Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
18 septembre 2012 2 18 /09 /septembre /2012 06:15

Princeton University Princeton University is an American private Ivy League research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. It is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciencesand engineering.[5] Princeton does not have schools of medicine, law, divinity, or business, but it does offer professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science and the School of Architecture. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey, as the College of New Jersey, the university moved to Newark in 1747, then to Princeton in 1756 and was renamed Princeton University in 1896.[6] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard The present-day College of New Jersey in nearby Ewing Township, New Jersey, is an unrelated institution. Princeton was the fourth chartered institution of higher education in the American colonies.[7] [8] Princeton had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but has never been affiliated with any denomination[9] and today imposes no religious requirements on its students.[10]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University.[11] Princeton has been associated with 35 Nobel Laureates, 17 National Medal of Sciencewinners, and three National Humanities Medal winners. On a per-student basis, Princeton has the largest university endowment in the world.[12]  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey, later Princeton University, in 1746 in order to train ministers. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1756, the college moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal house of William III of England. Compaq Presario CQ71-411EZ Laptop Keyboard Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became President in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college.[13] Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754.[14] During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard (1802 and 1855) Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers.[15] Nassau Hall's iconic bell rang after the halls construction however the fire of 1802 melted the bell. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus.[16] McCosh Hall is named in his honor.[15]DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard In 1879, the first thesis for PhD was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard In 1900, the Graduate school was established.[17] In 1902, Woodrow Wilson graduate of the Class of 1879 is elected the 13th president of the University.[18] Under Woodrow Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard In 1906, Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie.[17] A collection of Historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton's campus.[19]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EV Laptop Keyboard

Coeducation at Princeton University

Main article: Coeducation at Princeton University In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university had actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women's college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS530B Laptop Keyboard the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school's operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. (Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meserve, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on,  TOSHIBA 99.n7482.001 Laptop Keyboard spending their junior year there to study "critical languages" in which Princeton's offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.) TOSHIBA Equium A60 Series Laptop Keyboard As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton's eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn's appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied.[20]SONY VAIO VGN-AW17GU Laptop Keyboard The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km2) split between two municipalities, the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township.[4] The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia. Lenovo Thinkpad X220 Laptop Keyboard The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756, and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street.[15] The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century.[21][22] The McCoshpresidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place.[23] At the end of the 19th century Princeton adopted the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today.[24] Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter[24] and later enforced by the University's supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram,[25HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard ] the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960.[26][27] A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received.[28] Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library),[29] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard I.M. Pei (Spelman Halls),[30]Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project),[31] Robert Venturi (Frist Campus Center, among several others),[32] and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).[33]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval With Points), Isamu Noguchi(White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman).[34] Richard Serra's The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.[35]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard At the southern edge of the campus is Lake Carnegie, a man-made lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake's construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus.[36] Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered "not gentlemanly."[37] The Shea Rowing Center on the lake's shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.[38]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the "Big Cannon," which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was brought to New Brunswick.[39] In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.[40]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard A second "Little Cannon" is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875.  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the War and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton.[41] The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.[42][43]SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred most recently in 2006, ending a twelve-year drought.[44]SONY Vaio PCG-K23Q Laptop Keyboard

Buildings

Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756,[15] it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776,[45] was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777,[15] and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783 to November 4, 1783.[46] SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Laptop Keyboard It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus.[47] The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879.[15] Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather.[48] In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.[49]HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, Wilson College and Forbes College (formerly Princeton Inn College), date to the 1970s; three others,Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, TOSHIBA Portege M200 Laptop Keyboard which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university's sixth residential college, was completed in 2007.  DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton's Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard Wilson and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. Wilson served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the "New New Quad") before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years.[50]HP Mini 210-2005sa Laptop Keyboard Forbes currently houses over 400 undergraduates and a number of resident graduate students in its residential halls. Butler and most of Forbes are in a different municipality, Princeton Township, from the rest of the main campus, which is in Princeton Borough. DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton's sixth residential college that same year.  DELL Latitude E5510 Laptop Keyboard The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Oxford University and Cambridge University. Wilson's model was much closer to Yale's present system, which features four-year colleges. SAMSUNG Q330-JS01 Laptop Keyboard Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alum, Edward Harkness ACER Aspire 5745P Laptop Keyboard finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the G.C. was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the College; ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed.[50] The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College departs in its design from Collegiate Gothic; it is reminiscent of the former dormitories of Butler College, the newest of the five pre-Whitman residential colleges. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors.  HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Numbering over 72,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on theMediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Romanantiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol's Blue Marilyn. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of Pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of US$2.3 million,[52] approximately US$31.1 million in 2011 dollars. Ralph Adams Cram, the University's supervising architect, designed the Chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus.[53] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King's College Chapel, Cambridge.[54] It underwent a two-year, US$10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.[55]DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard Measured on the exterior, the Chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high.[56] The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim.[57] The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages.[58] The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.[53]Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard The Chapel seats almost 2,000.[59] It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services,[60] daily Roman Catholic mass,[61] and several annual special events.

Apartment facilities

Published in 2008, Princeton's Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University's Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement.[63] Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 without the purchase of offsets.[64] SONY Vaio VGN-AW390 Laptop Keyboard The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009.[65] The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics.[66] Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 20% sustainable food products.[67] The student organization "Greening Princeton" seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.[68]DELL Latitude D610 Laptop Keyboard The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University's endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members. HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard With an endowment of US$17.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States,  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard the university has the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over US$2 million for undergraduates).[69] Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers.[70] Some of Princeton's wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists. ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in engineering (B.S.E.). SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in all disciplines.[71] It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master's degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice. ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard  SONY 99.N1782.001 Laptop Keyboard

Undergraduate

Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a "precept." To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as "junior papers." HP Pavilion dv6-2190ev Laptop Keyboard Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. A.B. candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. HP 431416-001 Laptop Keyboard An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student's suspension or expulsion.[72] The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students' academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall.[73][74] HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline.[75] Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.[76]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Admissions and financial aid Princeton's undergraduate program is highly selective, admitting 7.86% of undergraduate applicants in the 2011–12 admissions cycle (for the Class of 2016).[77]In September 2006, the university announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool. In this way, the early decisionprogram was effectively ended.[78FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard ] In February 2011, following decisions by the University of Virginia and Harvard University to reinstate their early admissions programs, Princeton announced it would institute an early action program, starting with applicants for the Class of 2016.[79] In 2011, the Business Journal rated Princeton as the most selective college in the Eastern United States in terms of admission selectivity.[80]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard In 2001, expanding on earlier reforms, Princeton became the first university to eliminate loans for all students who qualify for financial aid.[81] All demonstrated need is met with combinations of grants and campus jobs. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard In addition, all admissions are need-blind.[82] U.S. News & World Report and Princeton Review both cite Princeton as the university that has the fewest of graduates with debt even though 60% of incoming students are on some type of financial aid.[83] Kiplinger magazine ranks Princeton as the best value among private universities, noting that the average graduating debt is US$4,957, "about one fifth the average debt of students who borrow at all private schools."[84]HP G42-459TX Laptop Keyboard In 2004, Nancy Weiss Malkiel, the Dean of the College, implemented a grade deflation policy to curb the number of A-range grades undergraduates received.[85]Malkiel's argument was that an A was beginning to lose its meaning as a larger percentage of the student body received them.[85] While the number of A's has indeed decreased under the policy,  SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard many argue that this is hurting Princeton students when they apply to jobs or graduate school.[85] Malkiel has said that she sent pamphlets to inform institutions about the policy so that they consider Princeton students equally,[85] but students argue that Princeton graduates can apply to other institutions that know nothing about it.  ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard They argue further that as other schools purposefully inflate their grades,[86] Princeton students' GPAs will look low by comparison. Further, studies have shown that employers prefer high grades even when they are inflated.[87] It is expected to remain in place even after Malkiel steps down at the end of the 2010–2011 school year. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The policy deflates grades only relative to their previous levels; indeed, as of 2009, or five years after the policy was instituted, the average graduating GPA saw a marginal decrease, from 3.46 to 3.39.[88]Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard

Graduate

Princeton offers postgraduate research degrees in many fields in the social sciences, engineering, natural sciences, and humanities. Although Princeton offers professional graduate degrees in engineering, architecture, and finance, it has no medical school, law school, or business school like other research universities.[89] HP G62-a33EO Laptop Keyboard The university's most famous professional school is the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and US President) Woodrow Wilson. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The university's library system houses over eleven million holdings[90] including six million bound volumes.[91] The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world[92] and among the largest "open stack" libraries in existence. Its collections include the Blickling homilies. ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard In addition to Firestone library, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, including architecture, art history, East Asian studies, engineering, geology, international affairs and public policy, Near Eastern studies, and psychology. ACER 002-07A23L-A01 Laptop Keyboard Seniors in some departments can register for enclosed carrels in the main library for workspace and the private storage of books and research materials. In February 2007, Princeton became the 12th major library system to join Google's ambitious project to scan the world's great literary works and make them searchable over the Web.[93]SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard

Rankings

From 2001 to 2010, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.S. News & World Report (USNWR), holding the No. 1 spot for 8 of those 10 years.[101] After being at second place in 2008-9, Princeton returned to the number one spot in 2010, tying with Harvard University.[102]Compaq Presario CQ42-285TU Laptop Keyboard It has been ranked eighth among world universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University,[103] and fifth among top 50 for Natural Sciences by THES.[104] In the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings[105] Princeton was ranked 5th in the world. In the 2011 QS World University Rankings[106] it was ranked 13th overall in the world, making it 9th among US universities. ACER Aspire 5745P Laptop Keyboard Its three highest subject rankings were: 6th in Arts & Humanities, 7th in Natural Sciences, and 11th in Social Sciences. Globally it dropped two places from its position of 8th in the THE-QS World University Rankings of 2009 (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings).[107] In 2009 the university had been ranked third in North America, behind Harvard and Yale.[108]DELL AEUM8U00010 Laptop Keyboard In the "America's Best Colleges" rankings by Forbes in 2008, Princeton University was ranked first among all national colleges and universities.[109] The Forbes ranking also takes into consideration national awards won by students and faculty, as well as number of alumni in the 2008 "Who's Who in America" register.[110]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard Princeton Graduate School programs are also highly ranked among universities in the United States.[111] In the 2009 U.S. News & World Report "Graduate School Rankings", all fourteen of Princeton's doctoral programs evaluated were ranked in their respective top 20, 7 of them in the top 5, and 4 of them in the top spot (Mathematics, Economics, History, Political Science).[112]SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard In Princeton Review's rankings of "softer" aspects of students' college experience, Princeton University was ranked first in "Students Happy with Financial Aid" and third in "Happiest Students", behind Clemson and Brown Universities.[113]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The university's individual academic departments have been highly ranked in their respective fields. The Department of Psychology has been ranked fifth in the nation[114] and its individual graduate programs have received high national rankings as well. The behavioral neuroscience program[115] has been ranked sixth and the social psychology program[116] has been ranked seventh. The Department of History is currently ranked first in the world.[117]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Princeton University also participates in the (NAICU)'s University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN). Princeton University has an IBM BlueGeneL supercomputer, called Orangena, which was ranked as the 89th fastest computer in the world in 2005 (LINPACKperformance of 4713 compared to 12250 for other U.S. universities and 280600 for the top-ranked supercomputer, belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy).[118]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard

Student life and culture

University housing is guaranteed to all undergraduates for all four years. More than 98 percent of students live on campus in dormitories.[119] Freshmen and sophomores must live in residential colleges, while juniors and seniors typically live in designated upperclassman dormitories. The actual dormitories are comparable, but only residential colleges have dining halls. HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard Nonetheless, any undergraduate may purchase a meal plan and eat in a residential college dining hall. Recently, upperclassmen have been given the option of remaining in their college for all four years. Juniors and seniors also have the option of living off-campus, but high rent in the Princeton area encourages almost all students to live in university housing. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate social life revolves around the residential colleges and a number of coeducational eating clubs, which students may choose to join in the spring of their sophomore year. Eating clubs, which are not officially affiliated with the university, serve as dining halls and communal spaces for their members and also host social events throughout the academic year. HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard Princeton's six residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities, guest speakers, and trips. The residential colleges also sponsor trips to New York for undergraduates to see ballets, operas, Broadway shows, sports events, and other activities. The eating clubs, located on Prospect Avenue, are co-ed organizations for upperclassmen. Most upperclassmen eat their meals at one of the ten eating clubs. Additionally, the clubs serve as evening and weekend social venues for members and guests. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard Princeton hosts two Model United Nations conferences, PMUNC[120] in the fall for high school students and PICSim[121] in the spring for college students. It also hosts the Princeton Invitational Speech and Debate tournament each year at the end of November. Princeton also runs Princeton Model Congress, an event that is held once a year in mid-November. The 4-day conference has high school students from around the country as participants. HP pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard Although the school's admissions policy is need blind, Princeton, based on the proportion of students who receive Pell Grants, was ranked as a school with little economic diversity among all national universities ranked by U.S. News & World Report.[122] While Pell figures are widely used as a gauge of the number of low-income undergraduates on a given campus,  Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard the rankings article cautions "the proportion of students on Pell Grants isn't a perfect measure of an institution's efforts to achieve economic diversity," but goes on to say that "still, many experts say that Pell figures are the best available gauge of how many low-income undergrads there are on a given campus." HP G62-a34SO Laptop Keyboard

Athletics

Princeton supports organized athletics at three levels: varsity intercollegiate, club intercollegiate, and intramural. It also provides "a variety of physical education and recreational programs" for members of the Princeton community. According to the athletics program's mission statement, Princeton aims for its students who participate in athletics to be "'student athletes' in the fullest sense of the phrase."[129] Most undergraduates participate in athletics at some level.[130]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard Princeton's colors are orange and black. The school's athletes are known as Tigers, and the mascot is a tiger. The Princeton administration considered naming the mascot in 2007, but the effort was dropped in the face of alumni opposition.[131]DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard Princeton is an NCAA Division I school. Its athletic conference is the Ivy League. Princeton hosts 38 men's and women's varsity sports.[130] The largest varsity sport is rowing, with almost 150 athletes.[38]SONY VAIO VGN-CS21S/R Laptop Keyboard Princeton's football team has a long and storied history. Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U.S. on Nov 6, 1869. By a score of 6–4, Rutgers won the game, which was played by rules similar to modern rugby.[132] Today Princeton is a member of the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I.[133] As of the end of the 2010 season, Princeton had won 26 national football championships, more than any other school.[134]Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard The men's basketball program is noted for its success under Pete Carril, the head coach from 1967 to 1996. During this time, Princeton won 13 Ivy League titles and made 11 NCAA tournament appearances.[135] Carril introduced the Princeton offense, an offensive strategy that has since been adopted by a number of college and professional basketball teams.[136] SONY VAIO PCG-FR215S Laptop Keyboard Carril's final victory at Princeton came when the Tigers beat UCLA, the defending national champion, in the opening round of the 1996 NCAA tournament,[136] in what is considered one of the greatest upsets in the history of the tournament.[137] Recently Princeton tied the record for the fewest points in a Division I game since the institution of the three-point line in 1986–87, when the Tigers scored 21 points in a loss against Monmouth University on Dec 14, 2005.[138]TOSHIBA Satellite A500 Series Laptop Keyboard The men's water polo team is currently a dominant force in the Collegiate Water Polo Association, having reached the Final Four in two of the last three years. Similarly, the men's lacrosse program enjoyed a period of dominance 1992–2001, during which time it won six national championships.[139] In addition to varsity sports, Princeton hosts about 35 club sports teams.[130] Princeton's rugby team is organized as a club sport.[140]SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard Each year, nearly 300 teams participate in intramural sports at Princeton.[141] Intramurals are open to members of Princeton's faculty, staff, and students, though a team representing a residential college or eating club must consist only of members of that college or club. Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available.[142] ACER Aspire 7336 Laptop Keyboard Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation, and athletic games is Princeton Cannon Song, the Princeton University fight song. SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard Bob Dylan wrote "Day of The Locusts" about his experience of receiving an honorary doctorate from the University. It is a reference to the negative experience he had and it mentions the cicada infestation of Princeton.  IBM Thinkpad X60S Laptop Keyboard

Old Nassau"

"Old Nassau" has been Princeton University's anthem since 1859. Its words were written that year by a freshman, Harlan Page Peck, and published in the March issue of the Nassau Literary Review (the oldest student publication at Princeton and also the second oldest undergraduate literary magazine in the country). The words and music appeared together for the first time in Songs of Old Nassau, published in April 1859. Before the Langlotz tune was written, the song was sung to Auld Lang Syne's melody, which also fits.[143]HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard However, Old Nassau does not only refer to the university's anthem. It can also refer to Nassau Hall, the building that was built in 1756 and named afterWilliam III of the House of Orange-Nassau.  HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard When built, it was the largest college building in North America. It served briefly as the capitol of the United States when the Continental Congress convened there in the summer of 1783. By metonymy, the term can refer to the university as a whole. Finally, it can also refer to a chemical reaction that is dubbed "Old Nassau reaction" because the solution turns orange and then black.[144]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard

Notable alumni and faculty

U.S. Presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson graduated from Princeton, as did Michelle Obama, the current First Lady of the United States. Former Chief Justice of the United States Oliver Ellsworth was an alumnus, as are current U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justices Samuel Alito, Elena Kagan, and Sonia Sotomayor. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Notable graduates of Princeton's School of Engineering and Applied Science include Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos, Google executive Eric Schmidt and Lisa P. Jackson, TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. Actor Jimmy Stewart graduated from Princeton. Writers F. Scott Fitzgerald and Eugene O'Neill attended but did not graduate; Selden Edwards and Will Stanton graduated with an English degree. Notable graduate alumni include Richard Feynman, John Nash, Alan Mathison Turing and David Petraeus. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard Notable faculty members include Paul Krugman, Joyce Carol Oates, Peter Singer, and Andrew Wiles. Notable former faculty members include Ben Bernanke, Joseph Henry, Toni Morrison, John P. Lewis and Woodrow Wilson, who served as president of the University 1902–1910. Albert Einstein, though on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study rather than at Princeton, came to be associated with the university through frequent lectures and visits on the campus. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Accidents and injuries

Schwarzenegger was born with a bicuspid aortic valve, an aortic valve with only two leaflets (a normal aortic valve has three leaflets).[134][135] Schwarzenegger opted in 1997 for a replacement heart valve made of his own transplanted tissue; medical experts predicted he would require heart valve replacement surgery in the following two to eight years as his valve would progressively degrade. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger apparently opted against a mechanical valve, the only permanent solution available at the time of his surgery, because it would have sharply limited his physical activity and capacity to exercise.[136] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard On December 9, 2001, he broke six ribs and was hospitalized for four days after a motorcycle crash in Los Angeles.[137] Schwarzenegger saved a drowning man's life in 2004 while on vacation in Hawaii by swimming out and bringing him back to shore.[138] On January 8, 2006, while Schwarzenegger was riding his Harley Davidson motorcycle in Los Angeles, with his son Patrick in the sidecar, another driver backed into the street he was riding on, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard causing him and his son to collide with the car at a low speed. While his son and the other driver were unharmed, the governor sustained a minor injury to his lip, requiring 15 stitches. "No citations were issued", said Officer Jason Lee, a Los Angeles Police Department spokesman.[139]Schwarzenegger did not obtain his motorcycle license until July 3, 2006.[140]SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger tripped over his ski pole and broke his right femur while skiing in Sun Valley, Idaho, with his family on December 23, 2006.[141] On December 26, 2006, he underwent a 90-minute operation in which cables and screws were used to wire the broken bone back together. He was released from the St. John's Health Center on December 30, 2006.[142]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's private jet made an emergency landing at Van Nuys Airport on June 19, 2009, after the pilot reported smoke coming from the cockpit, according to a statement released by the governor's press secretary. No one was harmed in the incident.[143]DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard

Net worth

Schwarzenegger's net worth had been conservatively estimated at $100–$200 million.[144] After separating from his wife, Maria Shriver, in 2011, it has been estimated that his net worth has been approximately $400 million, and even as high as $800 million, based on tax returns he filed in 2006.[145][146] Over the years as an investor, he invested his bodybuilding and movie earnings in an array of stocks, bonds, privately controlled companies, and real estate holdings worldwide, SAMSUNG R518 Laptop Keyboard so a more accurate estimation of his net worth is difficult to calculate, particularly in light of declining real estate values owing to economic recessions in the United States and Europe. In June 1997, Schwarzenegger spent $38 million of his own money on a private Gulfstream Jet.[147] Schwarzenegger once said of his fortune, "Money doesn't make you happy. I now have $50 million, but I was just as happy when I had $48 million."[9] He has also stated, "I've made many millions as a businessman many times over."[16]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard

Activism

He bought the first Hummer manufactured for civilian use in 1992, a model so large, 6,300 lb (2,900 kg) and 7 feet (2.1 m) wide, that it is classified as a large truck and U.S. fuel economy regulations do not apply to it. During the Gubernatorial Recall campaign he

announced that he would convert one of his Hummers to burn hydrogen. GATEWAY PK1306R3A32 Laptop Keyboard The conversion was reported to have cost about US$21,000. After the election, he signed an executive order to jump-start the building of hydrogen refueling plants called the California Hydrogen Highway Network, and gained a U.S. Department of Energy grant to help pay for its projected US$91,000,000 cost.[148] California took delivery of the first H2H (Hydrogen Hummer) in October 2004.[149]ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard Arnold Schwarzenegger has been involved with the Special Olympics for many years after they were founded by his ex-mother-in-law, Eunice Kennedy Shriver.[150] In 2007, Schwarzenegger was the official spokesperson for the Special Olympics which were held in Shanghai, China.[151] Schwarzenegger believes that quality school opportunities should be made available to children who might not normally be able to access them.[152]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In 1995, he founded the Inner City Games Foundation (ICG) which provides cultural, educational and community enrichment programming to youth.[152] ICG is active in 15 cities around the country and serves over 250,000 children in over 400 schools countrywide.[152] He has also been involved with After-School All-Stars, and founded the Los Angeles branch in 2002.[153] ASAS is an after school program provider, educating youth about health, fitness and nutrition. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard On February 12, 2010, Schwarzenegger took part in the Vancouver Olympic Torch relay. He handed off the flame to the next runner, Sebastian Coe.[154]

Honors

Schwarzenegger's home town of Graz had its soccer stadium named The Arnold Schwarzenegger Stadium in his honor. It is the home of both Grazer AK and Sturm Graz. After the Stanley Williams execution and street protests in Schwarzenegger's hometown, several local politicians began a campaign to remove his name from the stadium. In response,  HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger said "to spare the responsible politicians of the city of Graz further concern, I withdraw from them as of this day the right to use my name in association with the Liebenau Stadium", and set a deadline of two days to remove his name. Graz officials removed Schwarzenegger's name from the stadium in December 2005.[155] It is now officially titled UPC-Arena. ASUS W3000 Laptop Keyboard The Sun Valley Resort has a short ski trail called Arnold's Run, named after Schwarzenegger in 2001.[156] The trail is categorized as a black diamond, or most difficult, for its terrain.  TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard People in Thal, Austria, celebrated Schwarzenegger's 60th birthday by throwing a party. Officials proclaimed "A Day for Arnold" on July 30, 2007. The mayor sent Schwarzenegger the enameled sign, Thal 145, the number of the house where Schwarzenegger was born, declaring "This belongs to him. No one here will ever be assigned that number again".[157]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard On July 11, 2011, it was announced that Schwarzenegger is considering a comeback film despite his legal problems.[58] He has reportedly signed to star in The Last Stand as a dishonored Los Angeles cop.[59] Schwarzenegger appeared in The Expendables 2(2012), in which he had a larger role than in the first film.[60] He will later star in Unknown Soldier and The Tomb, thought to be released in 2013.[61]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger has been a registered Republican for many years. As an actor, his political views were always well known as they contrasted with those of many other prominent Hollywood stars, who are generally considered to be a liberal andDemocratic-leaning community. At the 2004 Republican National Convention, Schwarzenegger gave a speech and explained why he was a Republican:[62] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard I finally arrived here in 1968. What a special day it was. I remember I arrived here with empty pockets but full of dreams, full of determination, full of desire. The presidential campaign was in full swing. I remember watching theNixon-Humphrey presidential race on TV. A friend of mine who spoke German and English translated for me. I heard Humphrey saying things that sounded like socialism, HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard which I had just left. But then I heard Nixon speak. He was talking about free enterprise, getting the government off your back, lowering the taxes and strengthening the military. Listening to Nixon speak sounded more like a breath of fresh air. I said to my friend, I said, "What party is he?" My friend said, "He's a Republican." I said, "Then I am a Republican." And I have been a Republican ever since. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In 1985, Schwarzenegger appeared in Stop the Madness, an anti-drug music video sponsored by the Reagan administration. He first came to wide public notice as a Republican during the 1988 Presidential election, accompanying then-Vice President George H.W. Bush at a campaign rally.[63]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's first political appointment was as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, on which he served from 1990 to 1993.[4]He was nominated by George H. W. Bush, who dubbed him "Conan the Republican". He later served as Chairman for the California Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under Governor Pete Wilson. Yet, political analysts have identified Schwarzenegger as a liberal, as he has become more left-leaning since his election.[64]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Between 1993 and 1994, Schwarzenegger was a Red Cross ambassador (a ceremonial role fulfilled by celebrities), recording several television/radio public service announcements to donate blood. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard In an interview with Talk magazine in late 1999, Schwarzenegger was asked if he thought of running for office. He replied, "I think about it many times. The possibility is there, because I feel it inside."[65] The Hollywood Reporter claimed shortly after that Schwarzenegger sought to end speculation that he might run for governor of California.[65] Following his initial comments, Schwarzenegger said, "I'm in show business – I am in the middle of my career. Why would I go away from that and jump into something else?"[65]Compaq Presario CQ42-296TX Laptop Keyboard

Governor of California

Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy in the 2003 California recall election for Governor of California on the August 6, 2003 episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.[14] According to Schwarzenegger, he did not decide to run until the day of the announcement:  HP G62-b30SQ Laptop Keyboard The recall happens and people are asking me, ‘What are you going to do?’ I thought about it but decided I wasn’t going to do it. I told Maria I wasn’t running. I told everyone I wasn’t running. I wasn’t running. SONY Vaio VGN-AW220J Laptop Keyboard I just thought [en route to the Tonight Show], This will freak everyone out. It’ll be so funny. I’ll announce that I am running. I told Leno I was running. And two months later I was governor. What the fuck is that? All these people are asking me, ‘What’s your plan? Who’s on your staff?’ I didn’t have a plan. I didn’t have a staff. I wasn’t running until I went on Jay Leno.[66]TOSHIBA Satellite L45-S2416 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger had the most name recognition in a crowded field of candidates, but he had never held public office and his political views were unknown to most Californians. His candidacy immediately became national and international news, SONY Vaio PCG-K315B Laptop Keyboard with media outlets dubbing him the "Governator" (referring to The Terminatormovies, see above) and "The Running Man" (the name of another one of his films), and calling the recall election "Total Recall" (yet another Schwarzenegger starrer). Schwarzenegger declined to participate in several debates with other recall replacement candidates, and appeared in only one debate on September 24, 2003.[67]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell EasyNote W3322 Laptop Keyboard On October 7, 2003, the recall election resulted in Governor Gray Davis being removed from office with 55.4% of the Yes vote in favor of a recall. Schwarzenegger was elected Governor of California under the second question on the ballot with 48.6% of the vote to choose a successor to Davis. Schwarzenegger defeated Democrat Cruz Bustamante, SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard fellow Republican Tom McClintock, and others. His nearest rival, Bustamante, received 31% of the vote. In total, Schwarzenegger won the election by about 1.3 million votes. Under the regulations of the California Constitution, no runoff election was required. Schwarzenegger was the second foreign-born governor of California after Irish-born Governor John G. Downey in 1862. HP Pavilion dv5-1247la Laptop Keyboard On September 27, 2006 Schwarzenegger signed a bill creating the nation's first cap on greenhouse gas emissions. The law set new regulations on the amount of emissions utilities, refineries and manufacturing plants are allowed to release into the atmosphere. DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger also signed a second global warming bill that prohibits large utilities and corporations in California from making long-term contracts with suppliers who do not meet the state's greenhouse gas emission standards. The two bills are part of a plan to reduce California's emissions by 25 percent to 1990s levels by 2020. In 2005, Schwarzenegger issued an executive order calling to reduce greenhouse gases to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.[86]FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger signed another executive order on October 17, 2006 allowing California to work with the Northeast's Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. They plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by issuing a limited amount of carbon credits to each power plant in participating states. Any power plants that exceed emissions for the amount of carbon credits will have to purchase more credits to cover the difference. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard The plan took effect in 2009.[87] In addition to using his political power to fight global warming, the governor has taken steps at his home to reduce his personal carbon footprint. Schwarzenegger has adapted one of hisHummers to run on hydrogen and another to run on biofuels. He has also installed solar panels to heat his home.[88]HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard In respect of his contribution to the direction of the US motor industry, Schwarzenegger was invited to open the 2009 SAE World Congress in Detroit, on April 20, 2009.[89] IBM ThinkPad T40-2373 Laptop Keyboard

Early love life

In 1969, Schwarzenegger met Barbara Outland (later Barbara Outland Baker), an English teacher he lived with until 1974.[99] Schwarzenegger talked about Barbara in his memoir in 1977: "Basically it came down to this: she was a well-balanced woman who wanted an ordinary, solid life, and I was not a well-balanced man, and hated the very idea of ordinary life."[99] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Baker has described Schwarzenegger as "[a] joyful personality, totally charismatic, adventurous, and athletic" but claims towards the end of the relationship he became "insufferable – classically conceited – the world revolved around him".[100] Baker published her memoir in 2006, entitled Arnold and Me: In the Shadow of the Austrian Oak.[101] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Although Baker, at times, painted an unflattering portrait of her former lover, Schwarzenegger actually contributed to the tell-all book with a foreword, and also met with Baker for three hours.[101] Baker claims, for example, that she only learned of his being unfaithful after they split, and talks of a turbulent and passionate love life.[101]HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger has made it clear that their respective recollection of events can differ.[101] The couple first met six to eight months after his arrival in the U.S—their first date was watching the first Apollo Moon landing on television.[18] They shared an apartment in Santa Monica for three and a half years, and having little money, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard would visit the beach all day, or have barbecues in the back yard.[18] Although Baker claims that when she first met him, he had "little understanding of polite society" and she found him a turn-off, she says, "He's as much a self-made man as it's possible to be—he never got encouragement from his parents, his family, his brother. He just had this huge determination to prove himself, and that was very attractive ... I'll go to my grave knowing Arnold loved me."[18]Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger met his next paramour, Sue Moray, a Beverly Hills hairdresser's assistant, on Venice Beach in July 1977. According to Moray, the couple led an open relationship: "We were faithful when we were both in LA ... but when he was out of town, we were free to do whatever we wanted."[10] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger metMaria Shriver at the Robert F. Kennedy Tennis Tournament in August 1977, and went on to have a relationship with both women until August 1978, when Moray (who knew of his relationship with Shriver) issued an ultimatum.[10]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard On April 26, 1986, Schwarzenegger married television journalist Maria Shriver, niece of President John F. Kennedy, inHyannis, Massachusetts. The Rev. John Baptist Riordan performed the ceremony at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church.[102] They have four children: Katherine Eunice Shriver Schwarzenegger (born December 13, 1989 in Los Angeles); TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Christina Maria Aurelia Schwarzenegger (born July 23, 1991 in Los Angeles);[103] Patrick Schwarzenegger (born September 18, 1993 in Los Angeles);[104]and Christopher Sargent Shriver Schwarzenegger (born September 27, 1997 in Los Angeles).[105] Schwarzenegger lives in a 11,000-square-foot (1,000 m2) home in Brentwood.[106][107] The divorcing couple currently own vacation homes in Sun Valley, Idaho and Hyannis Port, Massachusetts.[108] They attended St. Monica's Catholic Church.[109]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's 13-year-old son Christopher Schwarzenegger was seriously injured in a boogie-boarding accident in Malibu, on July 17, 2011. In a joint statement, Schwarzenegger and estranged wife Shriver described it as "scary," and that "he is expected to make a full recovery." Christopher had been in intensive care after suffering a collapsed lung and broken bones in the accident.[110]TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard  Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2522 Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-3100sg Laptop Keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires