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26 mai 2011 4 26 /05 /mai /2011 04:34

Romania ( /ro??me?ni?/ roh-may-nee-?; also spelled: Rumania, dated: Roumania; Romanian: România [rom??ni.a] (13px-Speaker_Icon.svg.png listen)) is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea.Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery

Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast, and Bulgaria to the south.

At 238,391 square kilometers (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the ninth largest country of the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest populationof the European Union with 21.5 million people.Dell Latitude D830 Battery

Its capital and largest city is Bucharest (Romanian: Bucure?ti [buku?re?t?] (13px-Speaker_Icon.svg.png listen)), the sixth largest city in the EU with about two million people.

The Kingdom of Romania emerged when the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia were united under Prince Alexander John Cuza in 1859.Toshiba Satellite M65 battery

Independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on May 9, 1877, and was internationally recognized the following year. At the end of World War I,Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania. Greater Romania emerged into an era of progression and prosperity that would continue until World War II. Toshiba NB100 Battery

By the end of the War, many north-eastern areas of Romania's territories were occupied by the Soviet Union, and Romania forcibly became a socialist republic and a member of the Warsaw Pact.

With the fall of the Iron Curtain and the 1989 Revolution, Romania started a series of political and economic reforms.Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

After a decade of post-revolution economic problems, Romania made economic reforms and joined the European Union on 1 January 2007. Romania is now a middle-income country with high human development?

Romania joined NATO on 29 March 2004, and is also a member of the Latin Union, Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

of the Francophonie, of the OSCE and of the United Nations, as well as an associate member of the CPLP. Today, Romania is a unitary parliamentary republic: the President is the head of state, but executive power is exercised by the government.

History

The name of Romania, România, comes from român (previously rumân), meaning "Romanian (man, person)", Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

which in turn is a derivative of the Latinromanus, meaning "citizen of Rome". The fact that Romanians call themselves a derivative of romanus is first mentioned in the 16th century by Italianhumanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia.

The oldest surviving document written in Romanian is a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neac?u from Câmpulung".Hp pavilion dv6000 battery

Among other firsts, this text is also notable for having the first documented occurrence of a Romanian word denoting the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned under the name of?eara Rumâneasc? ("The Romanian Land", ?eara from the Latin: Terra "land"; current spelling: ?ara Româneasc?).Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

In the following centuries, Romanian documents use interchangeably two spelling forms: român and rumân. Socio-linguistic evolutions in the late 17th century led to a process of semantic differentiation: the form rumân, presumably usual among lower classes, received the meaning of "bondsman", while the form român kept an ethno-linguistic meaning.Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery

After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the form rumân gradually disappears and the spelling definitively stabilises to the form român, românesc. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia, the southern part of modern Romania.HP NX8200 battery

The name România as common homeland of all Romanians is documented in the early 19th century. This name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.English-language sources still used the terms Rumania or Roumania, borrowed from the French spelling Roumanie, as recently asWorld War II, but since then those terms have largely been replaced with the official spelling Romania.HP NX7400 battery

Prehistory and antiquity

Some 42,000-year-old human remains were discovered in the "Cave With Bones", and being Europe’s oldest remains of Homo sapiens, they may represent the first modern humans to have entered the continent. The earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the present-day Romania comes from Herodotus, in his 440 BCE book IV of his Histories (Herodotus).HP NW8440 battery

Dacians, considered a part of the Getae tribes mentioned by Herodotus, were a branch of Thracians who inhabited Dacia (corresponding mostly to present-day Romania). The Dacian kingdom reached its peak between 82–44 BC during the reign of Burebista,HP NW8200 battery

but was eventually conquered by the Roman Empire under Trajan in the aftermath of Domitian's Dacian War (87–106 AD), and transformed into the province of Roman Dacia.

Due to Dacia's rich ore deposits (especially gold and silver), Rome brought colonists from all over the empire.HP NC6400 battery

This brought Vulgar Latin and started a period of intense romanization that would give birth to the Proto-Romanian language. During the 3rd century AD, with the invasions of migratory populations, the Roman Empire was forced to pull out of Dacia around 271 AD, making it the first province to be abandoned.HP NC6200 battery

After the Roman army and administration left Dacia, the territory was invaded by various migratory populations including Goths,Huns, Gepids, Avars,Bulgars, Pechenegs, and Cumans. Several competing theories have been generated to explain the origin of modern Romanians. HP NC6100 battery

Linguistic and geo-historical analysis tend to indicate that Romanians have coalesced as a major ethnic group both South and North of the Danube in the regions previously colonized by Romans.

Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, Romanians lived in three distinct principalities: Wallachia (Romanian: ?ara Româneasc?—"Romanian Land"), Moldavia (Romanian:Moldova) and Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania).HP NC6000 battery

By the 11th century, Transylvania became a largely autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary, and became independent as the Principality of Transylvania from the 16th century, until 1711. In Wallachia and Moldavia many small local states with varying degrees of independence developed,HP NC4400 battery

but only in the 14th century did the larger principalities of Wallachia (1310) and Moldavia (around 1352) emerge to fight the threat of the Ottoman Empire.

By 1541, the entire Balkan peninsula and most of Hungary became Ottoman provinces.HP 6710B battery

Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania were under Ottomansuzerainty, preserving partial-full internal autonomy until middle of the 19th century (Transylvania to 1699). During this period the Romanian lands were characterised by the slow disappearance of the feudal system. HP 6530B battery

A few rulers of present-day Romanian territories distinguished themselves: these rulers includeStephen the Great, Vasile Lupu, and Dimitrie Cantemir in Moldavia; Matei Basarab, Vlad III the Impaler, and Constantin Brâncoveanu in Wallachia; and John Hunyadi (Ioannes Corvinus) and Gabriel Bethlen in Transylvania.HP 6510B battery

In 1600, the principalities of Wallachia, Moldova and Transylvania were simultaneously headed by the Wallachian prince Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul), Ban of Oltenia, but the chance for a unity dissolved after Mihai was killed, only one year later, by the soldiers of Austrian army general Giorgio Basta. HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

Mihai Viteazul, who was prince of Transylvania for less than one year, intended for the first time to unite the three principalities and to lay down foundations of a single state in a territory comparable to today's Romania. After his death, as vassal tributary states, Moldova and Wallachia had complete internal autonomy and external independence, Dell Latitude E6400 battery

which was finally lost in the 18th century. In 1699, Transylvania became a territory of the Habsburgs' Austrian empire following the Austrian victory over the Turks in the Great Turkish War. The Habsburgs in turn expanded their empire in 1718 to include an important part of Wallachia,Apple A1281 battery

called Oltenia (which was only returned in 1739) and in 1775 over the north-western part of Moldavia, later called Bukovina. The eastern half of the Moldavian principality (called Bessarabia) was occupied in 1812 by Russia.

Independence and monarchy

During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and MoldaviaApple A1280 battery

most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens or even non-citizens in a territory where they formed the majority of the population. In some Transylvanian cities, such as Bra?ov (at that time a Saxon citadel), Romanians were not even allowed to reside within the city walls.Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

Following the Wallachian uprising of 1821, more uprisings followed in 1848 in Wallachia as well as Moldavia. The flag adopted for Wallachia by the revolutionaries was a blue-yellow-red tricolour (with blue above, in line with the meaning “Liberty, Justice, Fraternity”),Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

while Romanian students in Parishailed the new government with the same flag “as a symbol of union between Moldavians and Muntenians”. This flag would later become the adopted as the flag of Romania. But after the failed 1848 Revolution, the Great Powers did not support the Romanians' expressed desire to officially unite in a single state, Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery

which forced Romania to proceed alone against the Ottomans. The electors in both Moldavia and Wallachia chose in 1859 the same person –Alexander John Cuza– as prince (Domnitor in Romanian).

Thus, Romania was created as a personal union, albeit without including Transylvania. HP 448007-001 battery

There, the upper class and the aristocracy remained mainly Hungarian and enjoyed strong support from Austria, and the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy in 1867 kept the Hungarians firmly in control even in the parts of Transylvania where Romanians constituted a local majority.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

In a 1866 coup d'état, Cuza was exiled and replaced by Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who became known as Prince Carol of Romania. During theRusso-Turkish War Romania fought on the Russian side,and in the Treaty of San Stefano and the Treaty of Berlin, Romania was recognized as anindependent state by the Ottoman Empire and the Great Powers.HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

In return, Romania ceded three southern districts of Bessarabia to Russia and acquired Dobruja. In 1881, the principality was raised to a kingdom and Prince Carol became King Carol I.

The 1878–1914 period was one of stability and progress for Romania. During the Second Balkan War,Compaq CQ35-100 battery

Romania joined Greece, Serbia, Montenegro andTurkey against Bulgaria, and in the peace Treaty of Bucharest (1913) Romania gained Southern Dobrudja.

World Wars and Greater Romania

In August 1914, when World War I broke out, Romania declared neutrality. HP DV9700 battery

Two years later, under pressure from the Allies (especially France, desperate to open a new front), on 27 August 1916, Romania joined the Allies, declaring war on Austria-Hungary. For this action, under the terms of the secret military convention, Romania was promised support for its goal of national unity for all Romanian people.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

The Romanian military campaign ended in disaster for Romania as the Central Powers conquered two-thirds of the country and defeated its army within months. Nevertheless, Moldavia remained in Romanian hands after the invading forces were stopped in 1917. HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Total deaths from 1914 to 1918, military and civilian, within contemporary borders, were estimated at 748,000. By the war's end, Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire had collapsed and disintegrated; Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania proclaimed unions with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918. Compaq CQ50 battery

By the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, Hungary renounced in favour of Romania all the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania. The union of Romania with Bukovina was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain, and with Bessarabia in 1920 by the Treaty of Paris.HP Pavilion DV7 battery

The Romanian expression România Mare (literal translation "Great Romania", but more commonly rendered "Greater Romania") generally refers to the Romanian state in the interwar period, and by extension, to the territory Romania covered at the time.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Romania achieved at that time its greatest territorial extent (almost 300,000 km2/120,000 sq mi), managing to unite essentially all of the territories inhabited by Romanians.

During the Second World War, Romania tried again to remain neutral, but on 28 June 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Under Nazi and Soviet pressure, the Romanian administration and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well from northern Bukovina to avoid war. This, in combination with other factors, prompted the government to join the Axis. Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery

Thereafter, southern Dobruja was ceded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as result of an Axis arbitration.The authoritarian King Carol II abdicated in 1940, and succeeded by the National Legionary State, in which power was shared by Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Within months, Antonescu had crushed the Iron Guard, and the subsequent year Romania entered the war on the side of the Axis powers. During the war, Romania was the most important source of oil for Nazi Germany, which attracted multiple bombing raids by the Allies. Asus M52N Battery

By means of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania recovered Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from the Soviet Russia, under the leadership of general Ion Antonescu. The Antonescu regime played a major role in theHolocaust, following to a lesser extent the Nazi policy of oppression and massacre of the Jews, and Romma, Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery

primarily in the Eastern territories Romania recovered or occupied from the Soviet Union (Transnistria) and in Moldavia.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000, including 325,000 in Bessarabia and Bukovina.

In August 1944, Antonescu was toppled and arrested by King Michael I of Romania and Romania changed sides and joined the Allies.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

But its role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947, the Romanian Army had suffered 170,000 casualties after switching sides.

Communism

During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called new elections, which were won with 80% of the vote through intimidation and electoral fraud.SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

They thus rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force.In 1947, the Communists forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country, and proclaimed Romania a people's republic. Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were continuously drained by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for exploitative purposes.

In 1948, the state began to nationalize private firms, and to collectivize agriculture the following year.SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery

From the late 1940s to the early 1960s, the Communist government established a reign of terror, carried out mainly through the Securitate (the new secret police). During this time they launched several campaigns to eliminate "enemies of the state", in which numerous individuals were killed or imprisoned for arbitrary political or economic reasons.Dell XPS M1210 Battery

Punishment included deportation, internal exile, and internment in forced labour camps and prisons; dissent was vigorously suppressed. A notorious experiment in this period took place in the Pite?ti prison, where a group of political opponents were put into a program of reeducation through torture.Dell KM958 battery

Historical records show hundreds of thousands of abuses, deaths and incidents of torture against a wide range of people, from political opponents to ordinary citizens. Nevertheless, Romanian armed opposition to communist rule was one of the longest-lasting in the Eastern Bloc. Dell Studio 1555 battery

In 1965, Nicolae Ceau?escu came to power and started to pursue independent policies, such as being the only Warsaw Pact country to condemn the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, and to continue diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967; establishing economic (1963) and diplomatic (1967) relations with the Federal Republic of Germany.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Also, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace processes.But as Romania's foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from 3 to 10 billion US dollars), the influence of international financial organisations such as the IMF or the World Bank grew, Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

conflicting with Nicolae Ceau?escu's autocraticpolicies. He eventually initiated a project of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing policies that impoverished Romanians and exhausted the Romanian economy, while also greatly extending the authority of the police state, and imposing a cult of personality.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

These led to a dramatic decrease in Ceau?escu's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and execution in the bloody Romanian Revolution of 1989.

A 2006 Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania estimated that the number of direct victims of communist repression at two million people.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

This number does not include people who died in liberty as a result of their treatment in communist prisons, nor does it include people who died because of the dire economic circumstances in which the country found itself.

Present-day democracy

After the revolution, the National Salvation Front, led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.Sony VGP-BPL9 battery

Several major political parties of the pre-war era were resurrected. After major political rallies, in April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of the recently held parliamentary elections began in University Square, Bucharest, accusing the Front of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

The protesters called the election undemocratic and asked for the exclusion from political life of former high-ranking Communist Party members, like Iliescu and the National Salvation Front. The protest rapidly grew to become, what president Iliescu called the Golaniad.Sony VGP-BPL15 battery

The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners, summoned by Iliescu in June 1990, from the Jiu Valley. This episode has been documented widely by both local[88]and foreign media,[89] and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery

The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties including the Social Democratic Party, the Democratic Party and the Alliance for Romania. The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state.HP Pavilion dv8000 battery

Since then there have been a few democratic changes of government: in 1996 the democratic-liberal opposition and its leader Emil Constantinescu acceded to power; in 2000 the Social Democrats returned to power, with Iliescu once again president;HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery

and in 2004 Traian B?sescu was elected president, with an electoral coalition called Justice and Truth Alliance. B?sescu was narrowly re-elected in 2009.

Post–Cold War Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe, eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest.HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery

The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a member on 1 January 2007. Following the free travel agreement and politics of the post–Cold War period, as well as hardship of the life in the 1990s economic depression,SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery

Romania has an increasingly large diaspora, estimated at over 2 million people. The main emigration targets are Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, UK, Canada and the USA.

During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred to as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe."HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in human development. The country has been successful in reducing internal poverty and establishing a functional democracy. However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s recession as a large gross domestic productcontraction and HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

a large budget deficit in 2009 led to Romania borrowing heavily, eventually becoming the largest debitor to the International Monetary Fundin 2010. Romania still faces issues related to infrastructure, medical services, education, and corruption.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

Geography

With a surface area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe. It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N, and longitudes 20° and 30° E.HP Pavilion DV8000 battery

Romania's terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m/6,600 ft, and the highest point at Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m/8,346 ft).SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery

These are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus and Pannonian and Wallachian plains. Romania's geographical diversity has led to an accompanying diversity of flora and fauna.

A large part of Romania's border with Serbia and Bulgaria is formed by the Danube. Prut River, one of its major tributaries, forms the border with theMoldova.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery

The Danube flows into the Black Sea within Romania's territory forming the Danube Delta, the second largest and the best preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site.[106] Other major rivers are Siret, Olt, and Mure?.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Climate

Owing to its distance from the open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.The extreme recorded temperatures were 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) at Ion Sion 1951 and?38.5 °C (?37.3 °F) at Bod 1942.

Spring is pleasant with cool mornings and nights and warm days. SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Summers are generally very warm to hot, with summer (June to August) average maximum temperatures in Bucharest being around28 °C (82 °F), with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 16 °C (61 °F).SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

Autumn is dry and cool, with fields and trees producing colorful foliage. Winters can be cold, with average maxima even in lower-lying areas being no more than 2 °C (36 °F) and below ?15 °C (5.0 °F) in the highest mountains. Precipitation is average with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains—SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

much of it falling as snow, which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the south-central parts of the country (around Bucharest) the level of precipitation drops to around 600 mm (24 in),[110] while in the Danube Delta, rainfall levels are very low, and average only around 370 mm.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

Environment

A high percentage (47% of the land area) of the country is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Since almost half of all forests in Romania (13% of the country) have been managed for watershed conservation rather than production, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe.Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

The integrity of Romanian forest ecosystems is indicated by the presence of the full range of European forest fauna, including 60% and 40% of all European brown bears and wolves, respectively. There are also almost 400 unique species of mammals (of which Carpathianchamois are best known), birds, reptiles and amphibians in Romania.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

The fauna consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate.

In Romania there have been identified 3,700 plant species from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 missing, 39 are endangered, 171 vulnerable and 1,253 are considered rare.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

The three major vegetation areas in Romania are the alpine zone, the forest zone and the steppe zone. The vegetation is distributed in an storied manner in accordance with the characteristics of soil and climate and includes various species of oaks, sycamores, beechs, spruces, firs, willows, poplars, meadows, and pines.Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

There are almost 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) (almost 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves: the Danube Delta, Retezat National Park, and Rodna National Park. The Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere is the largest and least damaged wetland complex in Europe, covering a total area of 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi).Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

The significance of the biodiversity of the Danube Delta has been internationally recognised. It was declared a Biosphere Reserve in September 1990, a Ramsar site in May 1991, and over 50% of its area was placed on the World Heritage List in December 1991. Within its boundaries lies one of the most extensive reed bed systems in the world.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery

Administrative divisions

Romania is divided into 41 counties and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level, who is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery

Each county is further subdivided into cities and communes, which have own mayor and local council. There are a total of 319 cities and 2686 communes in Romania. A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality statuses, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery

The municipality of Bucharest is a special case as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors and has a prefect, a general mayor, and a general city council.

The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery

The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions) and NUTS-2 (eight development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity, and are instead used for co-ordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery

Government

The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991. A plebiscite held in October 2003 approved 79 amendments to the Constitution, bringing it into conformity with European Union legislation.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery

The country is governed on the basis of multi-party democratic system and of the segregation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Romania is a semi-presidential parliamentary democratic republic where executive functions are held by prime minister. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery

The president is elected by popular vote for maximum two terms, and since the amendments in 2003, the terms are five years. He appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers (based atVictoria Palace). The legislative branch of the government, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

collectively known as the Parliament (residing at thePalace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers – the Senate with 140 members, and the Chamber of Deputies with 346 members. The members of both chambers are elected every four years under a system of party-list proportional representation.SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania. There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery

The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model, considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constitu?ional?) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the Romanian Constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery

The constitution, which was introduced in 1991, can only be amended by a public referendum, the last one being in 2003. Since this amendment, the court's decisions cannot be overruled by any majority of the parliament.

The country's entry into the European Union in 2007 has been a significant influence on its domestic policy.SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery

As part of the process, Romania has instituted reforms including judicial reform, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption. Nevertheless, in 2006 Brussels report, Romania and Bulgaria were described as the two most corrupt countries in the EU,SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery

and it was ranked as the most corrupt EU country by Transparency International in 2009, alongside Bulgaria and Greece.

Foreign relations

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and theEuropean Union.SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

It joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it had joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founder member of the World Trade Organization.SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

The current government has stated its goal of strengthening ties with and helping other Eastern European countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine andGeorgia) with the process of integration with the West.Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, Croatia and Moldovajoining the European Union. With Turkey, Romania shares a privileged economic relation. Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed strong relations with Hungary.SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

In December 2005, President Traian B?sescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country. In May 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton declared that "Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA" during a visit of the Romanian foreign minister.

Relations with Moldova are a special case considering that the two countries practically share the same language, and a fairly common historical background.SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery

A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule, but faded away in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania.Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs and has officially rejected the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, but the two countries have been unable even to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty.

Military

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Land, Air, and Naval Forces, and are led by a Commander-in-chief who is managed by the Ministry of Defense. Dell Studio 1450 Battery

Thepresident is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces during wartime. Of the 90,000 men and women that comprise the Armed Forces, 15,000 are civilians and 75,000 are military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields.Dell Studio 1457 Battery

The total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion (39th in the world), and a total of about 11 billion will be spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.Dell Latitude D610 Battery

The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in the past few years, and today are an army with multiple NATO capabilities, participating in a NATO peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan. The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21 LanceR fighters which are due to be replaced by new fighters by 2013, according to present plans.Dell Studio 1457 Battery

However due to poor economical conditions this may change. The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlift to replace the bulk of the old transport force. Two modernized Type 22 frigates were acquired by the Naval Forces in 2004 from theRoyal Navy, and a further four modern missile corvettes have been commissioned by 2010. Toshiba Satellite M60 battery

Economy

With a GDP of around $254 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $11,860 for the year 2010, Romania is an upper-middle income country economy and has been part of the European Union since 1 January 2007. Dell Latitude D830 Battery

After the Communist regime was overthrown in late 1989, the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onwards, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, Dell Latitude D620 Battery

characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe. Growth dampened to 6.1% in 2007, but was expected to exceed 8% in 2008 because of a high production forecast in agriculture (30–50% higher than in 2007). Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery

The GDP grew by 8.9% in the first nine months of 2008, but growth fell to 2.9% in the fourth quarter and stood at 7.1% for the whole 2008 because of the financial crisis. Thereafter, the country fell into a recession in 2009 and 2010, where the GDP contracted -7.1% and -1.3% respectively. Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

It is estimated by the IMF that the GDP will grow again by 1.5% in 2011 and 4.4% in 2010.

According to Eurostat data, the Romanian PPS GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2010. Inflation in 2010 was 6.1%.Sony VGN-FW11M Battery

Unemployment in Romania was at 7.6% in 2010, which is very low compared to other middle-sized or large European countries such as Poland, France, Germany and Spain. General government gross debt is also comparatively low, at 34.8% of GDP. Exports have increased substantially in the past few years, with a 13% annual rise in exports in 2010. Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery

Romania's main exports are cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The current account balance in 2010 held a deficit of $6.842 billion.

After a series of privatisations and reforms in the late 1990s and early 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, resulting in the country having the lowest fiscal burden in the European Union,  a factor which has contributed to the growth of the private sector. Dell Inspiron 300M Battery

The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 51.2% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 36% and 12.8% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 29.6% of the Romanian population was employed in 2006 in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe. Dell Studio 1737 battery

Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe. Foreign direct investment was valued at €8.3 billion in 2006. According to a 2006 World Bank report, Dell Inspiron E1505 battery

Romania currently ranks 55th out of 175 economies in the ease of doing business, scoring higher than other countries in the region such as the Czech Republic. Additionally, the same study judged it to be the world's second-fastest economic reformer (after Georgia) in 2006.Dell RM791 battery

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The average gross wage per month in Romania was 1855 lei in May 2009,  equating to €442.48 (US$627.70) based on international exchange rates, and $1110.31 based on purchasing power parity. In 2009 the Romanian economy contracted as a result of the global economic downturn.Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh

Gross domestic product contracted 7.2% in the fourth quarter of 2009 from the same period a year earlier, and the budget deficit for 2009 reached 7.2% of GDP. Industrial output growth however reached 6.9% year-on-year in December 2009, the highest in the EU-27.Dell Precision M70 Battery

Transport

Due to its location, Romania is a major crossroad for International economic exchange in Europe. However, because of insufficient investment, maintenance and repair, the transport infrastructure does not meet the current needs of a market economy and lags behind Western Europe.SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery

Nevertheless, these conditions are rapidly improving and catching up with the standards of Trans-European transport networks. Several projects have been started with funding from grants from ISPA and several loans from International Financial Institutions (World Bank,IMF, etc.) guaranteed by the state, to upgrade the main road corridors. Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery

Also, the Government is actively pursuing new external financing or public-private partnerships to further upgrade the main roads, and especially the country'smotorway network.

The World Bank estimates that the railway network in Romania comprised 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track in 2004, which would make it the fourth largest railroad network in Europe.Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery

The railway transport experienced a dramatic fall in freight and passenger volumes from the peak volumes recorded in 1989 mainly due to the decline in GDP and competition from road transport. In 2004, the railways carried 8.64 billion passenger-km in 99 million passenger journeys, and 73 million metric tonnes, or 17 billion ton-km of freight.Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery

The combined total transportation by rail constituted around 45% of all passenger and freight movement in the country.

Bucharest is the only city in Romania which has an underground railway system. The Bucharest Metro was only opened in 1979 and is now one of the most accessed systems of the Bucharest public transport network with an average ridership of 600,000 passengers during the workweek. Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

Tourism

Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy. In 2006, the domestic and international tourism generated about 4.8% of gross domestic product and 5.8% of the total jobs (about half a million jobs).Sony VGP-BPS9 battery

Following commerce, tourism is the second largest component of the services sector. Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors of the economy of Romania and characterized by a huge potential for development.Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, Romania is the fourth fastest growing country in the world in terms of travel and tourism total demand with a yearly potential growth of 8% from 2007 to 2016. The number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004.Sony VGP-BPS22 battery

Similarly, the revenues grew from 400 million in 2002 to 607 in 2004. In 2006, Romania registered 20 million overnight stays by international tourists, an all-time record,but the number for 2007 is expected to increase even more. Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.Sony VGP-BPL8 battery

Over the last years, Romania has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans (more than 60% of the foreign visitors were from EU countries), thus attempting to compete with Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Spain. Romania destinations such as Mangalia, Saturn, Venus, Neptun, Olimp, Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

Constan?a and Mamaia(sometimes called the Romanian Riviera) are among the most popular attraction during summer. During winter, the skiing resorts along the Valea Prahovei and Poiana Bra?ov are popular with foreign visitors.

For their medieval atmosphere and castles, Transylvanian cities such as Sibiu, Sony VGP-BPS21 battery

Bra?ov, Sighi?oara, Cluj-Napoca,Târgu Mure? have become important touristic attractions for foreigners. Rural tourism focused on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative recently, and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and itsDracula's Castle, the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia, Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery

the Wooden churches of Maramure?, or the Merry Cemetery in Maramure? County.  Other major natural attractions in Romania such as Danube Delta, Iron Gates (Danube Gorge), Sc?ri?oara Cave and several other caves in the Apuseni Mountains have yet to receive great attention.Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery

Science and technology

During the 1990s and early 2000s, the development of Romanian science was hampered by several factors, including corruption, low funding and a considerable brain drain. However, since the country's accession to the European Union, this has begun to change.Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery

After being slashed by 50% in 2009 due to the global recession, R&D spending was increased by 44% in 2010 and now stands at $0.5 billion (1.5 billion lei). In January 2011, the Parliament also passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review".SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

The country has joined or is about to join several major international organizations such as CERN and the European Space Agency.[173][174] Overall, the situation has been characterized as "rapidly improving", albeit from a low base. SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

Historically, Romanian researches and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields, such as: aeronautics, medicine, mathematics, computer science/engineering, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry and biology. In the history of flight, TSONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

raian Vuia and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coand? discovered the Coand? effect of fluidics. Preceding him, Elie Carafoli was a pioneering contributor to the field of aerodynamics in the world.

Victor Babe? discovered more than 50 germs and a cure for a disease named after him, babesiosis; SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin. Another biologist, Emil Palade, received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. George Constantinescu created the theory of sonics, while Laz?r Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and also invented the modern method of refining crude oil. SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

Costin Neni?escu found new methods for the synthesis of pirilium salts, of carbenes, triptamine, serotonine, two new syntheses for the indole nucleus, and a new method ofpolymerisation of ethylene.

Several mathematicians distinguished themselves as well, among them: SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery

Gheorghe ?i?eica, Spiru Haret, Grigore Moisil, Miron Nicolescu, Nicolae Popescu and ?tefan Odobleja; the latter is also regarded as the ideological father behind cybernetics.

Notable physicists and inventors also include: Horia Hulubei in atomic physics, ?erban ?i?eica in theoretical physics, SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery

Mihai Gavril? specialized in quantum theory and discoverer of the atomic dichotomy phenomenon, Alexandru Proca known for the first meson theory of nuclear forces and Proca's equations of the vectorial mesonic field, ?tefan Procopiu known for the first theory of the magnetic moment of the electron in 1911 (now known as the Bohr-Procopiu magneton), Theodor V. SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery

Ionescu- the inventor of a multiple-cavity magnetron in 1935, a hydrogen maser in 1947, 3D imaging for cinema/television in 1924 and hot deuterium plasma studies for controlled nuclear fusion, Ionel Solomon known for the nuclear magnetic resonance theory in solids, SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery

Solomon equations and photovoltaic devices, Petrache Poenaru, Nicolae Teclu and Victor Toma, with the latter known for the invention and construction of the first Romanian computer, the CIFA-1 in 1955.

Demographics

In 2002, Romania had a population of 21,698,181. Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to gradually decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates. Romanians make up 89.5% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, who make up 6.6% of the population and romi, who make up 2.46% of the population.Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Ukrainians, Germans, Lipovans, Turks,Tatars, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Greeks, Russians, Jews, Czechs, Poles,

Italians, Armenians, as well as other ethnic groups, account for the remaining 1.4% of the population.Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans in Romania, but only about 60,000 remain today. In 1924, there were 796,056 Jews in the Kingdom of Romania. The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million.Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova, Turkey and China.

Languages

The official language of Romania is Romanian, a Romance language related to Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Occitan, and Catalan. SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery

Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population. Hungarian and Vlax Romani are the most important minority languages, spoken by 6.7% and 1.1% of the population, respectively. In the 1990s, there were also a substantial number of German-speaking Transylvanian Saxons,SONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery

even though most have since emigrated to Germany, leaving only 45,000 native German speakers in Romania. There are approximately 32,000 Turkish speakers in Romania.

In localities where a given ethnic minority makes up more than 20% of the population, that minority's language can be used in the public administration and justice system,SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery

while native-language education and signage is also provided. English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. English is spoken by 5 million Romanians, French is spoken by 4–5 million, and German, Italian and Spanish are each spoken by 1–2 million people.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

Historically, French was the predominant foreign language spoken in Romania, but English has since superseded it. Consequently, Romanian English-speakers tend to be younger than Romanian French-speakers. Romania is, however, a full member of La Francophonie, and hosted the Francophonie Summit in 2006.SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery

German has been taught predominantly in Transylvania, due to traditions tracing back to the Austro-Hungarian rule in this province.

Religion

Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. However, an overwhelming majority of the country's citizens are Christian.Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter

86.7% of the country's population identified as Eastern Orthodox according to the 2002 census. Other important Christian denominations include Protestantism (5.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.7%) and theRomanian Greek-Catholic Church (0.9%). Dell LATITUDE D800 battery

The latter two religious organizations suffered most severely under the communist dictatorial regimes established in power after 1947 as they were outlawed by the communist government in 1948; later, under the Ceau?escu dictatorship several churches in Transylvania suffered a worse fate being demolished.Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery

The foundation of the oldest-known Romanian orthodox church is still visible at Turnu-Severin today, and dates from the 14th century; however, much earlier crypts with unearthed relics of Christian martyrs executed at the orders of the Roman emperor Diocletian were found in Romanian church records dating as far back as the third century AD.Dell Inspiron 1720 battery

Thus, the relics of the famous Saint Sava the Goth who was martyred by drowning in the river Buz?u in Romania, under Athanaric, on April 12, in 372 AD, were reverently received by St. Basil the Great. Earlier still, the first known Daco-Roman Christian priest Montanus and his wife Maxima were drowned because of their Christian faith, as martyrs, on March 26, in 304 AD.Dell Inspiron 1564 battery

Romania also has a Muslim minority concentrated in Dobrogea, mostly of Turkish ethnicity and numbering 67,500 people. According to the results of the 2002 census, there are 66,846 Romanian citizens of the Unitarian faith (0.3% of the total population). Church officials place the number of believers at 80,000-100,000.Dell Inspiron 1464 battery

Of the total Hungarian-speaking minority in Romania, Unitarians represent 4.55%, being the third denominational group after members of the Reformed Church in Romania (47.10%) and Roman Catholics (41.20%). Since 1700, the Unitarian Church has had 125 parishes—in 2006, there were 110 Unitarian ministers and 141 places of worship in Romania.Dell XPS 1340 battery

According to the 2002 census, there were 6,179 Jews, 23,105 people who are of no religion and/or atheist, and 11,734 who refused to answer. On 27 December 2006, a new Law on Religion was approved under which religious denominations can only receive official registration if they have at least 20,000 members, or about 0.1% of Romania's total population.Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery

The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church. It is in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox churches, and is rankedseventh in order of precedence. The Primate of the church has the title of Patriarch. Its jurisdiction covers the territory of Romania, Dell Inspiron N4010 battery

with dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Moldova, Serbia and Hungary, as well as diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

It is the only Eastern Orthodox church using a Romance language. Dell N3010 battery

The majority of people in Romania (18,817,975, or 86.8% of the population, according to the 2002 census data ) belong to it, as well as some 720,000 Moldovans.The Romanian Orthodox Church is the second-largest in size behind theRussian Orthodox Church.HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

Urbanization

Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania. At the census in 2002, its population was over 1.9 million.[194]The metropolitan area of Bucharesthas a population of about 2.2 million. There are several plans to increase further its metropolitan area to about 20 times the area of the city proper.HP Pavilion DM4 battery

Romania has five other cities that are among the European Union's 100 most populous. These are Ia?i, Timi?oara, Cluj-Napoca, Constan?a, and Craiova. The other cities with populations over 200,000 are Gala?i, Bra?ov, Ploie?ti, Br?ila and Oradea. Another 13 cities have a population of over 100,000.HP Pavilion DM3 battery

At present, several of the largest cities have a metropolitan area: Constan?a (450,000 people), Bra?ov, Ia?i (both with around 400,000), Cluj-Napoca (380,000),Craiova (335,000) and Oradea (260,000), and several others are planned: Timi?oara, Br?ila-Gala?i, Bac?u and Ploie?ti.Compaq CQ35-100 battery

Education

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has been both praised and criticized. According to the Law on Education adopted in 1995, the educational system is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Research.HP DV9700 battery

Each level has its own form of organization and is subject to different legislation. Kindergarten is optional for children between 3 and 6 years old. Schooling starts at age 7 (sometimes 6), and is compulsory until the 10th grade (which usually corresponds to the age of 17 or 16).HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

Primary and secondary education are divided into 12 grades. Higher education is aligned with the European higher education area.

Aside from the official schooling system, and the recently added private equivalents, there exists a semi-legal, informal, fully private tutoring system. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery

Tutoring is mostly used during secondary as a preparation for the various examinations, which are notoriously difficult. Tutoring is widespread, and it can be considered a part of the Education System. It has subsisted and even prospered during the Communist regime.HP Pavilion ZD8227 battery

In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population were enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten, 3.11 million (14% of population) in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 (3% of population) in tertiary level (universities). In the same year, the adult literacy rate was 97.3% (45th worldwide), HP Compaq Business Notebook TC4400 battery

while the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools was 75% (52nd worldwide).

The results of the PISA assessment study in schools for the year 2000 placed Romania on the 34th rank out of 42 participant countries with a general weighted score of 432 representing 85% of the mean OECD score.HP Pavilion DV7-2085EL battery

According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, in 2006 no Romanian university was included in the first 500 top universities world wide. Using similar methodology to these rankings, it was reported that the best placed Romanian university, Bucharest University, attained the half score of the last university in the world top 500.Compaq Presario 300 battery

Notably, Bucharest boasts the largest university in Europe by number of students, Spiru Haret University.

Culture

Romania has a unique culture, which is the product of its geography and of its distinct historical evolution. HP Compaq Business Notebook 6735S battery

Like Romanians themselves, it is fundamentally defined as the meeting point of three regions: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and the Balkans, but cannot be truly included in any of them.

Arts

A unified Romanian literature began to develop with the revolutions of 1848 and the union of the two Danubian Principalities in 1859. HP Pavilion DV2820EA battery

The origin of the Romanians began to be discussed and by the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, Romanian Transylvanian scholars along with Romanian scholars from Moldavia and Wallachia began studying in France, Italy and Germany.HP Pavilion DV6373EA battery

German philosophy and French culture were integrated into modern Romanian literature, and a new elite of artists led to the appearance of some of the classics of Romanian literature such as Mihai Eminescu, George Co?buc,Ioan Slavici.HP Compaq 572190-001 battery

Although not particularly renowned outside the country, these writers are widely appreciated within Romania for giving birth to modern Romanian literature. Eminescu is considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceaf?rul.Compaq Presario CQ50-105EL battery

Among other writers that rose to prominence in the second half of 19th century are Mihail Kog?lniceanu (also the first prime minister of Romania), Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae B?lcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, and Ion Creang?.

The first half of the 20th century is regarded by many scholars as the Golden Age of Romanian culture,HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO battery

as it is the period when it reached its greatest level of international affirmation and enjoyed a strong connection to Western European cultural trends. The most prominent Romanian artist of this time wassculptor Constantin Brâncu?i, a central figure of the modern movement and a pioneer of abstraction,Compaq Presario CQ71 battery

the innovator of world sculpture by immersion in the primordial sources of folk creation. His works present of blend simplicity and sophistication that led the way for modernist sculptors.As a testimony to his skill, one of his pieces, "Bird in Space" , was sold in an auction for $27.5 million in 2005, a record for any sculpture.HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

In the period between the two world wars, authors like Tudor Arghezi, Lucian Blaga, Eugen Lovinescu, Ion Barbu, Liviu Rebreanu made efforts to synchronize Romanian literature with the European literature of the time. George Enescu, probably the best known Romanian musician, was also active during this period;Compaq Presario CQ70 battery

a composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, the annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in his honor. Among the best known pianists abroad was also Dinu Lipatti with wonderful concert recordings of classical music.HP Compaq 491278-001 battery

After the World Wars, Communism brought 'absolute' censorship and used the cultural world as well as a means to tightly control the population in addition to the much feared "Securitate" paramilitary organization, numerous formers and their informers. Freedom of expression was constantly restricted in various ways, but the likes of Gellu Naum,HP TouchSmart TX2-1150EG battery

Nichita St?nescu, Marin Sorescu or Marin Preda managed to escape censorship, broke with "socialist realism" and were the leaders of a small "Renaissance" in Romanian literature.While not many of them managed to obtain international acclaim due to censorship, some, likeConstantin Noica, HP 520 battery

Paul Goma and Mircea C?rt?rescu, had their works published abroad even though they were jailed for various political reasons.

Some artists chose to leave the country for good and continued to make contributions in exile. Among them Eugen Ionescu, Mircea Eliade and Emil Cioran became renowned internationally for their works.Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Other literary figures who enjoy acclaim outside of the country include the poet Paul Celan and Nobel laureate Elie Wiesel, both survivors of the Holocaust. The novelist, poet and essayist Herta Müller also received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2009. Some famous post-belic Romanian musicians are folk artists Maria T?nase, Dell PA-10 Adapter

Tudor Gheorghe, and virtuoso of the pan flute Gheorghe Zamfir – who is reported to have sold over 120 million albums worldwide.

Romanian cinema has recently achieved worldwide acclaim with the appearance of such films as The Death of Mr. L?z?rescu, directed by Cristi Puiu, (Cannes 2005Prix un certain regard winner),Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, directed by Cristian Mungiu (Cannes 2007 Palme d'Or winner). The latter, according to Variety, is "further proof of Romania's new prominence in the film world."

Monuments

The list of World Heritage Sites includes Romanian sites such as the Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania,http://www.battery-pack.co.uk/

the Painted churches of northern Moldavia with their fine exterior and interior frescoes, the Wooden Churches of Maramures unique examples that combine Gothic style with traditional timber construction, the Monastery of Horezu, the citadel of Sighi?oara, and the Dacian Fortresses of the Or??tie Mountains.Delta ADP-90FB Adapter

Romania's contribution to the World Heritage List stands out because it consists of some groups of monuments scattered around the country, rather than one or two special landmarks. Also, in 2007, the city of Sibiu, famous for its Brukenthal National Museum, is the European Capital of Culture alongside the city of Luxembourg.Dell PA-10 Adapter

Sports

Association football is the most popular sport in Romania. The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA.

At the international level, the Romanian National Football Team has taken part seven times in the Football World Cup.Dell PA-12 Adapter

It had its most successful period in the 1990s, when during the 1994 World Cup in the United States, Romania reached the quarter-finals and was ranked sixth by FIFA.

The core player of this "Golden Generation"and perhaps the best known Romanian player internationally is Gheorghe Hagi (nicknamed the Maradona of the Carpathians).Asus ADP-36EH C Adapter

Famous currently active players are Adrian Mutu and Cristian Chivu.

The most famous football club is Steaua Bucure?ti, who in 1986 became the first Eastern European club ever to win the prestigious European Champions Cuptitle, and who played the final again in 1989.Dell Inspiron 6400 Adapter

Another successful Romanian team Dinamo Bucure?ti played a semifinal in the European Champions Cup in 1984 and a Cup Winners Cup semifinal in the 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid Bucure?ti, CFR 1907 Cluj-Napoca and FC Universitatea Craiova.Dell Inspiron 1520 Adapter

Tennis is the second most popular sport in terms of registered sportsmen. Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times (1969, 1971, 1972). The tennis player Ilie N?stase won several Grand Slam titles and dozens of other tournaments, and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP from 1973 to 1974. Dell Inspiron 1525 Charger

His doubles and Davis Cup Partner as well as mentor, Ion ?iriac is now the most successful businessman in the country. The Romanian Openis held every fall in Bucharest since 1993.

Popular team sports are rugby union (national rugby team has so far competed at every Rugby World Cup), basketball and handball.HP Pavilion DV6000 Adapter

Some popularindividual sports are: athletics, chess, sport dance, and martial arts and other fighting sports.

Romanian gymnastics has had a large number of successes – for which the country became known worldwide.In the 1976 Summer Olympics, the gymnast Nadia Com?neci became the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten. Dell Latitude D820 Charger

She also won three gold medals, one silver and one bronze, all at the age of fifteen.  Her success continued in the 1980 Summer Olympics, where she was awarded two gold medals and two silver medals. In her career she won 30 medals, of which 21 were gold.HP Pavilion DV9000 AC Adapter

Romania participated for the first time in the Olympic Games in 1900 and has taken part in 18 of the 24 summer games. Romania has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games (15th overall) with a total of 283 medals won throughout the years, 82 of which are gold medals.Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Cuisine

Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine but also includes influences from the cuisines of other neighbours, such as the Germans, Serbians, and Hungarians.Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

Quite different types of dishes are sometimes included under a generic term; for example, the category ciorb? includes a wide range of soups with a characteristic sour taste. These may be meat and vegetable soups, tripe and calf foot soups, or fish soups, all of which are soured by lemon juice, sauerkraut juice, vinegar, or traditionally bor? (fermented wheat bran). Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

Popular main courses include mititei, meatballs (peri?oare if found in a meatball soup) and the ?ni?el. One of the most common dishes is m?m?liga, a cornmeal mush served on its own or as an accompaniment. Pork and chicken are the preferred meats, but beef, lamb and fish are also popular.Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

?uic? is a strong type of plum brandy that is widely regarded as the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, along with Romanian wine, which has a tradition of nearly three millennia. Since the 19th century, beer has become increasingly popular, and today Romanians are amongst the heaviest beer drinkers in the world.Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery

The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodox? Român? in Romanian) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church. It is in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox churches, and is ranked seventh in order of precedence. The Primate of the church has the title of Patriarch. Dell XPS M1530 Battery

Its jurisdiction covers the territory of Romania, with dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Moldova, Serbia and Hungary, as well as diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

It is the only Eastern Orthodox church using a Romance language. Dell Inspiron 6000 Battery

The majority of people in Romania (18,817,975, or 86.8% of the population, according to the 2002 census data[3]) belong to it, as well as some 720,000 Moldovans.[2] The Romanian Orthodox Church is the second-largest in size behind the Russian Orthodox Church.Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

Adherents of the Romanian Orthodox Church sometimes refer to it as Dreapta credin?? ("right/correct belief" or "true faith"; compare to Greek ???? ????, "straight/correct belief").

The Church in the Kingdom of Romania

In 1859, the Romanian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia formed the modern state of Romania. Dell latitude D600 Battery

The hierarchy of the Orthodox churches tends to follow the structure of the state. Therefore, shortly afterwards, in 1872, the Orthodox churches of the former principalities (the Metropolis of Ungro-Wallachia and the Metropolis of Moldavia) decided to unite to form the Romanian Orthodox Church.Dell Inspiron 8600 Battery

The 1866 Constitution of Romania declared the Orthodox Church to be "independent of any foreign hierarchy", but it was a law passed in 1872 that declared the church to be "autocephalous". After a long period of negotiations with the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the latter finally recognized in 1885 the Metropolis of Romania, which was raised to the rank of Patriarchy in 1925.Dell Latitude D610 Battery

Communist period

Assessing the attitude of the Romanian Orthodox Church towards the Communist regime is difficult due to restricted access to ecclesiastical and relevant state archives. Nevertheless, as an institution it was more or less tolerated by the atheist regime, though controlled through "special delegates" and excluded from the public space; the regime generally focused on individuals. Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

Its members' actions, both laity and clergy, range broadly from opposition to the regime and martyrdom, to survival, silent consent or collaboration. Not only the limited access to the Securitate and Party archives or the events' recentness, but the particularities of each individual and situation, Dell XPS M1710 Battery

the understanding each had about how their own relation with the regime could influence others and how it actually did, make such a task cumbersome.

The Romanian Communist Party, which gained power at the end of 1947, initiated mass purges that decimated the Orthodox hierarchy. Dell XPS M1330 Battery

Three archbishops died suddenly after expressing opposition to government policies, and thirteen more "uncooperative" bishops and archbishops were arrested.  A May 1947 decree imposed a mandatory retirement age for clergy, allowing authorities to pension off old-guard holdouts. Dell XPS M1210 Battery

The 4 August 1948 Law on Cults institutionalised state control of episcopal elections and packed the Holy Synod with Communist supporters. In exchange for subservience and enthusiastic support for state policies, as well as 2500 church buildings and other assets from the now-outlawed Romanian Greek-Catholic Church,Apple A1185 Battery

the government provided salaries for bishops and priests, and financial subsidies for the publication of church books, calendars and theological journals.By weeding out the anti-communists and setting up a pro-regime and secret police-infiltrated Union of Democratic Priests (1945), the party endeavoured to secure the hierarchy's cooperation.Apple Powerbook G4 Battery

By January 1953 some 300-500 Orthodox priests were being held in concentration camps, and after Patriarch Nicodim's death in May 1948, the party succeeded in having the ostensibly docile Justinian Marina elected to succeed him. Apple MacBook Pro 17 inch Battery

As a result of measures passed in 1947-48, the 2300 elementary schools operated by the church were closed, as were its 24 high schools, its academy of sacred music, three divinity schools, and 13 of its 15 theological seminaries. A new campaign struck the church in 1958-62 when more than half its remaining monasteries were closed, Asus EEE PC Battery

more than 2000 monks forced to take secular jobs, and about 1500 clergy and lay activists arrested (out of a total of up to 6000 in the 1946-64 period[12]). Throughout this period Patriarch Justinian was careful to say the right things and avoid giving offence to the government;[13] indeed the hierarchy claimed the arrests were not due religious persecution.Compaq V6000 Battery

The church's situation began to improve in 1962, when relations with the state suddenly thawed, an event that coincided with Romania's pursuit of an independent foreign policy course that saw the élite use nationalism to secure its position against Soviet pressure. HP 6715B Battery

The Romanian Orthodox Church, as an intensely national body which had made significant contributions to Romanian culture from the 14th century, was a natural partner. As a result of this second co-optation, now as an ally, the church was able to recover dramatically. HP 6910P Battery

Its diocesan clergy numbered about 12,000 in 1975, and by then it was already publishing eight high-quality theological reviews, including Ortodoxia and Studii Teologice. Orthodox clergymen consistently supported the Ceau?escu régime's foreign policy, refrained from criticism of domestic policy,HP NX6325 Battery

and upheld the Romanian line against the Soviets (over Bessarabia) and the Hungarians (over Transylvania). As of 1989, two metropolitan bishops even sat in the Great National Assembly. The church maintained its silence when some two dozen historic Bucharest churches were demolished in the 1980s, HP NC6400 Battery

and when plans for systematization (including the destruction of village churches) were announced.[14] A notable dissenter was Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa, imprisoned for a number of years and expelled from Romania in June 1985 after signing an open letter criticizing and demanding an end to the regime's violations of human rights.HP NX6110 Battery

In order to fit its new circumstances, the Orthodox Church constructed a new ecclesiology to justify its subservience to the state in supposed theological terms. The "Social Apostolate" doctrine, developed by Patriarch Justinian, declared that the church owed its allegiance to the secular government and should be of service to that government. HP DV6000 Battery

This notion inflamed conservatives, who were purged by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Ceau?escu's predecessor and a friend of Justinian's. The Social Apostolate called on clerics to become active in the People's Republic, laying the foundation for the church's submission to and collaboration with the state. HP DV9000 Battery

Fr. Vasilescu, an Orthodox priest, tried to ground the Social Apostolate in the Christian tradition, citing Augustine of Hippo, John Chrysostom,Maximus the Confessor, Origen and Tertullian. Based on this alleged tradition, Vasilescu concluded that Christians owed submission to their rulers because it was God's will. HP Pavilion ZE4400 Battery

With recalcitrants removed from office, remaining bishops adopted a servile attitude, endorsing Ceau?escu's concept of nation, supporting his policies, and applauding his ideas about peace.

Collaboration with the Securitate

After the 1989 Romanian Revolution, the Church never admitted of willingly collaborating with the régime, ibm x60s battery

but several Romanian Orthodox priests have admitted publicly after 1989 that they have collaborated with and/or were informers for the Securitate, the Romanian Communist secret police. A prime example was Bishop Nicolae Corneanu, the Metropolitan of Banat, ibm t60 battery

who admitted his efforts on the behalf of the Communist Party, and denounced clergy activity with the Communists, including his own, as "the Church's prostitution with the Communist régime".

After 1989

As Romania made the transition to a democracy, the Church was freed from state control,ibm z60t battery

though the State Secretariat for Religious Denominations maintains control over a number of aspects of the church property, finances and administration. The state funds the church in proportion of religious adherents based on census returns  and "the religion's needs" which is considered to be an "ambiguous provision".Sony VGP-BPS2 Battery

Currently, the state pays for the salaries of priests, deacons and prelates and the pensions of those who have retired, as well as expenses related to non-religious personal. This applies to all state-recognised religions.

The state also provides support for church construction and dilapidations with a preference towards the Orthodox parishes.Sony VGP-BPS5 Battery

The state funds all the expenses of the Orthodox seminaries and colleges including teachers and professor salaries with compensation as civil servants.

Since the fall of Communism, Greek-Catholic Church leaders have claimed that the Eastern Catholic community is facing with a cultural and religious wipe-out: Sony VGP-BPS3 Battery

the Greek-Catholic churches are allegedly destroyed by the Orthodox Church representatives, whose actions are supported and accepted by the Romanian authorities.

The Church in Moldova

The Romanian Orthodox Church also has jurisdiction over a minority of believers in Moldova, Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS Battery

who belong to the Metropolis of Bessarabia, as opposed to the majority, who belong to the Moldovan Orthodox Church, under the Moscow Patriarchate. In 2001 it won a landmark legal victory against the Government of Moldova at the Strasbourg-based European Court of Human Rights.Toshiba PA3331U-1BRS Battery

This means that despite current political issues, the Metropolis of Bessarabia is now recognized as "the rightful successor" to the Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and Hotin, which existed from 1927 to 1944, when it was dissolved, its canonical territory being put under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church's Moscow Patriarchate in 1947.Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS Battery

Organization

The Romanian Orthodox Church is organized as the Romanian Patriarchate. The highest hierarchical, canonical and dogmatical authority of the Romanian Orthodox Church is the Holy Synod.Toshiba PA3166U-1BRS Battery

There are six Metropolitanates and ten archbishoprics in Romania, and more than twelve thousand priests and deacons, servant fathers of ancient altars from parishes, monasteries and social centres. Almost 400 monasteries exist inside the country for some 3,500 monks and 5,000 nuns. Toshiba PA3479U-1BRS Battery 

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