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1 novembre 2014 6 01 /11 /novembre /2014 04:10


The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.[1] The natural resource base for renewable energy is extraordinary by European, and even global standards, with the most important potential sources being wind, wave, and tide. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

At the end of the second quarter in 2014, there was 7,083 megawatts (MW) of installed renewable electricity capacity in Scotland, an increase of 10.5% (or 671 MW) from the end of the second quarter in 2013. Renewable electricity generation in Scotland was 16,974 GWh in 2013, up 16.4% on 2012.[2] 40.3 per cent of Scotland's electricity came from renewables in 2012. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Scottish renewable generation makes up approximately 32% of total UK renewable generation (down from 36% in 2012).[3] In 2012, Scotland exported over 26 per cent of generation.[4]Continuing improvements in engineering and economics are enabling more of the renewable resources to be utilised. Fears regardingpeak oil and climate change have driven the subject high up the political agenda and are also encouraging the use of variousbiofuels. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

Although the finances of many projects remain either speculative or dependent on market incentives, it is probable that there has been a significant, and in all likelihood long-term change, in the underpinning economics.[5]

In addition to planned increases in both large-scale generating capacity and microsystems using renewable sources, Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

various related schemes to reduce carbon emissions are being researched.[6] Although there is significant support from the public, private and community-led sectors, concerns about the effect of the technologies on the natural environment have been expressed. There is also an emerging political debate about the relationship between the siting, and the ownership and control of these widely distributed resources. Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

The natural resource base for renewables is extraordinary by European, and even global standards. In addition to an existing installed capacity[a] of 1.3 Gigawatts (GW) of hydro-electric schemes, Scotland has an estimated potential of 36.5 GW of wind and 7.5 GW of tidal power, 25% of the estimated total capacity for theEuropean Union and up to 14 GW of wave power potential, 10% of EU capacity.[8][9] Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

The renewable electricity generating capacity may be 60 GW or more, considerably greater than the existing capacity from all Scottish fuel sources of 10.3 GW.[8][10] Scotland exceeded its renewable energy target, set in 2007, for 31% of total power generation coming from renewables by 2011, and the 2020 target for the renewable share of total electricity generation has been raised from 50% to 100%.[11] Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

In January 2006 the total installed electrical generating capacity from all forms of renewable energy was less than 2 GW, about a fifth of the total electrical production.[10] By January 2007 wind power capacity, which has been growing rapidly, reached 1 GW capacity, and the total for renewables had grown to over 2.3 GW.[12] By August 2009 wind power capacity was a fraction short of 1.5 GW and total renewables capacity had reached over 3.1 GW.[13] Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

By mid-2011 these figures were 2.76 GW and 4.6 GW respectively.[14]

In 2012, over 40 per cent of Scotland's electricity came from renewable energy, and Scotland contributed almost 40 per cent of the UK's renewables output. At the end of 2012, there was 5,801 megawatts (MW) of installed renewables electricity capacity in Scotland, an increase of 20.95 per cent (1,005 MW) on the end of 2011. Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery

Renewable electricity generation in 2012 was a record high at 14,756 GWh – an increase of 7.3 per cent on 2011, the previous record year for renewables output.[4]The bulk of electricity production is derived from gas and oil. 2002 figures used in RSPB Scotland et al. (2006) are gas (34%), oil (28%), coal (18%) and nuclear(17%), with renewables 3% (principally hydro-electric), prior to the substantial growth in wind power output. Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery

It should be borne in mind that electricity production is only part of the overall energy use budget. In 2002, Scotland consumed a total of 175 Terawatt-hours (TWh)[15] of energy in all forms, some 2% less than in 1990. Of this, only 20% was consumed in the form of electricity by end users, the great majority of energy utilised being from the burning of oil (41%) and gas (36%).[16][17]Sony VAIO PCG-GRS100 battery

The renewable energy industry supports more than 11,500 jobs in Scotland, according to a 2013 study by Scottish Renewables.[18] However a 2011 study by 4-Consulting calculated that there was probably a small net loss in jobs in Scotland from government support for renewable energy. They estimated that the offshore wind industry might create between 300–2,200 long-term jobs by 2020.[19] Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery

With 20 GW of renewable energy projects in the pipeline, the sector has the potential to grow quickly in the years ahead creating more jobs in the region. Glasgow, Fife and Edinburgh are key centres of offshore wind power development, and the emerging wave power and tidal power industries are centred around the Highlands and Islands. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery

Rural job creation is being supported by bioenergy systems in areas such as Lochaber, Moray andDumfries and Galloway.Scotland also has significant quantities of fossil fuel deposits, including 62.4% of the EU's proven reserves of oil, 12.5% of the EU's proven reserves of gas and 69% of UK coal reserves.[9] Nonetheless, the Scottish Government has set ambitious targets for renewable energy production. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

In 2005 the aim was for 18% of Scotland's electricity production to be generated by renewable sources by 2010, rising to 40% by 2020.[21] In 2007 this was increased to 50 per cent of electricity from renewables by 2020, with an interim target of 31 per cent by 2011.[22] The following year new targets to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 were announced and then confirmed in the 2009 Climate Change Delivery Plan. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Maf Smith, director of the Sustainable Development Commission in Scotland said "Governments across the world are shying away from taking the necessary action. The Scottish Government must be commended for its intention to lead the way".[23][24]

An important reason for this ambition is growing international concern about human-induced climate change. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's proposal that carbon dioxide emissions should be reduced by 60% was incorporated into the UK government's 2003 Energy White Paper.[8] The 2006 Stern Review proposed a 55% reduction by 2030.[25] The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report[26] has further increased the profile of the issue. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

Scotland has 85% of the UK's hydro-electric energy resource,[28] much of it developed by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Boardin the 1950s. The "Hydro Board", which brought "power from the glens", was a nationalised industry at the time although it wasprivatised in 1989 and is now part of Scottish and Southern Energy plc. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

Current capacity is 1.33 GW[10] and includes major developments such as the 120 MW Breadalbane scheme and the 245 MW Tummel system. Several of Scotland's hydro-electric plants were built to power the aluminium smelting industry. These were built in several "schemes" of linked stations, each covering a catchment area, whereby the same water may generate power several times as it descends. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Numerous remote straths were flooded by these schemes, many of the largest of which involved tunnelling through mountains as well as damming rivers. Emma Wood, the author of a study of these pioneers wrote:

I heard about drowned farms and hamlets, the ruination of the salmon-fishing and how Inverness might be washed away if the dams failed inland. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

I was told about the huge veins of crystal they found when they were tunnelling deep under the mountains.[29]

It is estimated that as much as another 1.2 GW of capacity remains available to exploit, mostly in the form of micro and small-hydro developments[30] such as the existing one in Knoydart and a system planned for Kingussie.[31] HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

In reality, environmental constraints and given that the most easily available catchment areas have already been exploited it is unlikely that the full 1.2 GW will exploited.[32] There is also further potential for new pumped storage schemes (at present used to meet peak demand[33]) that would work with intermittent sources of power such as wind and wave. Examples include the 440 MW Cruachan Dam and 300 MW Falls of Foyers schemes.[34] DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

The 100 MW Glendoe Project which opened in 2009[35] was the first large scale scheme in Scotland for almost fifty years but is likely to be one of the last of its kind.[36][37] A 2011 report calculated that pumped storage hydro capacity could supply 2.8 GW of electricity for 5 hours, then drop to 1.1 GW and run out of water in 22 hours. Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

The report concluded that even with projected new schemes at Loch Ness and Loch Sloy, pumped storage would not be able to replace wind electricity during extended windless periods.

Wind power in Scotland is the country's fastest growing renewable energy technology, with 2574 MW of installed capacity as of April 2011.[38][39] HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The Robin Rigg Wind Farm is a 180 MW development completed in April 2010, which is Scotland's first offshore wind farm, sited on a sandbank in the Solway Firth.[40][41] The United Kingdom's largest onshore wind farm (539 MW) is at Whitelee in East Renfrewshire.[42] The Clyde Wind Farm is a 548 MW wind farm under construction near Abington, DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

South Lanarkshire, Scotland, which will be Europe's largest onshore wind farm when completed.[43] Two very large offshore wind turbines (5 MW each) are located in theMoray Firth. There are many other large onshore wind farms including some, both planned and operating, which are in community ownership.

The siting of turbines is sometimes an issue, but surveys have generally shown high levels of community acceptance for wind power in Scotland.[ DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Wind farm developers sometimes offer "community benefit funds" to help address any disadvantages faced by those living adjacent to wind farms.[48][49][50] There is further potential for expansion, especially offshore given the high average wind speeds, and a number of large offshore wind farms are planned.

It is estimated that 11.5 GW of onshore wind potential exists, enough to provide 45 TWh of energy. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

More than double this amount exists on offshore sites[8] where mean wind speeds are greater than on land.[51] The total offshore potential is estimated at 25 GW, which although more expensive to install, could be enough to provide almost half the total energy used in Scotland.[8] Plans to harness up to 4.8 GW of the potential in the inner Moray Firth and Firth of Forth were announced in January 2010. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

Moray Offshore Renewables and SeaGreen Wind Energy were awarded development contracts by the Crown Estate as part of a UK-wide initiative.[52][53]Also in 2010, discussions were held between the Scottish Government and Statoil of Norway with a view to developing a 5-turbine floating windfarm, possibly to be located off Fraserburgh. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Various systems are under development at present aimed at harnessing the enormous potential available for wave power off Scotland's coasts. Pelamis Wave Power (previously Ocean Power Delivery) are an Edinburgh-based company whose Pelamis system has been tested off Orkney and Portugal. Their second generation P2 Pelamis machines are 180 metres (591 ft) long and 4 metres (13.1 ft) diameter. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

Five tubes joined together by hinged joints float semi-submerged on the surface of the ocean and move relative to each other as waves pass down the length of the machine. This motion is resisted by hydraulic cylinders which drive generators inside the machine to produce electricity. Future wave farm projects around Scotland could involve an arrangement of interlinked 1 MW machines connected to shore by a subsea transmission cable.[56] HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

Another approach was used by the LIMPET 500 (Land Installed Marine Power Energy Transformer) energy converter which was installed on the island of Islay by Wavegen Ltd. It was a shore-based unit and generated power when waves run up the beach, creating pressure inside an inclined oscillating water column. This in turn creates pneumatic power which drives the twin 250 kW generators. HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

Islay LIMPET was opened in 2001 and was the world's first commercial scale wave-energy device. In March 2013 Voith Hydro decided to close down Wavegen choosing to concentrate on tidal power projects.[57]

Funding for the UK's first wave farm was announced by the then Scottish Executive on 22 February 2007. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

It will be the world's largest, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines at a cost of over 4 million pounds.[58] The funding is part of a new £13 million funding package for marine power projects in Scotland that will also support developments to Aquamarine's Oyster and Ocean Power Technologies' PowerBuoy wave systems, HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

AWS Ocean Energy's sub-sea wave devices, ScotRenewables' 1.2 MW floating rotor device, Cleantechcom's tidal surge plans for the Churchill barriers between various Orkney islands, the Open Hydro tidal ring turbines, and further developments to the Wavegen system proposed for Lewis as well as a further £2.5 million for the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) based in Orkney.[59] HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

This is a Scottish Executive-backed research facility that has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[60] At the official opening of the Eday project the site was described as "the first of its kind in the world set up to provide developers of wave and tidal energy devices with a purpose-built performance testing facility."[61] FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

The Siadar Wave Energy Project was announced in 2009. This 4 MW system was planned by npower Renewables and Wavegen for a site 400 metres off the shore of Siadar Bay, in Lewis.[62] However in July 2011 holding company RWE announced they were withdrawing from the scheme, and Wavegen are seeking new partners.[63] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

In early 2010 two areas were identified for substantial offshore wind development, in the Moray Firth basin and outer Firth of Forth. Shortly afterwards the Government earmarked eleven sites they expected to benefit from the construction of up to 8,000 offshore turbines by 2020. These included Campbeltown and Hunterston, four sites previously used for offshore oil fabrication at Ardersier, HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Nigg Bay, Arnish and Kishorn and five east coast locations fromPeterhead to Leith.[64] In May 2010 the "Vagr Atferd P2" Pelamis 750 kW system was launched for testing by EMEC. The device weighs 1500 tonnes and is 180 metres long.

Unlike wind and wave, tidal power is an inherently predictable source.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

However the technology is in its infancy and numerous devices are in the prototype stages. Today it is known that a tall tubular tower with three blades attached to it is the typical profile of a wind turbine, but twenty-five years ago there were a wide variety of different systems being tested.[66] This is the current situation with regard to tidal power. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Some systems capture energy from the tides in a vertical direction. The tide comes in and raises the water level in a basin. As the tide lowers the water in the basin is discharged through a turbine. Tidal stream power captures energy from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. An example is Marine Current Turbines SeaGen 1.2 MW device at Strangford Lough in Northern Ireland,  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

which is the largest tidal stream turbine in the world.[67] To date the only installed tidal power plant of any size is the 240 MW rated barrage scheme at the Rance Estuary inBrittany, which has been operating successfully for more than 25 years, although there are a number of other much smaller projects around the world.[68]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

The Pentland Firth between Orkney and mainland Scotland has been described as the "Saudi Arabia of tidal power"[69] and may be capable of generating up to 10 GW[70] although a more recent estimate suggests an upper limit of 1.9 GW.[71] In March 2010 a total of ten sites in the area, capable of providing an installed capacity of 1.2 GW of tidal and wave generation were leased out by the Crown Estate.[72HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

] Several other tidal sites with considerable potential exist in the Orkney archipelago.[73] Tidal races on the west coast at Kylerhea between Skye and Lochalsh, the Grey Dog north of Scarba, the Dorus Mòr off Crinan and the Gulf of Corryvreckan also offer significant prospects.[70][74]

In August 2010 the Atlantis Resources Corporation 's AK-1000 turbine, which has 18 metres (59 ft) blades was unveiled at Invergordon. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

It is claimed to be the largest tidal turbine ever built and will be tested by EMEC off Eday.[75] In October 2010 MeyGen, a consortium of Morgan Stanley, Atlantis Resources Corporation andInternational Power, received a 25-year operational lease from the Crown Estate for a 400MW tidal power project in the Pentland Firth.[76] However in 2011 the plans were in difficulty after Norwegian partners Statkraft pulled out of the project.[63] HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

In 2010 it was announced that 10 Hammerfest Strom HS1000 Norwegian turbines, capable of generating 1 MW each, could be installed in the Sound of Islay and that the BiFab yard at Arnish had won a £2 million contract to build some of the structures' components.[77] The following March this project, which will become largest tidal array in the world,  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

was approved by the Scottish Government with 10 planned tidal turbines predicted to generate enough power for over 5,000 homes. The Sound of Islay offers both high currents and shelter from storms.[78] A single 1MW HS1000 was installed at EMEC off Eday, Orkney by the end of 2011.[79]

The "world's first community-owned tidal power generator" is planned for Bluemull Sound in Shetland.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

This 30 kW Nova Innovation device is expected to be operational by the end of 2011.[80] At the opposite end of the country a 2010 consultants' report into the possibility of a scheme involving the construction of a Solway Barrage, possibly south of Annan, concluded that the plans "would be expensive and environmentally sensitive."[81] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

In 2013 an alternative scheme using the VerdErg Renewable Energy spectral marine energy converter was proposed for a plan involving the use of bridge along the route of an abandoned railway line between Annan andBowness-on-Solway.

Various biodiesel schemes exist at present, and as with most renewables, interest is growing in the subject.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Westray Development Trust operate a biodiesel vehicle fuelled by the residual vegetable oils from the Orkney archipelago fish and chip outlets.[83] On a larger scale Argent Energy's plant in Motherwell recycles tallow and used cooking oil to produce 50 million litres of biodiesel per annum.[84]

A major benefit of biodiesel is lower carbon emissions, although the energy balance of liquid biofuels is a matter of controversy.[85HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

] Research is being undertaken into converting rapeseed oil into biodiesel,[83] and the European biofuels directive intends to ensure that 5.75% Europe's transport fuel comes from renewable sources by 2010. However, there is only enough used vegetable oil in the UK to contribute 0.38% of current road fuel demand and if all the arable land in the UK were turned over to biofuel crops this would still only satisfy 22% of the existing requirement for road transport. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

Serious concerns regarding the ethics of growing biodiesel in developing countries and importing the fuel to Europe have been raised on the grounds that they may replace much needed food crops.[5] Converting any mainstream transport system to a renewable one also involves the conundrum that for consumers to use it the infrastructure must be in place, but high levels of use may be required to finance the infrastructure.[5] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

Developments are thus slow at present and renewably powered vehicles very much the exception.

Due to the relatively short growing season for sugar producing crops, ethanol is not commercially produced as a fuel in Scotland at present.[86] However there are encouraging developments in cellulosic decomposition that might enable grass or tree crops to be used to this end in future and which may prove to have lower net carbon emissions than other production techniques. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Biogas, or landfill gas, is a biofuel produced through the intermediary stage of anaerobic digestion consisting mainly of 45–90% biologically produced methane and carbon dioxide. In early 2007 a thermophilic anaerobic digestion facility was commissioned in Stornoway in the Western Isles.  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Renewable Energy Association are also leading the way towards the establishment of a digestate standard to facilitate the use of solid outputs from digesters on land. Anaerobic digestion and mechanical biological treatment facilities have been planned at a number of other locations in Scotland, such asWestray.[89] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

It has been recognised that biogas (mainly methane) – produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic matter – is potentially a valuable and prolific feedstock. It is estimated that 0.4 GW of generating capacity might be available from agricultural waste in Scotland.[8] The Scottish Executive and SEPA has funded seven small scale farm trial plants with the British anaerobic digestion company Greenfinch in Southwest Scotland.[90] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Landfill sites have the potential for a further 0.07 GW[8]with sites such as the Avondale Landfill in Falkirk already utilising their potential.A 2007 report concluded that wood fuel exceeded hydroelectric and wind as the largest potential source of renewable energy. Scotland's forests, which made up 60% of the UK resource base,[92] were forecast to be able to provide up to 1 million tonnes of wood fuel per annum.[93Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

] The biomass energy supply in Scotland was forecast to reach 450 MW or higher, (predominantly from wood), with power stations requiring 4,500–5,000 oven dry tonnes per annum per megawatt of generating capacity.[92]However a 2011 Forestry Commission and Scottish government follow-up report concluded that: "...there is no capacity to support further large scale electricity generation biomass plants from the domestic wood fibre resource."[94] A plan to build in Edinburgh a 200MW biomass plant which would have imported 83% of its wood,[95] was withdrawnHP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

by Forth Energy in 2012.[96] The energy company E.ON has constructed a 44 MW biomass power station at Lockerbie using locally sourced crops[97] while the smaller EPR Westfield power plant in Fife produces 9.8 MW of output using chicken litter as fuel.[98] The Scottish Executive and the Forestry Commission issued a Scottish Biomass Action Plan in 2007.[99] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The Scottish Government set up the Scottish Biomass Support Scheme in 2006 with a £7.5 million grant, later increased to £10.5 million, to support biomass energy. £6 million of grants were drawn down by the time the scheme finished in March 2008 and a 2009 review of results concluded that the scheme had "...achieved limited success against its strategic aims objectives."[100] SONY VAIO VGN-CS17G/R laptop keyboard

A 2007 article by Renew Scotland claimed that automatic wood pellet boilers could be as convenient to use as conventional central heating systems. These boilers might be cheaper to run and, by using locally produced wood fuel, could try to be as carbon neutral as possible by using little energy for transportation.[93]

There is also local potential for energy crops such as short-rotation willow or poplar coppice, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

miscanthus energy grass, agricultural wastes such as straw and manure, and forestry residues.[93][101] These crops could provide 0.8 GW of generating capacity.

The Energy Savings Trust has estimated that micro-generation could provide a significantly increased proportion of the UK's electricity demand by 2050[17] although only a fraction of this would come from renewable sources.[102] SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

The current Scottish output is negligible. In May 2006 the then Communities Minister Malcolm Chisholm launched a Planning Advice Note aimed at promoting micro-renewables.[103] Small-scale 'wind2heat' projects, which use wind turbines to power electrical storage heaters directly,[104] have proven to be successful in remoter rural areas;[105] as have various other local schemes such as air source heat pumps.[106] DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

Whisky distilleries may have a locally important part to play. Caithness Heat and Power have announced plans to tackle fuel povertyin Wick by utilising a wood chip CHP scheme in partnership with the Old Pulteney Distillery.[107] On the island of Islay, a swimming pool is heated using waste heat from the Bowmore distillery.[108] In Edinburgh, HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

Tynecastle High School, due to be completed in 2010, will be heated by waste heat from the neighbouring North British Distillery.[109] In 2009 the Diageo Cameron Bridge distillery announced plans for a £65 million facility to generate energy from the spent "wash" created in the manufacturing process, which will aim to replace 95% of the plan's existing fossil fuel use.[110] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

There are also a growing number of Micro hydro systems on smaller watercourses, especially in more remote rural locations.

Despite Scotland's relatively low level of sunshine hours,[113] solar thermal panels can work effectively as they are capable of producing hot water even in cloudy weather.[114][115] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The technology was developed in the 1970s and is well-established with various installers in place, although AES Solar based in Forres (who provided the panels for the Scottish Parliament building)[116] are Scotland's only manufacturer.Since the introduction of Feed-in tariffs there has been a growth in the volume of installed photovoltaicpanels, which generate electricity.[117]  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

In 2004, the largest installation in Scotland was a 21 kWp system at the Sir E. Scott secondary school in Tarbert, Harris although larger systems have been completed since then.[118] The UK's practicable resource is estimated at 7.2 TWh per annum,[17] which in the Scottish context is the approximate equivalent of 70 MW or less of installed capacity. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

The "road energy system" uses water pipes buried beneath a layer of tarmac. In the summer, the dark asphalt is heated by the sun which in turn heats the water in the pipes. This water can be stored in an underground aquifer and the heat extracted in winter using a heat pump. The system can be used to warm or cool down roads, keeping them ice-free and/or preventing softening due to overheating.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

Alternatively, the stored energy can be used for cooling buildings.[119][120] The system was developed in the Netherlands and has been licensed by Ullapool-based Invisible Energy Systems, who have installed the technology in their car park.

Geothermal energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

Most systems in Scotland provide heating through a ground source heat pump which brings energy to the surface via shallow pipe works. An example is the Glenalmond Street project in Shettleston, which uses a combination of solar and geothermal energy to heat 16 houses. Water in a coal mine 100 metres (328 ft) below ground level is heated by geothermal energy and maintained at a temperature of about 12 °C (54 °F) throughout the year. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The warmed water is raised and passed through a heat pump, boosting the temperature to 55 °C (131 °F), and is then distributed to the houses providing heating to radiators.[122]

Although the pumps may not be powered from renewable sources, up to four times the energy used can be recovered. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

Installation costs can vary from £7,000 to £10,000, and grants may be available from the Scottish Community and Householders Renewables Initiative operated by Community Energy Scotland for domestic properties up to a maximum of £4,000.[123] Perhaps up to 7.6 TWh of energy is available on an annual basis from this source.[124] Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

There is also potential for geothermal energy production from decommissioned oil and gas fields.

It is clear that if carbon emissions are to be reduced, a combination of increased production from renewables and decreased consumption of energy in general and fossil fuels in particular will be required.[126] HP G71-340US CPU Fan

On the latter front, Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, announced in November 2006 that within a decade all new houses would have to be 'zero carbon'.[127] A variety of other options exist, most of which may affect development of renewable technologies even if they are not means of producing energy from renewable sources themselves. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Various other ideas for renewable energy in the early stages of development, such as ocean thermal energy conversion, deep lake water cooling, and blue energy, have received little attention in Scotland, presumably because the potential is so significant for less speculative technologies.

Carbon offsetting involves individuals or organisations compensating for their use of fossil fuels by making payments to projects that aim to neutralise the effect of these carbon emissions. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Although the idea has become fashionable, the theory has received serious criticism of late.[128][129]

Nonetheless, a credible option may be to plant trees within the local bioregion and maintain the forest on a permanent basis, thus locking up carbon produced by burning fossil fuels. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

In British growing conditions this method can compensate for carbon at a rate of 200 tonnes per square kilometre (0.89 tons/acre) planted over a 100-year period. Thus a 4-square-kilometre (988-acre) plantation could uptake 200 tonnes (220 tons) of carbon over twenty-five years.[130] This is the equivalent of 10,000 tonnes (11,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide.[131]  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

The weaknesses of the approach include uncertainty as to whether the planting might have occurred anyway and who, in the future, will ensure permanence. However, there is likely to be a greater level of credibility inherent in a nearby and visible scheme than in a far-distant one.

The following technologies are means of reducing the effect of carbon emissions and form an important aspect of the energy debate in Scotland and are included here for completeness. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Their effect is likely to influence the future direction of commercial renewable energy, but they are not renewable forms of energy production themselves.

Carbon sequestration: Also known as carbon capture and storage, this technology involves the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is a by-product of industrial processes through its injection into oil fields. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

It is not a form of renewable energy production, but it may be a way to significantly reduce the effect of fossil fuels whilst renewables are commercialised. It may also be an intermediate step towards a 'hydrogen economy' (see below), which could either enable further renewable development or conceivably out-compete it. The technology has been successfully pioneered in Norway[132] but is still a relatively untried concept.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

'Clean coal' technology: It has been estimated that it will be 2020 to 2025 before any commercial-scale clean coal power stations (coal-burning power stations with carbon capture and sequestration) are widely adopted.[133] Moreover, some have criticised the clean coal approach[134] and it is at best a means of ameliorating carbon emissions. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

It is not a form of renewable energy production, although like carbon sequestration it offers a significant commercial challenge to renewable developments.[135][136] In 2009 a licence to test underground coal gassification technology in Fife was granted to Thornton New Energy.[137] However, a plan to build a new "clean coal" power station at Hunterston collapsed in 2009 after financial backing was withdrawn. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

Nuclear power: Renewable energy as a concept generally excludes nuclear power[139][140] although this stance has been challenged.

Incineration: There is a successful waste-to-energy incineration plant at Lerwick in Shetland which burns 22,000 tonnes (24,250 tons) of waste every year and provides district heating to over 600 customers.[143] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Although such plants generate carbon emissions through the combustion of the biological material and plastic wastes (which derive from fossil fuels), they also reduce the damage done to the atmosphere from the creation of methane in landfill sites. This is a much more damaging greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide the burning process produces,[5] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

although other systems which do not involve district heating may have a similar carbon footprint to straightforward landfill degradation.

Although hydrogen offers significant potential as an alternative to hydrocarbons as a carrier of energy, neither hydrogen itself nor the associated fuel cell technologies are sources of energy in themselves. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Nevertheless, the combination of renewable technologies and hydrogen is of considerable interest to those seeking alternatives to fossil fuels.[145] There are a number of Scottish projects involved in this research, supported by the Scottish Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Association (SHFCA).[146]The PURE project on Unst in Shetland is a ground-breaking training and research centre which uses a combination of the ample supplies of wind power and fuel cells to create a wind hydrogen system. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Two 15 kW turbines are attached to a 'Hypod' fuel cell, which in turn provides power for heating systems, the creation of stored liquid hydrogen and an innovative fuel-cell driven car. The project is community-owned and part of the Unst Partnership, the community's development trust.[147]

In the Western Isles a plan to enable a £10 million waste management plant into a hydrogen production facility was announced in June 2006. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

The Council have also agreed to purchase hydrogen-fuelled buses and hope the new plant, which will be constructed in partnership with the local Hydrogen Research Laboratory, will supply island filling stations and houses and the industrial park at Arnish.[148]

ITI Energy was a division of ITI Scotland and was established with the aim of funding Research and Development programmes in the energy sector. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

It is a division of ITI Scotland, which also includes a life sciences and digital media division. ITI Energy attracted the Alterg project, a French company that is developing technology for the cost-effective storage of hydrogen.[149][150]

In July 2008 the SHFCA announced plans for a "hydrogen corridor" from Aberdeen to Peterhead.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The proposal involves running hydrogen powered buses along the A 90 and is supported by Aberdeenshire Council and the Royal Mail.[151] The economics and practical application of hydrogen vehicles are currently being investigated by theUniversity of Birmingham in England.[152]

The "Hydrogen Office" in Methil aims to demonstrate the benefits of improved energy efficiency and renewable and hydrogen energy systems. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

A significant feature of Scotland's renewable potential is that the resources are largely distant from the main centres of population. This is by no means coincidental. The power of wind, wave and tide on the north and west coasts and for hydro in the mountains makes for dramatic scenery, but sometimes harsh living conditions. W. H. Murray described the Hebrides as "the Isles on the Edge of the Sea where men are welcome—if they are hard in body and in spirit tenacious."[154] Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

This happenstance of geography and climate has created various tensions. There is clearly a significant difference between a renewable energy production facility of modest size providing an island community with all its energy needs, and an industrial scale power station in the same location that is designed to export power to far distant urban locations. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Thus, plans for one of the world's largest onshore windfarms on the Hebridean island of Lewis have generated considerable debate.[155] A related issue is the planned high-voltage Beauly–Denny power line which will bring electricity from renewable projects in the north and west to the cities of the south. Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

The matter went to a public inquiry and has been described by Ian Johnston of The Scotsman as a "battle that pitches environmentalists against conservationists and giant energy companies against aristocratic landowners and clan chiefs".[156]In January 2010 Jim Mather, the Energy Minister, announced that the project would be going ahead, notwithstanding the more than 18,000 objections received.[157] SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

There is considerable support for community-scale energy projects.[158] For example, Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland, has stated that "we can think big by delivering small" and aspires to have a "million Scottish households with access to their own or community renewable generation within ten years".[69] The John Muir Trust has also stated that "the best renewable energy options around wild land are small-scale,  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

sensitively sited and adjacent to the communities directly benefiting from them",[159] although even community-owned schemes can prove controversial.[160]

A related issue is the position of Scotland within the United Kingdom. It has been alleged that UK transmission pricing structures are weighted against the development of renewables in Scotland,  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

a debate which highlights the contrast between the sparsely populated north of Scotland and the highly urbanised south and east of England. Although the ecological footprints of Scotland and England are similar the relationship between this footprint and the biocapacities of the respective countries are not. Scotland's biocapacity (a measure of the biologically productive area) is 4.52 global hectares (gha) per head, TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

some 15% less than the current ecological effect.[164] In other words, with a 15% reduction in consumption, the Scottish population could live within the productive capacity of the land to support them. However, the UK ecological footprint is more than three times the biocapacity, which is only 1.6 gha head, amongst the lowest in Europe.[ Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

Thus, to achieve the same end in the UK context, consumption would have to be reduced by about 66%.

The developed world's economy is presently very dependent on inexpensive 'point-source' fossil fuels. Scotland, as a relatively sparsely populated country with significant renewable resources, is in a unique position to demonstrate how the transition to a low-carbon, widely distributed energy economy may be undertaken. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

A balance will need to be struck between supporting this transition and providing exports to the economies of densely populated regions in the Central Belt and elsewhere, as they seek their own solutions. The tension between local and national needs in the Scottish context may therefore also play out on the wider UK and European stage. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

Growing national concerns regarding peak oil and climate change have driven the subject of renewable energy high up the political agenda. Various public bodies and public-private partnerships have been created to develop the potential. The Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland, (FREDS) is a partnership between industry, academia and Government aimed at enabling Scotland to capitalise on its renewable energy resource. HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

The Scottish Renewables Forum is an important intermediary organisation for the industry, hosting the annual Green Energy Awards. Community Energy Scotland provides advice, funding and finance for renewable energy projects developed by community groups. Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group (AREG) is a public-private partnership created to identify and promote renewable energy opportunities for businesses in the north-east.[168] HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

In 2009 AREG formed an alliance with North Scotland Industries Group to help promote the North of Scotland as an "international renewable energy hub".[169]

The Forestry Commission is active in promoting the biomass potential. The Climate Change Business Delivery Group aims to act as a way for businesses to share best practice and address the climate change challenge. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Numerous universities are playing a role in supporting energy research under the Supergen programme, includingfuel cell research at St Andrews, marine technologies at Edinburgh, distributed power systems at Strathclyde[97] and biomass crops at the UHI Millennium Institute'sOrkney College.[170] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

In 2010 the Scotcampus student Freshers' Festivals held in Edinburgh and Glasgow were powered entirely by renewable energy in a bid to raise awareness among young people in Scotland.New data appears on a regular basis and milestones in 2007–14 include the following.In February 2007 the commissioning of the Braes of Doune wind farm took the UK renewables installed capacity up to 2 GW.TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Total Scottish capacity at October 2007 was 1.13 GW from 760 turbines and increased to 1.3 GW by September 2008 and 1.48 GW by August 2009.

Also during 2007 Scottish and Southern Energy plc in conjunction with the University of Strathclyde began the implementation of a 'Regional Power Zone' in the Orkney archipelago. T Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

his ground-breaking scheme (that may be the first of its kind in the world) involves 'active network management' that will make better use of the existing infrastructure and allow a further 15MW of new 'non-firm generation' output from renewables onto the network.Heat and Power Ltd. of Westray are involved in developing an innovative digestor system that is being trialled at Tuquoy farm. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Designed by Sam Harcus and Colin Risbridger, it is capable of handling up to 1,500 tonnes of feedstock per annum. Scottish & Southern Energy have been asked to provide for an export capacity of 40kWe. The aim is to help move the farm towards being powered by 100% renewable energy.[177][178]

In January 2008 it was reported that Professor Graeme Walker of the University of Abertay is leading a project aimed at using grain that is a by-product of whisky distilling as a biofuel.[179DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

] In February 2008 plans to build a 10MW prototype tidal energy plant in the Pentland Firth were announced by Tocardo Tidal Energy Ltd. of Wick. Production was expected to commence in 2009.[180][181] The following September, Scottish Power announced plans for two tidal projects in the same area, pending successful tests of a £6 million prototype.[182]  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

In January 2009 the government announced the launch of a "Marine Spatial Plan" to map the potential of the Pentland Firth and Orkney coasts and agreed to take part in a working group examining opti

ons for an offshore grid to connect renewable energy projects in the North Sea to on-shore national grids.[183] The potential for such a scheme has been described as including acting as a "30 GW battery for Europe's clean energy".[184]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

In July 2009 Friends of the Earth, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, World Development Movement` and World Wildlife Fund published a study called "The Power of Scotland Renewed." This study claimed that the country could meet all its electricity needs by 2030 without the requirement for either nuclear or fossil fuel powered installations.[185] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

In April 2010 permission was granted for four new hydro schemes totalling 6.7 MW capacity in the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park.[186]

Sea Energy Renewables Ltd was purchased by Spanish company Repsol in June 2010. This move paved the way for the Inch Cape 180 wind turbine project offshore fromDundee, scheduled for a 2018 completion.[187] Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

Work is not expected to start before 2015.In 2013, a YouGov energy survey concluded that:

New YouGov research for Scottish Renewables shows Scots are twice as likely to favour wind power over nuclear or shale gas. Over six in ten (62%) people in Scotland say they would support large scale wind projects in their local area, more than double the number who said they would be generally for shale gas (24%) and almost twice as much as nuclear (32%). SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Hydro power is the most popular energy source for large scale projects in Scotland, with an overwhelming majority (80%) being in favour.[44]

In August 2013 Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution connected a 2MW lithium-ion battery at Kirkwall Power Station. This was the UK’s first large scale battery connected to a local electricity distribution network.[189] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

In September of that year the Scottish Government granted permission for the commencement of the "largest tidal energy project in Europe". MeyGen intends to install a 9MW demonstration turbine and then an 86MW array tidal array in the Pentland Firth, with expected completion in 2020.In July 2014 the Crown Estate gave approval to four new demonstration wave and tidal sites at the Stronsay Firth, the Mull of Galloway, Islay and Harris. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

Wind power is Scotland's fastest growing renewable energy technology, with 2574 MW of installed capacity as of April 2011.[1]Whitelee Wind Farm is the largest on-shore wind farm in the United Kingdom with 215 Siemens and Alstom wind turbines and a total capacity of 539 megawatts (MW).[2] The Clyde Wind Farm is a 350 megawatt (MW) wind farm near Abington in South Lanarkshire, Scotland.[3] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The Robin Rigg Wind Farm is a 180 MW development completed in April 2010, is an offshore wind farm sited on a sandbank in the Solway Firth.[4][5] Two very large offshore wind turbines (5 MW each) are located in the Moray Firth. There are many other large onshore wind farms including some, both planned and operating, which are in community ownership. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The siting of turbines is often an issue, but some surveys have shown local community acceptance for wind power in Scotland.[6][7][8]There is further potential for expansion, especially offshore given the high average wind speeds, and a number of large offshore wind farms are planned.The Scottish Government has a target of generating 31% of Scotland's electricity from renewable energy by 2011, and 100% by 2020, which was raised from 50% in September 2010.[9] DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

The majority of this is likely to come from wind power.

Scotland's first offshore wind turbine was placed near the Beatrice Oil Field, 24 km (15 mi; 13 nmi) off the east coast in the Moray Firth, North Sea, in August 2006. This was the world's largest wind turbine at the time, an REpower 5M, with a maximum output of 5MW. A second identical turbine joined it and the wind farm began supplying electricity in August 2007.[11] As of February 20SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

10,Beatrice Wind Farm is the deepest and northernmost offshore wind installation in the world.[12]

This was the first time such large offshore wind turbines had been tested, and the first time any wind turbine generators have been assembled in such deep (44 metres) water.[13] Such large wind turbine generators are ideally suited to the offshore environment due to high consistent wind speeds and minimal turbulence. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

According to historical measures of wind speeds at the Beatrice offshore location, it is expected that the turbines will run 96% of the time (8440 hours per year), and at 10 MW full power 38% of the time (3300 hours per year).

In 2003, MORI Scotland was commissioned by the Scottish Executive to undertake a study examining the attitudes of people living close to Sottish wind farms. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The survey showed that people living near Scotland’s ten largest wind farms strongly support more of Scotland's energy needs being produced by the wind. 82% wanted an increase in electricity generated from wind power, whilst more than 50% supported an increase in the number of wind turbines at their local wind farm. 20% say their local wind farm has had a broadly positive impact on the area, as opposed to a negative impact (7%).[7] SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

A survey conducted in 2005, and commissioned by the renewable energy industry, showed that 74% of people in Scotland agree that wind farms are necessary to meet current and future energy needs. When people were asked the same question in a Scottish Renewables study conducted in 2010, 78% agreed. The increase is significant as there were twice as many wind farms in 2010 as there were in 2005.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

The 2010 survey also showed that 52% disagreed with the statement that wind farms are "ugly and a blot on the landscape". 59% agreed that wind farms were necessary and that how they looked was unimportant. The 2010 study suggests that the majority of people in Scotland are in support of clean energy. However this survey has been widely criticised for its methodology, ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

in that it used a weighting scale such that the opinion those who lived nearer windfarms was rated as of lesser importance.

Siting of wind turbines has sometimes been an issue, as most people are concerned about the value of natural landscapes. HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

The John Muir Trust has stated that "the best renewable energy options around wild land are small-scale, sensitively sited and adjacent to the communities directly benefiting from them".[36][37] For example, a small-scale scheme proposed by North Harris Development Trusthas been supported by the John Muir Trust.[38] A 2013 poll carried out by the John Muir Trust, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

suggests that 75% of Scots would like to see their wild areas protected from further development.[39][40] Wind farm developers sometimes offer "community benefit funds" to help address any disadvantages faced by those living adjacent to wind farms.The Ardrossan Wind Farm on the west coast of Scotland has been "overwhelmingly accepted by local people".[44] DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

Instead of spoiling the landscape, local people believe it has enhanced the area. According to one of the town's councillors: "The turbines are impressive looking, bring a calming effect to the town and, contrary to the belief that they would be noisy, we have found them to be silent workhorses".[44] TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

The £90 million Black Law Wind Farm is located near Forth in Lanarkshire and has been built on an old opencast coalmine site which was completely restored to shallow wetlands during the construction programme. It employs seven permanent staff on site and created 200 jobs during construction.However, concerns over inappropriate siting of turbines has been voiced by groups in Fife, in particular, where the number of planning applications for turbines has risen sharply.[45] HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

This also is true of Berwickshire, which is home to the second largest windfarm in the UK, Crystal Rig Wind Farm, and where hundreds more turbines are due to be situated, contrary to the wishes of many residents of the county, and the John Muir Trust.[46][47][48] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Also, the siting of turbines in environmentally sensitive areas has led to the deaths of migratory and native birds, such as on Harris where a rare visitor to Scotland, a White-throated Needletail was witnessed being killed by a turbine.[49]

Wind power produces no greenhouse gases during operation, although inevitably some are produced during construction and transport. The precise amounts involved are a matter of controversy.  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard

Manufacturers typically state that carbon emissions are 'paid back' within 3–18 months of production, but recent research claims that turbines located on peat bogs create incidental emissions that may increase this to 8 years or more.[50] A 2013 financial analysis of utility companies such as theSSE (formerly Scottish and Southern Electricity) concluded that utilities were haemorrhaging cash. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Construction of wind farms by the electrical generating industry lead to duplication of existing power plants which were still needed as backup without increasing the utilities customer base or their output.[51]

Scottish Natural Heritage has stated that the decommissioning of ageing turbine structures in the future would be more deleterious to the environment than leaving the bases in place,  HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

thus littering Scotland's wild land with concrete which though they could be covered with topsoil, could lead to "oxidising and subsequent staining/contamination" and would lead to irreversible damage to the sensitive Peatlands on which many are built. Alternatively, new wind farms could be built on the same site, minimising overall damage. DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

It is estimated that 11.5 GW of onshore wind potential exists, enough to provide about 45 TWh of energy in a year, allowing for wind variability. More than double this amount exists on offshore sites where mean wind speeds are greater than on land. The total offshore potential is estimated at 25 GW, and although more expensive to install could be enough to provide almost half the total energy used in Scotland.  IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard

According to a recent report, the world's wind market offers many opportunities for Scottish companies, with total global revenue over the next five years estimated at £35 billion and continued growth forecast until at least 2025. COMPAQ Presario CQ45-208TU Laptop Keyboard, HP Mini 110-3105tu Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion dv4-1030ee Laptop Keyboard

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