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8 février 2012 3 08 /02 /février /2012 02:48

Peru (Spanish: Perú; Quechua: Perú;Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú, pronounced: [re?pu?lika ðel pe??u]), is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures, spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery?Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 31%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

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The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, andAsians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

Etymology

The word Peru is derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the early 16th century.[6] When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.[7] Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery

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Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Peru.[8] The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.[9] Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery

Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after the Peruvian War of Independence.

History

The history of Peru spans several millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development in the mountain region and the coastal desert. Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

About 15,200 years ago, groups of people are believed to have crossed the Bering Strait from Asia and survived as nomads, hunting, gathering fruits and vegetables and fishing in the sea, rivers and lakes. Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the six oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-ColumbianAmerica. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

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It was conquered by the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, which established a Viceroyalty with jurisdiction over most of its South American domains. The nation declared independence from Spain in 1821 but consolidated only after the Battle of Ayacucho, three years later. Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

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Hunting tools dating back to more than 11,000 years have been found in the caves in Pachacamac, Telarmachay, Junin and Lauricocha.[1] Some of the oldest civilizations appeared circa 6000 BC in the coastal provinces of Chilca and Paracas, and in the highland province of Callejón de Huaylas. Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery

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Over the following three thousand years, inhabitants switched from nomadic lifestyles to cultivating land, as evidence from sites such as Jiskairumoko, Kotosh, and Huaca Prieta demonstrates. Cultivation of plants such as corn and cotton (Gossypium barbadense) began, Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

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as well as the domestication of animals such as the wild ancestors of the llama, thealpaca, and the guinea pig. Inhabitants practiced spinning and knitting of cotton and wool, basketry, and pottery. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery

As these inhabitants became sedentary, which means they enjoyed deficating, farming allowed them to build settlements and new societies emerged along the coast and in the Andean mountains. The first known city in all of the Americas was Caral, located in the Supe Valley 200 km north of Lima. It is the oldest city in America and was built in approximately 2500 BC.[2] Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery

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What is left from the civilization, also called Norte Chico, are about 30 pyramidical structures built up in receding terraces ending in a flat roof; some of them measured up to 20 meters in height. Caral is one of six world centers of the rise of civilization.[2] Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

In the early 21st century, archeologists have discovered new evidence of ancient pre-Ceramic complex cultures. In 2005 Tom D. Dillehay and his team announced the discovery of three irrigation canals that were 5400 years old, and a possible fourth that is 6700 years old, all in the Zaña Valley in northern Peru, Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

evidence of community activity to support improved agriculture at a much earlier date than previously believed.[3] In 2006, Robert Benfer and a research team discovered a 4200-year-old observatory at Buena Vista, a site in the Andes several kilometers north of present-day Lima. They believe the observatory was related to the society's reliance on agriculture and understanding the seasons.Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

The site includes the oldest three-dimensional sculptures found thus far in South America.[4] In 2007 the archeologist Walter Alva and his team found a 4000-year-old temple with painted murals at Ventarrón, in the northwest Lambayeque region. The temple contained ceremonial offerings gained from exchange with Peruvian jungle societies, as well as those from the Ecuadoran coast.[5]Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery

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Such finds show sophisticated, monumental construction requiring large-scale organization of labor, suggesting that hierarchical, complex cultures arose in South America much earlier than scholars had thought. Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery

Many other civilizations developed and were absorbed by the most powerful ones such as Kotosh, Chavin, Paracas, Lima, Nasca,Moche, Tiwanaku, Wari, Lambayeque, Chimu, Chan Chan, and Chincha, among others. The Paracas cultureemerged on the southern coast around 300 BC. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery

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They are known for their use of vicuña fibers instead of just cotton to produce fine textiles—innovations that did not reach the northern coast of Peru until centuries later. Coastal cultures such as the Mocheand Nazca flourished from about 100 BC to about AD 700: the Moche produced impressive metalwork, as well as some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world, while the Nazca are known for their textiles and the enigmatic Nazca lines. Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery

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These coastal cultures eventually began to decline as a result of recurring el Niño floods and droughts. In consequence, the Huariand Tiwanaku, who dwelt inland in the Andes became the predominant cultures of the region encompassing much of modern-day Peru andBolivia. They were succeeded by powerful city-states, such as Chancay, Sipan, and Cajamarca, and two empires: Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery

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Chimor andChachapoyas culture These cultures developed relatively advanced techniques of cultivation, gold and silver craft, pottery,metallurgy, and knitting. Around 700 BC, they appear to have developed systems of social organization that were the precursors of the Inca civilization. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery

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Not all Andean cultures were willing to offer their loyalty to the Incas as the Incas expanded their empire, and many were openly hostile. The people of the Chachapoyas culture were an example of this, but the Inca eventually conquered and integrated them into their empire. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery

Inca Empire (1438–1532)

The Incas built the largest empire and dynasty of pre-Columbian America.[6] The Tahuantinsuyo—which is derived from Quechua for "The Four United Regions"—reached its greatest extension at the beginning of the 16th century. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

It dominated a territory that included (from north to south): Ecuador, part of Colombia, the northern half of Chile, and the north-west part of Argentina; and from east to west, from Bolivia to the Amazonian forests and Peru. Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery

The empire originated from a tribe based in Cuzco, which became the capital. Pachacuti was the first ruler to considerably expand the boundaries of the Cuzco state. His offspring later ruled an empire by both violent and peaceful conquest. Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery

In Cuzco, the royal city was created to resemble a Cougar; the head, the main royal structure, formed what is now known as Sacsayhuaman. The Empire's administrative, political, and military center was located in Cuzco. The empire was divided into four quarters: Chinchasuyo, Antisuyo, Contisuyo, and Collasuyo. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery

Quechua was the official language, imposed on the citizens. It was the language of a neighbouring tribe of the original tribe of the empire. Conquered populations—tribes, kingdoms, states, and cities—were allowed to practice their own religions and lifestyles, but had to recognize Inca cultural practices as superior to their own. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery

Inti, the sun god, was to be worshipped as one of the most important gods of the empire. His representation on earth was the Inca ("Emperor").

The Tahuantinsuyo was organized in dominions with a stratified society, in which the ruler was the Inca. It was also supported by an economy based on the collective property of the land. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery

In fact, the Inca Empire was conceived like an ambitious and audacious civilizing project, based on a mythical thought, in which the harmony of the relationships between the human being, nature, and godswas truly essential. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery

Many interesting customs were observed, for example the extravagant feast of Inti Raymi which gave thanks to the God Sun, and the young women who were the Virgins of the Sun, sacrificial virgins devoted to the Inti. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery

The empire, being quite large, also had an impressive transportation system of roads to all points of the empire called the Inca Trail, and chasquis, message carriers who relayed information from anywhere in the empire to Cuzco. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery

Machu Picchu (Quechua: Old Peak; sometimes called the "Lost City of the Incas") is a well-preserved pre-Columbian Inca ruin located on a high mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cuzco. Elevation measurements vary depending on whether the data refers to the ruin or the extremity of the mountain; Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX Battery

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Machu Picchu tourist information reports the elevation as 2,350 m (7,711 ft)[1]. Forgotten for centuries by the outside world, although not by locals, it was brought back to international attention by Yale archaeologist Hiram Bingham III, who rediscovered it in 1911 and wrote a best-selling work about it. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery

Peru is pursuing legal efforts to retrieve thousands of artifacts that Bingham removed from the site.[7]

Although Machu Picchu is by far the most well-known internationally, Peru boasts many other sites where the modern visitor can see extensive and well-preserved ruins, remnants of the Inca-period and even older constructions. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX Battery

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Much of the Inca architecture and stonework found at these sites continues to confound archaeologists. For example, at Sacsayhuaman, in Cuzco, the zig-zag-shaped walls are composed of massive boulders fitted very precisely to one another's irregular, angular shapes. No mortar holds them together, but nonetheless they have remained absolutely solid through the centuries, surviving earthquakes that flattened many ofCuzco's colonial constructions. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery

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Damage to the walls visible today was mainly inflicted during battles between the Spanish and the Inca, as well as later, in the colonial era. As Cuzco grew, Sacsayhuaman's walls were partially dismantled, the site becoming a convenient source of construction materials for the city's newer inhabitants. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery

Today we not only do not know how these stones were shaped and smoothed, lifted on top of one another (they really are verymassive) or fitted together by the Incas; we also don't know how they started got the stones to the site in the first place. The stone used is not native to the area, and most likely came from mountains many miles away. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery

Conquest of Peru (1532–1572)

When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the highly developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Inca Empire extended over a vast region, stretching from northern Ecuador to central Chile. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery

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Francisco Pizarro and his brothers were attracted by the news of a rich and fabulous kingdom.[13] In 1532, they arrived in the country, which they called Peru. (The forms Biru, Pirú, and Berú are also seen in early records.) According to Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Peru is not a Quechuan nor Caribbean word, but Indo-Hispanic or hybrid. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery

In the years between 1524 and 1526 smallpox, introduced from Panama and preceding the Spanish conquerors swept through the Inca Empire.[14] The death of the Incan ruler Huayna Capac as well as most of his family including his heir, caused the fall of the Incan political structure and contributed to the civil war between the brothers Atahualpa and Huáscar.[15] Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery

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Taking advantage of this, Pizarro carried out a coup d'état. On November 16, 1532, while the natives were in a celebration in Cajamarca, the Spanish in a surprise move captured the Inca Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca, causing a great consternation among the natives and conditioning the future course of the fight. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery

When Huáscar was killed, the Spanish tried and convicted Atahualpa of the murder, executing him by strangulation.

For a period, Pizarro maintained the ostensible authority of the Inca, recognizing Túpac Huallpa as the Sapa Incaafter Atahualpa's death. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery

But the conqueror's abuses made this façade too obvious. Spanish domination consolidated itself as successive indigenous rebellions were bloodily repressed. By March 23, 1534, Pizarro and the Spanish had refounded the Inca city of Cuzco as a new Spanish colonial settlement. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery

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Establishing a stable colonial government was delayed for some time by native revolts and bands of theConquistadores (led by Pizarro and Diego de Almagro) fighting among themselves. A long civil war developed, from which the Pizarros emerged victorious at the Battle of Las Salinas. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery

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In 1541, Pizarro was assassinated by a faction led by Diego de Almagro (El Mozo), and the stability of the original colonial regime was shaken up in the ensuingcivil war.

Despite this, the Spaniards did not neglect the colonizing process. Its most significant milestone was the foundation of Lima in January 1535, Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX Battery

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from which the political and administrative institutions were organized. The new rulers instituted an encomiendasystem, by which the Spanish extracted tribute from the local population, part of which was forwarded to Seville in return for converting the natives to Christianity. Title to the land itself remained with the king of Spain. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery

As governor of Peru, Pizarro used the encomienda system to grant virtually unlimited authority over groups of native Peruvians to his soldier companions, thus forming the colonial land-tenure structure. The indigenous inhabitants of Peru were now expected to raise Old World cattle, poultry, and crops for their landlords. Resistance was punished severely, giving rise to the "Black Legend".Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery

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The necessity of consolidating Spanish royal authority over these territories, led to the creation of a Real Audiencia (Royal Audience). The following year, in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was established, with authority over most of Spanish-ruled South America. Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery

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(Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela were split off as the Viceroyalty of New Granada(in Spanish, Virreinato de Nueva Granada) in 1717; and Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay were set up as theViceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776.) Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX Battery

In response to the internal strife plaguing the country after Pizarro's death, Spain finally sent Blasco Núñez Vela to be Peru's first viceroy in 1544. He was later killed by Pizarro's brother, Gonzalo Pizarro, but a new viceroy, Pedro de la Gasca, eventually managed to restore order. He captured and executed Gonzalo Pizarro. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery

A census taken by the last Quipucamayoc indicated that there were 12 million inhabitants of Inca Peru; 45 years later, under viceroy Toledo, the census figures amounted to only 1,100,000 Indians. Historian David N. Cook estimates that their population decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases.[16] Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery

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While the attrition was not an organized attempt at genocide, the results were similar. Scholars now believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic diseasesuch as smallpox (unlike the Spanish, the Amerindians had no immunity to the disease)[17]was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives.[18] Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX Battery

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Inca cities were given Spanish Christian names and rebuilt as Spanish towns centered around a plaza with a church or cathedral facing an official residence. A few Inca cities like Cuzco retained native masonry for the foundations of their walls. Other Inca sites, like Huanuco Viejo, were abandoned for cities at lower altitudes more hospitable to the Spanish. Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX Battery

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Viceroyalty of Peru (1542–1824)

In 1542, the Spanish Crown created the Viceroyalty of Peru, which was reorganized after the arrival of Viceroy Francisco de Toledoin 1572. He put an end to the indigenous State of Vilcabamba, executed Tupac Amaru I. Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX Battery

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He also sought economic development through commercial monopoly and mineral extraction, mainly from the silver mines of Potosí. He reused the Inca mita, a forced labor program, to mobilize native communities for mining work. This organization transformed Peru into the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America. Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX Battery

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The town of Lima, founded by Pizarro on January 18, 1535 as the "Ciudad de Reyes" (City of Kings), became the seat of the new viceroyalty. It grew into a powerful city, with jurisdiction over most of Spanish South America. Precious metals passed through Lima on its way to the Isthmus of Panama and from there to Seville, Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI Battery

Spain.By the 18th century, Lima had become a distinguished and aristocratic colonial capital, seat of a university and the chief Spanish stronghold in the Americas.

Nevertheless, throughout the eighteenth century, further away from Lima in the provinces, the Spanish did not have complete control. Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX Battery

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The Spanish could not govern the provinces without the help of local elite. This local elite, who governed under the title of curaca, took pride in their Incan history . Additionally, throughout the eighteenth century, indigenous people rebelled against the Spanish.Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX Battery

Two of the most important rebellions were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa in 1742 in the Andean jungle provinces of Tarma and Jauja, and Rebellion of Tupac Amaru II in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco. Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX/BI Battery

At the time, an economic crisis was developing due to creation of the Viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata (at the expense of its territory), the duty exemptions that moved the commercial center from Lima to Caracas and Buenos Aires, and the decrease of the mining and textile productio. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX Battery

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This crisis proved favorable for the indigenous rebellion of Tupac Amaru II and determined the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

In 1808, Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula and took the king, Ferdinand XVII, hostage. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/G Battery

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Later in 1812, the Cadíz Cortes, the national legislative assembly of Spain, promulgated a liberal Constitution of Cadiz. These events inspired emancipating ideas between the Spanish Criollo people throughout the Spanish America. In Perú, The Creole rebellion of Huánuco arose in 1812 and the rebellion of Cuzco arose between 1814 and 1816. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/P Battery

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Despite these rebellions, the Criollo oligarchy in Perú remained mostly Spanish loyalist, which accounts for the fact that the Viceroyalty of Peru became the last redoubt of the Spanish dominion in South America. Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX Battery

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Wars of independence (1810–1824)

Peru's movement toward independence was launched by an uprising of Spanish-American landowners and their forces, led by José de San Martín of Argentina and Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/W Battery

San Martín, who had displaced the royalists of Chile after the Battle of Chacabuco, and who had disembarked in Paracas in 1819, led the military campaign of 4,200 soldiers. The expedition which included warships was organized and financed by Chile which sailed from Valparaíso in August 1820.[19] Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX Battery

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San Martin proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on July 28, 1821, with the words "... From this moment on, Peru is free and independent, by the general will of the people and the justice of its cause that God defends. Long live the homeland! Long live freedom! Long live our independence!". Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI Battery

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Still, the situation remained changing and emancipation was only completed by December 1824, when General Antonio José de Sucredefeated Spanish troops at the Battle of Ayacucho. Spain made futile attempts to regain its former colonies, such as at the Battle of Callao, and only in 1879 finally recognized Peruvian independence. Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX Battery

Territorial disputes (1824–1884)

After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent territorial disputes.

A short-lived attempt to reunite Peru and Bolivia was made during the period 1836–1839 when the Peru-Bolivian Confederationcame into existence, severe internal opposition led to its demise in the War of the Confederation.[20] Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L Battery

Peru embarked on a railroad building program. Henry Meiggs built a standard gauge line from Callao across the Andes to the Interior, Huancayo; striking for Cuzco he built the line but also bankrupted the country.

In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P Battery

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Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on April 5, 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery

Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and both countries could not determine the statutory framework.Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery

In an arbitrage that both countries admitted, the USA decided that the plebiscite was impossible to take, therefore, direct negotiations between the parties led to a treaty (Treaty of Lima, 1929), in which Arica was ceded to Chile and Tacna remained in Peru. Tacna returned to Peru on August 29, 1929. Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX/BI Battery

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The territorial loss and the extensive looting of Peruvian cities by Chilean troops left scars on the country's relations with Chile that have not yet fully healed.

Following the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War of 1941, the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX/BI Battery

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Ongoing boundary disagreements led to a brief war in early 1981 and the Cenepa War in early 1995, but in 1998 the governments of both countries signed a historic peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In late 1999, the governments of Peru and Chile likewise similarly implemented the last outstanding article of their 1929 border agreement. Sony VAIO VPCEC20 Battery

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Aristocratic Republic (1884–1930)

After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s. Sony VAIO VPCEF20 Battery

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In 1894, Nicolás de Piérola, after allying his party with the Civil Party of Peru to organize guerrillas with fighters to occupy Lima, ousted Andrés Avelino Cáceresand once again became president of Peru in 1895. After a brief period in which the military once again controlled the country, civilian rule was permanently established with Pierola's election in 1895. Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

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His second term was successfully completed in 1899 and was marked by his reconstruction of a devastated Peru by initiating fiscal, military, religious, and civil reforms. Until the 1920s, this period was called the "Aristocratic Republic", since most of the presidents that ruled the country were from the social elite. Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

During Augusto B. Leguía's periods in government (1908–1912 and 1919–1930, the latter known as the "Oncenio" (the "Eleventh"), the entrance of American capital became general and the bourgeoisie was favored. Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

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This policy, along with increased dependence on foreign investment, focused opposition from the most progressive sectors of Peruvian society against the landowner oligarchy.

In 1929, Peru and Chile signed a final peace treaty, Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

the Treaty of Lima by which Tacna returned to Peru and Peru yielded permanently the formerly rich provinces of Arica and Tarapacá, but kept certain rights to the port activities in Arica and decisions of what Chile can do on those territories. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

The alternation between democracy and militarism (1930–1979)

After the worldwide crisis of 1929, numerous brief governments followed one another. The APRA party had the opportunity to cause system reforms by means of political actions, but it was not successful. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

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This was a nationalistic movement, populist and anti-imperialist, headed by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre in 1924. The Socialist Party of Peru, later the Peruvian Communist Party, was created four years later and it was led by Jose C. Mariategui. Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

Repression was brutal in the early 1930s and tens of thousands of APRA followers (Apristas) were executed or imprisoned. This period was also characterized by a sudden population growth and an increase in urbanization. According to Alberto Flores Galindo, "By the 1940 census, Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

the last that utilized racial categories,mestizos were grouped with whites, and the two constituted more than 53 percent of the population. Mestizos likely outnumbered Indians and were the largest population group."[21] During World War II, Peru was the first South American nation to align with the United States and its allies against Germany and Japan. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

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In the mid-20th century, Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (founder of the APRA), together with José Carlos Mariátegui (leader of the Peruvian Communist Party), were two major forces in Peruvian politics. Ideologically opposed, they both managed to create the first political parties that tackled the social and economic problems of the country. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery,Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

Although Mariátegui died at a young age, Haya de la Torre was twice elected president, but prevented by the military from taking office. During World War II, the country rounded up around 2,000 of its Japanese immigrant population and shipped them to the United States as part of the Japanese-American internmentprogram.[22] Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

President Bustamante y Rivero hoped to create a more democratic government by limiting the power of the military and the oligarchy. Elected with the cooperation of the APRA, conflict soon arose between the President and Haya de la Torre. Without the support of the APRA party, Bustamante y Rivero found his presidency severely limited. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

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The President disbanded his Aprista cabinet and replaced it with a mostly military one. In 1948, Minister Manuel A. Odria and other right-wing elements of the Cabinet urged Bustamante y Rivero to ban the APRA, but when the President refused, Odría resigned his post. Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

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In a military coup on October 29, Gen. Manuel A. Odria became the new President. Odría's presidency was known as the Ochenio. He came down hard on APRA, momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/D Battery

A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his régime.

It was feared that his dictatorship would run indefinitely, so it came as a surprise when Odría allowed new elections. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/G Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/P Battery

During this time, Fernando Belaúnde Terrystarted his political career, and led the slate submitted by the National Front of Democratic Youth. After the National Election Board refused to accept his candidacy, he led a massive protest, and the striking image of Belaúnde walking with the flag was featured by newsmagazine Caretas the following day, Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/W Battery

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in an article entitled "Así Nacen Los Lideres" ("Thus Are Leaders Born"). Belaúnde's 1956 candidacy was ultimately unsuccessful, as the dictatorship-favored right-wing candidacy of Manuel Prado Ugarteche took first place. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/D Battery

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Belaúnde ran for president once again in the National Elections of 1962, this time with his own party, Acción Popular (Popular Action). The results were very tight; he ended in second place, following Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (APRA), by less than 14,000 votes. Since none of the candidates managed to get the

Constitutionally-established minimum of one third of the vote required to win outright, Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/P Battery

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selection of the President should have fallen to Congress; the long-held antagonistic relationship between the military and APRA prompted Haya de la Torre to make a deal with former dictator Odria, who had come in third, which would have resulted in Odria taking the Presidency in a coalition government. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/B Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/B Battery

However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo Perez Godoy. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Belaúnde by a more comfortable but still narrow five percent margin. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/D Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/D Battery

Throughout Latin America in the 1960s, communist movements inspired by the Cuban Revolution sought to win power through guerrilla warfare. The Revolutionary Left Movement (Peru), or MIR, launched an insurrection that had been crushed by 1965, but Peru's internal strife would only accelerate until its climax in the 1990s. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/G Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/G Battery

The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most recent period of military rule (1968–1980) began when General Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of the Popular Action Party (AP). Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/P Battery

As part of what has been called the "first phase" of the military government's nationalist program, Velasco undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the fish meal industry, some petroleum companies, and several banks and mining firms.Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/W Battery

General Francisco Morales Bermúdez replaced Velasco in 1975, citing Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health. Morales Bermúdez moved the revolution into a more conservative "second phase", tempering the radical measures of the first phase and beginning the task of restoring the country's economy. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/W Battery

Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/B Battery

A Constitutional Assembly was created in 1979, which was led by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre. Morales Bermúdez presided over the return to civilian government in accordance with a new constitution drawn up in 1979. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/D Battery

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