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officially the Togolese Republic (French: République Togolaise), is a country in West Africabordered by Ghana to the west, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital Lomé is located. Togo covers an area of approximately 57,000 square kilometres (22,000 sq mi) with a population of approximately 6.7 million. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

Togo is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons. Togo is one of the smallest countries in all of Africa. The official language is French, with many other languages spoken in Togo, particularly those of the Gbe family. The largest religious group in Togo are those with indigenous beliefs, and there are significant Christian and Muslim minorities. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

Togo is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie and Economic Community of West African States. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. From the 16th century to the 18th century, the coastal region was a major trading centre for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, Germany declared Togoland a protectorate. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence from France in 1960.[5] FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a successful military coup, after which he became president. At the time of his death in 2005, Eyadéma was the longest-serving leader in modern African history, after having been president for 38 years.[6] In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

The slave trade began in the 16th century, and for the next two hundred years the coastal region was a major trading center for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast".

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In 1905, this became the German colony of Togoland. During World War I this German territory was invaded by British troops from the neighbouring Gold Coast colony and French troops coming from Dahomey.  SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

Togoland was separated into two League of Nations mandates, administered by Britain and France. After World War II, these mandates became UN Trust Territories. The residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast as part of the new independent nation of Ghana in 1957, \

Independence for French Togoland came in 1960 under Sylvanus Olympio. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

He was assassinated in a military coup on 13 January 1963 by a group of soldiers under the direction of Sergeant Etienne Eyadéma Gnassingbé.[7] Opposition leader Nicolas Grunitzky was appointed president by the "Insurrection Committee", headed by Emmanuel Bodjollé. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

On 13 January 1967, Eyadéma Gnassingbé overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless coup and assumed the presidency, which he held from that date until his sudden death on 5 February 2005 after 38 years in power, the longest occupation of any dictator in Africa. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The military's immediate but short-lived installation of his son, Faure Gnassingbé, as president provoked widespread international condemnation, except from France. Some democratically elected African leaders such as Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria supported the move, thereby creating a rift within the African Union.[8] ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures, has stalled. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

The 12 January 1994 devaluation of the currency by 50% provided an important impetus to renewed structural adjustment; these efforts were facilitated by the end of strife in 1994 and a return to overt political calm. Progress depends on increased openness in government financial operations (to accommodate increased social service outlays) and possible downsizing of the armed forces, TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

on which the regime has depended to stay in place. Lack of aid, along with depressed cocoa prices, generated a 1% fall in GDP in 1998, with growth resuming in 1999.

Togo is a small West African nation. It borders the Bight of Benin in the south; Ghana lies to the west;Benin to the east; and to the north Togo is bound by Burkina Faso. Togo lies mostly between latitudes 6°and 11°N, and longitudes 0° and 2°E. ASUS F9J laptop keyboard

In the north the land is characterized by a gently rolling savanna in contrast to the center of the country, which is characterized by hills. The south of Togo is characterized by a savanna and woodland plateau which reaches to a coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes. The land size is 21,925 sq mi (56,785 km2), with an average population density of 253 people per square mile (98/km2). ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard

Togo's transition to democracy is stalled. Its democratic institutions remain nascent and fragile. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, who ruled Togo under a one-party system, died of a heart attack on 5 February 2005. Gravely ill, he was being transported by plane to a foreign country for care. He died in transit, whilst over Tunisia. Under the Togolese Constitution, Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

the President of the Parliament, Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba, should have become President of the country, pending a new presidential election to be called within sixty days. Natchaba was out of the country, returning on an Air France plane from Paris.[10] ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

The Togolese army, known as Forces Armées Togolaises (FAT) – or Togolese Armed Forces closed the nation's borders, forcing the plane to land in nearby Benin. With an engineered power vacuum, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

the Parliament voted to remove the constitutional clause that would have required an election within sixty days, and declared that Eyadema's son, Faure Gnassingbé, would inherit the presidency and hold office for the rest of his father's term.[10] Faure was sworn in on 7 February 2005, despite international criticism of the succession.[11] DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

The African Union described the takeover as a military coup d'état.[12] International pressure came also from the United Nations. Within Togo, opposition to the takeover culminated in riots in which several hundred died. There were uprisings in many cities and towns, mainly located in the southern part of the country. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

In the town of Aného reports of a general civilian uprising followed by a large scale massacre by government troops went largely unreported. In response, Faure Gnassingbé agreed to hold elections and on 25 February, Gnassingbé resigned as president, but soon afterward accepted the nomination to run for the office in April.[13]  Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

On 24 April 2005, Gnassingbé was elected President of Togo, receiving over 60% of the vote according to official results. His main rival in the race had beenEmmanuel Bob-Akitani from the Union des Forces du Changement (UFC) or Union of Forces for Change. However electoral fraud was suspected, due to a lack of European Union or other independent oversight.[citation needed] Parliament designated Deputy President, Bonfoh Abbass, as interim president until the inauguration.[13] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard

On 3 May 2005, Faure Gnassingbé was sworn in as the new president, after winning 60% of the vote, according to official results. The opposition again alleged electoral fraud, claiming the military had stolen ballot boxes from various polling stations in the south, and that telecommunications shutdowns were deliberately imposed to affect the results.[14] ACER Aspire 2003WLMi laptop keyboard

The European Union suspended aid to Togo in support of the opposition claims, unlike the African Union and the United States which declared the vote "reasonably fair." The Nigerian president and Chair of the AU, Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

sought to negotiate between the incumbent government and the opposition to establish a coalition government, but rejected an AU Commission appointment of former Zambian president, Kenneth Kaunda, as special AU envoy to Togo.[15][16] In June, President Gnassingbé named opposition leader Edem Kodjo as the prime Minister. SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

Reconciliation talks between government and opposition continued until Gnassingbé Eyadema's death in February 2005. In August both parties signed the Ouagadougou agreement calling for a transitional government to organize parliamentary elections. On 16 September, the president nominated Yaovi Agboyibor of theAction Committee for Renewal (CAR) prime minister, GATEWAY M-6333 laptop keyboard

snubbing the major opposition party Union of the Forces of Change (UFC) which in reaction refused to join the government. Professor Léopold Gnininvi of the Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA) was appointed on 20 September 2006. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

In October 2007, after several postponements, elections were held under proportional representation. This allowed the less populated north to seat as many MPs as the more populated south. The president-backed party Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) won outright majority with the UFC coming second and the other parties claiming inconsequential representation. HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

Again vote rigging accusations were leveled at the RPT supported by the civil and military security apparatus. Despite the presence of an EU observer mission, canceled ballots and illegal voting took place, the majority of which in RPT strongholds. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

The election was declared fair by the international community and praised as a model with little intimidation and few violent acts for the first time since a multiparty system was reinstated. On 3 December 2007 Komlan Mally of the RPT was appointed to prime minister succeeding Agboyibor. However, on 5 September 2008, after only 10 months in office, Mally resigned as prime minister of Togo.  HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

Faure Gnassingbé won re-election in the March 2010 presidential election, taking 61% of the vote against Jean-Pierre Fabre from the UFC, who had been backed by an opposition coalition called FRAC (Republican Front for Change).[17] Though the March 2010 election was largely peaceful, electoral observers noted "procedural errors" and technical problems, and the opposition did not recognize the results, SONY VAIO VGN-AR370E laptop keyboard

claiming irregularities had affected the outcome.[18][19] Periodic protests followed the election.[20] In May 2010, long-time opposition leader Gilchrist Olympio announced that he would enter into a power-sharing deal with the government, a coalition arrangement which provides the UFC with eight ministerial posts.[21][22]  HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr laptop keyboard

In June, 2012, electoral reforms prompted protesters to take to the street in Lomé for several days; protesters sought a return to the 1992 constitution that would re-establish presidential term limits.[23] July, 2012, saw the surprise resignation of the prime minister, Gilbert Houngbo.[24] Days later, the commerce minister, SONY VAIO PCG-FR77G/B laptop keyboard

Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu, was named to lead the new government. In the same month, the home of opposition leader Jean Pierre Fabre was raided by security forces, and thousands of protesters again rallied publicly against the government crackdown.[25] ACER Aspire 3810T laptop keyboard

The climate is generally tropical with average temperatures ranging from 23 °C (73 °F) on the coast to about 30 °C(86 °F) in the northernmost regions, with a dry climate and characteristics of a tropical savanna. To the south there are two seasons of rain (the first between April and July and the second between September and November), even though the average rainfall is not very high. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

Although Togo's foreign policy is nonaligned, it has strong historical and cultural ties with western Europe, especially France and Germany. Togo recognizes the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Cuba. It re-established relations with Israel in 1987.

Togo pursues an active foreign policy and participates in many international organizations. It is particularly active in West Africanregional affairs and in the African Union. Relations between Togo and neighboring states are generally good. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The military of Togo, in French FAT (Forces armées togolaises, "Togolese armed forces"), consists of the army, navy, air force, andgendarmerie. Total military expenditures during the fiscal year of 2005 totaled 1.6% of the country's GDP.[26] Military bases exist inLomé, Temedja, Kara, Niamtougou, and Dapaong.[27] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The current Chief of the General Staff is Brigadier General Titikpina Atcha Mohamed, who took office on 19 May 2009.[28] The air force is equipped with Alpha strike jets built by a German-French consortium.[citation needed] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

New figures from the November, 2010 census gave Togo a population of 6,191,155, more than double the total counted in the last census. That census, taken in 1981, showed the nation had a population of 2,719,567. The capital and largest city, Lomé, grew from 375,499 in 1981 to 837,437 in 2010. When the urban population of surrounding Golfe prefecture is added, the Lomé Agglomeration contained 1,477,660 residents in 2010.[29][30]  HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard

Other large cities in Togo according to the new census were Sokodé (95,070), Kara (94,878), Kpalimé (75,084), Atakpamé (69,261), Dapaong (58,071) and Tsévié (54,474). With an estimated population of 6,619,000 (as of 2009), Togo is the 107th largest country by population. Most of the population (65%) live in rural villages dedicated to agriculture or pastures. The population of Togo shows a strong growth: from 1961 (the year after independence) to 2003 it quintupled.[29][30] DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

Health expenditure was at US$63 (PPP) per capita in 2004.[32] The infant mortality rate is approximately 50 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012.[33] Male life expectancy at birth was at 60.6 in 2012, whereas it was at 65.8 for females.[34]There were 4 physicians per 100,000 people in the early 2000s.[32] Approximately one half of the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[35] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

As of 2010, the maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Togo is 350, compared with 447.1 in 2008 and 539.7 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 100 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 32. In Togo the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 2 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 67.[36] SONY VAIO VGN-CR150F Laptop Keyboard

Togo's culture reflects the influences of its many ethnic groups, the largest and most influential of which are the Ewe,Mina, Tem, Tchamba and Kabre.

Despite the influences of Christianity and Islam, over half of the people of Togo follow native animistic practices and beliefs. DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard

Ewe statuary is characterized by its famous statuettes which illustrate the worship of the ibeji. Sculptures and hunting trophies were used rather than the more ubiquitous African masks. The wood-carvers of Kloto are famous for their "chains of marriage": two characters are connected by rings drawn from only one piece of wood. DELL Latitude D505 Laptop Keyboard

The dyed fabric batiks of the artisanal center of Kloto represent stylized and coloured scenes of ancient everyday life. The loincloths used in the ceremonies of the weavers of Assahoun are famous. Works of the painter Sokey Edorh are inspired by the immense arid extents, swept by the harmattan, and where the laterite keeps the prints of the men and the animals. The plastics technician Paul Ahyi is internationally recognized today. He practices the "zota", a kind of pyroengraving, and his monumental achievements decorate Lomé. HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

The city was founded in the 18th century by the Ewe people.

The city's population grew rapidly in the second half of the 20th century. The city had approximately 30,000 inhabitants in 1950: by 1960 (the year Togo gained its independence from France) the population had reached 80,000, increasing to 200,000 by 1970. Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

Since 1975, investments grew by 10% in the past year and had been targeted for development. At the same time, railways, which have an important role in serving the suburbs of the city, deteriorated however. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Market gardening around the city increased, spurred by growing unemployment, rural migration and the demand for vegetables. Market gardening, first extended to the north, is carried on mainly along the beach (whose sand is very salty), and planting hedges provides protection.

The various studies of the land market of the city show that the areas are quite heterogeneous, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

combining opulent villas and modest housing, without social and spatial division of the city. Other problems increasingly experienced by Lomé are related to garbage collection, and the fight against unhealthy urban living conditions has become a priority of the city and its inhabitants.

On its inception, Lomé was trapped between the lagoon in the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the south, the village of Bè in the east and the border of Aflao, Ghana in the West. Today the city has seen a massive growth with the oil refinery in the east. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

Neighborhoods in Lomé include Ablogamé, Adawlato, Amoutivé, Bé, Dékon, Forever, Kodjoviakopé, Noukafou, Nyékonakpoé,Tokoin and Xédranawoe.

Neighbourhoods in the north of the city are almost separated from the centre by a lagoon. The lagoon itself covers 30 km². Acer eMachines E730 laptop keyboard

Lomé is recognized by the Togolese government as a Municipal Greater Urban Area. Cities and towns in the Greater Lomé Metropolitan Area include: Aflao (Ghana), Agbalépédogan, Akodésséwa, Anfamé, Baguida, Kanyikopé, Kélékougan, Lomé II,Totsigan, Adidogome, Kegue and Totsivi. Services of the Municipality of Lomé far beyond the boundaries of the Gulf and the town north and east of the city. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard

As in most equatorial climates, the city has two rainy seasons, the first starts in April and ends in July, then a second rainy season starts in early September and ends in late November.

The heat is constant, the average maximum temperature in the shade is on average 30 °C (86.0 °F) in the afternoon, and the average minimum temperature is 23 °C (73.4 °F) in the morning. Earlier this year, a dry wind from the Sahara brought down the temperature to as low as 19 °C (66.2 °F) in the morning. DELL PK130CW1A08 laptop keyboard

The climate of Lomé is also greatly influenced by the ocean. The heat is stable, without excessive peaks, and the wind coming from the sea, makes it quite pleasant.

The city has a distinctively low rainfall for this latitude, in fact, Lomé enjoys a micro climate that allows her to reach a low rainfall for the region (800 mm per year). By comparison, Paris receives an average of 650 mm per year. ASUS A6J laptop keyboard

The Lomé Convention is a trade and aid agreement between the European Union (EU) and 71 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries. It was first signed on February 28, 1975, in Lomé. The first Lomé Convention (Lomé I), which came into force in April 1976, was designed to provide a new framework of cooperation between the then European Community (EC) and developing ACP countries, in particular former British, SONY VAIO VGN-CR21SR laptop keyboard

Dutch, Belgian and French colonies. It had two main aspects. It provided for most ACP agricultural and mineral exports to enter the EC free of duty. Preferential access based on a quota system was agreed for products, such as sugar and beef, in competition with EC agriculture. Secondly, the EC committed to the ECU for 3 billion in aid and investment in the ACP countries. ACER TravelMate 8210 laptop keyboard

The convention was renegotiated and renewed three times. Lomé II (January 1981 to February 1985) increased the aid and investment expenditure for the ECU to 5.5 billion. Lomé III came into force in March 1985 (trade provisions) and May 1986 (aid), and expired in 1990; it increased commitments to ECU by 8.5 billion. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 laptop keyboard

Lomé IV was signed in December 1989. Its trade provisions cover ten years, 1990 to 1999. Aid and investment commitments for the first five years amounted to 12 billion. In all, some 70 ACP kodosiofusidsiusfjfufi hfuyfiusdf fyidufms butts are party to Lomé IV, compared with the 46 signatories of Lomé I.

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The port also holds an oil refinery.

The University of Lomé is now known in West Africa. The country's main airport is situated outside the city. The tallest building in Lomé, and throughout the country, is the Hotel Corinthia (36 storeys or 102 m). TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9520D laptop keyboard

The city in general has great potential, because tourism is growing in the country. However, political instability that began to surface in the passing years and continues today has seriously affected the country's tourism sector. In 2003, the country received 57,539 visitors, an increase of 1% compared to 2002. 22% of tourists came from France, 10% of Burkina Faso and 9% were from BeninACER TravelMate 6292 laptop keyboard

The Lomé Peace Accord was signed in Lome and was a peace agreement between the warring parties in the civil war in Sierra Leone. With the assistance of the international community, Sierra Leone President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and Revolutionary United Front leader Foday Sankoh signed the Peace Accord on July 7, 1999. However, the agreement did not last and the Sierra Leone Civil War continued for two more years.  HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

The city of Lomé is a typical African city in the sense that many styles, influences, and traditions are mixed. The landscape combines red earth, with grand boulevards and large squares, green gardens and colourful houses.  HP G62-b12SL laptop keyboard

There are some remnants of colonial architecture from the turn of the century, such as arcades and galleries and the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart designed in the German Gothic style. There are also many modern buildings, like the headquarters of the BCEAO, the BTCI, the magnificent edifice of ECOWAS, Hotel de la Paix, the Hotel Mercure Sarakawa, Palm Beach Hotel and the famous Hotel du 2 Fevrier, rising to 102 metres. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

Not far away is the Lomé Grand Market, with a large 3-storey hall. It sells everything from red peppers, greenlemons, and dried fish, to combs, travel bags, and traditional medicinal remedies. On the first floor is the Nana Benz, which is noted for its clothing. Nearer the centre of the city, there is the Akodessewa market, which is much more specialized than the general market. There are fetishes, gongons, and gris-gris. TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

The coast is considerably less frantic than the market, with local fishermen quietly pushing their large boats out to sea. To the west of the city is a residential area that faces the sea. The area has long streets, dotted by official government buildings excluding the Palace of Justice and the various embassies and consulates. Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

Farther north, near the Monument of Independence, is the house of the Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), a major convention center, within which lies the Togo National Museum. The museum contains collections, jewelry, musical instruments, dolls, pottery, weapons and many other objects showing the arts and traditions. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara (excluding Sudan).[2] It contrasts with North Africa, which is considered a part of the Arab world. Somalia,Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania are geographically part of Sub-Saharan Africa, but also part of the Arab world.[3][4] TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4807 Laptop Keyboard

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The Sahel is the transitional zone between the Sahara and the tropical savanna (the Sudan region) and forest-savanna mosaic to the south.

Since probably the 5.9 kiloyear event,[5] the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only theNile River in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

The Sahara Pump Theory explains howflora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvialperiods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers exist.[6]

In July 2011, South Sudan seceded from Sudan, cutting the LRA off geopolitically from its former allies in Khartoum. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

On October 12, 2009, the Working Group in Children and Armed Conflict had its 22nd meeting, studying the report of the Secretary-General's topic of children and armed conflict in Uganda.[88] One focus was on the progress being made by Uganda's government to ensure appropriate protection of children affected by armed conflict, with much emphasis on the action plan that was implemented as well as any recommendations that were met. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

The Deputy Permanent Representative of Uganda informed the Working Group that no Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) activity had occurred on Ugandan territory since the signing of the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities in August 2006. He added that to continue reporting on LRA under the title of 'situation of children and armed conflict in Uganda' failed to capture the true regional dimension of LRA activities.".[88] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard

The United States provides support for military efforts, notably by the UPDF against the LRA.[89] Some observers have reported that the United States is involved for reasons other than the LRA.[90]  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

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