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Moldova i/mɔːlˈdoʊvə/,[nb 1][nb 2] officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldovapronounced [reˈpublika molˈdova]) is a landlocked[7] country in Eastern Europe located between Romania to its west and Ukraine to its north, east and south. Its capital city is Chișinău. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan 

Moldova declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republicin 1991 as part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. A new constitution was adopted on July 29, 1994. A strip of Moldova's internationally recognised territory on the east bank of the river Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

As a result of a decrease in industrial and agricultural output since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the relative size of the service sector in Moldova's economy has grown to dominate its GDP and currently stands at over 60%. Moldova remains, however, the poorest country in Europe.[7][8] HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is, among other organizations, a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). The country aspires to join the European Union[9] and, to this end, has implemented an initial three-year action plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP).Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River; the valley of this river was a political centre when thePrincipality of Moldavia was founded in 1359.[11] The origin of the name of the river is not clear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The river was named by princeDragoș after hunting an aurochs: after the chase, his exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river. The dog's name was given to the river and extended to the Principality.

During the Neolithic stone age era, Moldova's territory was the centre of the large Cucuteni-Trypillian culturethat stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine, Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The inhabitants of this civilisation, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practiced agriculture, raised livestock, hunted, and made intricately designed pottery.

In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, thenByzantine Empires. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgarians,Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars.

The Principality of Moldavia, established in 1359, was bounded by the Carpathian Mountains in the west, Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

Dniester river in the east, and Danube and Black Sea in the south. Its territory comprised the present-day territory of the Republic of Moldova, the eastern eight of the 41 counties of Romania, and the Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak region of Ukraine. Like the present-day republic and Romania's north-eastern region, it was known to the locals as MoldovaLenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, since the 15th century, by the Turks. In 1538, the principality became a tributary to theOttoman Empire, but it retained internal and partial external autonomy.

In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 and despite numerous protests by Moldavian nobles on behalf of the sovereignty of their principality, HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

theOttoman Empire (of which Moldavia was a vassal) ceded to the Russian Empire the eastern half of the territory of the Principality of Moldavia along with Khotynand old Bessarabia (modern Budjak), which Russia had already conquered and annexed.

The new Russian province was called "Oblast of Moldavia and Bessarabia", and initially enjoyed a large degree of autonomy. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

After 1828 this autonomy was progressively restricted and in 1871 the Oblast was transformed into the Bessarabia Governorate, in a process of state-imposed assimilation, "Russification". As part of this process, the Tsarist administration in Bessarabia gradually removed the Romanian language from official and religious use.[15] HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

 The western part of Moldavia (which is a part of present-day Romania) remained an autonomous principality, and in 1859, united with Wallachia to form the Kingdom of Romania.

The Treaty of Paris (1856) returned three counties of Bessarabia — Cahul, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Bolgrad and Ismail — to Moldavia, but in the Treaty of Berlin (1878), the Kingdom of Romania agreed to return them to the Russian Empire. Over the 19th century, the Russian authorities encouraged colonization of the south of the region by Romanians,[16] Ukrainians, Lipovans, Cossacks, Bulgarians,[17] Germans,[18] Gagauzes, and allowed the settlement of more Jews,[nb 3IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

] to replace the large NogaiTatar population expelled in the 1770s and 1780s, during Russo-Turkish Wars;[19] the Moldovan proportion of the population decreased from an estimated 86% in 1816,[20] in the aftermath of the Muslim expulsion, to around 52% in 1905.[21] During this time there were anti-Semitic riots, leading to an exodus of thousands of Jews to the United States of America. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

World War I brought in a rise in political and cultural (ethnic) awareness among the inhabitants of the region, as 300,000 Bessarabians were drafted into the Russian Army formed in 1917; within bigger units several "Moldavian Soldiers' Committees" were formed. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Bessarabian parliament, Sfatul Ţării, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

was elected in October–November 1917 and opened on December 3 [O.S. November 21] 1917. The Sfatul Ţării proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic(December 15 [O.S. December 2] 1917) within a federal Russian state, and formed a government (December 21 [O.S. December 8] 1917).

Bessarabia proclaimed independence from Russia on February 6 [O.S. January 24] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

1918 and requested the assistance of the French army present in Romania (general Henri Berthelot) and of the Romanian army, which had occupied the region in early January.[23] On April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918, the Sfatul Ţării decided with 86 votes for, 3 against and 36 abstaining, to unite with the Kingdom of Romania. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The union was conditional upon fulfillment of the agrarian reform, autonomy, and respect for universal human rights.[24] A part of the interim Parliament agreed to drop these conditions after Bukovina and Transylvaniaalso joined the Kingdom of Romania, although historians note that they lacked the quorum to do so. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

This union was recognized by the principal Allied Powers in the 1920 Treaty of Paris, which however was not ratified by all of its signatories.[30][31] Some major powers, such as the United States and the newly communist Russia, did not recognize Romanian rule over Bessarabia, the latter considering it an occupation of Russian territory.[32]

In May 1919, the Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a government in exile. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

After the failure of theTatarbunary Uprising in 1924, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian ASSR) was formed.

In August 1939, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and its secret additional protocol were signed, by which Nazi Germany recognized Bessarabia as being within the Soviet sphere of influence, which led the latter to actively revive its claim to the region.[33] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union, with the acknowledgement of Nazi Germany, issued an ultimatum to Romania requesting the cession of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, with which Romania complied the following day. Soon after, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic(Moldavian SSR, MSSR) was established,[33] comprising about 70% of Bessarabia, and 50% of the now-disbanded Moldavian ASSR. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

As part of the 1941 Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania seized the territories of Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and Transnistria. Romanian forces, working with the Germans, deported or exterminated about 300,000 Jews, including 147,000 from Bessarabia and Bukovina (of the latter, approximately 90,000 perished).[34] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The Soviet Army re-captured the region in February–August 1944, and re-established the Moldavian SSR. Between the end of the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive in August 1944 and the end of the war in May 1945, 256,800 inhabitants of the Moldavian SSR were drafted into the Soviet Army. 40,592 of them perished. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

During the Stalinist periods 1940–1941 and 1944–1953, deportations of locals to the northern Urals, to Siberia, and northern Kazakhstan occurred regularly, with the largest ones on 12–13 June 1941, and 5–6 July 1949, accounting from MSSR alone for 18,392[nb 4] and 35,796 deportees respectively.[36] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Other forms of Soviet persecution of the population included 32,433 political arrests, followed by Gulag or in 8,360 cases, execution.

In 1946, as a result of a severe drought and excessive delivery quota obligations and requisitions imposed by the Soviet government, the southwestern part of the USSR suffered from a major famine.[37] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

In 1946–1947, at least 216,000 deaths and about 350,000 cases of dystrophy were accounted by historians in the Moldavian SSR alone.[36] Similar events occurred in 1930s in the Moldavian ASSR.[36] In 1944–53, there were several anti-Soviet resistance groups in Moldova; however the NKVDand later MGB managed to eventually arrest, execute or deport their members.[36] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

In the postwar period, the Soviet government organized the immigration of working age Russian speakers (mostly Russians,Belarusians, and Ukrainians), into the new Soviet republic, especially into urbanized areas, partly to compensate for the demographic loss caused by the war and the emigration of 1940 and 1944.[38] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Moldavian SSR received substantial allocations from the budget of the USSR to develop industrial and scientific facilities and housing. In 1971, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a decision "About the measures for further development of the city of Kishinev" (modern Chișinău), DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

that allotted more than one billion Soviet rubles from the USSR budget for building projects,[39] subsequent decisions also directed substantial funding and brought qualified specialists from other parts of the USSR to develop Moldova's industry.[citation needed]

The Soviet government conducted a campaign to promote a Moldovan ethnic identity distinct from that of the Romanians, HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

based on a theory developed during the existence of the Moldavian ASSR. Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language (seeMoldovenism). To distinguish the two, during the Soviet period, Moldovan was written in the Cyrillic alphabet, in contrast with Romanian, which since 1860 had been written in the Latin alphabet. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

All independent organizations were severely reprimanded, with the National Patriotic Front leaders being sentenced in 1972 to long prison terms. The Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova is assessing the activity of the communist totalitarian regime. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

In the 1980s, political conditions created by the glasnost and perestroika, a Democratic Movement of Moldova was formed, which in 1989 became known as the nationalist Popular Front of Moldova (FPM).[40][41] Along with several other Soviet republics, from 1988 onwards, Moldova started to move towards independence.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

On August 27, 1989, the FPM organized a mass demonstration in Chișinău that became known as the Grand National Assembly. The assembly pressured the authorities of the Moldavian SSR to adopt a language law on August 31, 1989 that proclaimed the Moldovan language written in the Latin script to be the state language of the MSSR. Its identity with the Romanian language was also established.[40][42Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

] The year 1989 when the Communist Party continued to gain opposition, was also marked by November riots.

The first democratic elections for the local parliament were held in February and March 1990. Mircea Snegur was elected as Speaker of the Parliament, and Mircea Druc as Prime Minister. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

On June 23, 1990, the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the "Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova", which, among other things, stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union.[40] After the failure of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Moldova declared its independence on 27 August 1991, Romaniabeing the first state to recognize its independence.

On December 21 of the same year, Moldova, along with most of the other Soviet republics, signed the constitutive act that formed the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova received official recognition on December 25. On December 26, 1991 the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Declaring itself a neutral state, Moldova did not join the military branch of the CIS. Three months later, on March 2, 1992, the country gained formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1994, Moldova became a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, and a member of the Council of Europe on June 29, 1995.[40]

In the region east of the Dniester river, Transnistria, which includes a large proportion of predominantly russophone East Slavs of Ukrainian (28%) and Russian (26%) descent (altogether 54% as of 1989), HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

while Moldovans (40%) have been the largest ethnic group, and where the headquarters and many units of the Soviet 14th Guards Army were stationed, an independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on August 16, 1990, with its capital in Tiraspol.[40] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The motives behind this move were fear of the rise of nationalism in Moldova and the country's expected reunification with Romania upon secession from the USSR. In the winter of 1991–1992 clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Army, and the Moldovan police. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Between March 2 and July 26, 1992, the conflict escalated into a military engagement.

On January 2, 1992, Moldova introduced a market economy, liberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation. From 1992 to 2001, the young country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1993, a national currency, the Moldovan leu, was introduced to replace thetemporary cupon. The economy of Moldova began to change in 2001; and until 2008 the country saw a steady annual growth of between 5% and 10%. The early 2000s also saw a considerable growth of emigration of Moldovans looking for work (mostly illegally) in Russia HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 (especially the Moscow region), Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, and other countries; remittances from Moldovans abroad account for almost 38% of Moldova's GDP, the second-highest percentage in the world, after Tajikistan (45%).[43][44]

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Agrarian Party gained a majority of the seats, setting a turning point in Moldovan politics. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With the nationalist Popular Front now in a parliamentary minority, new measures aiming to moderate the ethnic tensions in the country could be adopted. Plans for aunion with Romania were abandoned,[40] and the new Constitution gave autonomy to the breakaway Transnistria and Gagauzia. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 23, 1994, the Parliament of Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and in 1995 the latter was constituted.

After winning the 1996 presidential elections, on January 15, 1997, Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in 1989–91, became the country's second president (1997–2001), succeeding Mircea Snegur (1991–1996). HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2000, the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into aparliamentary republic, with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote.

Winning 49.9% of the vote, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (reinstituted in 1993 after being outlawed in 1991), gained 71 of the 101 MPs, and on April 4, 2001, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Eelected Vladimir Voronin as the country's third president (re-elected in 2005). The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party returned to power.[40] New governments were formed by Vasile Tarlev (April 19, 2001 – March 31, 2008), and Zinaida Greceanîi (March 31, 2008 – September 14, 2009).  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2001–2003 relations between Moldova and Russia improved, but then temporarily deteriorated in 2003–2006, in the wake of the failure of the Kozak memorandum, culminating in the 2006 wine exports crisis. The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova managed to stay in power for eight years. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The fragmentation of the liberal (aka the democrats) helped consolidate its power. The decline of the party started in 2009 after Marian Lupu joined the Democratic Party and thus attracted many of the Moldovans supporting the Communists.

In the April 2009 parliamentary elections, the Communist Party won 49.48% of the votes, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

followed by the Liberal Party with 13.14% of the votes, the Liberal Democratic Party with 12.43%, and the Alliance "Moldova Noastră" with 9.77%. The controversial results of this election sparked civil unrest[46][47][48]

In August 2009, four Moldovan parties – Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party, and Our Moldova Alliance – agreed to create a governing coalition that pushed the Communist party into opposition. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On August 28, 2009, this coalition chose a new parliament speaker (Mihai Ghimpu) in a vote that was boycotted by Communist legislators. Vladimir Voronin, who had been President of Moldova since 2001, eventually resigned on September 11, 2009, but the Parliament failed to elect a new president. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The acting president Mihai Ghimpu instituted the Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova. After the constitutional referendum aimed to approve the reform failed in September 2010,[49] the parliament was dissolved again and a new parliamentary election was scheduled for 28 November 2010.[50] HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 30, 2010, Marian Lupu was elected as the Speaker of the Parliament.[51] In accordance with the Constitution, he will be serving as the Acting President of Republic of Moldova. After the Alliance for European Integration lost a no confidence vote, the Pro-European Coalition was formed on May 30, 2013. SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. The 1994 Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country. A parliamentary majority of at least two thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova, which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum. Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution.[52] APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament (Parlament), which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years.

The head of state is the President of Moldova, who is elected by the Moldovan Parliament, HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

requiring the support of three fifths of the deputies (at least 61 votes). The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since 2001, a change designed to decrease executive authority in favour of the legislature. The president appoints a prime minister who functions as the head of government, and who in turn assembles a cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 1994 constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court, composed of six judges (two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of Magistrature), serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

neutrality, and European Union integration. In 1995 the country was admitted to the Council of Europe.

In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is also a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and the EU established an action plan that sought to improve collaboration between the its two neighbouring countries, Romania and Ukraine. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the end of 2005 EUBAM, the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, was established at the joint request of the presidents of Moldova and Ukraine. EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards, and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime.Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After the 1990–1992 War of Transnistria,  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and co-operating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions. The foreign minister of Moldova, HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Andrei Stratan, repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally."[53] In 2012, a secuACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

rity zone incident resulted in the death of a civilian, raising tensions with Russia.[54]

In September 2010, the European Parliament approved a grant of €90 million to Moldova.[55] The money was to supplement $570 million in International Monetary Fund loans,[56] World Bank and other bilateral support already granted to Moldova.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In April 2010, Romania offered Moldova development aid worth of €100 million while the number of scholarships for Moldovan students doubled to 5,000.[57] According to a lending agreement signed in February 2010, Poland provided US$15 million as a component of its support for Moldova in its European integration efforts.[58]  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first joint meeting of the Governments of Romania and Moldova, held in March 2012, concluded with several bilateral agreements in various fields.[59][60] The European orientation "has been the policy of Moldova in recent years and this is the policy that must continue," Nicolae Timofti told lawmakers before his election.[61]  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 29 November 2013, at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's 'Eastern Partnership' with ex-Soviet countries.[62] The Romanian President Traian Băsescu stated that Romania will make all efforts for Moldova to join the EU as soon as possible.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Likewise, Traian Băsescu declared that the unification of Moldova with Romania is the next national project for Romania.

The Moldovan armed forces consist of the Ground Forces and Air and Air Defense Forces. Moldova has accepted all relevant arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On October 30, 1992, Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits. The country acceded to the provisions of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in October 1994 in Washington, D.C. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It does not have nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons. Moldova joined theNorth Atlantic Treaty Organisation's Partnership for Peace on March 16, 1994.

Moldova is committed to a number of international and regional control of arms regulations such as the UN Firearms Protocol, Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan,  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the UN Programme of Action (PoA) and the OSCE Documents on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition.

Since declaring independence in 1991, Moldova has participated in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Sudan and Georgia. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova signed with Romania a military agreement to strengthen regional security. The agreement is part of Moldova's strategy to reform its military and cooperate with its neighbours.

According to Amnesty International, "Torture and other ill-treatment in police detention remained widespread; HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the state failed to carry out prompt and impartial investigations and police officers sometimes evaded penalties. Political dissidents from Ilaşcu Group were released from arbitrary detention only after an order of the European Court of Human Rights.[65] In 2009, when Moldova experienced its most serious civil unrest in a decade, several civilians like Valeriu Boboc were killed by police and many more injured.[66] Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State, released in April 2011, "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces. During the year reports of government exercising undue influence over the media substantially decreased." HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

But "Transnistrian authorities continued to harass independent media and opposition lawmakers; restrict freedom of association, movement, and religion; and discriminate against Romanian speakers."[67] Moldova "has made “noteworthy progress” on religious freedom since the era of the Soviet Union,  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but it can still take further steps to foster diversity," said the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief Heiner Bielefeldt, in Chișinău, in September 2011.[68] Moldova improved its legislation by enacting Law on Preventing and Combating Family Violence, in 2008. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

oldova is divided into thirty-two districts (raioane, singular raion), three municipalities and two autonomous regions (Gagauzia and Transnistria).[70] The final status of Transnistria is disputed, as the central government does not control that territory. The cities of Comrat and Tiraspol, the administrative seats of the two autonomous territories also have municipality status. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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