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24 juin 2013 1 24 /06 /juin /2013 09:35

supported by Britain and America without hitting back? Time has come for us to [take] revenge. We can read the riot act and say this is 51 percent we are taking and if the sanctions persist we are taking over 100 percent."[68] SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard

Journalist Nicholas D. Kristof reported that life continues to be considerably worse for the majority of the nation than under the Rhodesian Front, despite minor improvements since 2009.[69] Other studies, including a 2011 survey by Freedom House, remain more optimistic, suggesting that living conditions have improved on a wider front since the power-sharing agreement.[70] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs states in its 2012–2013 planning document that the "humanitarian situation has improved in Zimbabwe since 2009, but conditions remain precarious for many people".[71] DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

Since May 2012, the European Union initiated a new commercial partnership agreement with Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe. The agreement engages the EU to remove import taxes and quota on products coming from Zimbabwe and the other countries mentioned above. In return, Zimbabwe and the other countries annul import taxes and quota on products coming from the EU.[72]

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All of the former vice-presidents have died in office.

The voters of Zimbabwe went to the polls to cast ballots on 16 March 2013, and approved a new constitution that would curtail presidential powers and lead to an election that will decide whether Robert Mugabe extends his three-decade rule.[74] HP Envy 15-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard

The names of most of the provinces were generated from the Mashonaland and Matabeleland divide at the time of colonisation: Mashonaland was the territory occupied first by the British South Africa Company Pioneer Column and Matabeleland the territory conquered during the First Matabele War. This corresponds roughly to the precolonial territory of the Shona people and the Matabele people,  HP G72-b20SG Laptop Keyboard

although there are significant ethnic minorities in most provinces. Each province is headed by a Provincial Governor, appointed by the President.[3] The provincial government is run by a Provincial Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. Other government functions at provincial level are carried out by provincial offices of national government departments.[76] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The provinces are subdivided into 59 districts and 1,200 wards (sometimes referred to as municipalities). Each district is headed by a District Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. There is also a Rural District Council, which appoints a chief executive officer. The Rural District Council is composed of elected ward councillors, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

the District Administrator and one representative of the chiefs (traditional leaders appointed under customary law) in the district. Other government functions at district level are carried out by district offices of national government departments.[77] HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard

At the ward level there is a Ward Development Committee, comprising the elected ward councillor, the kraalheads (traditional leaders subordinate to chiefs) and representatives of Village Development Committees. Wards are subdivided into villages, each of which has an elected Village Development Committee and a Headman (traditional leader subordinate to the kraalhead).[78] TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard

Zimbabwe is a republic with a semi-presidential system of government. Under the constitutional changes in 2005, an upper chamber, the Senate, was reinstated.[79] The House of Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (commonly abbreviated ZANU-PF) has been the dominant political party in Zimbabwe since independence.[80] In 1987 then-prime minister Mugabe revised the constitution, abolishing the ceremonial presidency and the prime ministerial posts to form an executive president, a Presidential system. HP 405963-001 Laptop Keyboard

His ZANU party has won every election since independence, in the 1990 election the second-placed party, Edgar Tekere's Zimbabwe Unity Movement, won only 20% of the vote.[81] During the 1995 parliamentary elections most opposition parties, including the ZUM, boycotted the voting, resulting in a near-sweep by the ruling party.[82] When the opposition returned to the polls in 2000, they won 57 seats, only five fewer than ZANU.[82]  SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Presidential elections were again held in 2002 amid allegations of vote-rigging, intimidation and fraud.[83] The 2005 Zimbabwe parliamentary elections were held on 31 March and multiple claims of vote rigging, election fraud and intimidation were made by the MDC and Jonathan Moyo, calling for investigations into 32 of the 120 constituencies.[84] Jonathan Moyo participated in the elections despite the allegations and won a seat as an independent member of Parliament. HP Pavilion dv4-1241tx Laptop Keyboard

General elections were again held in Zimbabwe on 30 March 2008.[85] The official results required a runoff between Mugabe and Morgan Tsvangirai, the opposition leader; the MDC challenged these results,[citation needed] claiming widespread election fraud by the Mugabe government. The run-off was scheduled for 27 June 2008. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

On 22 June, citing the continuing unfairness of the process and refusing to participate in a "violent, illegitimate sham of an election process", Tsvangirai pulled out of the presidential run-off, the ZEC held the run-off and President Mugabe received a landslide majority.[86] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

The MDC-T led by Morgan Tsvangirai is now the majority in the Lower chamber of Parliament. The MDC split into two factions. One faction (MDC-M), now led byArthur Mutambara contested the elections to the Senate, while the other, led by Morgan Tsvangirai, opposed to contesting the elections, stating that participation in a rigged election is tantamount to endorsing Mugabe's claim that past elections were free and fair. DELL 9J.NOH82.L01 Keyboard

The opposition parties have resumed participation in national and local elections as recently as 2006. The two MDC camps had their congresses in 2006 with Morgan Tsvangirai being elected to leadMDC-T, which has become more popular than the other group.[87] DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 Keyboard

Mutambara, a robotics professor and former NASA robotics specialist has replaced Welshman Ncube who was the interim leader of MDC-M after the split. Morgan Tsvangirai did not participate in the Senate elections, while the Mutambara faction participated and won five seats in the senate. DELL AEFM8U00310 Keyboard

The Mutambara formation has been weakened by defections from MPs and individuals who are disillusioned by their manifesto. As of 2008, the Movement for Democratic Change has become the most popular, with crowds as large as 20,000 attending their rallies as compared to between 500–5,000 for the other formation.[87] DELL 9Z.N3H82.001 Keyboard

On 28 April 2008, Tsvangirai and Mutambara announced at a joint news conference in Johannesburg that the two MDC formations were co-operating, enabling the MDC to have a clear parliamentary majority.[88][89] Tsvangirai said that Mugabe could not remain President without a parliamentary majority.[89] DELL AEGM7U00110 Keyboard

On the same day, Silaigwana announced that the recounts for the final five constituencies had been completed, that the results were being collated and that they would be published on 29 April.[90] DELL AERM6U00120 Keyboard

In mid-September 2008, after protracted negotiations overseen by the leaders of South Africa and Mozambique, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a power-sharing deal which would see Mugabe retain control over the army. Donor nations have adopted a 'wait-and-see' attitude, wanting to see real change being brought about by this merger before committing themselves to funding rebuilding efforts, which are estimated to take at least five years. On 11 February 2009 Tsvangirai was sworn in as Prime Minister by President Mugabe. DELL AEUM2U00110 Keyboard

In November 2008, the government of Zimbabwe spent $7.3 million donated by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. A representative of the organisation declined to speculate on how the money was spent, except that it was not for the intended purpose, and the government has failed to honour requests to return the money.[91] DELL AEUM6U00010 Keyboard

There are widespread reports of systematic and escalating violations of human rights in Zimbabwe under the Mugabe administration and his party, the ZANU-PF.

According to human rights organisations such as Amnesty International[93] and Human Rights Watch[94] the government of Zimbabwe violates the rights to shelter, food, freedom of movement and residence, freedom of assembly and the protection of the law. There have been alleged assaults on the media, the political opposition, civil society activists, and human rights defenders. DELL AEUM8U00010 Keyboard

Opposition gatherings are frequently the subject of brutal attacks by the police force, such as the crackdown on a 11 March 2007 Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) rally and several others during the 2008 election campaign.[95] In the attacks of 2007, party leader Morgan Tsvangirai and 49 other opposition activists were arrested and severely beaten by the police. After his release, Morgan Tsvangirai told the BBC that he suffered head injuries and blows to the arms, knees and back, and that he lost a significant amount of blood.[96] DELL AEVM8U00210 Keyboard

Police action was strongly condemned by the UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, the European Union and the United States.[96]While noting that the activists had suffered injuries, but not mentioning the cause of them,[97DELL D7001 Keyboard

] the Zimbabwean government-controlled daily newspaper The Herald claimed the police had intervened after demonstrators "ran amok looting shops, destroying property, mugging civilians, and assaulting police officers and innocent members of the public". The newspaper also argued that the opposition had been "willfully violating the ban on political rallies".[97] DELL E141395 Keyboard

There are also abuses of media rights and access. The Zimbabwean government suppresses freedom of the press and freedom of speech.[93] It has also been repeatedly accused of using the public broadcaster, the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation, as a propaganda tool.[98] Newspapers critical of the government, such as the Daily News, closed after bombs exploded at their offices and the government refused to renew their license.[99][100] DELL F484C Keyboard

 BBC News, Sky News, and CNN were banned from filming or reporting from Zimbabwe. In 2009 reporting restrictions on the BBC and CNN were lifted.[101] Sky News continue to report on happenings within Zimbabwe from neighbouring countries like South Africa.[102][103]

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His resignation came months before the country's constitutional referendum and elections.[104]

The ZDF was set up by the integration of three belligerent forces – the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), and the Rhodesian Security Forces (RSF) – after the Second Chimurenga and Zimbabwean independence in 1980. DELL 454RX Keyboard

The integration period saw the formation of The Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) and Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) as separate entities under the command of Rtd General Solomon Mujuru and Air Marshal Norman Walsh who retired in 1982, and was replaced by Air Marshal Azim Daudpota who handed over command to the late Rtd Air Chief MarshalJosiah Tungamirai in 1985. DELL 4H.N8501.001 Keyboard

Although integration took place in the ZNA, there was no integration in the Air Force of Zimbabwe. Ex ZIPRA and ex ZANLA members who joined the Air Force particularly between 1980 and early 1982 did so as individuals. Consequently, many did not make the so-called "grade" and were dismissed from the Force unlike their colleagues in the ZNA who were protected by the integration directive. DELL 5HK36 Keyboard

Before Norman Walsh left the Air Force, military aircraft were destroyed through sabotage at Thornhill Air Base in Gweru, in an operation believed to have been conducted by South African special forces.[citation needed] A number of white officers were arrested and tortured and that led to an exodus of white commissioned officers from the AFZ.[citation needed] DELL 6DJJC Keyboard

The government responded by transferring Major General Josiah Tungamirai from the ZNA to the AFZ, becoming an Air Vice Marshal, who later deputised Air Marshal Daudpota, seconded from the Pakistan Air Force. The integration commanders handed over the Zimbabwean flags to then Lieutenant General Vitalis Zvinavashe, who later became the first Commander Defence Forces (1993), and Air Marshal Perrance Shiri in 1992, and subsequently in the ZNA to then Lieutenant General Constantine Chiwenga in 1993. DELL 6W610 Keyboard

The approval of the Defence Amendment Bill saw the setting up of a single command for the Defence Forces in 1995. The late General Vitalis Zvinavashe became the first commander of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, with the commanders of both the Army and the Air Force falling under his command. Following his retirement in December 2003, General Constantine Chiwenga, was promoted and appointed Commander of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces. Lieutenant General P. V. Sibanda replaced him as Commander of the Army.[105] DELL 90.4EK07.S01 Keyboard

The ZNA currently has an active duty strength of 30,000. The Air Force has about 5,139 men assigned.[106] The Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police) is also part of the defence force of Zimbabwe and numbers 25,000.[107]

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Those forces were largely withdrawn in 2002.

The Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) was created in 1980 from elements of the Rhodesian Army, integrated to a greater or lesser extent with combatants from the ZANLA and ZIPRA guerrilla movements (the armed wings of, respectively, ZANU and ZAPU). DELL 9J.N6782.A01 Keyboard

Following majority rule in early 1980, British Army trainers oversaw the integration of guerrilla fighters into a battalionstructure overlaid on the existing Rhodesian armed forces. For the first year, a system was followed where the top-performing candidate became battalion commander. If he or she was from ZANLA, then his or her second-in-command was the top-performing ZIPRA candidate, and vice versa.[108] DELL 9J.N6782.K01 Keyboard

This ensured a balance between the two movements in the command structure. From early 1981, this system was abandoned in favour of political appointments, and ZANLA and ZANU fighters consequently quickly formed the majority of battalion commanders in the ZNA. DELL 9J.N9182.001 Keyboard

The ZNA was originally formed into four brigades, composed of a total of 28 battalions. The brigade support units were composed almost entirely of specialists of the former Rhodesian Army, while unintegrated battalions of the Rhodesian African Rifles were assigned to the 1st, 3rd and 4th Brigades. The Fifth Brigadewas formed in 1981 and disbanded in 1988 after the demonstration of mass brutality and murder during the brigade's occupation of Matabeleland in what has become known as Gukurahundi (Shona: DELL 9J.N9182.0011 Keyboard

"the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains"), the campaign which finished off Mugabe's liberation struggle.[42][109] The Brigade had been reformed by 2006, with its commander, Brigadier-General John Mupande praising its "rich history".[110] DELL 9J.N9283.001 Keyboard

Mineral exports, gold,[21] agriculture, and tourism are the main foreign currency earners of Zimbabwe.[111] The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world's largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo American plc and Impala Platinum.[112] The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century.[113]They have the potential to improve the fiscal situation of the country considerably, but almost all revenues from the field have disappeared into the pockets of army officers and ZANU-PF politicians.[114] Zimbabwe is the biggest trading partner of South Africa on the continent.[115] DELL 0R811H Keyboard

Zimbabwe maintained positive economic growth throughout the 1980s (5% GDP growth per year) and 1990s (4.3% GDP growth per year). The economy declined from 2000: 5% decline in 2000, 8% in 2001, 12% in 2002 and 18% in 2003.[116] DELL 0TW6MF Keyboard

The government of Zimbabwe faces a variety of economic problems after having abandoned earlier efforts to develop a market-oriented economy. Problems include a shortage of foreign exchange, soaring inflation, and supply shortages. Zimbabwe's involvement from 1998 to 2002 in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy.[117] DELL 0UC172 Keyboard

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