restricted from certain offices. Women may be ordained bishop in the Old Catholic churches and in the Anglican/Episcopal churches in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cuba, Brazil, HP G72 Battery

South Africa, Canada, US, Australia, Aotearoa New Zealand and Polynesia. The Church of England is still arguing about it. Continuing Anglican churches of the world do not permit women to be ordained. In some Protestant denominations, women may serve as assistant pastors but not as pastors in charge of congregations. In some denominations, HP G72 Notebook PC Series Battery

women can be ordained to be an elder or deacon. Some denominations allow for the ordination of women for certain religious orders. Within certain traditions, such as the Anglican and Lutheran, there is a diversity of theology and practice regarding ordination of women. HP G72t Battery

The Roman Catholic Church, in accordance with its understanding of the theological tradition on the issue, and the definitive clarification found in the encyclical letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis (1994) written by Pope John Paul II, officially teaches that it has no authority to ordain women as priests and thus there is no possibility of female priests at any time in the future. HP Pavilion dv3-4000 Battery

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