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20 juillet 2012 5 20 /07 /juillet /2012 04:38

Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother

Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the queen consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother,[1] to avoid confusion with her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II. She was the last queen consort of Ireland and empress consort of India. HP Pavilion dv4-1123la Keyboard

Born into a family of British nobility as The Honourable Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, she became Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon whenher father inherited the Scottish Earldom of Strathmore and Kinghorne in 1904. She came to prominence in 1923 when she married Albert, Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. HP Pavilion dv4-1123tx Keyboard

As Duchess of York, she – along with her husband and their two daughters Elizabeth and Margaret – embodied traditional ideas of family and public service.[2] She undertook a variety of public engagements, and became known as the "Smiling Duchess" because of her consistent public expression.[3] HP Pavilion dv4-1123us Keyboard

In 1936, her husband unexpectedly became King when his brother, Edward VIII, abdicated in order to marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson. Queen Elizabeth accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours to France and North America before the start of World War II. HP Pavilion dv4-1124la Keyboard

During the war, her seemingly indomitable spirit provided moral support to the British public. In recognition of her role as an asset to British morale, Adolf Hitler described her as "the most dangerous woman in Europe".[4] After the war, her husband's health deteriorated and she was widowed at the age of 51. HP Pavilion dv4-1124nr Keyboard

On the death of her mother-in-law Queen Mary in 1953, with her brother-in-law living abroad and her elder daughter, the Queen, aged 27, Elizabeth became the senior member of the British Royal Family and assumed a position as family matriarch. HP Pavilion dv4-1124tx Keyboard

In her later years, she was a consistently popular member of the family, when other members were suffering from low levels of public approval.[5] She continued an active public life until just a few months before her death at the age of 101, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter, Princess Margaret. HP Pavilion dv4-1125br Keyboard

Early life

Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the youngest daughter and the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, (later the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in the Peerage of Scotland), and his wife, Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck. Her mother was descended from British Prime Minister William Cavendish-Bentinck, HP Pavilion dv4-1125la Keyboard

3rd Duke of Portland, and Governor-General of India Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, who was the elder brother of another Prime Minister, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. (Lady Colin Campbell claims Elizabeth's biological mother was the family cook, Marguerite Rodiere, HP Pavilion dv4-1125nr Keyboard

by means of a surrogacy arrangement that was not uncommon in aristocratic families at the time. This theory is condemned by royal biographers such as Michael Thornton and Hugo Vickers.[6] In an earlier allegation, published by Kitty Kelley in 1997, Elizabeth's mother is said to have been a Welsh maid.[7]) HP Pavilion dv4-1125tx Keyboard

The location of her birth remains uncertain, but reputedly she was born either in her parents' Westminster home at Belgrave Mansions, Grosvenor Gardens, or in a horse-drawn ambulance on the way to a hospital.[8] Other possible locations include Forbes House in Ham, London, the home of her maternal grandmother, Mrs Scott.[9] HP Pavilion dv4-1126la Keyboard

Her birth was registered at Hitchin, Hertfordshire,[10] near the Strathmores' English country house, St Paul's Walden Bury, which was also given as her birthplace in the census the following year.[11] She was christened there on 23 September 1900, in the local parish church, All Saints, and her godparents included her paternal aunt Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon and cousin Mrs Arthur James.[12] HP Pavilion dv4-1126tx Keyboard

She spent much of her childhood at St Paul's Walden and at Glamis Castle, the Earl's ancestral home in Scotland. She was educated at home by a governess until the age of eight, and was fond of field sports, ponies and dogs.[13] HP Pavilion dv4-1127la Keyboard

When she started school in London, she astonished her teachers by precociously beginning an essay with two Greek words from Xenophon's Anabasis. Her best subjects were literature and scripture. After returning to private education under a German Jewish governess, Käthe Kübler, she passed the Oxford Local Examination with distinction at age 13.[14] HP Pavilion dv4-1127tx Keyboard

On her fourteenth birthday, Britain declared war on Germany. Four of her brothers served in the army. Her elder brother, Fergus, an officer in the Black WatchRegiment, was killed in action at the Battle of Loos in 1915. Another brother, Michael, was reported missing in action on 28 April 1917.[15] HP Pavilion dv4-1128tx Keyboard

Three weeks later, the family discovered he had been captured after being wounded. He remained in a prisoner of war camp for the rest of the war. Glamis was turned into a convalescent home for wounded soldiers, which Elizabeth helped to run. She was particularly instrumental in organising the rescue of the Castle's contents during a serious fire on 16 September 1916.[16] HP Pavilion dv4-1129la Keyboard

One of the soldiers she treated wrote in her autograph book that she was to be "Hung, drawn, & quartered ... Hung in diamonds, drawn in a coach and four, and quartered in the best house in the land."[17] HP Pavilion dv4-1129tx Keyboard

Prince Albert, Duke of York – "Bertie" to the family – was the second son of King George V. He initially proposed to Elizabeth in 1921, but she turned him down, being "afraid never, never again to be free to think, speak and act as I feel I really ought to".[18] HP Pavilion dv4-1130br Keyboard

When he declared he would marry no other, his mother, Queen Mary, visited Glamis to see for herself the girl who had stolen her son's heart. She became convinced that Elizabeth was "the one girl who could make Bertie happy", but nevertheless refused to interfere.[19] HP Pavilion dv4-1130tx Keyboard

At the same time, Elizabeth was courted by James Stuart, Albert's equerry, until he left the prince's service for a better-paid job in the American oil business.[20] HP Pavilion dv4-1131br Keyboard

In February 1922, Elizabeth was a bridesmaid at the wedding of Albert's sister, Princess Mary, to Viscount Lascelles.[21] The following month, Albert proposed again, but she refused him once more.[22] Eventually, in January 1923, Elizabeth agreed to marry Albert, despite her misgivings about royal life.[23] HP Pavilion dv4-1131tx Keyboard

Albert's freedom in choosing Elizabeth, legally a commoner though the daughter of a peer, was considered a gesture in favour of political modernisation; previously, princes were expected to marry princesses from other royal families.[24] They married on 26 April 1923, at Westminster Abbey. HP Pavilion dv4-1132tx Keyboard

Unexpectedly,[25]Elizabeth laid her bouquet at the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior on her way into the Abbey;[26] a gesture that every royal bride since has copied, though subsequent brides have chosen to do this after the ceremony rather than before. She became styledHer Royal Highness The Duchess of York.[27] HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Keyboard

 Following a wedding breakfast at Buckingham Palace prepared by chef Gabriel Tschumi, they honeymooned at Polesden Lacey, a manor house in Surrey, and then went to Scotland, where she caught "unromantic" whooping cough.[28] HP Pavilion dv4-1134tx Keyboard

Duchess of York

After a successful visit to Northern Ireland in July 1924, the Labour government agreed that Albert and Elizabeth could tour East Africa from December 1924 to April 1925.[29] The Labour government was defeated by the Conservatives in a general election in November (which Elizabeth described as "marvellous" to her mother)[30] HP Pavilion dv4-1135br Keyboard

and the Governor-General of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Sir Lee Stack, was assassinated three weeks later. Despite this, the tour went ahead, and they visited Aden, Kenya, Uganda, and Sudan, but Egypt was avoided because of political tensions.[31] HP Pavilion dv4-1135ee Keyboard

Albert had a stammer, which affected his ability to deliver speeches, and after October 1925, Elizabeth assisted in helping him through the therapy devised byLionel Logue, an episode portrayed in the 2010 film The King's Speech. In 1926, the couple had their first child, Princess Elizabeth – "Lilibet" to the family – who would later become Queen Elizabeth II. HP Pavilion dv4-1135ei Keyboard

Another daughter, Margaret Rose, was born four years later. Albert and Elizabeth, without their child, travelled to Australia to open Parliament House in Canberra in 1927.[32] She was, in her own words, "very miserable at leaving the baby".[33] Their journey by sea took them via Jamaica, the Panama Canal and the Pacific; HP Pavilion dv4-1135tx Keyboard

Elizabeth fretted constantly over her baby back in Britain, but their journey was a public relations success.[34] She charmed the public in Fiji when shaking hands with a long line of official guests, as a stray dog walked in on the ceremony and she shook its paw as well.[35] In New Zealand she fell ill with a cold, and missed some engagements, HP Pavilion dv4-1136br Keyboard

but enjoyed the local fishing.[36] On the return journey, via Mauritius, the Suez Canal, Malta and Gibraltar, their transport, HMS Renown, caught fire and they prepared to abandon ship before the fire was brought under control. HP Pavilion dv4-1136tx Keyboard

On 20 January 1936, King George V died and Albert's brother, Edward, Prince of Wales, became King Edward VIII. George had expressed private reservations about his successor, saying, "I pray God that my eldest son will never marry and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne."[38] HP Pavilion dv4-1137tx Keyboard

Just months into his reign, Edward forced a constitutional crisis by insisting on marrying the American divorcée Mrs Wallis Simpson. Although legally Edward could have married Mrs Simpson, as king he was also head of the Church of England, which at that time did not allow divorced people to remarry. HP Pavilion dv4-1138tx Keyboard

Edward's ministers believed that the people would never accept Mrs Simpson as queen and advised against the marriage. As a constitutional monarch, Edward was obliged to accept ministerial advice.[39] Rather than abandon his plans to marry Mrs Simpson, he chose to abdicate in favour of Albert,[40] HP Pavilion dv4-1139tx Keyboard

 who reluctantly became king in his place on 11 December 1936 under the regnal name of George VI. George VI and Elizabeth were crowned King and Queen of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions, and Emperor and Empress of India on 12 May 1937, the date already nominated for the coronation of Edward VIII. Elizabeth's crown was made of platinum and was set with the Koh-i-Noor diamond.[41] HP Pavilion dv4-1140ek Keyboard

Edward and Mrs Simpson married and became the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, but while Edward was a Royal Highness, George VI withheld the style from the Duchess, a decision that Elizabeth supported.[42] Elizabeth was later quoted as referring to the Duchess as "that woman".[43] HP Pavilion dv4-1140go Keyboard

In summer 1938, a state visit to France by the King and Queen was postponed for three weeks because of the death of the Queen's mother, Lady Strathmore. In two weeks, Norman Hartnell created an all-white trousseau for the Queen, who could not wear colours as she was still in mourning.[44] HP Pavilion dv4-1140tx Keyboard

 The visit was designed to bolster Anglo-French solidarity in the face of aggression from Nazi Germany.[45] The French press praised the demeanour and charm of the royal couple during the delayed but successful visit, augmented by Hartnell's wardrobe.[46] HP Pavilion dv4-1141tx Keyboard

Nevertheless, Nazi aggression continued, and the government prepared for war. After the Munich Agreement of 1938 appeared to forestall the advent of armed conflict, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was invited onto the balcony ofBuckingham Palace with the King and Queen to receive acclamation from a crowd of well-wishers.[47] HP Pavilion dv4-1142tx Keyboard

 While broadly popular among the general public, Chamberlain's policy towards Hitler was the subject of some opposition in the House of Commons, which led historian John Grigg to describe the King's behaviour in associating himself so prominently with a politician as "the most unconstitutional act by a British sovereign in the present century".[48] HP Pavilion dv4-1143go Keyboard

However, historians have also argued that the King only ever followed ministerial advice and acted as he was constitutionally bound to do.[49]

In June 1939, Elizabeth and her husband toured Canada from coast to coast and back, and visited the United States, spending time with President Roosevelt at the White House and his Hudson Valley estate.[50][51][52][53] HP Pavilion dv4-1143tx Keyboard

U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt said that Elizabeth was "perfect as a Queen, gracious, informed, saying the right thing & kind but a little self-consciously regal".[54] The tour was designed to bolster trans-Atlantic support in the event of war, and to affirm Canada's status as a self-governing kingdom sharing with Britain the same person as monarch.[55][56][57][58] HP Pavilion dv4-1144tx Keyboard

According to an often-told story, during one of the earliest of the royal couple's repeated encounters with the crowds, a Boer War veteran asked Elizabeth, "Are you Scots or are you English?" She replied, "I am a Canadian!"[59] Their reception by the Canadian and U.S. public was extremely enthusiastic,[60] HP Pavilion dv4-1144us Keyboard

 and largely dissipated any residual feeling that George and Elizabeth were a lesser substitute for Edward.[61] Elizabeth told Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King, "that tour made us",[62] and she returned to Canada frequently both on official tours and privately.[63] HP Pavilion dv4-1145br Keyboard

World War II

During World War II, the King and Queen became symbols of the fight against fascism.[64] Shortly after the declaration of war,The Queen's Book of the Red Cross was conceived. Fifty authors and artists contributed to the book, which was fronted byCecil Beaton's portrait of the Queen and was sold in aid of the Red Cross.[65] HP Pavilion dv4-1145go Keyboard

 Elizabeth publicly refused to leave London or send the children to Canada, even during the Blitz, when she was advised by the Cabinet to do so. She declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave the King. And the King will never leave."[66] HP Pavilion dv4-1145tx Keyboard

She visited troops, hospitals, factories, and parts of Britain that were targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in particular theEast End, near London's docks. Her visits initially provoked hostility; rubbish was thrown at her and the crowds jeered,[5]in part because she wore expensive clothes that served to alienate her from people suffering the deprivations of war. She explained that if the public came to see her they would wear their best clothes, HP Pavilion dv4-1146tx Keyboard

so she should reciprocate in kind; Norman Hartnell dressed her in gentle colours and avoided black to represent "the rainbow of hope".[67] When Buckingham Palace itself took several hits during the height of the bombing, Elizabeth was able to say, "I'm glad we've been bombed. It makes me feel I can look the East End in the face."[68] HP Pavilion dv4-1147cl Keyboard

Though the King and Queen spent the working day at Buckingham Palace, partly for security and family reasons they stayed at night at Windsor Castle about 20 miles (32 km) west of central London with the Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret. The Palace had lost much of its staff to the army, HP Pavilion dv4-1147tx Keyboard

and most of the rooms were shut.[69]The windows were shattered by bomb blasts, and had to be boarded up.[70] During the "Phoney War" the Queen was given revolver training because of fears of imminent invasion.[71] HP Pavilion dv4-1148tx Keyboard

Adolf Hitler is said to have called her "the most dangerous woman in Europe" because of her effect on British morale.[4] However, before the war both she and her husband, like most of Parliamentand the British public, had supported appeasement and Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, HP Pavilion dv4-1149tx Keyboard

believing after the experience of the First World War that war had to be avoided at all costs. After the resignation of Chamberlain, the King asked Winston Churchill to form a government. Although the King was initially suspicious of his character and motives, in due course both the King and Queen came to respect and admire him.[72][73] HP Pavilion dv4-1150br Keyboard

At the end of the war in 1945, Churchill was invited onto the balcony in a similar gesture to that given to Chamberlain.

In the 1945 British general election, Churchill's Conservative party was soundly defeated by the Labour party of Clement Attlee. Elizabeth's political views were rarely disclosed,[74] HP Pavilion dv4-1150eo Keyboard

but a letter she wrote in 1947 described Attlee's "high hopes of a socialist heaven on earth" as fading and presumably describes those who voted for him as "poor people, so many half-educated and bemused. I do love them."[75] Woodrow Wyatt thought her "much more pro-Conservative" than other members of the royal family,[76] HP Pavilion dv4-1150ep Keyboard

but she later told him, "I like the dear old Labour Party."[77] She also told the Duchess of Grafton, "I love communists".[78]After six years in office, Attlee was defeated in the 1951 British general election and Churchill returned to power. HP Pavilion dv4-1150er Keyboard

During the 1947 royal tour of South Africa, Elizabeth's serene public behaviour was broken, exceptionally, when she rose from the royal car to strike an admirer with her umbrella because she had mistaken his enthusiasm for hostility.[79] The 1948 royal tour of Australia and New Zealand was postponed because of the King's increasing ill health. HP Pavilion dv4-1150es Keyboard

In March 1949, he had a successful operation to improve the circulation in his right leg.[80] In summer 1951, Queen Elizabeth and her daughters fulfilled the King's public engagements in his place.[81] In September, he was diagnosed with lung cancer.[82] After a lung resection, he appeared to recover, HP Pavilion dv4-1150tx Keyboard

but the delayed trip to Australia and New Zealand was altered so that Princess Elizabeth and her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, went in the King and Queen's place, in January 1952.[83] The King died while Princess Elizabeth and the Duke were in Kenya en route to the southern hemisphere, HP Pavilion dv4-1151tx Keyboard

and they returned immediately to London as the new Queen and consort. They would not finally visit Australia and New Zealand until 1954.

Queen Mother

King George VI died peacefully in his sleep on 6 February 1952. Shortly afterward, Elizabeth began to be styled Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. This style was adopted because the normal style for the widow of a king, "Queen Elizabeth", would have been too similar to the style of her elder daughter, nowQueen Elizabeth II.[84] Popularly, she became the "Queen Mother" or the "Queen Mum".[85] HP Pavilion dv4-1152tx Keyboard

She was devastated by the King's death and retired to Scotland. However, after a meeting with the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, she broke her retirement and resumed her public duties.[86] Eventually she became just as busy as Queen Mother as she had been as Queen. HP Pavilion dv4-1153tx Keyboard

In July 1953, she undertook her first overseas visit since the funeral when she visited the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland with Princess Margaret. She laid the foundation stone of the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland – the current University of Zimbabwe.[87] HP Pavilion dv4-1154tx Keyboard

On her return to the region in 1957, she was inaugurated as the College's President, and attended other events that were deliberately designed to be multi-racial.[88] During her daughter's extensive tour of the Commonwealth over 1953–54, Elizabeth acted as a Counsellor of State and looked after her grandchildren, Charles and Anne.[89] HP Pavilion dv4-1155se Keyboard

The widowed queen oversaw the restoration of the remote Castle of Mey on the Caithness coast of Scotland, which she used to "get away from everything"[90] for three weeks in August and ten days in October each year.[91] Inspired by the amateur jockeyLord Mildmay, HP Pavilion dv4-1155tx Keyboard

she developed an interest in horse racing, particularly steeplechasing, that continued for the rest of her life.[92] She owned the winners of approximately 500 races. Her distinctive colours of blue with buff stripes were carried by horses such as Special Cargo, HP Pavilion dv4-1156tx Keyboard

the winner of the 1984 Whitbread Gold Cup, and Devon Loch, which spectacularly halted just short of the winning post at the 1956 Grand National[93] and whose jockey Dick Francis later had a successful career as the writer of racing-themed detective stories. HP Pavilion dv4-1157tx Keyboard

Although (contrary to rumour) she never placed bets, she did have the racing commentaries piped direct to her London residence, Clarence House, so she could follow the races.[94] As an art collector, she purchased works by Claude Monet, Augustus John and Peter Carl Fabergé, among others.[95] HP Pavilion dv4-1158tx Keyboard

In February 1964, she had an emergency appendectomy, which led to the postponement of a planned tour of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji until 1966.[96] She recuperated during a Caribbean cruise aboard the royal yacht, Britannia.[97] In December 1966, she underwent an operation to remove a tumour after she was diagnosed with colon cancer. HP Pavilion dv4-1159tx Keyboard

Contrary to rumours, she did not have a colostomy.[98][99] In 1982, she was rushed to hospital when a fish bone stuck in her throat, and had an operation to remove it. Being a keen angler, she calmly joked afterwards, HP Pavilion dv4-1160es Keyboard

"The salmon have got their own back."[100] In 1984, she had a second operation for cancer, when a lump was removed from her breast,[101] and a second gastric obstruction in 1986 cleared without the need for an operation, but she was hospitalised overnight.[102] HP Pavilion dv4-1160tx Keyboard

In 1975, she visited Iran at the invitation of Shah Reza Pahlavi. The British ambassador and his wife, Anthony and Sheila Parsons, noted how the Iranians were bemused by her habit of speaking to everyone regardless of status or importance, and hoped the Shah's entourage would learn from the visit to pay more attention to ordinary people.[103] HP Pavilion dv4-1161tx Keyboard

Four years later, the Shah was deposed. Between 1976 and 1984, she made annual summer visits to France,[104] which were among 22 private trips to continental Europe between 1963 and 1992.[105] HP Pavilion dv4-1162tx Keyboard

Before the marriage of Lady Diana Spencer to her grandson Prince Charles, and after Diana's death, Queen Elizabeth – known for her personal and public charm – was by far the most popular member of the royal family.[18] Her signature dress of large upturned hat with netting and dresses with draped panels of fabric became a distinctive personal style. HP Pavilion dv4-1163tx Keyboard

Centenarian

In her later years, the Queen Mother became known for her longevity. Her 90th birthday—4 August 1990—was celebrated by a parade on 27 June that involved many of the 300 organisations of which she was patron.[106] In 1995, she attended events commemorating the end of the war fifty years before, HP Pavilion dv4-1164tx Keyboard

and had two operations: one to remove a cataract in her left eye, and one to replace her right hip.[107] In 1998, her left hip was replaced after it was broken when she slipped and fell during a visit to Sandringham stables.[108] Her 100th birthday was celebrated in a number of ways: HP Pavilion dv4-1165tx Keyboard

a parade that celebrated the highlights of her life included contributions from Norman Wisdom and John Mills;[109] her image appeared on a special commemorative £20 note issued by the Royal Bank of Scotland;[110] and she attended a lunch at the Guildhall, London, at which George Carey, HP Pavilion dv4-1166ca Keyboard

the Archbishop of Canterbury, accidentally attempted to drink her glass of wine. Her quick admonition of "That's mine!" caused widespread amusement.[111] In November 2000, she broke her collar bone in a fall that kept her recuperating at home over Christmas and the New Year.[112] HP Pavilion dv4-1166tx Keyboard

In December 2001, aged 101, the Queen Mother had a fall in which she fractured her pelvis. Even so, she insisted on standing for the National Anthem during the memorial service for her husband on 6 February the following year.[113] Just three days later, her second daughter Princess Margaret died. HP Pavilion dv4-1167tx Keyboard

On 13 February 2002, the Queen Mother fell and cut her arm at Sandringham House.[114] Despite this fall, she was still determined to attend Margaret's funeral at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, two days later on Friday of that week.[115] HP Pavilion dv4-1168tx Keyboard

The Queen and the rest of the royal family were greatly concerned about the journey the Queen Mother would face to get from Norfolk to Windsor.[116] Nevertheless, she made the journey and insisted that she be shielded from the press, so that no photographs of her in a wheelchair could be taken.[116] HP Pavilion dv4-1169tx Keyboard

On 30 March 2002, at 3:15 pm, the Queen Mother died in her sleep at the Royal Lodge, Windsor Great Park, with her surviving daughter, Queen Elizabeth II, at her bedside. She had been suffering from a cold for the last four months of her life.[114] HP Pavilion dv4-1180br Keyboard

She was 101 years old, and at the time of her death was the longest-lived member of the royal family in British history. This record was broken on 24 July 2003, by her last surviving sister-in-law Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, who died aged 102 on 29 October 2004. HP Pavilion dv4-1190br Keyboard

Elizabeth grew camellias in every one of her gardens, and as her body was taken from Windsor to lie in state at Westminster Hall, camellias from her own gardens were placed on top of the flag-draped coffin.[117] More than 200,000 people over three days filed past as she lay in state in Westminster Hall at the Palace of Westminster. HP Pavilion dv4-1190ea Keyboard

Members of the household cavalry and other branches of the armed forces stood guard at the four corners of the catafalque. At one point, her four grandsons Prince Charles, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward and Viscount Linley mounted the guard as a mark of respect known as the Vigil of the Princes—an honour only bestowed once before, at King George V's lying in state. HP Pavilion dv4-1190ej Keyboard

On the day of her funeral, 9 April, the Governor General of Canada issued a proclamation asking Canadians to honour her memory that day.[118] In Australia, the Governor-General read the lesson at a memorial service held in St Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney.[119] HP Pavilion dv4-1190el Keyboard

In London, more than a million people filled the area outside Westminster Abbey and along the 23-mile (37 km) route from central London to her final resting place beside her husband and younger daughter in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[120] HP Pavilion dv4-1198er Keyboard

At her request, after her funeral the wreath that had lain atop her coffin was placed on the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior, in a gesture that echoed her wedding-day tribute 79 years before.[121] HP Pavilion dv4-1199ea Keyboard

Public perception

Despite being regarded as one of the most popular members of the royal family in recent times who helped to stabilise the popularity of the monarchy as a whole,[122][123] Elizabeth was subject to various degrees of criticism during her life. HP Pavilion dv4-1199ee Keyboard

Kitty Kelley alleged that during World War II Elizabeth did not abide by the rationing regulations.[124][125] This is contradicted by the official records,[126][127] and Eleanor Roosevelt during her wartime stay at Buckingham Palace reported expressly on the rationed food served in the Palace and the limited bathwater that was permitted.[128][129] HP Pavilion dv4-1199ef Keyboard

Further allegations that Elizabeth used racist slurs to refer to black people[124] were strongly denied by Major Colin Burgess.[130] Major Burgess was the husband of Elizabeth Burgess, a mixed-race secretary who accused members of the Prince of Wales's Household of racial abuse.[131] HP Pavilion dv4-1199eo Keyboard

 Queen Elizabeth made no public comments on race, but according to Robert Rhodes James in private she "abhorred racial discrimination" and decried apartheid as "dreadful".[132] Woodrow Wyatt records in his diary that when he expressed the view that non-white countries have nothing in common with "us", HP Pavilion dv4-1199ep Keyboard

she told him, "I am very keen on the Commonwealth. They're all like us."[133] However, she did distrust Germans; she told Woodrow Wyatt, "Never trust them, never trust them."[134] While she may have held such views, it has been argued that they were normal for British people of her generation and upbringing, who had experienced two vicious wars with Germany.[135] HP Pavilion dv4-1199er Keyboard

In 1987, she was criticised when it emerged that two of her nieces, Katherine Bowes-Lyon and Nerissa Bowes-Lyon, had both been committed to a psychiatric hospital because they were severely handicapped. However, Burke's Peerage had listed the sisters as dead, apparently because their mother, HP Pavilion dv4-1199es Keyboard

Fenella (the Queen Mother's sister-in-law), "was 'extremely vague' when it came to filling in forms and might not have completed the paperwork for the family entry correctly".[136]When Nerissa had died the year before, her grave was originally marked with a plastic tag and a serial number. The Queen Mother claimed that the news of their institutionalisation came as a surprise to her.[137] HP Pavilion dv4-1199et Keyboard

Sir Hugh Casson said she was like "a wave breaking on a rock, because although she is sweet and pretty and charming, she also has a basic streak of toughness and tenacity. ... when a wave breaks on a rock, it showers and sparkles with a brilliant play of foam and droplets in the sun, yet beneath is really hard, tough rock, HP Pavilion dv4-1200 Keyboard

fused, in her case, from strong principles, physical courage and a sense of duty."[138] Peter Ustinov described her during a student demonstration at the University of Dundee in 1968, "As we arrived in a solemn procession the students pelted us with toilet rolls. They kept hold of one end, HP Pavilion dv4-1200 CTO Keyboard

like streamers at a ball, and threw the other end. The Queen Mother stopped and picked these up as though somebody had misplaced them. [Returning them to the students she said,] 'Was this yours? Oh, could you take it?' And it was her sang-froid and her absolute refusal to be shocked by this, HP Pavilion dv4-1201au Keyboard

which immediately silenced all the students. She knows instinctively what to do on those occasions. She doesn't rise to being heckled at all; she just pretends it must be an oversight on the part of the people doing it. The way she reacted not only showed her presence of mind, but was so charming and so disarming, even to the most rabid element, that she brought peace to troubled waters."[139] HP Pavilion dv4-1201tu Keyboard

She was well known for her dry witticisms. On hearing that Edwina Mountbatten was buried at sea, she said: "Dear Edwina, she always liked to make a splash."[100] Accompanied by the gay writer Sir Noël Coward at a gala, she mounted a staircase lined with Guards. Noticing Coward's eyes flicker momentarily across the soldiers, HP Pavilion dv4-1201tx Keyboard

she murmured to him: "I wouldn't if I were you, Noël; they count them before they put them out."[140] After being advised by a Conservative Minister in the 1970s not to employ homosexuals, the Queen Mother observed that without them, "we'd have to go self-service".[140] HP Pavilion dv4-1202au Keyboard

On the fate of a gift of a nebuchadnezzar of champagne (20 bottles' worth) even if her family didn't come for the holidays, she said, "I'll polish it off myself."[141] Emine Saner of The Guardian suggests that with a gin and Dubonnet at noon, red wine with lunch, a port andmartini at 6 pm and two glasses of champagne at dinner, HP Pavilion dv4-1202tu Keyboard

"a conservative estimate puts the number of alcohol units she drank at 70 a week".[142] Her extravagant lifestyle amused journalists, particularly when it was revealed she had a multi-millionpound overdraft with Coutts Bank.[143] HP Pavilion dv4-1202tx Keyboard

Her habits were often parodied (with relative affection) by the satirical 1980s television programme Spitting Image – which portrayed her with a Birmingham accent (modelled on actress Beryl Reid[144]) HP Pavilion dv4-1203au Keyboard

and an ever-present copy of the Racing Post. She was portrayed in the 2002 television film Bertie and Elizabeth by Juliet Aubrey, the 2006 film The Queen by Sylvia Syms and in the 2010 film The King's Speech by Helena Bonham Carter, who was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and won a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for her portrayal. HP Pavilion dv4-1203tu Keyboard

She left her entire estate to her daughter, Elizabeth II, except for some bequests to members of her staff. Her estate was estimated to be worth £70 million, including paintings, Fabergé eggs, jewellery, and horses. Eight years before her death, HP Pavilion dv4-1203tx Keyboard

she had reportedly placed two-thirds of her money into trusts, for the benefit of her great-grandchildren. Her most important pieces of art were transferred to the Royal Collection by Elizabeth II.[145] HP Pavilion dv4-1204au Keyboard

A statue of Queen Elizabeth by sculptor Philip Jackson at the George VI Memorial, off The Mall, London, was unveiled on 24 February 2009.[146] The Cunard White Star Line's RMS Queen Elizabeth was named after her. She launched the ship on 27 September 1938 in Clydebank, Scotland. Supposedly, HP Pavilion dv4-1204tu Keyboard

the liner started to slide into the water before Elizabeth could officially launch her, and acting sharply, she managed to smash a bottle of Australian red over the liner's bow just before it slid out of reach.[147] In 1954, Queen Elizabeth sailed to New York on her namesake.[148] HP Pavilion dv4-1204tx Keyboard

In March 2011, her eclectic musical taste was revealed when details of her small record collection kept at at the Castle of Mey were made public.[149] She had a taste for ska music and her records included artists such as the yodeller Montana Slim,Tony Hancock, The Goons and Noël Coward. Other music included local folk, Scottish reels and the musicals Oklahoma! and The King and I. HP Pavilion dv4-1205au Keyboard

Queen Elizabeth's coat of arms was the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom (in either the English or the Scottish version) impaled with the arms of her father, the Earl of Strathmore; the latter being: 1st and 4th quarters, Argent, a lionrampant Azure, armed and langued Gules, HP Pavilion dv4-1205tu Keyboard

Emperor of India

After the Mughal Emperor was deposed by the British East India Company, and after the company itself was dissolved, the title "Empress of India" (or Kaiser-i-Hind, a form coined by the orientalist G.W. Leitner in a deliberate attempt to dissociate British imperial rule from that of preceding dynasties)[4] was taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876, and proclaimed at theDelhi Durbar of 1877. HP Pavilion dv4-1205tx Keyboard

The title was introduced nineteen years after the formal incorporation into the British Empire of Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent, comprising most of modern-day India (excluding the Portuguese India, the State of Sikkim, and the enclaves of French India), HP Pavilion dv4-1206tu Keyboard

 Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Burma (though the latter would be made a separate colony in 1937). Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli is usually credited with the title's creation.[5] HP Pavilion dv4-1206tx Keyboard

There were several motivations for the instatement of the imperial title. It had become evident that Queen Victoria's daughter, Victoria, Princess Royal, would become an empress when her husband ascended the German imperial throne; many at the time thought it wrong for the daughter to outrank her mother, HP Pavilion dv4-1207tu Keyboard

a "mere" queen. Furthermore, Victoria's superiority to the various rulers who nominally controlled parts of British India was considered justification for the title "Empress".HP Pavilion dv4-1208tu Keyboard

When Victoria died, and her son Edward VII ascended the throne, his title became "Emperor of India". The title continued after India and Pakistan became independent from Britain at midnight on 14/15 August 1947, HP Pavilion dv4-1207tx Keyboard

and was not formally abandoned until 22 June 1948 under George VI, although the British monarch continued to be the monarch of India and Pakistan until they became republics in 1950 and 1956, respectively (see below). HP Pavilion dv4-1208tx Keyboard

When signing their name for Indian business, a British King-Emperor or reigning Queen-Empress used the initials R I (Rex/Regina Imperator/Imperatrix) or the abbreviation Ind. Imp.(Indiae Imperator/Imperatrix) after their name (while the one reigning Queen-Empress, Victoria, used the initials R I, HP Pavilion dv4-1209tu Keyboard

the three consorts of the married King-Emperors simply used R).

When a male monarch held the title his wife, the queen consort, used the style Queen-Empress, but was not herself a reigning monarch. HP Pavilion dv4-1209tx Keyboard

British coins, and those of the Empire and Commonwealth dominions routinely included the abbreviated title Ind. Imp., although in India itself the coins said "Empress", and later "King Emperor". When in 1947 India became independent all coining dies had to be changed, which took up to a year and created some problems. HP Pavilion dv4-1210ea Keyboard

 Canadian coins, for example, were minted well into 1948 stamped "1947", the new year's issue indicated by a small maple leafin one corner. In Great Britain itself the title appeared on coinage through 1948. HP Pavilion dv4-1210ef Keyboard

British Raj

British Raj (rāj, lit. "reign" in Hindi)[1] was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[2]The term can also refer to the period of dominion.[2][3] The region under British control, commonly called India in contemporary usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[4] (contemporaneously, HP Pavilion dv4-1210eo Keyboard

"British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire.[5] As "India," it was a founding member of the League of Nations, and a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936. HP Pavilion dv4-1210er Keyboard

The system of governance was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria[6] (and who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India), and lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states, HP Pavilion dv4-1210tu Keyboard

the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern half of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was already a part of British India; Upper Burma was added in 1886, HP Pavilion dv4-1210tx Keyboard

and the resulting union, Burma, was administered as a province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony which gained its own independence in 1948. HP Pavilion dv4-1211ea Keyboard

The British raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, with exceptions such as Goa andPondicherry. In addition, at various times, it included Aden (from 1858 to 1937),[7] Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937),UHP Pavilion dv4-1211tu Keyboard

pper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867). Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948. HP Pavilion dv4-1211tx Keyboard

The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf were theoretically princely states of British India until 1946 and used therupee as their unit of currency. HP Pavilion dv4-1212la Keyboard

Among other countries in the region, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was a British crown colony but not part of British India. The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.[8][9] HP Pavilion dv4-1212tu Keyboard

The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; however, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined.[10] The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965 but not part of British India. HP Pavilion dv4-1212tx Keyboard

British India and the Native States

In general the term "British India" had been used (and is still used) to also refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858.[12] The term has also been used to refer to the "British in India".[13] HP Pavilion dv4-1213la Keyboard

The terms "Indian Empire" "Empire of India" (like the term "British Empire") was not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was often used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by British India government, HP Pavilion dv4-1213tu Keyboard

have the words Indian Empire on the cover and on the inside and Empire of India on the inside.[14] In addition, an order of knighthood the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire was set up in 1878. HP Pavilion dv4-1213tx Keyboard

Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised (in the name of the British Crown) by the central government of British India under the Viceroy; the remaining approximately 500 states were dependents of the provincial governments of British India under a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, HP Pavilion dv4-1214la Keyboard

or Chief Commissioner (as the case might have been).[15] A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, HP Pavilion dv4-1214tu Keyboard

both central and local; in cont

rast, the courts of the Princely States existed under the authority of the respective rulers of those states.[15]

A Princely State, also called a Native State or an Indian State, was a nominally sovereign entity with an indigenous Indian ruler, subject to a subsidiary alliance. There were 565 princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August 1947. HP Pavilion dv4-1214tx Keyboard

The princely states did not form a part of British India (i.e. the presidencies and provinces), as they were not directly under British rule. The larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had; in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs, defence and most communications were under British control. The British also exercised a general influence over the states' internal politics, HP Pavilion dv4-1215ef Keyboard

in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the great majority were very small and contracted out the business of government to the British. Some two hundred of the states had an area of less than 25 square kilometres (10 square miles).[18] HP Pavilion dv4-1215tu Keyboard

Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (usually called the Indian Mutiny by the British), the Government of India Act 1858 made changes in the governance of India at three levels: in the imperial government in London, in the central government in Calcutta, and in the provincial governments in the presidencies (and later in the provinces).[19] HP Pavilion dv4-1215tx Keyboard

In London, it provided for a cabinet-level Secretary of State for India and a fifteen-member Council of India, whose members were required, as one prerequisite of membership, to have spent at least ten years in India and to have done so no more than ten years before.[20] HP Pavilion dv4-1216tu Keyboard

Although the Secretary of State formulated the policy instructions to be communicated to India, he was required in most instances to consult the Council, but especially so in matters relating to spending of Indian revenues. The Act envisaged a system of "double government" HP Pavilion dv4-1216tx Keyboard

in which the Council ideally served both as a check on excesses in imperial policy-making and as a body of up-to-date expertise on India. However, the Secretary of State also had special emergency powers that allowed him to make unilateral decisions, and, in reality, the Council's expertise was sometimes outdated.[21] HP Pavilion dv4-1217la Keyboard

From 1858 until 1947, twenty seven individuals served as Secretary of State for India and directed the India Office; these included: Sir Charles Wood (1859–1866),Marquess of Salisbury (1874–1878) (later Prime Minister of Britain), John Morley (1905–1910) (initiator of the Minto-Morley Reforms), HP Pavilion dv4-1217tx Keyboard

E. S. Montagu (1917–1922) (an architect of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms), and Frederick Pethick-Lawrence (1945–1947) (head of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India). The size of the advisory Council was reduced over the next half-century, but its powers remained unchanged. In 1907, for the first time, two Indians were appointed to the Council.[22] HP Pavilion dv4-1218tx Keyboard

In Calcutta, the Governor-General remained head of the Government of India and now was more commonly called the Viceroy on account of his secondary role as the Crown's representative to the nominally sovereign princely states; he was, however, now responsible to the Secretary of State in London and through him to Parliament. HP Pavilion dv4-1219tx Keyboard

A system of "double government" had already been in place during the Company's rule in India from the time of Pitt's India Act of 1784. The Governor-General in the capital, Calcutta, and the Governor in a subordinate presidency (Madras or Bombay) was each required to consult his advisory council; HP Pavilion dv4-1220br Keyboard

executive orders in Calcutta, for example, were issued in the name of "Governor-General-in-Council" (i.e. the Governor-General with the advice of the Council). The Company's system of "double government" had its critics, since, from the time of the system's inception, there had been intermittent feuding between the Governor-General and his Council; HP Pavilion dv4-1220tx Keyboard

still, the Act of 1858 made no major changes in governance.[23] However, in the years immediately thereafter, which were also the years of post-rebellion reconstruction, the Viceroy Lord Canning found the collective decision-making of the Council to be too time-consuming for the pressing tasks ahead, HP Pavilion dv4-1220us Keyboard

so he requested the "portfolio system" of an Executive Council in which the business of each government department (the "portfolio") was assigned to and became the responsibility of a single Council member.[22] Routine departmental decisions were made exclusively by the member; HP Pavilion dv4-1221tx Keyboard

however, important decisions required the consent of the Governor-General and, in the absence of such consent, required discussion by the entire Executive Council. This innovation in Indian governance was promulgated in the Indian Councils Act 1861. HP Pavilion dv4-1222la Keyboard

If the Government of India needed to enact new laws, the Councils Act allowed for a Legislative Council—an expansion of the Executive Council by up to twelve additional members, each appointed to a two-year term—with half the members consisting of British officials of the government (termed official) and allowed to vote, HP Pavilion dv4-1222nr Keyboard

and the other half, comprising Indians and domiciled Britons in India (termed non-official) and serving only in an advisory capacity.[24] All laws enacted by Legislative Councils in India, whether by theImperial Legislative Council in Calcutta or by the provincial ones in Madras and Bombay, HP Pavilion dv4-1222tx Keyboard

required the final assent of the Secretary of State in London; this prompted Sir Charles Wood, the second Secretary of State, to describe the Government of India as "a despotism controlled from home".[22] Moreover, although the appointment of Indians to the Legislative Council was a response to calls after the 1857 rebellion, HP Pavilion dv4-1223la Keyboard

most notably by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, for more consultation with Indians, the Indians so appointed were from the landed aristocracy, often chosen for their loyalty, and far from representative.[25] Even so, the "... HP Pavilion dv4-1223tx Keyboard

tiny advances in the practise of representative government were intended to provide safety valves for the expression of public opinion which had been so badly misjudged before the rebellion".[26] Indian affairs now also came to be more closely examined in the British Parliament and more widely discussed in the British press.[27] HP Pavilion dv4-1224la Keyboard

Aftermath of the Indian rebellion of 1857

Shaken by the events of the Indian rebellion of 1857, Britain dissolved the East India Company and transferred ruling power over India to the Crown. The princely states were mostly kept intact, though they lost their private armies and were more closely watched. The all-British units were doubled in number. HP Pavilion dv4-1224tx Keyboard

After the rebellion, the British became more circumspect regarding rapid modernisation. Much thought was devoted to the causes of the rebellion, and from it three main lessons were drawn. At a more practical level, it was felt that there needed to be more communication and camaraderie between the British and Indians—HP Pavilion dv4-1225dx Keyboard

not just between British army officers and their Indian staff but in civilian life as well. The Indian army was completely reorganised: units composed of the Muslims and Brahmins of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, who had formed the core of the rebellion, were disbanded.[40] HP Pavilion dv4-1225dx Keyboard

 New regiments, like the Sikhs and Baluchis, composed of Indians who, in British estimation, had demonstrated steadfastness, were formed. The Indian units lost their artillery. From then on, the Indian army was to remain unchanged in its organisation until 1947.[41] HP Pavilion dv4-1225ee Keyboard

The 1861 Census had revealed that the English population in India was 125,945. Of these only about 41,862 were civilians as compared with about 84,083 European officers and men of the Army.[42] In 1880, the standing Indian Army consisted of 66,000 British soldiers, 130,000 Natives, and 350,000 soldiers in the princely armies.[43] HP Pavilion dv4-1225la Keyboard

Administrative control of India came under the prestigious Indian Civil Service which had administrative control over all districts outside the princely states. At first all-British, it included increasing proportions of Indians, and totalled about 1000 men. They were very well organised, well-educated and professional, HP Pavilion dv4-1225tx Keyboard

and avoided the bribes and inside deals that had made for great wealth among the officials of the defunct East India Company.[44] HP Pavilion dv4-1226tx Keyboard

The British decided that both the princes and the large land-holders, by not joining the rebellion, had proved to be, in Lord Canning's words, "breakwaters in a storm".[40] They too were rewarded in the new British Raj by being officially recognised in the treaties each state now signed with the Crown.[41] HP Pavilion dv4-1227la Keyboard

At the same time, it was felt that the peasants, for whose benefit the large land-reforms of the United Provinces had been undertaken, had shown disloyalty, by, in many cases, HP Pavilion dv4-1227us Keyboard

fighting for their former landlords against the British. Consequently, no more land reforms were implemented for the next 90 years: Bengal and Bihar were to remain the realms of large land holdings (unlike the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh).[41] HP Pavilion dv4-1227tx Keyboard

Legal modernisation

Singha argues that after 1857 the colonial government strengthened and expanded its infrastructure via the court system, legal procedures, and statutes. New legislation merged the Crown and the old East India Company courts and introduced a new penal code as well as new codes of civil and criminal procedure, HP Pavilion dv4-1228ca Keyboard

 based largely on English law. In the 1860s–1880s the Raj set up compulsory registration of births, deaths, and marriages, as well as adoptions, property deeds, and wills. The goal was to create a stable, usable public record and verifiable identities. However there was opposition from both Muslim and Hindu elements who complained that the new procedures for census-taking and registration threatened to uncover female privacy. HP Pavilion dv4-1228la Keyboard

Purdah rules prohibited women from saying their husband's name or having their photograph taken. An all-India census was conducted between 1868 and 1871, often using total numbers of females in a household rather than individual names. Select groups which the Raj reformers wanted to monitor statistically included those reputed to practice female infanticide, prostitutes, lepers, and eunuchs.[45] HP Pavilion dv4-1228tx Keyboard

Increasingly officials discovered that traditions and customs in India were too strong and too rigid to be changed easily. There were few new social interventions, especially not in matters dealing with religion, even when the British felt very strongly about the issue (as in the instance of the remarriage of Hindu child widows).[41] HP Pavilion dv4-1229la Keyboard

Indeed, Murshid argues that women were in some ways more restricted by the modernisation of the laws. They remained tied to the strictures of their religion, caste, and customs, but now with an overlay of British Victorian. Their inheritance rights to own and manage property were curtailed; HP Pavilion dv4-1229tx Keyboard

the new English laws were somewhat harsher. Court rulings restricted the rights of second wives and their children regarding inheritance. A woman had to belong to either a father or a husband to have any rights.[46] HP Pavilion dv4-1230br Keyboard

Fevers had been considered one of the leading causes of death in India in the 19th century.[172] It was Britain's Sir Ronald Ross working in the Presidency General Hospital in Calcutta who finally proved in 1898 that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes.[173] In 1881, around 120,000 leprosy patients existed in India. HP Pavilion dv4-1230tx Keyboard

The central government passed the Lepers Act of 1898, which provided legal provision for forcible confinement of leprosy sufferers in India.[174] Under the direction of Mountstuart Elphinstone a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination.[175] Mass vaccination in India resulted in a major decline in smallpox mortality by the end of the 19th century.[176] HP Pavilion dv4-1231tx Keyboard

 [177] Between 1868 and 1907, there were approximately 4.7 million deaths from smallpox.[178]

Sir Robert Grant directed his attention to the expediency of establishing a systematic institution in the Bombay for imparting medical knowledge to the natives.[179] In 1860, Grant Medical College became one of the four recognised colleges for teaching courses leading to degrees (others being Elphinstone College, Deccan College and Government Law College, Mumbai). HP Pavilion dv4-1232tx Keyboard

The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic.[169] Deaths in India between 1817 and 1860 are estimated to have exceeded 15 million persons. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917.[170] HP Pavilion dv4-1233tx Keyboard

The Third Pandemic of plague started in China in the middle of the 19th century, spreading disease to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone.[171] HP Pavilion dv4-1234tx Keyboard

 Waldemar Haffkine, who mainly worked in India, was the first microbiologist who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague. In 1925, the Plague Laboratory in Bombay was renamed the Haffkine Institute.

In 1780 the conservative British politician Edmund Burke raised the issue of India's position: he vehemently attacked the East India HP Pavilion dv4-1235ee Keyboard

Company, claiming that Warren Hastings and other top officials had ruined the Indian economy and society. Indian historian Rajat Kanta Ray (1998) continues this line of attack, saying the new economy brought by the British in the 18th century was a form of "plunder" and a catastrophe for the traditional economy of Mughal India. HP Pavilion dv4-1235ei Keyboard

Ray accuses the British of depleting the food and money stocks and of imposing high taxes that helped cause the terrible famine of 1770, which killed a third of the people of Bengal.[146] HP Pavilion dv4-1235tx Keyboard

P. J. Marshall shows that recent scholarship has reinterpreted the view that the prosperity of the formerly benign Mughal rule gave way to poverty and anarchy. Marshall argues the British takeover did not make any sharp break with the past. The British largely delegated control to regional Mughal rulers and sustained a generally prosperous economy for the rest of the 18th century. HP Pavilion dv4-1236tx Keyboard

Marshall notes the British went into partnership with Indian bankers and raised revenue through local tax administrators and kept the old Mughal rates of taxation.[147] Instead of the Indian nationalist account of the British as alien aggressors, seizing power by brute force and impoverishing all of India, Marshall presents the interpretation (supported by many scholars in India and the West) that the British were not in full control but instHP Pavilion dv4-1237tx Keyboard

ead were players in what was primarily an Indian play and in which their rise to power depended upon excellent cooperation with Indian elites. Marshall admits that much of his interpretation is still rejected by many historians.[148] HP Pavilion dv4-1238tx Keyboard

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