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Republic of South Africa Most Cabinet ministers are from the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords. In particular, all Prime Ministers since 1902 have been members of the Lower House. (ACER Aspire 5560 Laptop Keyboard Alec Douglas-Home, who became Prime Minister in 1963 whilst still an Earl, disclaimed his peerage and was elected to the Commons soon after his term began.) In recent history, it has been very rare for major cabinet positions (except Lord Chancellor and Leader of the House of Lords) to have been filled by peers. ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard Exceptions include Lord Carrington, who was the Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, Lord Young of Graffham (Minister without Portfolio, then Secretary of State for Employment and then Secretary of State for Trade and Industry from 1984 to 1989), and Lord Mandelson, who served as First Secretary of State, Secretary of State for Business, TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard Innovation and Skills and President of the Board of Trade. George Robertson was briefly a peer whilst serving as Secretary of State for Defence before resigning to take up the post of Secretary General of NATO. From 1999 to 2010 the Attorney General for England and Wales was a Member of the House of Lords; the most recent was Baroness Scotland of Asthal. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard The House of Lords does remain a source for junior ministers and members of government. Like the House of Commons, the Lords also has a Government Chief Whip as well as several Junior Whips. Where a government department is not represented by a minister in the Lords or one is not available, government whips will act as spokesmen for them. HP Pavilion dv6-2153eo Laptop Keyboard

Former judicial role

Historically, the House of Lords held several judicial functions. Most notably, until 2009 the House of Lords served as the court of last resort for most instances of UK law. Since 1 October 2009 this role is now held by the newly created Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard The Lords' judicial functions originated from the ancient role of the Curia Regis as a body that addressed the petitions of the King's subjects. The functions were exercised not by the whole House, but by a committee of "Law Lords". The bulk of the House's judicial business was conducted by the twelve Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, who were specifically appointed for this purpose under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard The judicial functions could also be exercised by Lords of Appeal (other members of the House who happened to have held high judicial office). No Lord of Appeal in Ordinary or Lord of Appeal could sit judicially beyond the age of seventy-five. The judicial business of the Lords was supervised by the Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and his or her deputy, the Second Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary.  HP Mini 210-2145dx Laptop Keyboard The jurisdiction of the House of Lords extended, in civil and in criminal cases, to appeals from the courts of England and Wales, and of Northern Ireland. From Scotland, appeals were possible only in civil cases; Scotland's High Court of Justiciary is the highest court in criminal matters. The House of Lords was not the United Kingdom's only court of last resort; SONY Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H Laptop Keyboard in some cases, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council performs such a function. The jurisdiction of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom, however, is relatively restricted; it encompasses appeals from ecclesiastical courts, disputes under the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975, and a few other minor matters. Issues related to devolution were transferred from the Privy Council to the Supreme Court in 2009. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard The twelve Law Lords did not all hear every case; rather, after World War II cases were heard by panels known as Appellate Committees, each of which normally consisted of five members (selected by the Senior Lord). An Appellate Committee hearing an important case could consist of more than five members. Though Appellate Committees met in separate committee rooms, DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard judgement was given in the Lords Chamber itself. No further appeal lay from the House of Lords, although the House of Lords could refer a "preliminary question" to the European Court of Justice in cases involving an element of European Union law, and a case could be brought at the European Court of Human Rights if the House of Lords did not provide a satisfactory remedy in cases where the European Convention on Human Rights was relevant. HP Pavilion dv6-3208tx Laptop Keyboard A distinct judicial function—one in which the whole House used to participate—is that of trying impeachments. Impeachments were brought by the House of Commons, and tried in the House of Lords; a conviction required only a majority of the Lords voting. Impeachments, however, are to all intents and purposes obsolete; the last impeachment was that of Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville in 1806. DELL Precision M65 Laptop Keyboard Similarly, the House of Lords was once the court that tried peers charged with high treason or felony. The House would be presided over not by the Lord Chancellor, but by the Lord High Steward, an official especially appointed for the occasion of the trial. If Parliament was not in session, then peers could be tried in a separate court, known as the Lord High Steward's Court. Only peers, SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard their wives, and their widows (unless remarried) were entitled to trials in the House of Lords or the Lord High Steward's Court; the Lords Spiritual were tried in Ecclesiastical Courts. In 1948, the right of peers to be tried in such special courts was abolished; now, they are tried in the regular courts. The last such trial in the House was of Edward Southwell Russell,  HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard 26th Baron de Clifford in 1935. An illustrative dramatization circa 1928 of a trial of a peer (the fictional Duke of Denver) on a charge of murder (a felony) is portrayed in the 1972 BBC Television adaption of Dorothy L. Sayers' Lord Peter Wimsey mystery Clouds of Witness. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 resulted in the creation of a separate Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, to which the judicial function of the House of Lords, and some of the judicial functions of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, were transferred. In addition, the office of Lord Chancellor was reformed by the act, removing his ability to act as both a government minister and a judge. This was motivated in part by concerns about the historical admixture of legislative, judicial, and executive power. The new Supreme Court is located at Middlesex Guildhall. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Members of the House of Lords who sit by virtue of their ecclesiastical offices are known as Lords Spiritual.[22] Formerly, the Lords Spiritual were the majority in the House of Lords,[23] including the Church of England's archbishops, DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard diocesan bishops, abbots, and those priors who were entitled to wear a mitre. After 1539, however, only the archbishops and bishops continued to attend, for the Dissolution of the Monasteries suppressed the positions of abbot and prior. In 1642, during the English Civil War, the Lords Spiritual were excluded altogether, but they returned under the Clergy Act 1661. ACER ZU2 Laptop Keyboard The number of Lords Spiritual was further restricted by the Bishopric of Manchester Act 1847, and by later acts. The Lords Spiritual can now number no more than 26; these are the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of London, the Bishop of Durham, the Bishop of Winchester and the 21 longest-serving bishops from other dioceses in the Church of England[24] (excluding the dioceses of Sodor and Man and Gibraltar in Europe, as these lie entirely outside the United Kingdom).[25]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard The current Lords Spiritual represent only the Church of England. Bishops of the Church of Scotland traditionally sat in the Parliament of Scotland but were excluded in 1638 following the Scottish Reformation. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard There are no longer bishops in the Church of Scotland in the traditional sense of the word, and that Church has never sent members to sit in the Westminster House of Lords. The Church of Ireland did obtain representation in the House of Lords after the union of Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard Of the Church of Ireland's ecclesiastics, four (one archbishop and three bishops) were to sit at any one time, with the members rotating at the end of every parliamentary session (which normally lasted approximately one year). The Church of Ireland, however, was disestablished in 1871, and thereafter ceased to be represented by Lords Spiritual.  ASUS Z91E Laptop Keyboard The Church in Wales originally had representation within the Lords, but ceased to be a part of the Church of England in 1920 and was simultaneously disestablished in Wales.[26] Accordingly, bishops of the Church in Wales were no longer eligible to be appointed to the House as bishops of the Church of England.  ACER Aspire 5552 Laptop Keyboard Other ecclesiastics have sat in the House of Lords as Lords Temporal in recent times: Chief Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits was appointed to the House of Lords (with the consent of the Queen, who acted on the advice of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher), and his successor Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks[27][dead link] does as well. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard In recognition of his work at reconciliation and in the peace process in Northern Ireland, the Archbishop of Armagh (the senior Anglican bishop in Northern Ireland), Lord Eames was appointed to the Lords by John Major. Other clergymen appointed include the Reverend Donald Soper, the Reverend Timothy Beaumont, and some Scottish clerics. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard There have been no Roman Catholic clergymen appointed, though it was rumoured that Cardinal Basil Hume was offered a peerage, but refused, and accepted instead the Order of Merit, a personal appointment of the Queen, HP G61 Laptop Keyboard shortly before his death. Roman Catholics who have received Holy Orders are forbidden by Canon Law from holding offices connected with the government of any state other than the Holy See, so it is unlikely that any Catholic cleric will ever sit in the House of Lords. Former Archbishops of Canterbury, having reverted to the status of bishop but who are no longer diocesans, are invariably given life peerages and sit as Lords Temporal.  HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard By custom at least one of the Bishops reads prayers in each legislative day (a role taken by the chaplain in the Commons).[23] They often speak in debates; in 2004 Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, opened a debate into sentencing legislation.[23] Measures (proposed laws of the Church of England) must be put before the Lords, and the Lords Spiritual have a role in ensuring that this takes place.[23]HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard  ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard

Lords Temporal

Since the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the Lords Temporal have been the most numerous group in the House of Lords. Unlike the Lords Spiritual, they may be publicly partisan, aligning themselves with one or another of the political parties that dominate the House of Commons. Publicly non-partisan Lords are called crossbenchers. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard Originally, the Lords Temporal included several hundred hereditary peers (that is, those whose peerages may be inherited), who ranked variously as dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons (as well as Scottish Lords of Parliament). Such hereditary dignities can be created by the Crown, in modern times on the advice of the Prime Minister of the day. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In 1999, the Labour government brought forward the House of Lords Act removing the right of several hundred hereditary peers to sit in the House. The Act provided a temporary measure that only 92 individuals may continue to sit in the Upper House by virtue of hereditary peerages. Of these, two remain in the House of Lords because they hold royal offices connected with Parliament: SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard the Earl Marshal and the Lord Great Chamberlain. Of the remaining 90 members of the House of Lords sitting by virtue of a hereditary peerage in the House of Lords, 14 are elected by the whole House and 74 are chosen by fellow hereditary peers in the House of Lords, grouped by party. This Act, included the Principality of Wales and the Earldom of Chester and removed all Royal Peers including the Duke of Edinburgh, Duke of York, Earl of Wessex, Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Kent. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The number of peers to be chosen by a party reflects the proportion of hereditary peers that belonged to that party (see current composition below) in 1999. When an elected hereditary peer dies, a by-election is held, with a variant of the Alternative Vote system being used. If the recently deceased hereditary peer was elected by the whole House, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard then so is his or her replacement; a hereditary peer elected by a specific party is replaced by a vote of elected hereditary peers belonging to that party (whether elected as part of that party group or by the whole house). HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard The Lords Temporal also included the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, a group of individuals appointed to the House of Lords so that they could exercise its judicial functions. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard more commonly known as Law Lords, were first appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. They were selected by the Prime Minister, but were formally appointed by the Sovereign. A Lord of Appeal in Ordinary had to retire at the age of 70, or, if his or her term was extended by the government, at the age of 75; after reaching such an age, the Law Lord could not hear any further legal cases. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard The number of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (excluding those who were no longer able to hear cases because of age restrictions) was limited to twelve, but could be changed by statutory instrument. Lords of Appeal in Ordinary traditionally did not participate in political debates, so as to maintain judicial independence. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Lords of Appeal in Ordinary held seats in the House of Lords for life, remaining members even after reaching the judicial retirement age of 70 or 75. Former Lord Chancellors and holders of other high judicial office could also sit as Law Lords under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act, although in practice this right was infrequently exercised. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the existing Lords of Appeal in Ordinary became judges of the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in 2009 and are barred from sitting or voting in the House of Lords until they retire as judges. FUJITSU CP253873-XX Laptop Keyboard One of the main justifications for the new Supreme Court was to establish a separation of powers between the judiciary and the legislature. It is therefore unlikely that future appointees to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom will be made Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The largest group of Lords Temporal, and indeed of the whole House, are life peers. Life peerages rank only as barons or baronesses, and are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958. Like all other peers, life peers are created by the Sovereign, who acts on the advice of the Prime Minister or the House of Lords Appointments Commission. By convention, however,  HP Pavilion dv4t-1300 CTO Laptop Keyboard the Prime Minister allows leaders of other parties to select some life peers so as to maintain a political balance in the House of Lords. Moreover, some non-party life peers (the number being determined by the Prime Minister) are nominated by an independent House of Lords Appointments Commission. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard If a hereditary peerage holder is given a life peerage, he or she becomes a member of the House of Lords without a need for a by-election. In 2000, the government announced it would set up an Independent Appointments Commission, under Lord Stevenson of Coddenham, to select fifteen so-called "People's Peers" for life peerages. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard However, when the choices were announced in April 2001, from a list of 3,000 applicants, the choices were treated with criticism in the media, as all were distinguished in their field, and none were "ordinary people" as some had originally hoped. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard In many historical instances, some peers were not permitted to sit in the Upper House. When Scotland united with England to form Great Britain in 1707, it was provided that the Scottish hereditary peers would only be able to elect 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords; the term of a representative was to extend until the next general election. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard A similar provision was enacted in respect of Ireland when that kingdom merged with Great Britain in 1801; the Irish peers were allowed to elect 28 representatives, who were to retain office for life. Elections for Irish representatives ended in 1922, when most of Ireland became an independent state; elections for Scottish representatives ended with the passage of the Peerage Act 1963, under which all Scottish peers obtained seats in the Upper House. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Several different qualifications apply for membership of the House of Lords. No person may sit in the House of Lords if under the age of 21.[28] Furthermore, only citizens of the United Kingdom, Commonwealth citizens, and citizens of Ireland may sit in the House of Lords. The nationality restrictions were previously more stringent: under the Act of Settlement 1701, and prior to the British Nationality Act 1948, only natural-born subjects were qualified. SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard Additionally, some bankruptcy-related restrictions apply to members of the Upper House. A person may not sit in the House of Lords if he or she is the subject of a Bankruptcy Restrictions Order (applicable in England and Wales only), or if he or she is adjudged bankrupt (in Northern Ireland), or if his or her estate is sequestered (in Scotland). TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard A final restriction bars an individual convicted of high treason from sitting in the House of Lords until completing his or her full term of imprisonment. An exception applies, however, if the individual convicted of high treason receives a full pardon. Note that an individual serving a prison sentence for an offence other than high treason is not automatically disqualified. SONY VAIO PCG-FR215H Laptop Keyboard Women were excluded from the House of Lords until the Life Peerages Act, passed in 1958 to address the declining number of active members, made possible the creation of peerages for life. Women were immediately eligible and four were among the first life peers appointed. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard However, hereditary peeresses continued to be excluded until the passage of the Peerage Act 1963. Since the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999, hereditary peeresses remain eligible for election to the Upper House; there are two among the 90 hereditary peers who continue to sit. HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard

 

Officers

Traditionally the House of Lords did not elect its own speaker, unlike the House of Commons; rather, the ex officio presiding officer was the Lord Chancellor. With the passage of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the post of Lord Speaker was created, a position to which a peer is elected by the House and subsequently appointed by the Crown. TOSHIBA 92.N4XBC.A01 Laptop Keyboard The first Lord Speaker, elected on 4 May 2006, was Baroness Hayman, a former Labour peer. As the Speaker is expected to be an impartial presiding officer, Baroness Hayman resigned from the Labour Party.[29] In 2011, Baroness D'Souza was elected as the second Lord Speaker, replacing Baroness Hayman in September 2011.[30]  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard This reform of the post of Lord Chancellor was made due to the perceived constitutional anomalies inherent in the role. The Lord Chancellor was not only the Speaker of the House of Lords, but also a member of the Cabinet; his or her department, formerly the Lord Chancellor's Department, is now called the Ministry of Justice. The Lord Chancellor is no longer the head of the judiciary of England and Wales. Hitherto, the Lord Chancellor was part of all three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard The overlap of the legislative and executive roles is a characteristic of the Westminster system, as the entire cabinet consists of members of the House of Commons or the House of Lords; however, in June 2003, the Blair Government announced its intention to abolish the post of Lord Chancellor because of the office's mixed executive and judicial responsibilities. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The abolition of the office was rejected by the House of Lords, and the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 was thus amended to preserve the office of Lord Chancellor. The Act no longer guarantees that the office holder of Lord Chancellor is the presiding officer of the House of Lords, and therefore allows the House of Lords to elect a speaker of their own.  SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard The Lord Speaker may be replaced as presiding officer by one of his or her deputies. The Chairman of Committees, the Principal Deputy Chairman of Committees, and several Chairmen are all deputies to the Lord Speaker, and are all appointed by the House of Lords itself at the beginning of each session. By custom, the Crown appoints each Chairman, TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Principal Deputy Chairman and Deputy Chairman to the additional office of Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords.[31] There was previously no legal requirement that the Lord Chancellor or a Deputy Speaker be a member of the House of Lords (though the same has long been customary). HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Whilst presiding over the House of Lords, the Lord Chancellor traditionally wore ceremonial black and gold robes. Robes of black and gold are now worn by the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice in the House of Commons, on ceremonial occasions. This is no longer a requirement for the Lord Speaker except for State occasions outside of the chamber. The Speaker or Deputy Speaker sits on the Woolsack, a large red seat stuffed with wool, at the front of the Lords Chamber. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard When the House of Lords resolves itself into committee (see below), the Chairman of Committees or a Deputy Chairman of Committees presides, not from the Woolsack, but from a chair at the Table of the House. The presiding officer has little power compared to the Speaker of the House of Commons. He or she only acts as the mouthpiece of the House, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard performing duties such as announcing the results of votes. This is because, unlike in the House of Commons where all statements are directed to "Mr/Madam Speaker", in the House of Lords they are directed to "My Lords", i.e. the entire body of the House. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The Lord Speaker or Deputy Speaker cannot determine which members may speak, or discipline members for violating the rules of the House; these measures may be taken only by the House itself. Unlike the politically neutral Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chancellor and Deputy Speakers originally remained members of their respective parties, and were permitted to participate in debate; however, this is no longer true of the new role of Lord Speaker. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Another officer of the body is the Leader of the House of Lords, a peer selected by the Prime Minister. The Leader of the House is responsible for steering Government bills through the House of Lords, and is a member of the Cabinet. The Leader also advises the House on proper procedure when necessary, but such advice is merely informal, rather than official and binding. A Deputy Leader is also appointed by the Prime Minister, and takes the place of an absent or unavailable Leader. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard The Clerk of the Parliaments is the chief clerk and officer of the House of Lords (but is not a member of the House itself). The Clerk, who is appointed by the Crown, advises the presiding officer on the rules of the House, signs orders and official communications, endorses bills, and is the keeper of the official records of both Houses of Parliament. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Moreover, the Clerk of the Parliaments is responsible for arranging by-elections of hereditary peers when necessary. The deputies of the Clerk of the Parliaments (the Clerk Assistant and the Reading Clerk) are appointed by the Lord Speaker, subject to the House's approval. HP G62-456TU Laptop Keyboard The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod is also an officer of the House; he takes his title from the symbol of his office, a black rod. Black Rod (as the Gentleman Usher is normally known) is responsible for ceremonial arrangements, is in charge of the House's doorkeepers, SONY VAIO VGN-NW250D/W Laptop Keyboard and may (upon the order of the House) take action to end disorder or disturbance in the Chamber. Black Rod also holds the office of Serjeant-at-Arms of the House of Lords, and in this capacity attends upon the Lord Speaker. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod's duties may be delegated to the Yeoman Usher of the Black Rod or to the Assistant Serjeant-at-Arms. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard

Procedure

The House of Lords and the House of Commons assemble in the Palace of Westminster. The Lords Chamber is lavishly decorated, in contrast with the more modestly furnished Commons Chamber. Benches in the Lords Chamber are coloured red. The Woolsack is at the front of the Chamber; the Government sit on benches on the right of the Woolsack, while members of the Opposition sit on the left. Crossbenchers, sit on the benches immediately opposite the Woolsack.[32]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard The Lords Chamber is the site of many formal ceremonies, the most famous of which is the State Opening of Parliament, held at the beginning of each new parliamentary session. During the State Opening, the Sovereign, seated on the Throne in the Lords Chamber and in the presence of both Houses of Parliament, delivers a speech outlining the Government's agenda for the upcoming parliamentary session. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In the House of Lords, members need not seek the recognition of the presiding officer before speaking, as is done in the House of Commons. If two or more Lords simultaneously rise to speak, the House decides which one is to be heard by acclamation, or, if necessary, by voting on a motion. Often, however, the Leader of the House will suggest an order, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard which is thereafter generally followed. Speeches in the House of Lords are addressed to the House as a whole ("My Lords") rather than to the presiding officer alone (as is the custom in the Lower House). Members may not refer to each other in the second person (as "you"), but rather use third person forms such as "the noble Duke", "the noble Earl", "the noble Lord", "my noble friend", "The most Reverend Primate" etc. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Each member may make no more than one speech on a motion, except that the mover of the motion may make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end. Speeches are not subject to any time limits in the House; however, the House may put an end to a speech by approving a motion "that the noble Lord be no longer heard". It is also possible for the House to end the debate entirely, by approving a motion "that the Question be now put". This procedure is known as Closure, and is extremely rare. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Once all speeches on a motion have concluded, or Closure invoked, the motion may be put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote; the Lord Speaker or Deputy Speaker puts the question, and the Lords respond either "Content" (in favour of the motion) or "Not Content" (against the motion). The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his assessment is challenged by any Lord, a recorded vote known as a division follows. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Members of the House enter one of two lobbies (the "Content" lobby or the "Not-Content" lobby) on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. At each lobby are two Tellers (themselves members of the House) who count the votes of the Lords. The Lord Speaker may not take part in the vote. Once the division concludes, the Tellers provide the results thereof to the presiding officer, who then announces them to the House. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard If there is an equality of votes, the motion is decided according to the following principles: legislation may proceed in its present form, unless there is a majority in favour of amending or rejecting it; any other motions are rejected, unless there is a majority in favour of approving it. The quorum of the House of Lords is just three members for a general or procedural vote, and 30 members for a vote on legislation. If fewer than three or 30 members (as appropriate) are present, the division is invalid. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard

Disciplinary powers

By contrast with the House of Commons, the House of Lords has not had an established procedure for putting sanctions on its members. When a cash for influence scandal was referred to the Committee of Privileges in January 2009, the Leader of the House of Lords also asked the Privileges Committee to report on what sanctions the House had against its members.[33] SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard After seeking advice from the Attorney General for England and Wales and the former Lord Chancellor Lord Mackay of Clashfern, the committee decided that the House "possessed an inherent power" to suspend errant members, although not to withhold a Writ of summons nor to expel a member permanently.[34] When the House subsequently suspended Lord Truscott and Lord Taylor of Blackburn for their role in the scandal, they were the first to meet this fate since 1642.[35]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5308 Laptop Keyboard There are two other motions which have grown up through custom and practice and which govern questionable conduct within the House. They are brought into play by a member standing up, possibly intervening on another member, and moving the motion without notice. When the debate is getting excessively heated, it is open to a member to move "that the Standing Order on Asperity of Speech be read by the Clerk".SAMSUNG Q330-JA02 Laptop Keyboard The motion can be debated,[36] but if agreed by the House, the Clerk of the Parliaments will read out Standing Order 33 which provides "That all personal, sharp, or taxing speeches be forborn".[37] The Journals of the House of Lords record only four instances on which the House has ordered the Standing Order to be read since the procedure was invented in 1871.[38]SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard For more serious problems with an individual Lord, the option is available to move "That the noble Lord be no longer heard". This motion also is debatable, and the debate which ensues has sometimes offered a chance for the member whose conduct has brought it about to come to order so that the motion can be withdrawn. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard If the motion is passed, its effect is to prevent the member from continuing their speech on the motion then under debate.[39] The Journals identify eleven occasions on which this motion has been moved since 1884; four were eventually withdrawn, one was voted down, and six were passed.[40]HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard Leave of absence In 1958, to counter criticism that some peers only appeared at major decisions in the House and thereby particular votes were swayed, the Standing Orders of the House of Lords were enhanced.[41] Peers who did not wish to attend meetings regularly or were prevented by ill health, age or further reasons, were now able to request Leave of Absence.[42HP G72-a20EM Laptop Keyboard ] During the granted time a peer is expected not to visit the House's meetings until either its expiration or termination, announced at least a month prior to their return.[43] ACER TravelMate 242LC Laptop Keyboard

Committees

Unlike in the House of Commons, when the term committee is used to describe a stage of a bill, this committee does not take the form of a public bill committee, but what is described as Committee of the Whole House. It is made up of all Members of the House of Lords allowing any Member to contribute to debates if he or she chooses to do so and allows for more flexible rules of procedure. It is presided over by the Chairman of Committees.[44]SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard The term committee is also used to describe Grand Committee, where the same rules of procedure apply as in the main chamber, except that no divisions may take place. For this reason, business that is discussed in Grand Committee is usually uncontroversial and likely to be agreed unanimously.[45]HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Public bills may also be committed to pre-legislative committees. A pre-legislative Committee is specifically constituted for a particular bill. These committees are established in advance of the bill be laid before either the House of Lords or the House of Commons and can take evidence from the public. Such committees are rare and do not replace any of the usual stages of a bill, including committee stage.[46]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard The House of Lords also has 15 Select Committees. Typically, these are 'sessional committees', meaning that their members are appointed by the House at the beginning of each session, and continue to serve until the next parliamentary session begins. In practice, these are often permanent committees, which are re-established during every session. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z Laptop Keyboard These committees are typically empowered to make reports to the House 'from time to time', that is whenever they wish. Other committees are 'ad-hoc' committees, which are set up to investigate a specific issue. When they are set up by a motion in the House, the motion will set a deadline by which the Committee must report.  Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard After this date, the Committee will cease to exist unless it is granted an extension. An example of this in the current parliamentary session is the Committee on Public Service and Demographic Change.[47] The House of Lords may appoint a chairman for a committee; if it does not do so, the Chairman of Committees or a Deputy Chairman of Committees may preside instead. Most of the Select Committees are also granted the power to co-opt members, DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard such as the European Union Committee.[48] The primary function of Select Committees is to scrutinise and investigate Government activities; to fulfil these aims, they are permitted to hold hearings and collect evidence. Bills may be referred to Select Committees, but are more often sent to the Committee of the Whole House and Grand Committees. HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard The committee system of the House of Lords also includes several Domestic Committees, which supervise or consider the House's procedures and administration. One of the Domestic Committees is the Committee of Selection, which is responsible for assigning members to many of the House's other committees.  TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard The European Union Committee[1] is a select committee of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Its terms of reference are "To considerEuropean Union documents and other matters relating to the European Union", as well as "to represent the House as appropriate in interparliamentary co-operation within the European Union".[2]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Much of the detailed scrutiny work on EU documents is conducted by the sub-committees, each dealing with a separate policy area. The main committee oversees the work of the sub-committees and approves their reports and scrutinises proposals that cross subject areas, such as the Treaty of Lisbon and the multiannual financial framework. In addition, the main committee takes evidence on the EU presidency from each incoming Presidency country, and on meetings of the Council of the European Union from the Minister for Europe.[3]HP 416039-001 Laptop Keyboard Committee members represent the House of Lords at a number of different interparliamentary meetings, such as COSAC and joint committee meetings at theEuropean Parliament. As part of their work representing the House in interparliamentary co-operation within the EU, the FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,[1] commonly referred to as HM Government (HMG) or the British Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom.[2]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the remaining Ministers. The Prime Minister and the other most senior Ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet.[2] The Government Ministers are all members of Parliament, and are accountable to it. The Government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation,[3] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard which means that in practice a government must seek re-election at least every five years.[4] The monarch selects the Prime Minister as the leader of the party most likely to command a majority in Parliament.[5]Gateway EC18 Laptop Keyboard Under the British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.[6] The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. They also exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments. SONY Vaio VGN-AW390 Laptop Keyboard The current Prime Minister is David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, who was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II on 11 May 2010 following the UK General Election on 6 May 2010. The election failed to provide a decisive result, with the Conservatives as the biggest party within a hung parliament. A coalition government was formed on the 12th of May between the Conservatives and theLiberal Democrats (see Cameron ministry). TOSHIBA Satellite L40-18Z Laptop Keyboard A key principle of the UK's constitution is that the Government is responsible to Parliament. This is called responsible government. Ministers are responsible to the House in which they sit, they make statements in that House and take questions from members of that House. For most senior Ministers this is usually the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard In modern times the Prime Minister must always be an elected MP and therefore accountable to the House of Commons. In practice theChancellor of the Exchequer must also always be a member of the Commons. The Lords have very limited powers in relation to money bills[7] and it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor. HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard Under the UK system the Government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons. It requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply (by voting through the government's budgets) and in order to pass primary legislation. By convention if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard The support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign even if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House. The House of Commons is therefore the responsible House. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EV Laptop Keyboard The Prime Minister is held to account during Prime Minister’s Question Time (PMQs) which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject. There are also departmental questions where Ministers answer questions relating to their specific departmental brief. Unlike PMQs both the cabinet ministers for the department and junior ministers within the department may answer on behalf of the government depending on the topic of the question. HP 403809-001 Laptop Keyboard During debates on government legislation Ministers, usually with departmental responsibility for the bill, will lead the debate for the government and respond to points made by MPs or Lords.  APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard Committees[8] of both the House of Commons and House of Lords hold the government to account, scrutinise its work and examine in detail proposals for legislation. Ministers appear before committees to give evidence and answer questions. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard Government Ministers are also required by convention and the Ministerial Code,[9] when Parliament is sitting, to make major statements regarding government policy or issues of national importance to Parliament. This allows MPs or Lords to question the government on the statement. Where the government instead chooses to make announcements first outside Parliament it is often the subject of significant criticism from MPs and the Speaker of the Commons.[10]HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard The Queen takes little direct part in government, and must remain strictly neutral in political affairs. However, the legal authority known as the Crown remains the source of the executive power used by the Government. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard These powers are known as Royal Prerogative and can be used for a vast number of things, such as the issue or withdrawal of passports, to the dismissal of the Prime Minister or even the Declaration of War. The powers are delegated from the Monarch personally, in the name of the Crown, and can be handed to various ministers, or other Officers of the Crown, and can purposely bypass the consent of Parliament. SONY laptop keyboard The head of Her Majesty’s Government, the Prime Minister, also has weekly meetings with the sovereign, where she may express her feelings, warn, or advise the Prime Minister in the Government's work.[11] In practice, the Royal Prerogative powers are almost all delegated to the Government or to Crown officials: SONY VAIO VGN-AW31S Laptop Keyboard HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard

Introduction

A bill is introduced by a member of the legislature (in the house of commons). This takes a variety of forms. In the British/Westminster system, where the executive is drawn from the legislature and usually holds a majority in the lower house, most bills are introduced by the executive. In principle, the legislature meets to consider the demands of the executive, as set out in the Queen's Speech or Speech from the Throne. Compaq Presario CQ57-218 Laptop Keyboard While mechanisms exist to allow other members of the legislature to introduce bills, these are subject to strict timetables and usually fail unless a consensus is reached. In the US system, where the executive is formally separated from the legislature, all bills must originate from the legislature. Bills can be introduced using the following procedures: SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard Bills are generally considered through a number of readings. This refers to the historic practice of the clerical officers of the legislature reading the contents of a bill to the legislature. While the bill is no longer read, the motions on the bill still refer to this practice. HP Envy 17-3001ed Laptop Keyboard In the British/Westminster system, a bill is read the first time when it is introduced. This is accompanied by an order that the bill be printed and considered again. At the second reading the general merits of the bill are considered – it is out of order to criticise a bill at this stage for technical defects in drafting. After the second reading the bill is referred to a committee, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-2170sl Laptop Keyboard which considers the bill line by line proposing amendments. The committee reports to the legislature, at which stage further amendments are proposed. Finally a third reading debate at which the bill as amended is considered in its entirety. In a bicameral legislature the process is repeated in the other house, before the Bill is submitted to the executive for approval. SONY VAIO VGN-AR520E Laptop Keyboard Bills passed by the legislature usually require the approval (often called assent, especially in constitutional monarchies) of the executive such as the monarch, president, or governor to become law. [2] In parliamentary systems, this is normally a formality (since the executive is under the de facto control of the legislature), although in rare cases approval may be refused or reserved. ACER TravelMate 3230 Series Laptop Keyboard In presidential systems, the need to receive approval can be used as a political tool by the executive, and its refusal is known as a veto. In presidential systems, the legislature often has the power to override the veto of the executive by means of a supermajority. Any branch at anytime may decline the proposed bill. Packard Bell Easynote TM80 Laptop Keyboard In constitutional monarchies, certain matters may be covered by a so-called royal prerogative. In the United Kingdom, for example, these include payments to the royal family, succession to the throne, and the monarch's exercise of prerogative powers. The legislature may have significantly less power to introduce bills on such issues and may require the approval of the monarch or government of the day.The Governor General will get the Queen to sign the bill and the bill becomes law. HP Mini CQ10-101SA Laptop Keyboard Legislatures give bills numbers as they progress. In the United States, all bills originating in the House of Representatives begin with "H.R." and all bills originating from the Senate begin with an "S.". Every two years, at the start of odd-numbered years, the United States Congress recommences numbering from 1. This means that two different bills can have the same number. Each two-year span is called a congress, and each congress is divided into year-long periods called sessions.[3]HP Envy 17-2199el Laptop Keyboard For example, the Coroners and Justice Act in 2009 started as Bill 9 in the House of Common. Then it became Bill 72 on consideration by the Committee, after that it became House of Lords Bill 33. Then it became House of Lords Bill 77, returned to the House of Commons as Bill 160 before finally being passed as Act no. 29.[4][5HP G62-140EL Laptop Keyboard ] Parliament recommences numbering from one at the beginning of each session. This means that two different bills may have the same number. Sessions of parliament usually last a year. They begin with the State Opening of Parliament, and end with Prorogation. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop KeyboardLegislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws.[1] The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive au

thority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and other money bills. Legislatures are known by many names, the most common beingparliament and congress, although these terms also have more specific meanings. Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard In parliamentary systems of government, the legislature is formally supreme and appoints a member from its house as the prime minister which acts as the executive.[2] In a presidential system, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive.[3]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The primary components of a legislature are one or more chambers or houses: assemblies that can debate and vote upon bills. A legislature with only one house is called unicameral. A bicameral legislature possesses two separate chambers, usually described as an upper house and a lower house, which often differ in duties,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard powers, and the methods used for the selection of members. Much rarer have been tricameral legislatures; the Massachusetts Governor's Council still exists, but the most recent national example existed in the waning years of caucasian-minority rule in South Africa. HP AELX9U00210 Laptop Keyboard In most parliamentary systems, the lower house is the more powerful house while the upper house is merely a chamber of advice or review. However, in presidential systems, the powers of the two houses are often similar or equal. In federations, it is typical for the upper house to represent the component states; the same applies to the supranational legislature of the European Union. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard For this purpose, the upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments, as is the case in the European Union and in Germanyand was the case in the United States before 1913, or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the modern United States. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard Because members of legislatures usually sit together in a specific room to deliberate, seats in that room may be assigned exclusively to members of the legislature. In parliamentary language, the term seat is sometimes used to mean that someone is a member of a legislature. For example, saying that a legislature has 100 "seats" means that there are 100 members of the legislature, TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard and saying that someone is "contesting a seat" means they are trying to get elected as a member of the legislature. By extension, the term seat is often used in less formal contexts to refer to an electoral district itself, as for example in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. It is divided into nine provinces and has 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline.[9][10][11] To the north of the country lie the neighbouring territories of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique andSwaziland; while Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory.[12]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard South Africa is a multi-ethnic nation and has diverse cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution.[11] Two of these languages are of European origin: South African English andAfrikaans, a language which originated mainly from Dutch that is spoken by the majority of white and ColouredSouth Africans. HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard Though English is commonly used in public and commercial life, it is only the fifth most-spoken home language.[11] All ethnic and language groups have political representation in the country's constitutional democracy comprising a parliamentary republic; unlike most parliamentary republics, the positions of head of stateand head of government are merged in a parliament-dependent President. HP G42-466LA Laptop Keyboard Douglas Hurd, once Home's private secretary, and many years later his successor (after seven intermediate holders of the post) as Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary, wrote this personal comment: "The three most courteous men I knew in politics were Lord Home,King Hussein of Jordan, and President Nelson Mandela. All three had ease of birth, in the sense that they never needed to worry about who they themselves were and so had more time to concern themselves with the feelings of others."[30]HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard Although some in the Conservative party agreed with Wilson (and Jo Grimond, the Liberal leader) that the Conservatives would have won the 1964 election if Butler had been Prime Minister, The Times observed, "it should not be overlooked that in October 1963 Home took over a Government whose morale was shattered and whose standing in the opinion polls was abysmal. SONY VAIO VGN-NW11S/S Laptop Keyboard A year later Labour won the general election, with an overall majority of only four seats. That [Home] recovered so much ground in so short a time was in itself an achievement." However, looking back across Home's career, TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard The Times considered that his reputation rested not on his brief premiership, but on his two spells as Foreign Secretary: "He brought to the office ... his capacity for straight talking, for toughness towards the Soviet Union and for firmness (sometimes interpreted as a lack of sympathy) towards the countries of Africa and Asia. But he brought something else as well: an unusual degree of international respect."[2]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Lord Home is clearly a man who represents the old governing class at its best ... He is not ambitious in the sense of wanting to scheme for power, although not foolish enough to resist honour when it comes to him ... SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard He gives that impression by a curious mixture of great courtesy, and even if yielding to pressure, with underlying rigidity on matters of principle. It is interesting that he has proved himself so much liked by men like President Kennedy and Mr Rusk and Mr Gromyko. This is exactly the quality that the class to which he belongs have at their best because they think about the question under discussion and not about themselves.[181]DELL 9Z.N3H82.001 Laptop Keyboard

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