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21 février 2012 2 21 /02 /février /2012 07:44

 

<em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em>

<p align="left"><em><strong>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</strong></em>, written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century,[1] is a Chinese historical novel based on the events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history, starting in 169 and ending with the reunification of the land in 280. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1ahj-battery-27441.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) chronicles the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it. While the novel actually follows literally hundreds of characters, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-battery-27442.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han Dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu. The novel deals with the plots, personal and army battles, intrigues, and struggles of these states to achieve dominance for almost 100 years. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-b-battery-27443.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">This novel also gives readers a sense of how the Chinese view their history in a cyclical lense. The famous opening lines of the novel summarize this view: <em>It is a general truism of this world that anything long divided will surely unite, and anything long united will surely divide</em> (話說天下大勢,分久必合,合久必分).[2] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-l-battery-27444.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"><em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em> is acclaimed as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature; it has a total of 800,000 words and nearly a thousand dramatic characters (mostly historical) in 120 chapters.[3] The novel is among the most beloved works of literature in East Asia,[4] and it is arguably the most widely read historical novel in late imperial and modern China.[5] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-p-battery-27445.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Myths from the Three Kingdoms era existed as oral traditions before written compilations. With their focus on the history of Han Chinese, the stories grew in popularity during the reign of the Mongol emperors of the Yuan Dynasty. During the succeeding Ming Dynasty, an interest in plays and novels resulted in further expansions and retelling of the stories. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-r-battery-27446.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The earliest attempt to combine these stories into a written work was <em>Sanguozhi Pinghua</em> (simplified Chinese: 三国志评话; traditional Chinese: 三國誌評話; pinyin: <em>Sānguózhì Pínghuà</em>; literally "Story of <em>Records of Three Kingdoms</em>"),<a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-w-battery-27447.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">published sometime between 1321 and 1323. This version combined themes of legend, magic, and morality to appeal to the peasant class. Elements of reincarnation and karma were woven into this version of the story. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw21fx-b-battery-27448.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"><em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em> is traditionally attributed to Luo Guanzhong, who lived sometime between 1315 and 1400 (late Yuan to early Ming period). This theory is extensively developed in Andrew Plaks' <em>Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel</em>.<sup>[6]</sup> It was written in partly vernacular and partly Classical Chinese and was considered the standard text for 300 years. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw21fx-l-battery-27449.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The author made use of available historical records, including the <em>Records of Three Kingdoms</em> compiled by Chen Shou, which covered events from the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184 to the unification of the Three Kingdoms under the Jin Dynasty in 280. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw21fx-r-battery-27450.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The novel also includes material from Tang Dynasty poetic works, Yuan Dynasty operas and his own personal interpretation of elements such as virtue and legitimacy. The author combined this historical knowledge with a gift for storytelling to create a rich tapestry of personalities, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw21fx-w-battery-27451.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">and initially published it in 24 volumes. It was copied by hand in manuscripts until first printed in 1522<sup>[7]</sup> as <em>Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi</em>.<sup>[8]</sup> In the 1660s, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing Dynasty, Mao Lun (simplified Chinese: 毛纶; traditional Chinese: 毛綸)<sup>[3]</sup> <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw26ec-battery-27452.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">and his son Mao Zonggang (simplified Chinese: 毛宗岗; traditional Chinese: 毛宗崗) significantly edited the text, fitting it into 120 chapters, and abbreviating the title to <em>Sanguozhi Yanyi</em>.<sup>[8]</sup> The text was reduced from 900,000 to 750,000 characters; significant editing was done for narrative flow; <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw26fx-b-battery-27453.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">use of third party poems was reduced and shifted from conventional verse to finer pieces; and most passages praising Cao Cao's advisers and generals were removed.<sup>[9]</sup> Scholars have long debated whether the Maos' viewpoint was anti-Qing (identifying Southern Ming remnants with Shu-Han) or pro-Qing.<sup>[10]</sup> <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw28ec-battery-27454.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">This novel reflects Confucian values that were prominent at the time it was written. According to Confucian moral standards, loyalty to one's family, friends, and superiors are important measures for distinguishing good and bad people. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw28fj-p-battery-27455.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery</a></p>

 

 

<strong>Story</strong>

<p align="left">In the final years of the Han Dynasty, incompetent eunuchs deceive the emperor and persecute good officials, and the government becomes extremely corrupt on all levels, leading to widespread deterioration of the empire. During the reign of the penultimate Han sovereign, Emperor Ling, the Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out under the leadership of Zhang Jue (a.k.a. Zhang Jiao). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw28fj-r-battery-27456.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The rebellion is barely suppressed by troops under the command of He Jin, General-in-Chief of the imperial armies. Fearing his growing power, the eunuchs led by Zhang Rang lure He Jin into the palace and murder him. He Jin's stunned guards, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw28fj-w-battery-27457.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">led by Yuan Shao, respond by charging into the palace to kill all eunuchs for revenge, which turns into indiscriminate slaughter. In the ensuing chaos, the child Emperor Shao and the Prince of Chenliu disappear from the palace. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw29fj-w-battery-27458.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The missing emperor and prince are found later by soldiers of the warlord Dong Zhuo, who proceeds to seize control of the capital city Luoyang under the pretext of protecting the emperor. Dong later deposes Emperor Shao and replaces him with the Prince of Chenliu, who becomes known as Emperor Xian. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2afj-battery-27459.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Dong usurps state power and starts a reign of terror in which innocents are persecuted and the common people suffer. Wu Fu and Cao Cao attempt to assassinate Dong Zhuo but both fail. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2ahj-battery-27460.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Cao manages to escape and issues an imperial edict in the emperor's name to all regional warlords and governors, calling them to rise up against Dong Zhuo. Under Yuan Shao's leadership, eighteen warlords form a coalition force in a campaign against Dong Zhuo, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s1e-battery-27461.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">but undermined by poor leadership and conflict of interest, they only manage to drive Dong from Luoyang to Chang'an. Dong Zhuo is eventually betrayed and killed by his foster son Lü Bu in a dispute over the beautiful maiden Diaochan. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s1e-b-battery-27462.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In the meantime, the empire is already disintegrating into civil war. Sun Jian finds the Imperial Seal and keeps it secretly for himself, further weakening royal authority. Without a strong central government, warlords begin to rise and fight each other for land, plunging China into a state of anarchy. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s1e-l-battery-27463.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In the north, Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan are at war, and in the south, Sun Jian and Liu Biao. Many others, even those without title or land, such as Cao Cao and Liu Bei, are also starting to build up power. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s1e-p-battery-27464.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Cao rescues Emperor Xian from Dong Zhuo's followers and establishes the new imperial court in Xuchang. Cao Cao proceeds to defeat his rivals such as Lü Bu, Yuan Shu and Zhang Xiu before scoring a tactical victory over Yuan Shao in the Battle of Guandu despite being vastly outnumbered. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s1e-r-battery-27465.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Through his conquests, Cao unites the Central Plains and northern China under his rule, and the lands he controlled would serve as the foundation for the state of Cao Wei in the future. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s1e-w-battery-27466.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Meanwhile, an ambush had violently concluded Sun Jian's life in a war with Liu Biao, fulfilling Sun's own rash oath to heaven. His eldest son Sun Ce delivers the Imperial Seal as a tribute to the rising royal pretender, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s5c-cn1-battery-27467.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Yuan Shu of Huainan, in exchange for reinforcements. Sun secures himself a state in the rich riverlands of Jiangdong, on which the state of Eastern Wu will eventually be founded. Tragically, Sun Ce also dies at the pinnacle of his career from illness under stress of his terrifying encounter with the ghost of Yu Ji, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf112fx-b-battery-27468.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">a venerable magician whom he had falsely accused and executed in jealousy. However, his younger brother Sun Quan, who succeeds him, proves to be a capable and charismatic ruler. Sun, assisted by skilled advisors Zhou Yu and Zhang Zhao, inspires hidden talents such as Lu Su to join his service, and builds up a strong military force. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf115fg-b-battery-27469.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bei, along with his sworn brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, swear allegiance to the Han Dynasty in the famous Oath of the Peach Garden and pledge to do their best for the country. However, their goals and ambitions are not realized until the later part of the novel. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf116fgbi-battery-27470.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu is not recognized for his efforts in quelling the Yellow Turban Rebellion and is merely appointed as a junior magistrate. They join Gongsun Zan and participate in the campaign against Dong Zhuo. Liu Bei becomes the governor of Xu Province after Tao Qian passes on the post to him. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf117fj-w-battery-27471.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu loses the province when Lü Bu seizes control of it with the help of a defector and he joins Cao Cao in defeating Lü at the Battle of Xiapi. While Cao Cao subtly reveals his intention to usurp state power, Liu Bei is officially recognised by Emperor Xian as the Imperial Uncle and seen as a saviour to help the emperor deal with Cao. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf117hg-bi-battery-27472.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bei leaves Cao Cao eventually and seizes Xu Province from Cao's newly appointed governor Che Zhou. In retaliation, Cao attacks Xu Province and defeats Liu, forcing Liu to seek refuge under Yuan Shao for a brief period of time. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf118fj-w-battery-27473.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu finds a new base in Runan after leaving Yuan but is defeated by Cao Cao's forces once again. He retreats to Jing Province to join Liu Biao and is placed in charge of Xinye. At Xinye, Liu recruits the genius strategist Zhuge Liang personally and builds up his forces. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF119FC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf119fc-battery-27474.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Cao declares himself chancellor and leads his troops to attack southern China after uniting the north. He is defeated twice at Xinye by Liu Bei's forces but Liu loses the city as well. Liu leads his men and the civilians of Xinye on an exodus southwards and they arrive at Jiangxia (present-day Yunmeng County, Hubei) where Liu establishes a foothold against Cao Cao. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf119fc-bi-battery-27475.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">To resist Cao Cao, Liu Bei sends Zhuge Liang to persuade Sun Quan to form an alliance. Zhuge succeeds in his diplomatic mission and remains in Jiangdong as a temporary advisor to Sun Quan. Sun places Zhou Yu in command of the armies of Jiangdong (Eastern Wu) in preparation for an upcoming war with Cao Cao. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf119fj-bi-battery-27476.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Zhou feels that Zhuge will become a future threat to Eastern Wu and he tries to kill Zhuge on a few occasions but he fails and decides to co-operate with Zhuge for the time being. Cao Cao is defeated at the Battle of Red Cliffs by the allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei and he is forced to retreat north. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11afj-battery-27477.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Sun Quan and Liu Bei begin vying for control of Jing Province after their victory and Liu seizes the province from Cao Cao after following Zhuge Liang's strategy. Sun Quan is unhappy and sends emissaries to ask Liu Bei for Jing Province, but Liu dismisses the envoys each time with different excuses. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11agj-battery-27478.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Sun uses some strategies proposed by Zhou Yu to take the land, of which the most famous is the "Beauty Scheme." <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11jfx-b-battery-27480.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Sun intends to lure Liu Bei to Jiangdong to marry his sister Lady Sun and hold Liu hostage to exchange his freedom for Jing Province, but the plot fails and the newly-wed couple return home safely. Zhou Yu tries to take Jing Province repeatedly but his plans are foiled three times by Zhuge Liang. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11ahj-battery-27479.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery</a></p>

 

<h3>Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province</h3>

<p align="left">After Zhou Yu's death, relations between Liu Bei and Sun Quan gradually deteriorate but not to the point of open conflict. In accordance with Zhuge Liang's Longzhong Plan, Liu Bei leads his troops into Yi Province in the west and takes over the land from the incompetent noble Liu Zhang. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11m1e-battery-27481.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">By then, Liu Bei rules a vast area of land from Jing Province to Yi Province in the west, which will serve as the foundation for the future state of Shu Han. He proclaims himself "King of Hanzhong" after his victory over Cao Cao in the Hanzhong Campaign. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11m1e-h-battery-27482.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">At the same time, Cao has also been granted the title of "King of Wei" by the emperor and Sun Quan became known as the "Duke of Wu". In the east, Sun Quan and Cao Cao's forces clash at the Battle of Ruxukou and Battle of Xiaoyao Ford with victories and defeats for both sides. The situation among the three major powers reaches a stalemate after this until Cao Cao's death. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11mfx-b-battery-27483.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Meanwhile, Sun Quan plots to take Jing Province after tiring of Liu Bei's repeated refusals to hand the land over. He makes peace with Cao Cao and becomes a vassal of Cao with the title of "King of Wu". Guan Yu<a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11s1e-battery-27484.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">, who is in charge of Jing Province, leads his troops to attack Cao Ren in the Battle of Fancheng. Sun Quan sends Lü Meng to lead his troops to seize Jing Province while Guan is away, as part of his secret agreement with Cao Cao. Guan is caught off guard and loses Jing Province before he realizes it. He retreats to Maicheng, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11s1e-b-battery-27485.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">where he is heavily surrounded by Sun Quan's forces, while his army gradually shrinks in size as many of his troops desert or surrender to the enemy. In desperation, Guan attempts to break out of the siege but fails and is captured in an ambush. He <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11z1e-battery-27486.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery</a></p>

is executed on Sun Quan's orders after refusing to renounce his loyalty to Liu Bei.

<p align="left">Shortly after Guan Yu's death, Cao Cao dies of a brain tumor and his son Cao Pi usurps the throne, effectively ending the Han Dynasty and Cao renames his new dynasty "Cao Wei". In response, Liu Bei proclaims himself emperor, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11z1e-bi-battery-27487.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">to carry on the bloodline of the Han Dynasty. While Liu Bei is planning to avenge Guan Yu, his other sworn brother Zhang Fei is assassinated in his sleep by his subordinates, who have defected to Sun Quan. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11zhj-battery-27488.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">As Liu Bei leads a large army to attack Sun Quan to avenge Guan Yu, Sun attempts to appease Liu by offering him the return of Jing Province. Liu's advisers, including Zhuge Liang, urge him to accept Sun's tokens of peace, but Liu persists in vengeance. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf127hgbi-battery-27489.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"> After initial victories, a series of strategic mistakes due to the impetuosity of Liu leads to the cataclysmic defeat of Shu Han in the Battle of Xiaoting. Lu Xun, the commander of Sun Quan's forces, refrains from pursuing the retreating Shu Han troops after encountering Zhuge Liang's Stone Sentinel Maze. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf137hg-bi-battery-27490.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bei dies in Baidicheng from illness shortly after his defeat. In a moving final conversation between Liu on his deathbed and Zhuge Liang, Liu grants Zhuge the authority to take the throne if his successor Liu Shan proves to be an inept ruler. Zhuge refuses and swears that he will remain faithful to the trust Liu Bei had placed in him. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs111fm-s-battery-27491.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery</a></p>

 

<h3>Zhuge Liang's campaigns</h3>

<p align="left">After Liu Bei's death, as advised by Sima Yi, Cao Pi induces several forces, including Sun Quan, turncoat Shu general Meng Da, Meng Huo of the Nanman and the Qiang tribes, to attack Shu Han, in coordination with a Cao Wei army. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS115EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs115ec-battery-27492.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Zhuge Liang manages to send the five armies retreating without any bloodshed. An envoy from Shu Han named Deng Zhi subsequently persuades Sun Quan to renew the former alliance with Shu Han. Zhuge Liang personally leads a southern campaign against the Nanman barbarian king Meng Huo. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS115FG laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs115fg-battery-27493.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Meng is defeated and captured seven times, but Zhuge releases him each time and allows him to come back for another battle, in order to win Meng over. The seventh time, Meng refuses to leave and decides to swear allegiance to Shu Han forever. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS117GG laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs117gg-battery-27494.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After pacifying the south, Zhuge Liang leads the Shu Han army on five military expeditions to attack Cao Wei in order to restore the Han Dynasty. However, Zhuge's days are numbered as he had been suffering from chronic tuberculosis all along, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs117ggb-battery-27495.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">and his condition worsens under stress from the campaigns. His last significant victory over Cao Wei is probably the defection of Jiang Wei, a promising young general who is well-versed in military strategy. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS118EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs118ec-battery-27496.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Zhuge Liang dies of illness at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains while leading a stalemate battle against his nemesis, the Cao Wei commander Sima Yi. Before his death, Zhuge orders his trusted generals to build a statue of himself and use it to scare away the enemy in order to buy time for the Shu Han army to retreat safely. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs119fj-b-battery-27497.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery</a></p>

 

<h3>End of the Three Kingdoms</h3>

<p align="left">The long years of battle between Shu Han and Cao Wei sees many changes in the ruling Cao family in Cao Wei. The influence of the Caos weakens after the death of Cao Rui and the state power of Cao Wei eventually falls into the hands of the Sima clan, headed by Sima Yi's sons Sima Shi and Sima Zhao. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS119GC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs119gc-battery-27498.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In Shu Han, Jiang Wei inherits Zhuge Liang's legacy and continues to lead another nine campaigns against Cao Wei for a bitter three decades, but he fails to achieve any significant success. Moreover, the ruler of Shu Han, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11afj-battery-27499.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Shan, is incompetent and places faith in treacherous officials, further leading to the decline of the kingdom. Shu Han is eventually conquered by Cao Wei. Jiang Wei attempts to restore Shu Han with the help of Zhong Hui but their plans are exposed and both of them are killed by Sima Zhao's troops. After the fall of Shu Han in 263, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11agj-battery-27500.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Sima Zhao's son Sima Yan forces the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate his throne in 265, officially ending the Cao Wei dynasty. Sima Yan, having already been proclaimed the Prince of Jin in the previous year, then formally establishes the Jin Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11ahj-battery-27501.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In Eastern Wu, there has been internal conflict among the nobles ever since the death of Sun Quan, with Zhuge Ke and Sun Lin making attempts to usurp state power. Although stability is restored temporarily, the last Wu ruler Sun Hao appears to be a tyrant who does not make any efforts to strengthen his kingdom. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11avj-battery-27502.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Eastern Wu, the last of the Three Kingdoms, is finally conquered by Jin after a long period of struggle in the year 280, thus marking the end of the near century-long era of civil strife known as the Three Kingdoms period. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11j7e-b-battery-27503.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery</a></p>

 

<h2>Historical accuracy</h2>

<p align="left">The novel draws from historical sources, including Chen Shou's <em>Records of Three Kingdoms</em>. Other major influences include Liu Yiqing's <em>Shishuo xinyu</em> or <em>A New Account of Tales of the World</em>, published in 430,[11] and the <em>Sanguozhi Pinghua</em>, a chronological collection of eighty fictional sketches starting with the peach garden oath and ending with Zhuge Liang's death.[12] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11m1e-w-battery-27504.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Some fifty or sixty Yuan and early Ming plays about the Three Kingdoms are known to have existed, and their material is almost entirely fictional, based on thin threads of actual history. The novel is thus a return to greater emphasis on history, compared to these dramas.[13] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11v9e-battery-27505.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The novel also shifted towards better acknowledgement of the Southland's historical importance, while still betraying some prejudice against them.[14] Zhang Xuecheng famously wrote that the novel was 70% fact and 30% fiction.[8] The fictional parts are culled from different sources, including unofficial histories, folk stories, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11v9e-b-battery-27506.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">the <em>Sanguozhi Pinghua</em>, and also the author's own imagination. Nonetheless, the description of the social conditions and the logic that the characters use is accurate to the Three Kingdoms period, creating "believable" situations and characters, even if they are not historically accurate.[15] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs11x9e-b-battery-27507.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"><em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em>, like the dramas and folk stories of its day, features Liu Bei and his kingdom as the protagonist; hence the depiction of the people in Shu-Han was glorified. The antagonists, Cao Cao, Sun Quan and their kingdoms, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs123fgb-battery-27508.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">on the other hand, were often denigrated. This suited the political climate in the Ming Dynasty, unlike in the Jin Dynasty, when Cao Wei was considered the legitimate successor to the Han Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS125EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs125ec-battery-27509.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Some non-historical scenes in the novel have become well-known and subsequently became a part of traditional Chinese culture. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS128EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs128ec-battery-27510.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Dominant themes of the novel include: the rise and fall of the ideal liege (Liu Bei) finding the ideal minister (Zhuge Liang); the conflict between the ideal liege (Liu Bei) and the consummate villain (Cao Cao); and the cruelties and injustice of feudal or dynastic government.[3] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS129GC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs129gc-battery-27511.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Critics have argued that Luo Guanzhong's initial pronouncement "It is a general truism of this world that anything long divided will surely unite, and anything long united will surely divide" epitomizes the main theme of the novel.[16] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs12c7e-b-battery-27512.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Taking this as a locus for study of the classic has been disputed, however. Further, "division" and "unity" for Luo are not of equal importance.[16] Though the work shows the journey from unity to division in the final years of the Han Dynasty, that is only the beginning of the book. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs12l9e-b-battery-27513.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">"The author expended most of his ink on the focal point of his description—the difficult transition from 'division' to 'unity' and the great achievements that came out of the bitter struggle by various heroes to reunify the Chinese empire."[16] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcs12v9e-b-battery-27514.htm">Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"><em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em> recorded stories of a Buddhist monk called Pujing (普淨), who was a friend of Guan Yu. Pujing made his first appearance during Guan's arduous journey of crossing five passes and slaying six generals, in which he warned Guan of an assassination plot. As the novel was written in the Ming Dynasty, more than 1000 years after the era, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy115fgs-battery-27515.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">these stories showed that Buddhism had long been a significant ingredient of the mainstream culture and may not be historically accurate. Luo Guanzhong preserved these descriptions from earlier versions of the novel to support his portrait of Guan as a faithful man of virtue. Guan was since then respectfully addressed as "Lord Guan" or <em>Guan Gong</em>. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy115fx-bi-battery-27516.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"><em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em> has been translated into English by numerous scholars. The first known translation was performed in 1907 by John G. Steele and consisted of a single chapter excerpt that was distributed in China to students learning English at Presbyterian missionary schools. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy115fxbi-battery-27517.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"> [19] Z.Q. Parker published a 1925 translation containing four episodes from the novel including the events of the Battle of Red Cliffs, while Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang published excerpts in 1981 including chapters 43–50.[19] A complete and faithful translation of the novel was published in two volumes in 1925 by Charles Henry Brewitt-Taylor.[19] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY118EC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy118ec-battery-27518.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The translation was well-written, but lacked any supplementary materials such as maps or character lists that would aide Western readers; a 1959 reprint was published that included maps and an introduction by Roy Andrew Miller to assist foreign readers.[19] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy118gx-bi-battery-27519.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 1976, Moss Roberts published an abridged translation containing one fourth of the novel including maps and more than 40 woodblock illustrations from three Chinese versions of the novel.[19] Roberts's abridgement is reader-friendly, being written for use in colleges and to be read by the general public.[19] After decades of work, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy119fj-s-battery-27520.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Roberts published a full translation in 1991 complete with an Afterword, eleven maps, a list of characters, titles, terms, and offices, and almost 100 pages of notes from Mao Zonggang's commentaries and other scholarly sources.[19] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11afj-battery-27521.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Roberts's complete translation remains faithful to the original; it is reliable yet still matches the tone and style of the classic text.[19] Yang Ye, a professor in Chinese Literature at the UC Riverside, wrote in <em>Encyclopedia of Literary Translation into English</em> (1998) that Roberts's translation "supersedes Brewitt-Taylor's translation and will no doubt remain the definitive English version for many years to come."[19] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11agj-battery-27522.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">During the decline of the Han Dynasty, the northern part of China was under the control of Cao Cao, the chancellor to the last Han ruler, Emperor Xian. In 213, Cao Cao was granted the title of "Duke of Wei" and given ten cities as his domain. This area was named "Wei". At that time, the southern part of China was already divided into two areas controlled by two warlords. In 216, Cao Cao was promoted to "King of Wei".<a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11ahj-battery-27523.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">On March 15, 220, Cao Cao died and his son Cao Pi inherited the title of "King of Wei". Later that year on December 11, Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate and took over the throne, founding the Wei Dynasty. However, Liu Bei of Shu Han immediately contested Cao Pi's claim to the Han throne, and Sun Quan of Eastern Wu followed suit in 222. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11avj-battery-27524.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Pi ruled for six years until his death in 226. He was succeeded by his son Cao Rui, who died in 239, and was in turn succeeded by Cao Fang. In 249, during Cao Fang's reign, the regent Sima Yi seized state power from his co-regent Cao Shuang in a coup known as the Incident at Gaoping Tombs. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11m1e-s-battery-27525.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">This event marked the collapse of imperial authority in Wei, as Cao Fang's role had been reduced to a puppet ruler while Sima Yi wielded state power firmly in his hands. Sima Yi died in 251 and passed on his authority to his oldest son Sima Shi, who continued ruling as regent. Sima Shi deposed Cao Fang in 254 and replaced him with Cao Mao. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11s1e-battery-27526.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After Sima Shi died in the following year, his younger brother Sima Zhao inherited his power and status as regent. In 260, Cao Mao attempted to seize back state power from Sima Zhao in a coup, but was killed by Sima's subordinate Cheng Ji (成濟). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy11v9e-s-battery-27527.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After Cao Mao's death, Cao Huan was enthroned as the fifth ruler of Wei. However, Cao Huan was also a figurehead under Sima Zhao's control much like his predecessor. In 263, Wei armies led by Zhong Hui and Deng Ai conquered Shu. Two years later, Sima Zhao's son Sima Yan forced Cao Huan to abdicate in his favour, replacing Wei with the Jin Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy218ec-bi-battery-27528.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">As Gogeryeo consolidated its power, it proceeded to act to conquer the territories on the Korean peninsula which were under Chinese rule.[1] Goguryeo initiated the Goguryeo–Wei Wars in 242, trying to cut off Chinese access to its territories in Korea by attempting to take a Chinese fort. However, the Chinese Wei state responded by invading and defeated Goguryeo. Hwando was detroyed in revenge by the Chinese Wei forces in 244.[2] <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy218ec-g-battery-27529.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery</a></p>

 

 

<strong>Cao Wei</strong> (220 CE - 265 CE) was one of the states that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period. With the capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations that his father Cao Cao laid. Its name came from 213, when Cao Cao's feudal holdings were given the name Wei; <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy218ec-l-battery-27530.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery</a>

<p align="left">historians often add the prefix Cao (曹, from Cao Cao's family name) to distinguish it from the other states in Chinese history also known as Wei, such as the earlier Wei state during the Warring States Period, and the later Northern Wei state. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy218ec-p-battery-27531.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 220, when Cao Pi deposed the last emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wei became the name of the new dynasty he founded, which was seized and controlled by the Sima family in 249, until it was overthrown and became part of the Jin Dynasty in 265. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy21s1e-l-battery-27532.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"><strong>Shu Han</strong> was one of the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period, after the fall of the Han Dynasty. The state was based on areas around Sichuan, which was then known as Shu. Some historians argue it was the last Han Dynasty because its founding emperor Liu Bei was directly related to the sovereign family of the original Han Dynasty, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy21s1e-p-battery-27533.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">and bore their surname. The other two states were Cao Wei in central and northern China and Eastern Wu in southeastern China. The state is sometimes known as the <strong>Kingdom of Shu</strong>, though this usage is ambiguous as it was the name of the older Shu state in the area (ca. 1046 BC – 316 BC). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcy21s1e-si-battery-27534.htm">Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Towards the end of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bei, a warlord and distant relative of the Han imperial clan, rallied the support of many capable followers. Following the counsel of his advisor Zhuge Liang and Zhuge's Longzhong Plan, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw2s5c-cn1-battery-27467.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bei conquered parts of Jing Province (covering present-day Hubei and Hunan) in 208 and 209. Between 212 and 215, Liu Bei took over Yi Province (covering the Sichuan Basin) from the warlord Liu Zhang, and wrestled control of Hanzhong from rival warlord Cao Cao in 219. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEA20 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcea20-battery-12137.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">From the territories he gained, Liu Bei established a position for himself in China during the final years of the Han Dynasty. However in 219, the alliance between Liu Bei and his ally, Sun Quan, was broken when Sun sent his general Lü Meng to invade Jing Province. Jing Province came under Sun Quan's control after the surprise attack, and Liu Bei's general Guan Yu was captured and executed on Sun's order. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB10 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb10-battery-12138.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 220, after the death of Cao Cao, his son Cao Pi forced the Han Dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian to abdicate, taking over the Han throne and starting a new Cao Wei dynasty. The following year, Liu Bei proclaimed himself emperor in Chengdu, with his dynasty known as "Shu Han". <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fm-bi-battery-12144.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Although Liu Bei is seen as the founder of Shu Han, he never claimed to be the founder of a new dynasty; rather, he claimed to be continuing the fallen Han Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fm-battery-12143.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 222, Liu Bei launched an attack on Sun Quan to retake Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu, culminating in the Battle of Xiaoting. However, due to grave tactical mistakes, Liu Bei suffered a dramatic defeat with the burning of his line of camps and the decimation of his already numerically inferior army. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fm-t-battery-12145.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bei survived the battle and fled to Baidicheng, where he died a year later due to illness. His son, Liu Shan, succeeded him as emperor of Shu Han. The chancellor Zhuge Liang and general Li Yan were appointed as regents to assist the young Liu Shan. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fm-wi-battery-12146.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Zhuge Liang felt that it was more important for Shu to attack and topple the Wei government and restore legitimacy to the Han Dynasty, hence he made peace with Sun Quan and reaffirmed Shu's alliance with Sun. Sun Quan later declared himself emperor of Eastern Wu in 229, and his status was recognized by Shu. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fx-battery-12147.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Between 228 and 234, Zhuge Liang launched a series of six invasions on Wei but failed each time due to lack of supplies or incompetency of his officers, eventually dying of sickness at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains. Zhuge Liang's protege, Jiang Wei, continued his legacy by leading another nine campaigns against Wei between 247 and 262, but failed to make any significant territorial gains. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fx-bi-battery-12148.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 263, armies led by Wei generals Zhong Hui and Deng Ai attacked Shu and conquered its capital Chengdu. Liu Shan surrendered to Deng Ai outside Chengdu, marking the end of Shu. Jiang Wei attempted to incite conflict between Zhong Hui and Deng Ai, hoping to take advantage of the situation to revive Shu. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fx-t-battery-12149.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">However, his plan failed and he was killed by Wei troops along with Zhong Hui and Deng Ai. Liu Shan was brought to the Wei capital Luoyang and lived a comfortable and peaceful life as the "Duke of Anle" until the end of his days. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11fx-wi-battery-12150.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Shu was not merely a nation of war. During peace time, Shu began many irrigation and road-building projects designed to improve the economy. Many of these public works still exist and are widely used. For example, the Zipingpu Dam is still present near Chengdu, Sichuan. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11gx-battery-12151.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">These works helped improve the economy of southwestern China and can be credited with beginning the history of economic activity in Sichuan. It also promoted trade with southern China, which was then ruled by Eastern Wu. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11gx-bi-battery-12152.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery</a></p>

 

 

It was claimed that many refugees fled west to Sasanian Persia when Shu fell in 263.[1]

 

Eastern Wu

<p align="left"><strong>Eastern Wu</strong>, also known as <strong>Sun Wu</strong>, was one the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period after the fall of the Han Dynasty. It was based in the Jiangnan (Yangtze River Delta) region of China. During its existence, its capital was at Jianye (建業; present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu), but at times it was also at Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11gx-t-battery-12153.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">During the final years of the Han Dynasty, the Wu region - in the south of the Yangtze River surrounding present-day Nanjing - was under the control of the warlord Sun Quan. Sun Quan succeeded his brother Sun Ce as the lord over the Wu region paying nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian of Han (who was, at that point, under the control of Cao Cao). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb11gx-wi-battery-12154.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Unlike his competitors, he did not really have the ambition to be Emperor of China. However, after Cao Pi of Cao Wei and Liu Bei of Shu Han each declared themselves emperor, Sun Quan decided to follow suit in 229, claiming to have founded the Wu Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb12fx-battery-12155.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Sun Quan's long reign resulted in the stabilizing of the south. Wu and Shu had a military alliance, to defeat Wei in the north. Wu never managed to gain territory north of the Yangtze River, but Wei never managed to take territory south of the river. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb12fx-bi-battery-12156.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Wu was finally conquered by the Jin Dynasty in 280, which marked the reunification of China at the end of the Three Kingdoms period. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb12fx-bic-battery-12157.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Under the rule of Wu, the Yangtze River Delta region, regarded in early history as a barbaric "jungle" developed into one of the commercial, cultural, and political centers of China. Within five centuries, during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, the development of southern China centered around Jiangnan had surpassed that of the north. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb12fx-t-battery-12158.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The achievements of Wu marked the beginning of the cultural and political division between northern and southern China that would repeatedly appear in Chinese history well into modernity. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb14fx-battery-12159.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The island of Taiwan may have been first reached by the Chinese during the Three Kingdoms period. Contact with the native population and the dispatch of officials to an island named "Yizhou" (夷州) by the Wu navy might have been to Taiwan, but the location of Yizhou is open to dispute; some historians believe it was Taiwan, while others believe it was the Ryukyu

Islands. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb14fx-bi-battery-12160.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery</a></p>

 

 

Three Kingdoms

<p align="left">The <strong>Three Kingdoms period</strong> (traditional Chinese: 三國時代; simplified Chinese: 三国时代; pinyin: <em>Sānguó shídài</em>) was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb14fx-t-battery-12161.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state Wu by the Jin Dynasty in 280.  However, many Chinese historians and laymen extend the starting point of this period back to the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb14fx-wi-battery-12162.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The <strong>Three Kingdoms</strong> (traditional Chinese: 三國; simplified Chinese: 三国; pinyin: <em>Sānguó</em>) were Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳). To further distinguish these states from other historical Chinese states of the same name, historians add a relevant character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei (曹魏), Shu is also known as Shu Han (蜀漢), and Wu is also known as Dong Wu or Eastern Wu (東吳). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fm-battery-12163.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The term "Three Kingdoms" itself is something of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed not by kings, but by an emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han Dynasty. Although the translation "Three Empires" is more contextually accurate,[1] the term "Three Kingdoms" has become standard among sinologists. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fm-bi-battery-12164.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China. The middle part of the period, from 220 and 263, was marked by a more militarily stable arrangement between three rival states, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fm-t-battery-12165.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Wei, Shu, and Wu.  The later part of this period was marked by the collapse of the tripartite situation: first the conquest of Shu by Wei (263), then the overthrow of Wei by the Jin Dynasty (265), and the destruction of Wu by Jin (280). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fm-wi-battery-12166.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly romanticised in the cultures of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. It has been celebrated and popularised in operas, folk stories, novels and in more recent times, films, television, and video games.  <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fx-battery-12167.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The best known of these is Luo Guanzhong's <em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em>, a Ming Dynasty historical novel based on events in the Three Kingdoms period. The authoritative historical record of the era is Chen Shou's <em>Records of Three Kingdoms</em>, along with Pei Songzhi's later annotations of the text. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fx-bi-battery-12168.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The Three Kingdoms period was one of the bloodiest in Chinese history.  A population census during the late Eastern Han Dynasty reported a population of approximately 50 million, while a population census during the early Western Jin Dynasty reported a population of approximately 16 million.[2] However, the Jin Dynasty's census was far less complete than the Han census, so these figures are in question.<sup>[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup> <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fx-t-battery-12169.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Technology advanced significantly during this period. Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang invented the wooden ox, suggested to be an early form of the wheelbarrow, and improved on the repeating crossbow. Wei mechanical engineer Ma Jun is considered by many to be the equal of his predecessor Zhang Heng. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb15fx-wi-battery-12170.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">He invented a hydraulic-powered, mechanical puppet theatre designed for Emperor Ming of Wei, square-pallet chain pumps for irrigation of gardens in Luoyang, and the ingenious design of the South Pointing Chariot, a non-magnetic directional compass operated by differential gears. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb16fx-battery-12171.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The power of the Eastern Han Dynasty went into depression and steadily declined after the reign of Emperor He from a variety of political and economic problems. A series of Han emperors ascended the throne while still youths, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb16fx-b-battery-12172.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">and <em>de facto</em> imperial power often rested with the emperors' older relatives. As these relatives occasionally were loath to give up their influence, emperors would, upon reaching maturity, be forced to rely on political alliances with senior officials and eunuchs to achieve control of the government. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb16fx-g-battery-12173.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Political posturing and infighting between imperial relatives and eunuch officials was a constant problem in Chinese government at the time. During the reigns of Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling, leading officials' dissatisfaction with the eunuchs' usurpations of power reached a peak, and many began to openly protest against them. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb16fx-l-battery-12174.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The first and second protests met with failure, and the court eunuchs persuaded the emperor to execute many of the protesting scholars. Some local rulers seized the opportunity to exert despotic control over their lands and citizens, since many feared to speak out in the oppressive political climate. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb16fx-p-battery-12175.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery</a></p>

Emperors Huan and Ling's reigns were recorded as particularly dark periods of Han Dynasty rule. In addition to political oppression and mismanagement, China experienced a number of natural disasters during this period, and local rebellions sprung up throughout the country. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb16fx-w-battery-12176.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W Battery</a>

<p align="left">In the second month of 184, Zhang Jiao, leader of the Way of Supreme Peace, a Taoist movement, along with his two brothers Zhang Liang and Zhang Bao, led the movement's followers in a rebellion against the government that was called the Yellow Turban Rebellion. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb17fx-battery-12177.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Their movement quickly attracted followers and soon numbered several hundred thousands and received support from many parts of China. They had 36 bases throughout China, with large bases having 10,000 or more followers and minor bases having 6,000 to 7,000, similar to Han armies. Their motto was: <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb17fx-b-battery-12178.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">"The firmament[3] has perished, the Yellow Sky[4] will soon rise; in this year of <em>jiazi</em>, let there be prosperity in the world!" <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/G laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb17fx-g-battery-12179.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/G Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">[5] Emperor Ling dispatched generals Huangfu Song, Lu Zhi, and Zhu Jun to lead the Han armies against the rebels, and decreed that local governments had to supply soldiers to assist in their efforts. It is at this point that the historical novel <em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em> begins its narrative. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb17fx-l-battery-12180.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The Yellow Turbans were ultimately defeated and its surviving followers dispersed throughout China, but due to the turbulent situation throughout the empire, many were able to survive as bandits in mountainous areas, thus continuing their ability to contribute to the turmoil of the era. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb17fx-p-battery-12181.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">With the widespread increase in bandits across the Chinese nation, the Han army had no way to repel each and every raiding party. In 188, Emperor Ling accepted a memorial from Yi Province[6] governor Liu Yan suggesting he grant direct administrative power over feudal provinces and direct command of regional military to local governors, as well promoting them in rank and filling such positions with members of the Liu family or court officials. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb17fx-w-battery-12182.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">This move made provinces (<em>zhou</em>) official administrative units, and although they had power to combat rebellions, the later intra-government chaos allowed these local governors to easily rule independently of the central government. Soon after this move, Liu Yan severed all of his region's ties to the Han imperial court, and several other areas followed suit. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB190X laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb190x-battery-12183.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery</a></p>

 

<h3>Dong Zhuo in power</h3>

<p align="left">In the same year, Emperor Ling died, and another struggle began between the court eunuchs for control of the imperial family. Court eunuch Jian Shuo planned to kill General-in-Chief He Jin, a relative of the imperial family, and to replace the crown prince Liu Bian with his younger brother Liu Xie, the Prince of Chenliu (in present-day Kaifeng), though his plan was unsuccessful. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb19fx-battery-12184.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bian took the Han throne as Emperor Shao, and He Jin plotted with warlord Yuan Shao to assassinate the Ten Attendants, a clique of ten eunuchs led by Zhang Rang who controlled much of the imperial court. He Jin also ordered Dong Zhuo, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb19gx-battery-12185.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">the frontier general in Liang Province, and Ding Yuan, Inspector of Bing Province[7], to bring troops to the capital to reinforce his position of authority. The eunuchs learned of He Jin's plot, and had him assassinated before Dong Zhuo reached the capital Luoyang. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1afx-battery-12186.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">When Yuan Shao's troops reached Luoyang, they stormed the palace complex, killing the Ten Attendants and 2,000 of the eunuchs' supporters. Though this move effectively ended the century-long feud between the eunuchs and the imperial family, it ushered in the era of warlords and martial law that became the Three Kingdoms era. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1afx-b-battery-12187.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">This event prompted the invitation of Dong Zhuo to enter Luoyang from the northwest boundary of China. At the time China faced the Qiang tribes in the northwest, and thus Dong Zhuo controlled a large army with elite training. When he brought the army to Luoyang, he was able to easily overpower the existing armies of both sides and took control of the imperial court, ushering in a period of civil war across China. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1agx-battery-12188.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Dong Zhuo then manipulated the succession so that Liu Xie could take the throne in lieu of Liu Bian. Dong Zhuo, while ambitious, genuinely wished for a more capable emperor. On his way to Luoyang, he encountered a small band of soldiers protecting Liu Bian and Liu Xie fleeing the war zone. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1agx-bi-battery-12189.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In the encounter Dong Zhuo acted arrogantly and threateningly, causing Liu Bian to be paralyzed with fear; Liu Xie, the future Emperor Xian, responded calmly with authority and commanded Dong Zhuo to protect the royal family with his army to return to the imperial court. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1bgx-battery-12190.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">While Dong Zhuo originally wanted to re-establish the authority of the Han Dynasty and manage all the political conflict properly, his political capability proved to be much worse than his military leadership. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1bgx-bi-battery-12191.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">His behaviour grew more and more violent and authoritarian, executing or sending into exile all that opposed him, and showed less and less respect to the emperor. He ignored all royal etiquette and frequently carried open weapons into the imperial court. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1cgx-battery-12192.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 190 a coalition led by Yuan Shao was formed between nearly all the provincial authorities in the eastern provinces of the empire against Dong Zhuo. The mounting pressure from repeated defeat on the southern frontline against Sun Jian's forces drove Emperor Xian and later Dong Zhuo himself west to Chang'an in May 191. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1cgx-bi-battery-12193.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Dong Zhuo once again demonstrated his political shortcomings by forcing millions of residents of Luoyang to migrate to Chang'an. He then set fire to Luoyang, preventing occupation by his enemies and destroying the biggest city in China at that time. In addition, he ordered his army to slaughter a whole village of civilians. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1dgx-battery-12194.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The soldiers beheaded the civilians and carried their heads into Chang'an to show off as war trophies, pretending to have had a great victory against his enemies. A year later Dong Zhuo was killed in a coup d'etat by Wang Yun and Lü Bu. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1dgx-bi-battery-12195.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 191, there was some talk among the coalition of appointing Liu Yu, an imperial relative, as emperor, and gradually its members began to fall out. Most of the warlords in the coalition, with a few exceptions, sought the increase of personal military power in the time of instability instead of seriously wishing to restore the Han Dynasty's authority. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1egx-battery-12196.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The Han empire was divided between a number of regional warlords. Yuan Shao occupied the northern area of Ye and extended his power, by taking over his superior Han Fu with trickery and intimidation, north of the Yellow River against Gongsun Zan, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1fgx-bi-battery-12199.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">who held the northern frontier. Cao Cao, directly to Yuan Shao's south, was engaged in a struggle against Yuan Shu and Liu Biao, who occupied respectively the Huai River basin and middle Yangtze regions. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1egx-bi-battery-12197.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Further south the young warlord Sun Ce, taking over after the untimely death of Sun Jian, was establishing his rule in the lower Yangtze, albeit as a subordinate of Yuan Shu. In the west, Liu Zhang held Yi Province while Hanzhong and the northwest were controlled by a motley collection of smaller warlords such as Ma Teng of Liang Province, the original post of Dong Zhuo. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1fgx-battery-12198.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Dong Zhuo, confident in his success, was slain by his follower Lü Bu and minister Wang Yun. Lü Bu, in turn, was attacked by Dong Zhuo's subordinates: Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Ji and Fan Chou. Wang Yun and his whole family were executed. Lü Bu fled to Zhang Yang, a northern warlord, and remained with him for a time before briefly joining Yuan Shao, but it was clear that Lü Bu was far too independent to serve another. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1ggx-battery-12200.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In August 195, Emperor Xian fled the tyranny of Li Jue at Chang'an and made a year long hazardous journey east in search of supporters. By 196, when he was received by Cao Cao, most of the smaller contenders for power had either been absorbed by larger ones or destroyed. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1ggx-bi-battery-12201.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">This was an extremely important move for Cao Cao following the suggestion from his primary advisor, Xun Yu, commenting that by supporting the authentic emperor, Cao Cao would have the formal legal authority to control the other warlords and force them to comply in order to restore the Han Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1hgx-battery-12202.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Cao, whose zone of control was the precursor to the state of Cao Wei, had raised an army in the winter of 189. In several strategic movements and battles, he controlled Yan Province and defeated several factions of the Yellow Turban rebels. This earned him the aid of other local militaries controlled by Zhang Miao and Chen Gong, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1hgx-bi-battery-12203.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">who joined his cause to create his first sizable army. He continued the effort and absorbed approximately 300,000 Yellow Turban rebels into his army as well as a number of clan-based military groups from the eastern side of Qing Province. In 196 he established an imperial court at Xuchang and developed military agricultural colonies (<em>tuntian</em>) to support his army. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1jfx-battery-12204.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Although the system imposed a heavy tax on hired civilian farmers (40% to 60% of agricultural production), the farmers were more than pleased to be able to work with relative stability and professional military protection in a time of chaos. This was later said to be his second important policy for success. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1jfx-b-battery-12205.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 194, Cao Cao went to war with Tao Qian of Xu Province, because Tao's subordinate Zhang Kai had murdered Cao Cao's father Cao Song. Tao Qian received the support of Liu Bei and Gongsun Zan, but even then it seemed as if Cao Cao's superior forces would overrun Xu Province entirely. However, Cao Cao received word that Lü Bu had seized Yan Province in his absence, and accordingly he retreated, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/G laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1jfx-g-battery-12206.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/G Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">putting a halt to hostilities with Tao Qian for the time being. Tao Qian died in the same year, leaving his province to Liu Bei. A year later, in 195, Cao Cao managed to drive Lü Bu out of Yan Province. Lü Bu fled to Xu Province and was received by Liu Bei, and an uneasy alliance began between the two. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1jfx-l-battery-12207.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In the south, Sun Ce, then an independent general under the service of Yuan Shu, defeated the warlords of Yang Province, including Liu Yao, Wang Lang, and Yan Baihu. In 197, Yuan Shu, who was at odds with Cao Cao, Yuan Shao, and Liu Bei, felt assured of victory with his subordinate's conquests, and thus declared himself emperor of the Cheng Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1jfx-p-battery-12208.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The move, however, was a strategic blunder, as it drew the ire of many warlords across the land, including Yuan Shu's own subordinate Sun Ce, who had advised Yuan Shu not to make such a move. Cao Cao issued orders to Sun Ce to attack Yuan Shu. Sun Ce complied, but first convinced Cao Cao to form a coalition against Yuan Shu, of which Liu Bei and Lü Bu were members. Attacked on all sides, Yuan Shu was defeated and fled into hiding. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1jfx-w-battery-12209.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Afterwards, Lü Bu betrayed Liu Bei and seized Xu Province, forming an alliance with Yuan Shu's remnant forces. Liu Bei, together with his followers Zhang Fei and Guan Yu, fled to Cao Cao, who accepted him. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1kgx-battery-12210.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Soon, preparations were made for an attack on Lü Bu, and the combined forces of Cao Cao and Liu Bei invaded Xu Province. Lü Bu's men deserted him, Yuan Shu's forces never arrived as reinforcements, and he was bound by his own subordinates Song Xian and Wei Xu and executed on Cao Cao's order. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1kgx-b-battery-12211.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 200, Dong Cheng, an imperial relative, received a secret edict from Emperor Xian to assassinate Cao Cao. He collaborated with Liu Bei on this effort, but Cao Cao soon found out about the plot and had Dong Cheng and his conspirators executed, with only Liu Bei surviving and fleeing to join Yuan Shao in the north. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1kgx-w-battery-12212.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After settling the nearby provinces, including a rebellion led by former Yellow Turbans, and internal affairs with the court, Cao Cao turned his attention north to Yuan Shao, who himself had eliminated his northern rival Gongsun Zan that same year. Yuan Shao, himself of higher nobility than Cao Cao, amassed a large army and camped along the northern bank of the Yellow River. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1lfx-battery-12213.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 200, after winning a decisive battle against Liu Biao at Sha County and putting down the rebellions of Xu Gong and others, Sun Ce was struck by an arrow and fatally wounded. On his deathbed, he named his younger brother, Sun Quan, as his heir. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1lfx-bi-battery-12214.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Following months of planning, Cao Cao and Yuan Shao clashed at the Battle of Guandu. Overcoming Yuan Shao's superior numbers, Cao Cao decisively defeated him by setting fire to his supplies, and in doing so crippled the northern army. Liu Bei fled to join Liu Biao in Jing Province, and many of Yuan Shao's forces were destroyed. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1lfx-wi-battery-12215.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 202, Cao Cao took advantage of Yuan Shao's death and the resulting division among his sons to advance north of the Yellow River. He captured Ye in 204 and occupied the provinces of Ji, Bing, Qing and You. By the end of 207, after a lightning campaign against the Wuhuan barbarians, Cao Cao had achieved undisputed dominance of the North China Plain. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1mfx-battery-12216.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 208, Cao Cao marched south with his army hoping to quickly unify the empire. Liu Biao's son Liu Cong surrendered Jing Province and Cao was able to capture a sizable fleet at Jiangling. Sun Quan, the successor to Sun Ce in the lower Yangtze, continued to resist, however. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1mfx-bi-battery-12217.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">His advisor Lu Su secured an alliance with Liu Bei, himself a recent refugee from the north, and Zhou Yu was placed in command of Sun Quan's navy, along with a veteran general who served the Sun family, Cheng Pu. Their combined armies of 50,000 met Cao Cao's fleet and 200,000-strong force at Red Cliffs that winter. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1nfx-battery-12218.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After an initial skirmish, an attack beginning with a plan to set fire to Cao Cao's fleet was set in motion to lead to the decisive defeat of Cao Cao, forcing him to retreat in disarray back to the north. The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, and provided the basis for the states of Shu and Wu. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1nfx-b-battery-12219.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After his return to the north, Cao Cao contented himself with absorbing the northwestern regions in 211 and consolidating his power. He progressively increased his titles and power, eventually becoming the King of Wei in 217, a title bestowed upon him by the puppet Emperor Xian that he controlled. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1nfx-l-battery-12220.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Bei, having defeated the weak Jing Province warlords Han Xuan, Jin Xuan, Zhao Fan, and Liu Du, entered Yi Province and later in 214 displaced Liu Zhang as ruler, leaving Guan Yu in charge of Jing Province. Sun Quan, who had in the intervening years being engaged with defenses against Cao Cao in the southeast at Hefei, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1nfx-p-battery-12221.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">now turned his attention to Jing Province and the middle Yangtze. Tensions between the allies were increasingly visible. In 219, after Liu Bei successfully seized Hanzhong from Cao Cao and as Guan Yu was engaged in the siege of Fancheng, Sun Quan's general Lü Meng seized Jing Province in a surprise invasion. Guan Yu was captured and executed on Sun Quan's order. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1nfx-w-battery-12222.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/W Battery</a></p>

 

<h3>Emergence of the Three Kingdoms</h3>

<p align="left">In the first month of 220, Cao Cao died and in the tenth month his son Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate, thus ending the Han Dynasty. He named his state Wei and proclaimed himself emperor in Luoyang. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1pfx-battery-12223.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 221, Liu Bei declared himself emperor, in a bid to restore the fallen Han Dynasty. (His state is known in history as "Shu" or "Shu Han") In the same year, Wei bestowed on Sun Quan the title of King of Wu. A year later, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1pfx-b-battery-12224.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Shu declared war on Wu (this was because Wu had allied with Wei in order to defeat the sworn brother of Liu Bei - Guan Yu - who at that time placed in charge on Jing province, as it was most strategic location in all of the three kingdoms) and met the Wu armies at the Battle of Xiaoting (also known as Battle of Yiling). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1qgx-battery-12225.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">At Xiaoting, Liu Bei was disastrously defeated by Sun Quan's commander Lu Xun and forced to retreat back to Shu, where he died soon afterward. After the death of Liu Bei, Shu and Wu resumed friendly relations at the expense of Wei, thus stabilizing the tripartite configuration. In 222, Sun Quan renounced his recognition of Cao Pi's regime and, in 229, he declared himself emperor of Eastern Wu in Wuchang. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1qgx-bi-battery-12226.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Dominion of the north completely belonged to Wei, whilst Shu occupied the southwest and Wu the central south and east. The external borders of the states were generally limited to the extent of Chinese civilization. For example, the political control of Shu on its southern frontier was limited by the Tai tribes of present-day Yunnan and Burma, known collectively as the "Nanman" (southern barbarians). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1rgx-battery-12227.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 223 Liu Shan rose to the throne of Shu following his father's defeat and death. The defeat of Liu Bei at Xiaoting ended the period of hostility between Wu and Shu and both used the opportunity to concentrate on internal problems and the external enemy of Wei. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb1rgx-bi-battery-12228.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">For Sun Quan, the victory terminated his fears of Shu expansion into Jing Province and he turned to the aborigines of the southeast, whom the Chinese collectively called the "Shanyue". A collection of successes against the rebellious tribesmen culminated in the victory of 224. In that year Zhuge Ke ended a three year siege of Danyang with the surrender of 100,000 Shanyue. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEB20 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpceb20-battery-12139.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEB20 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Of these, 40,000 were drafted as auxiliaries into the Wu army. Meanwhile Shu was also experiencing troubles with the indigenous tribes of their south. The southwestern Nanman peoples rose in revolt against Shu authority, captured and looted cities in Yi Province. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEC20 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcec20-battery-12140.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEC20 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Zhuge Liang, recognising the importance of stability in the south, ordered the advance of the Shu armies in three columns against the Nanman. He fought a number of engagements against the chieftain Meng Huo, at the end of which Meng Huo submitted. A tribesman was allowed to reside at the Shu capital Chengdu as an official and the Nanman formed their own battalions within the Shu army. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEE20 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcee20-battery-12141.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEE20 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">At the end of Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign, the Wu-Shu alliance came to fruition and Shu was free to move against the north. In 227 Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong, and opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei. The next year, he ordered Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion while Zhuge himself led the main force to Mount Qi. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCEF20 laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcef20-battery-12142.htm">Sony VAIO VPCEF20 Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The vanguard Ma Su, however, suffered a tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw. In the next six years Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but supply problems limited the capacity for success. In 234 he led his last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains south of the Wei River. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf112fx-b-battery-27468.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Due to the death of Zhuge Liang (234), however, the Shu army was forced once again to withdraw, but were pursued by Wei. The Shu forces began to withdraw; Sima Yi deduced Zhuge Liang's demise and ordered an attack. Shu struck back almost immediately, causing Sima Yi to second guess and allow Shu to withdraw successfully. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf115fg-b-battery-27469.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery</a></p>

 

<h3>Wu and the South</h3>

<p align="left">In the times of Zhuge Liang's northern offensives, the state of Wu had always been on the defensive against invasions from the north. The area around Hefei was the scene of many bitter battles and under constant pressure from Wei after the Battle of Red Cliffs. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf116fgbi-battery-27470.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery</a></p>

Warfare had grown so intense that many of the residents chose to migrate and resettle south of the Yangtze River. After Zhuge Liang's death, attacks on the southern Huai River region intensified but nonetheless, Wei could not break through the line of the river defenses erected by Wu, which included the Ruxu fortress. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf117fj-w-battery-27471.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery</a>

<p align="left">Sun Quan's long reign is regarded as a time of plenty for his southern state. Migrations from the north and the settlement of the Shanyue increased manpower for agriculture, especially along the lower reaches of the Yangtze and in Kuaiji commandery (present-day Shaoxing). River transport blossomed, with the construction of the Zhedong and Jiangnan canals. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf117hg-bi-battery-27472.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Trade with Shu flourished, with a huge influx of Shu cotton and the development of celadon and metal industries. Ocean transport was improved to such an extent that sea journeys were made to Manchuria and the island of Taiwan. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf118fj-w-battery-27473.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In the south, Wu merchants reached Linyi (northern Vietnam) and Fu'nan (Cambodia). As the economy prospered, so too did the arts and culture. In the Yangtze delta, the first Buddhist influences reached the south from Luoyang. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF119FC laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf119fc-battery-27474.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">From the late 230s tensions began to become visible between the imperial Cao clan and the Sima clan. Following the death of Cao Zhen, factionalism was evident between Cao Shuang and the Grand Tutor Sima Yi. In deliberations, Cao Shuang placed his own supporters in important posts and excluded Sima Yi, whom he regarded as a dangerous threat. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf119fc-bi-battery-27475.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The power of the Sima clan, one of the great landowning families of the Han Dynasty, was bolstered by Sima Yi's military victories. Additionally, Sima Yi was an extremely capable strategist and politician. In 238 he crushed the rebellion of Gongsun Yuan and brought the Liaodong region directly under central control. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf119fj-bi-battery-27476.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Ultimately, he outmaneuvered Cao Shuang in power play. Taking advantage of an excursion by the imperial clansmen to the Gaoping Tombs, Sima Yi undertook a putsch in Luoyang, forcing Cao Shuang's faction from authority. Many protested against the overwhelming power of the Sima family; notable among these were the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. One of the sages, Xi Kang, was executed as part of the purges after Cao Shuang's downfall. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11afj-battery-27477.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The decreasing strength of the Cao clan was mirrored by the decline of Shu. After Zhuge Liang's death, his position as chancellor fell to Jiang Wan, Fei Yi and Dong Yun, in that order. But after 258, Shu politics became increasingly controlled by the eunuch faction and corruption rose. Despite the energetic efforts of Jiang Wei, Zhuge Liang's protege, Shu was unable to secure any decisive achievement. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11agj-battery-27478.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In 263, Wei launched a three-pronged attack and the Shu army was forced into general retreat from Hanzhong. Jiang Wei hurriedly held a position at Jiange but he was outflanked by the Wei commander Deng Ai, who force-marched his army from Yinping through territory formerly considered impassable. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11ahj-battery-27479.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">By the winter of the year, the capital Chengdu fell due to the strategic invasion of Wei by Deng Ai who invaded Chengdu personally. The emperor Liu Shan thus surrendered. The state of Shu had come to an end after 43 years. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11jfx-b-battery-27480.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Liu Shan was reinstated to the Wei capital of Luoyang and was given the new title of the "Duke of Anle". He was tormented with endless jeers and ridicules, as he had given up the dream up of a benevolent land which was dreamt by Liu Bei. But, little did the people know, that if he had not surrendered, then people would still be suffering, thus neglecting the way of benevolence. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11m1e-battery-27481.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Huan succeeded to the throne in 260 after Cao Mao was killed in a failed coup against Sima Zhao. Soon after, Sima Zhao died and his title as Duke of Jin was inherited by his son Sima Yan. Sima Yan immediately began plotting to become emperor but faced stiff opposition. However, due to advice from his advisors, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11m1e-h-battery-27482.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Cao Huan decided the best course of action would be to abdicate, unlike his predecessor Cao Mao. Sima Yan seized the throne in 264 after forcing Cao Huan's abdication, effectively overthrowing the Wei Dynasty and establishing the successor Jin Dynasty. This situation was similar to the deposal of Emperor Xian of Han by Cao Pi 40 years earlier. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11mfx-b-battery-27483.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Following Sun Quan's death and the ascension of the young Sun Liang to the throne in 252, the state of Wu went into a period of steady decline. Successful Wei suppression of rebellions in the southern Huai River region by Sima Zhao and Sima Shi reduced any opportunity of Wu influence. The fall of Shu signalled a change in Wei politics. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11s1e-battery-27484.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After Liu Shan surrendered to Wei, Sima Yan (grandson of Sima Yi), overthrew the Wei emperor and proclaimed his own dynasty of Jin in 264, ending 46 years of Cao dominion in the north. After Jin's rise, emperor Sun Xiu of Wu died, and his ministers gave the throne to Sun Hao. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11s1e-b-battery-27485.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Sun Hao was a promising young man, but upon ascension he became a tyrant, killing or exiling all who dared oppose him in the court. In 269 Yang Hu, a Jin commander in the south, started preparing for the invasion of Wu by ordering the construction of a fleet and the training of marines in Sichuan under Wang Jun. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11z1e-battery-27486.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Four years later, Lu Kang, the last great general of Wu, died leaving no competent successor. The planned Jin offensive finally came in the winter of 279. Sima Yan launched five simultaneous offensives along the Yangtze River from Jianye (present-day Nanjing) to Jiangling whilst the Sichuan fleet sailed downriver to Jing Province. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11z1e-bi-battery-27487.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">Under the strain of such an enormous attack, the Wu forces collapsed and Jianye fell in the third month of 280. Sun Hao surrendered and was given a fiefdom on which to live out his days. This marked the end of the Three Kingdoms era, and the beginning of a break in the forthcoming 300 years of chaos. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf11zhj-battery-27488.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After the Yellow Turban Rebellion, serious famine followed in the Central Plains of China. Cannibalism was widespread in some parts of China, as it was recorded that "in the spring of 170, some wives ate their husbands in Henei (河内) and some husbands ate their wives in Henan".<a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf127hgbi-battery-27489.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">After his coming to power, Dong Zhuo gave full swing to his army to plunder and rape women. When the Guandong Coalition was starting the campaign against Dong Zhuo, unexpectedly absurd enough, he ordered that "all the population of Luoyang be forced to move to Chang'an, all the palaces, temples, official residences and homes be burnt, no one should stay within that area of 200 <em>li</em>", <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcf137hg-bi-battery-27490.htm">Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery</a></p>

<p align="left"> (considering the miserable life at that time, it was almost impossible for most people to move to the final destination alive) thus making cries of discontent rise all round and the population there decreased sharply. When Cao Cao was attacking Xu Province, it was said that "hundreds of thousands of men and women were buried alive, even dogs and cocks did not survive. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p111kx-b-battery-27594.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The Si River was blocked. From then on, these five towns never recover." When Li Jue and his army were advancing towards the Guanzhong area, "there remained hundreds of thousands of people, but Li Jue allowed his army to plunder the cities and the people, thus making the people have nothing but eat each other to death." <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/D laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p111kx-d-battery-27595.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/D Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">It can be known from the following table that how serious the decrease of population was during that period. From the late Eastern Han to the Western Jin Dynasty, despite its length about 125 years, the peak number of population only equaled 35.3% of the peak number of the entire Eastern Han Dynasty. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/G laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p111kx-g-battery-27596.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/G Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">From then on to Sui Dynasty, the population never recovered. It also should be noted that the high militarization of the population was common. For example, the population of Shu was 900,000, but the military were more than 100,000, occupying more than 10% of the population. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p111kx-p-battery-27597.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The <em>Records of Three Kingdoms</em> contains population figures for the Three Kingdoms. As with many Chinese historical population figures, these numbers are likely to be less than the actual populations, since census and tax records went hand in hand, and tax evaders were often not on records. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p111kx-w-battery-27598.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/W Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, due to natural disasters and social unrest, the economy was badly depressed, leading to the massive waste of farmland. Some local landlords and aristocracy established their own strongholds to defend themselves and developed agriculture, which gradually evolved into a self-sufficient manorial system. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p112kx-b-battery-27599.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">The system of strongholds and manors also had effects on the economical mode of following dynasties. In addition, because of the collapse of the imperial court, those worn copper coins were not melted and reminted and many privately-minted coins appeared. In the Three Kingdoms period, newly-minted coins never made their way into currency. As a consequence, the main currencies at that time were cloth and grains. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/D laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p112kx-d-battery-27600.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/D Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">In economic terms the division of the Three Kingdoms reflected a reality that long endured. Even during the Northern Song Dynasty, 700 years after the Three Kingdoms period, it was possible to think of China as being composed of three great regional markets. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/G laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p112kx-g-battery-27601.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/G Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">(The status of the northwest was slightly ambivalent, as it had links with the northern region and Sichuan). These geographical divisions are underscored by the fact that the main communication routes between the three main regions were all man-made: the Grand Canal linking north and south, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/P laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p112kx-p-battery-27602.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/P Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">the hauling-way through the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River linking southern China with Sichuan and the gallery roads joining Sichuan with the northwest. The break into three separate entities was quite natural and even anticipated by such political foresight as that of Zhuge Liang (see Longzhong Plan). <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/W laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p112kx-w-battery-27603.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/W Battery</a></p>

 

<h2>In popular culture</h2>

<p align="left">Numerous people and affairs from the period later became Chinese legends. The most complete and influential example is the historical novel <em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em>, written by Luo Guanzhong during the Ming Dynasty. Possibly due to the popularity of <em>Romance of the Three Kingdoms</em>, the Three Kingdoms era is one of the most well known non-modern Chinese eras in terms of iconic characters, <a title=" Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpcp113kx-b-battery-27628.htm">Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/B Battery</a></p>

<p align="left">deeds and exploits. This is reflected in the way how fictional accounts of the Three Kingdoms, mostly based on the novel, play a significant role in East Asian popular culture. Books, television dramas, films, cartoons, anime, games, and music on the topic are still regularly produced in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Vietnam and Japan. <a title=" Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/B laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpc-p113kx-b-battery-27604.htm">Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/B Battery</a></p>

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