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Residential suites start at 207 m2 (2,230 sq ft) and have been designed with upscale fixtures and 3.4 to 4 m (11 to 13 ft) ceilings. Condo prices start at C$1,200,000. To ensure privacy of the residents, there are only 4-6 suites per floor. Furthermore, residents will have a separate entrance and elevators from hotel guests. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Builders planned to connect the building to Toronto's underground PATH network, however this plan was dropped due to the high costs associated with tunneling under the city.[4]

On March 23, 2007, Talon International Development Inc. of Toronto announced that it had reached an agreement with international bank  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

Raiffeisen Zentralbank Österreich AG(RZB) to arrange C$310 million in construction financing for its five-star Trump International Hotel & Tower development.

Lewis Builds Corporation, a construction and development manager in downtown Toronto was the construction manager for this project. IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

The building is built from a vacant lot (parking) surrounded by Scotia Tower and theThe National Club.

Developer Harry Stinson intended to create a friendly rivalry between himself and Trump for the tallest residential building in Canada with the Sapphire Tower. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

As a result, the initial heights of both projects were revised several times in an attempt to outdo each other, and Stinson's skyscraper would have been 17 metres taller in its latest design. However, the Sapphire Tower failed to gain approval of city council and its development company filed for bankruptcy in 2007.[5] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

At that time, the Trump Tower's design was also scaled back and the height was reduced, not because of the demise of the competing Sapphire Tower, but rather the developers needed to allow the project to remain viable in the face of the real estate market slowdown.  ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

The tower has been a source of controversy since opening due to lower than expected occupancy rates in the "hotel-condo" portion of the building that led to a legal battle between real estate investors and Talon International Development. Investors expressed a desire for opting out of purchase agreements because they believe ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

the sales tactics used by Talon regarding financial projections were misleading. The Ontario Securities Commission investigated the matter in 2012 and decided not to take action.[6] Talon is counter-suing the investors who did not pay the remaining purchase price by December 13, 2012 . DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

The building is not complete as of August 2013, close to six years after the start of construction, with the "TRUMP" sign on the north side of the tower reading "TRUM", and the missing public art feature Lightline being the most noticeable aspects. Regarding the public art feature, the tower's spokesman Dorenda McNeil told media in May 2013 that "from our perspective,  ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard

the building is not yet fully complete. We will turn it on at the right opportunity". Due the light feature being a public art piece promised as part of the approval process for development, the City of Toronto is growing impatient and is considering commencing litigation. HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

The Chicago River is a system of rivers and canals with a combined length of 156 miles (251 km)[1] that runs through the city of Chicago, including its center (the Chicago Loop). Though not especially long, the river is notable for being a reason why Chicago became an important location, ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

with the related Chicago Portage being a link between theGreat Lakes and the Mississippi Valley waterways and eventually the Gulf of Mexico.

The River is also noteworthy for its natural and man-made history. In 1887, the Illinois General Assembly, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

partly in response to concerns arising out of an extreme weather event in 1885 that threatened the city's water supply,[2]decided to reverse the flow of the Chicago River through civil engineering by taking water from Lake Michigan and discharging it into the Mississippi River watershed. In 1889, the Illinois General Assembly created the Chicago Sanitary District  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

 (now The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District) to replace the Illinois-Michigan Canal, which had become inadequate to carry the city's increasing sewage and commercial navigation needs, with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, a much larger waterway.[3] The District completed this man-made hydrologic connection between the Great Lakes and Mississippi watershed in 1900 [4] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

 by reversing the flow of the Main Stem and South Branch of the river using a series of canal locks, and increasing the river's flow from Lake Michigan, causing it to empty into the new Canal. In 1999, this system was named a 'Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium' by the American Society of Civil Engineers(ASCE).[5] HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

The river is also noted for the local custom of dyeing it green on St. Patrick's Day.

The river is memorialized, in part, by two horizontal blue stripes on the Municipal Flag of Chicago.[6] The river also serves as inspiration for one of Chicago's ubiquitous symbols: a three-branched, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

Y-shaped symbol (called the municipal device) is found on many buildings and other structures throughout Chicago; it represents the three branches of the Chicago River.

When it followed its natural course, the North and South Branches of the Chicago River converged at Wolf Point to form the Main Stem, SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

which jogged southward from the present course of the river to avoid a baymouth bar entering Lake Michigan at about the level of present day Madison Street.[9] Today, the Main Stem of the Chicago River flows west from Lake Michigan to Wolf Point, where it converges with the North Branch to form the South Branch, which flows south west and empties into theChicago Sanitary and Ship Canal.  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

Early settlers named the North Branch of the Chicago River the Guarie River, or Gary's River, after a trader who may have settled west bank of the river a short distance north of Wolf Point, at what is now Fulton Street.[10][11] The source of the North Branch is in the northern suburbs of Chicago where its three principal tributaries converge. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

TheSkokie River—or East Fork—rises from a flat area, historically a wetland, near Park City, Illinois to the west of the city of Waukegan.[12] It then flows southward, paralleling the edge of Lake Michigan, through wetlands, the Greenbelt Forest Preserve and a number of golf courses towards Highland Park, Illinois.[13]  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

South of Highland Park the river passes theChicago Botanic Gardens and through an area of former marshlands known as the Skokie Lagoons. The Middle Fork arises nearRondout, Illinois and flows southwards through Lake Forest and Highland Park. These two tributaries merge at Watersmeet Woods west of Wilmette. From there the North Branch flows south towards Morton Grove.[14] ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

 The West Fork rises near Mettawa and flows south through Bannockburn, Deerfield, and Northbrook, meeting the North Branch at Morton Grove.

The North Branch continues southwards though Niles, entering the city of Chicago near the intersection of Milwaukee Avenueand Devon Avenue,[16] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

 from where it serves as the boundary of the Forest Glen community area with Norwood Park and Jefferson Park. This stretch of the river meanders in a south-easterly direction, passing through golf courses and forest preservesuntil it reaches Foster Avenue, where it passes through residential neighborhoods on the north side of the Albany Parkcommunity area.[17] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

In West River Park the river meets the North Shore Channel, a drainage canal built between 1907 and 1910 to increase the flow of the North Branch and help flush pollution into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal.[2] From the confluence with the North Shore Channel south to Belmont Avenue the North Branch TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

flows through mostly residential neighborhoods in a man-made channel that was dug to straighten and deepen the river, helping it to carry the additional flow from the North Shore Channel.[18]

South of Belmont the North Branch is lined with a mixture of residential developments, retail parks, and industry until it reaches the industrial area known as the Clybourn Corridor.[19] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

Here it passes beneath the Cortland Street Drawbridge, which was the first 'Chicago-style' fixed-trunnion bascule bridge built in the United States,[20] and is designated as an ASCECivil Engineering Landmark and a Chicago Landmark.

At North Avenue, south of the North Avenue Bridge, the North Branch divides, HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

the original course of the river makes a curve along the west side of Goose Island, whilst the North Branch Canal cuts off the bend, forming the island. The North Branch Canal—or Ogden's Canal—was completed in 1857, and was originally 50 feet (15 m) wide and 10 feet (3.0 m) deep allowing craft navigating the river to avoid the bend.[21] ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

The 1902 Cherry Avenue Bridge, just south of North Avenue, was constructed to carry the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway onto Goose Island. It is a rare example of an asymmetric bob-tail swing bridge[22] and was designated a Chicago Landmark in 2007.[23] From Goose Island the North Branch continues to flow south east to Wolf Point where it joins the Main Stem. ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

In recognition of work promoting canoeing on and conservation of Chicago-area rivers, the forest preserve district of Cook County, Illinois designated a section of the North Branch of the Chicago River the Ralph Frese River Trail. It goes from Dempster Street in Morton Grove to Willow Road in Northfield. ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

The source of the Main Stem of the Chicago River is Lake Michigan. Water enters the river through sluice gates at the Chicago River Controlling Works with a small additional flow provided by the passage of boats between the river and Lake Michigan through the Chicago Lock.[26] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

The surface level of the river is maintained at 0.5 to 2 feet (0.15 to 0.61 m) below the Chicago City Datum (579.48 feet [176.63 m] above mean sea level) except for when there is excessive storm run-off into the river or when the level of the lake is more than 2 feet below the Chicago City Datum.[27] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

 Acoustic velocity meters at theColumbus Drive Bridge and the T.J. O'Brien lock on the Calumet River monitor the diversion of water from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River basin, which is limited to an average of 3,200 cubic feet (91 m3) per second per year over the 40-year period from 1980 to 2020. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

The Main Stem flows 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west from the controlling works at Lake Michigan;[29] passing beneath the Outer Drive, Columbus Drive, Michigan Avenue, Wabash Avenue, State Street, Dearborn Street, Clark Street, La Salle Street, Wells Street, andFranklin Street bridges en route to its confluence with the North Branch at Wolf Point. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

At McClurg Court it passes the Nicholas J Melas Centennial Fountain, which was built in 1989 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago; between May and October the fountain sends an arc of water over the river for ten minutes every hour.[30] SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

On the north bank of the river, near the Chicago Landmark Michigan Avenue Bridge, is Pioneer Court, which marks the site of the homestead of Jean Baptiste Point du Sable who is recognized as the founder of Chicago.[31] On the south bank of the river is the site of Fort Dearborn, an army fort, first established in 1803. SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

Notable buildings surrounding this area include the NBC Tower, the Tribune Tower, and the Wrigley Building. The river turns slightly to the south west between Michigan Avenue and State Street, passing the Trump International Hotel and Tower, 35 East Wacker, and 330 North Wabash. Turning west again the river passes Marina City,  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

the Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building, and Merchandise Mart, and 333 Wacker Drive.

The source of the South Branch of the Chicago River is the confluence of the North Branch and Main stem at Wolf Point. From here the river flows south passing the Lake Street,Randolph Street, Washington Street, Madison Street, Monroe Street, Adams Street, Jackson Boulevard, ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

Van Buren Street, Congress Parkway, and Harrison Street bridges before leaving the downtown Loop community area. Notable buildings that line this stretch of the river include the Boeing Company World Headquarters, the Civic Opera House, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Union Station and Willis Tower. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

The river continues southwards past railroad yards. Between Polk and 18th Streets the river originally made a meander to the east; between 1927 and 1929 the river was straightened and moved 1⁄4 miles (0.40 km) west at this point to make room for a railroad terminal.[32] HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

The river turns to the southwest at Ping Tom Memorial Park where it passes under the Chicago Landmark Canal Street railroad bridge. The river turns westward where it is crossed by the Dan Ryan Expressway; these immovable bridges have a clearance of 60 feet (18 m) requiring large ships that pass underneath to have folding masts.[33] SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

At Ashland Avenue the river widens to form the U.S. Turning Basin, the west bank of which was the starting point of the Illinois and Michigan Canal.[34] At the basin the river is joined by a tributary, the South Fork of the river, which is commonly given the nicknameBubbly Creek. IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

A bridge used to span the South Fork at this point that was too low for boats to pass meaning that their cargo needed to be unloaded at the bridge, and the neighborhood at its east end became known as Bridgeport.[35] The river continues to the south west, entering the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at Damen Avenue. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The original West Fork of the South Branch, which before the 20th century led to Mud Lake and the Chicago Portage, has been filled in; a triangular intrusion into the north bank at Damen Avenue marks the place where it diverged from the course of the canal.[35] From there, the water flows down the canal through the southwest side of Chicago and southwestern suburbs and, GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

in time, into the Des Plaines River between Crest Hill on the west and Lockport on the east, just north of the border between Crest Hill and Joliet, Illinois, eventually reaching the Gulf of Mexico.

The United States Geological Survey monitors water flow at a number of sites in the Chicago River system. Discharge from the North Branch is measured at Grand Avenue; between 2004 and 2010 this averaged 582 cubic feet (16.5 m3) per second.[36] HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

During the winter months as much as 75% of the flow in the North Branch is due to the discharge of treated sewage from the North Side Water Reclamation Plant into the North Shore Channel.[37] Flow on the Main Stem is measured at Columbus Drive; between 2000 and 2006 this averaged 136 cubic feet (3.9 m3) per second. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette, though probably not the first Europeans to visit the area, are the first recorded to have visited the Chicago River in 1673, when they wrote of their discovery of the geographically vital Chicago Portage.[39]Marquette returned in 1674, camped a few days near the mouth of the river, then moved on to the Chicago River–Des Plaines River portage, Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

where he stayed through the winter of 1674–75. The Fox Wars effectively closed the Chicago area to Europeans in the first part of the 18th century. The first non-native to re-settle in the area may have been a trader named Guillory, who might have had a trading-post near Wolf Point on the Chicago River in around 1778.[40] HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

In 1823 a government expedition used the name Gary River (phonetic spelling of Guillory) to refer to the north branch of the Chicago River.

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable is widely regarded as the first permanent resident of Chicago; he built a farm on the northern bank at the mouth of the river in the 1780s.[41] HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

 The earliest known record of Pointe du Sable living in Chicago is the diary of Hugh Heward, who made a journey through Illinois in the spring of 1790. Antoine Ouilmette claimed to have arrived in Chicago shortly after this in July 1790.[42]

In 1795, in a then minor part of the Treaty of Greenville, an Indian confederation granted treaty rights to the United States, to a parcel of land at the mouth of the "Chikago River".[n 1][ TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

44] This was followed by the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis and Treaty of Chicago, which ceded additional land in the Chicago area.[45] In 1803, Fort Dearborn was constructed on the bank opposite what had been Point du Sable's settlement, on the site of the present-day Michigan Avenue Bridge.[46]Lieutenant James Strode Swearingen, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

who led the troops from Detroit to Chicago to establish the fort, described the river as being about 30 yards (27 m) wide and upwards of 18 feet (5.5 m) deep at the place where the fort was intended to be built; the riverbanks were 8 feet (2.4 m) high on the south side and 6 feet (1.8 m) on the north.

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Between 1816 and 1828 soldiers from Fort Dearborn cut channels through the sandbar at the mouth of the river to allow yawls to bring supplies to the fort.[48] These channels rapidly clogged with sand requiring a new one to be cut. On March 2, 1833 $25,000[n 2] was appropriated by Congress for harbor works, and work began in June of that year under the supervision of Major George Bender,HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

the commandant at Fort Dearborn.[48][50] In January 1834 James Allen took over the supervision of this work[51] and, aided by a February storm that breached the sandbar, on July 12, 1834 the harbor works had progressed enough to allow a 100-short-ton (91 t) schooner, the Illinois to sail up the river to Wolf Point and dock at the wharf of Newberry & Dole.[48] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

The initial entrance through the sandbar was 200 feet (61 m) wide and 3 to 7 feet (0.91 to 2.1 m) deep, flanked by piers 200 feet (61 m) long on the south wall and 700 feet (210 m) long to the north. Allen's work continued, and by October 1837 the still unfinished piers had been extended to 1,850 feet (560 m) and 1,200 feet (370 m) respectively.COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

In 1848, the Illinois and Michigan canal linked the river to the Illinois River and the Mississippi Valley across the Chicago Portage. This canal was the farthest west, and the last, of a series of United States' government land grant canals. It provided the only water route from New York City to New Orleans through the county's interior and Chicago. Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

During the last ice age, the area that became Chicago was covered by Lake Chicago, which drained south into the Mississippi Valley. As the ice and water retreated, a short 12 to 14-foot (4.3 m) ridge was exposed about a mile inland which generally separated the Great Lake's watershed from the Mississippi Valley, Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

except in times of heavy precipitation or when winter ice flows prevented drainage.[54] By the time Europeans arrived, the Chicago River flowed sluggishly into Lake Michigan from Chicago's flat plain. As Chicago grew, this allowed sewage and other pollution into the clean-water source for the city, contributing to several public health problems, like typhoid fever.[55] DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

Starting in 1848, much of the Chicago River's flow was also diverted across the Chicago Portage into the Illinois and Michigan Canal.[56] In 1871, the old canal was deepened in an attempt to completely reverse the river's flow but the reversal of the river only lasted one season.[57] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

Finally, in 1900, the Sanitary District of Chicago, then headed by William Boldenweck, completely reversed the flow of the Main Stem and South Branch of the river using a series of canal locks, increasing the river's flow from Lake Michigan and causing it to empty into the newly completed Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

In 1999, this system was named a 'Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium' by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).[5] Before this time, the Chicago River was known by many local residents of Chicago as "the stinking river" because of the massive amounts of sewage and pollution which poured into the river from Chicago's booming industrial economy. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

Through the 1980s, the river was quite dirty and often filled with garbage; however, during the 1990s, it underwent extensive cleaning as part of an effort at beautification by Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley.

In 2005, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign created a three-dimensional, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

hydrodynamic simulation of the Chicago River, which suggested that density currents are the cause of an observed bi-directional wintertime flow in the river. At the surface, the river flows east to west, away from Lake Michigan, as expected. But deep below, near the riverbed, water travels, seasonally, west to east, toward the lake.[58]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

All outflows from the Great Lakes Basin are regulated by the joint U.S.-Canadian Great Lakes Commission, and the outflow through the Chicago River is set under a U.S. Supreme Court decision (1967, modified 1980 and 1997). The city of Chicago is allowed to remove 3200 cubic feet per second (91 m³/s) of water from the Great Lakes system; about half of this, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

1 billion US gallons a day (44 m³/s), is sent down the Chicago River, while the rest is used for drinking water.[59] In late 2005, the Chicago-based Alliance for the Great Lakes proposed re-separating the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins to address such ecological concerns as the spread of invasive species. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

In 1915, the Eastland, an excursion boat docked at the Clark Street bridge, rolled over, killing 844 passengers.[61] Many of the passengers were trapped by moving objects such as pianos and tables. The site is now the location of a memorial which was dedicated in 1989. The marker was stolen in 2000 and replaced in 2003. There are plans to build an outdoor exhibit at the site as well. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

On April 13, 1992, a flood occurred when a pile driven into the riverbed caused stress fractures in the wall of a long-abandoned tunnel of the Chicago Tunnel Company near the Kinzie Street railroad bridge. Most of the 60-mile (97 km) network of underground freight railway, which encompasses much of downtown,HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

was eventually flooded, along with the lower levels of buildings it once serviced and attached underground shops and pedestrian ways.

The first bridge across the Chicago River was constructed over the North Branch near the present day Kinzie Street in 1832.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

A second bridge, over the South Branch near Randolph Street, was added in 1833.[62] The first moveable bridge was constructed across the main stem at Dearborn Street in 1834.[63] Today, the Chicago River has 38 movable bridges spanning it, down from a peak of 52 bridges.[64] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

These bridges are of several different types, including trunnion bascule, Scherzer rolling lift,swing bridges, and vertical lift bridges.

The Chicago River has been highly affected by industrial and residential development with attendant changes to the quality of the water and riverbanks. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

Several species of freshwater fish are known to inhabit the river, including largemouth andsmallmouth bass, rock bass, crappie, bluegill, catfish, and carp. The river also has a large population of crayfish. The South Fork of the Main (South) Branch, which was the primary sewer for the Union Stock Yards and the meat packing industry, HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

was once so polluted that it became known as Bubbly Creek.[65] Illinois has issued advisories regarding eating fish from the river due to PCB and mercury contamination, including a "do not eat" advisory for carp more than 12 inches long.[66] There are concerns that silver carp and bighead carp, now invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

may reach theGreat Lakes through the Chicago River.[67] Despite the pollution concerns, the Chicago River remains a very popular target for freshwater recreational fishing. In 2006, the Chicago Park District started the annual "Mayor Daley's Chicago River Fishing Festival", which has increased in popularity with each year. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

As part of a more than fifty-year-old Chicago tradition, the Chicago River is dyed green in observance ofSt. Patrick's Day.[68] The actual event does not necessarily occur on St. Patrick's Day and is scheduled for the Saturday of the closest weekend. The dye takes days to dissipate. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

The tradition of dyeing the river green arose by accident when some plumbers used fluorescein dye to trace sources of illegal pollution discharges.[69] The dyeing of the river is still sponsored by the local plumbers union.[70]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) outlawed the use of fluorescein for this purpose, since it was shown to be harmful to the river.[69] SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

The present ingredients used to dye the river green today are safe for people and wildlife. Forty pounds of powdered vegetable dye are used to color the river for the celebration.[71]

In 2009 First Lady Michelle Obama, a Chicago native, requested that the White House fountains be dyed green to celebrate St. Patrick's Day. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

The US Army Corps of Engineers have monitored the development of harbors and channels for navigation on the Great Lakes' since the early 1800s. They began monitoring hydrological conditions and lake levels in 1918. A December 26, 2012 report revealed that Chicago District navigation infrastructure did receive significant impacts from Hurricane Sandy with some areas experiencing severe shoaling. HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

Chicago Shoreline Project mitigated the damage of the storm event.[4]

The same report noted that the low Great Lakes levels were drought-induced, caused by a very hot, dry summer and a lack of a solid snowpack in the winter of 2012. At the time of the report, December, 2012, SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

Lake Michigan-Huron was 28 inches below its long-term average which is near the record lows of 1964.[4] Historic lake levels for Lake Michigan reported from 1918 to 1998 show that the low levels observed in 1964 were the lowest since 1918 (Department of Natural Resources, State of Illinois. HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

2000:6).[3] by the Department of Natural Resources, State of Illinois historic lake levels for Lake Michigan from 1918-1998 note that the lowest levels were observed in 1964.[3] In 2012 Lake Michigan-Huron’s seasonal rise was about 4 inches where it usually is about 12 inches. Normally the Chicago River water level is two feet lower than the lake and therefore does not flow into the lake. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

If the lake level falls too low threatening to reverse the river flow, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago would be forced to close locks between the lake and river for longer periods of time limiting navigation. A reversal flow of the Chicago River into Lake Michigan would have a negative impact on navigation and on the quality of Lake Michigan water which is the source of drinking water.[ HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

 Chicago's raw sewage in the river is normally carried upstream toward the Mississippi River which flows south towards the Gulf of Mexico. On January 9, 2013 Chicago meteorologists announced 320 days without at least one inch of snowfall. Water levels in the lake started to level off with the river and sewage was visible at the cusp of the locks, just a few hundred feet from Lake Michigan.  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

David St. Pierre, executive director of the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago warned the low lake levels were nearing a point of real concern.[73] However, the District maintains that it is not possible for the River to reverse due to low lake level alone.[74][75] HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

Measurements taken by the US Army Corps in January 2013 revealed that both Lake Michigan and Lake Huron had reached their "lowest ebb since record keeping began in 1918, and the lakes could set additional records over the next few months, the corps said. The lakes were 74 centimetres (29 inches) below their long-term average and had declined 43 centimetres (17 inches) since January 2012." LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) is a state agency in charge of state-maintained public roadways of the U.S. state of Illinois. In addition, IDOT provides funding for rail, public transit and airport projects and administers fuel tax and federal funding to local jurisdictions in the state. The Secretary of Transportation reports to the Governor of Illinois. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

IDOT is headquartered in unincorporated Sangamon County, located near the state capital, Springfield. In addition, the IDOT Division of Highways has offices in nine locations throughout the state.[3][4]

The mission of IDOT is to provide safe, cost-effective transportation for Illinois in ways that enhance quality of life, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

promote economic prosperity and demonstrate respect for the environment.

The Office of Business and Workforce Diversity oversees the implementation of directives, policies and strategies for departmental business diversity efforts. HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

The Office of Chief Counsel provides legal counsel to the Department on policy issues and proposed actions affecting any of its operating divisions or staff offices. The Office is responsible for the prosecution and defense of all litigation involving the Department in cooperation with the Illinois Attorney General. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

The Office of Chief Counsel administers tort liability claims, property damage claims and uncollectable receivables as well as processes lien and bond claims against contractors. The Office coordinates the purchase and service of all insurance policies and administers the Department's self-insurance program.  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

The Office of Finance and Administration develops and administers the Department's budget; manages the Department's personnel system; provides accounting and auditing functions; provides centralized business services functions and facilities management; and provides management information capabilities. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

The Office of Communications was created in 2009 by combining the Office of Governmental Affairs and the Office of External Affairs. The Office of Communications develops and implements the Department's public affairs policies, plans and programs. This includes developing the Department's policy goals and positions; ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

prepares and implements state legislative programs and strategies; analyzes issues of special interest to the Secretary; and represents the Secretary before various state and national organizations. Its primary objectives are to ensure adequate information toward increasing public involvement in the transportation planning process; ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

assist the news media in the coverage of agency activities; increase the Department's sensitivity to its public and interpret public opinion so that agency programs and regulations will be realistic and acceptable; and to mobilize support for the Department and its programs.

The Office of Planning and Programming develops programs to improve the state transportation system. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

This includes working with metropolitan planning organizations in ten of the state's urbanized areas to develop programs relating to urban transportation; coordinating a surveillance program to monitor the physical condition of the transportation system, the level of service provided and the need for improvement; HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

evaluating proposals for major investments in the transportation system and overall benefits to be gained. The Office ensures the continuation of state rail services where the potential for efficiency and economy are most favorable and minimizing the expenditure of public funds for rail subsidies. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The Office works closely with the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP), which serves as a forum for transportation decision making by local elected officials in northeastern Illinois. The Office develops and implements Federal legislative initiatives as well as the initiation and coordination of policy statement and papers which serve as guides for departmental actions on a broad spectrum of transportation issues.  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

  • The Office of Quality Compliance and Review independently tests the Department’s internal control systems to further ensure to the Secretary and to the public the adequacy of the policies, regulations and procedures and to recommend improvements.

The Division of Aeronautics coordinates and implements programs concerning air safety, airport construction and other aeronautical related issues in Illinois. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

The Division of Highways develops, maintains and operates the state highway system. The central bureaus of the Division developing policies, procedures, standards and guidelines to accomplish the Department's highway system improvement objectives. GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

  • The central bureaus monitor the nine district programs to ensure statewide uniformity of policy interpretation and compliance and to ensure program coordination with federal, state and local agencies.

The Division of Public and Intermodal Transportation promots and assures safe and efficient mass transportation systems and services in the State of Illinois by developing and  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

  • recommending policies and programs; developing, implementing and administering operating, capital and technical program projects and grants; and coordinating and participating in local and statewide planning and programming activities.

The Division of Traffic Safety providing Illinois motorists,  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

cyclists and pedestrians with a safe environment by promoting the reduction of traffic fatalities, injuries and accidents. The Division develops and promulgates regulations in areas of accident reporting, hazardous materials transportation, vehicle inspection, safety responsibility, cycle rider training and highway safety Federal Section 402, 408 and 410 Grants. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

The Illinois Department of Transportation was created by the 77th Illinois General Assembly on January 1972. The department absorbed the functions of the former Department of Public Works and Buildings, acquired some planning and safety inspection functions of other state agencies, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

and received responsibility for state assistance to local mass transportation agencies such as te Chicago-area Regional Transportation Authority, which was in the process of being formed at this time. The Division of Aeronautics was added in 1973.

On June 18, 2005 IDOT became the first state transportation agency to achieve ISO  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

9001:2000 certification for 23 key processes located in the Central Administrative Office and regional District Six. On July 6, 2006 that certification was expanded to encompass all processes involved in the planning, design, and construction of road and bridge improvements, maintenance of roads and bridges, APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

and administrative oversight in the Central Administrative Office and District Six. An official with IDOT, John D. Baranzelli, wrote a book called Making Government Great Again on the transition to ISO9001:2008 standards in July 2009 for the American Society for Quality publication arm (ASQ Press). HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard, HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard,HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

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