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Rutgers University Rutgers University /ˈrʌtɡərz/, officially Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is an American publicresearch university and the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey, United States. It was originally chartered as Queen's College in 1766. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard HP G62-225DX Laptop Keyboard It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine Colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. Rutgers was originally a private university affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church and admitted only male students, but evolved into a coeducational public research university. Rutgers is one of only two colonial colleges that later became public universities, the other being the College of William & Mary.[4] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers was designated The State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956.[5] The flagship campus is located in both New Brunswick and Piscataway, with additional campuses in Newark and Camden. The Newark campus was formerly the University of Newark, which merged into the Rutgers system in 1946, and the Camden campus was created in 1950 from the College of South Jersey and the South Jersey Law School.[6]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard The university is the largest state university within New Jersey. The university offers more than 100 distinct bachelor, 100 master, and 80 doctoral and professional degree programs across 175 academic departments, 29 degree-granting schools and colleges, 16 of which offer graduate programs of study.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Colonial period

Two decades after the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) was established in 1746, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church.[8][9] Through several years of effort by Rev. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691–1747) and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh (1736–1790), later the college's first president,Queen's College was chartered on November 10, 1766.[8] Established as the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818).[9] The charter was signed and the young college was supported by William Franklin (1730–1813), the last Royal Governor of New Jersey and illegitimate son ofBenjamin Franklin. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard The original charter specified the establishment both of the college, and of an institution called the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.[9] This institution, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959.[9][10] The location of New Brunswick was chosen over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population as well, making the royal charter easier to obtain. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard The original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, liberal, the divinity, and useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church[9][10][11] The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt.[9][10] Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion.[12] When the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes.[9][10]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton (the measure failed by one vote) and later considered relocating to New York City.[9][10] In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, affectionately called "Old Queens" designed by architect John McComb, Jr.[13] The college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, and shared facilities with Queen's College (and the Queen's College Grammar School, as all three institutions were then overseen by the Reformed Church in America).[9][10] During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, and in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre (28,000 m2) tract less than one-half mile (800 m) away.[9][10]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard fter several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed Rutgers College in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830). According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received 2 donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing.[9][10]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Land-grant college Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry.[9][10] The Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (1880) and divide into the College of Engineering (1914) and the College of Agriculture (1921).[9][10] Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard and the School of Education in 1924.[9][10] With the development of graduate education, and the continued expansion of the institution, the collection of schools became Rutgers University in 1924.[10] Rutgers College continued as a liberal arts college within the university. Later, University College (1945) was founded to serve part-time, commuting students and Livingston College (1969) was created by the Rutgers Trustees, ensuring that the interests of ethnically diverse New Jersey students were met.[9][10]HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard utgers was designated the State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956.[5] Shortly after, the University of Newark(1935) was merged with Rutgers in 1946, as were the College of South Jersey and South Jersey Law School, in 1950. These two institutions became Rutgers-Newarkand Rutgers-Camden. On September 10, 1970, after much debate, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into Rutgers College.[9][10]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Growth of the University was not without setbacks. In 1967 Rutgers Physics Department had a Centers of Excellence Grant from the NSF which allowed the Physics Department to hire several faculty each year and become a more prominent Institution. These faculty were to be paid by the grant for three years, but after that time any faculty hired with the Associate or Full Professor designation would become tenured.  TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Governor and the Chancellor forced Rutgers to lose this grant by rejecting these faculty as tenured.. Not too long after this a bond issue arose that would increase financial support at Rutgers and develop Rutgers into a more prestigious University. This Bond was vetoed by the Governor, and when the Bond was turned down, the Chancellor explained that Rutgers University would never be a Princeton.[citation needed] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1970 the newly formed Rutgers Medical School had achieved a great deal of fame with major faculty members coming from other institutions to be part of this new enterprise. But in 1971 the Governor's Office separated Rutgers Medical School from Rutgers University and made it part of New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard and many faculty left the Medical School, including the dean of the Medical School, Dr. Dewitt Stetten, who later became the Director of the National Institutes of Health. As a result of the separation of the Medical School from Rutgers University, graduate PhD programs that had been started in the medical center were lost, and students had to seek other institutions to finish their degrees. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard Prior to 1982, separate liberal arts faculties existed in the several "residential colleges", (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston, University, and Cook colleges) at Rutgers-New Brunswick. In 1982, under president Edward J. Bloustein, the faculties were centralized into one college, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, but the residential colleges persisted for students, along with disparate standards for admission, good standing, and graduation, as well as a confusing network of bureaucracies. Finally in the fall of 2007, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard the residential colleges and Faculty of Arts and Sciences were merged into the new School of Arts and Sciences with one set of admissions criteria, curriculum and graduation requirements. Cook College changed its name to the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences and shedding the option to major in liberal arts. The merger ended the 241 year history of Rutgers College as a distinct institution. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard In 2012, most of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey rejoined Rutgers University.[14] The [15] Rutgers University has three campuses across the state of New Jersey, with its largest campus located mainly in the City of New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway Township, and two smaller campuses in the cities of Newark and Camden. These campuses comprise 27 degree-granting schools and colleges, offering undergraduate, graduate and professional levels of study. The university is centrally administered from New Brunswick, although Chancellors at the Newark and Camden campuses hold significant autonomy for some academic issues. Rutgers Fact BookHP Mini 210-2190nr Laptop Keyboard The New Brunswick-Piscataway Campus (or Rutgers-New Brunswick) is the largest campus of Rutgers; it is the site of the original Rutgers College. It is spread across six municipalities in Middlesex County, New Jersey, chiefly in the City of New Brunswick and Piscataway Township. It is composed of five smaller campuses, and a few buildings in downtown New Brunswick. The original and historic College Avenue campus is adjacent to downtown New Brunswick, and includes the seat of the University,  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-122EL Laptop Keyboard Old Queens. On the other side of the city, Douglass Campus and Cook Campus are adjacent and intertwined with each other, and are often referred to collectively as the Cook/Douglass Campus. Cook Campus has extensive farms and woods that reach into North Brunswick and East Brunswick Townships. Separated by the Raritan river are Busch Campus, in Piscataway, and Livingston Campus, also mainly in Piscataway but including remote sections of land extending into Edison Township and the Borough of Highland Park. The Rutgers Campus Buses transports students between the various campuses.[17]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard As of the Fall 2010, the New Brunswick-Piscataway campuses include 19 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Communication and Information, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, the School of Engineering, the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, the Graduate School of Education, the School of Management and Labor Relations, Mason Gross School of the Arts, the College of Nursing, the Rutgers Business School and the School of Social Work. As of 2010, 30,351 undergraduates and 8,561 graduate students (total 38,912) are enrolled at the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus.[2]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The Newark Campus (or Rutgers-Newark), consists of 8 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Newark College of Arts and Sciences, University College, School of Criminal Justice, Graduate School, College of Nursing, School of Public Affairs and Administration, Rutgers Business School and Rutgers School of Law - Newark. As of 2010, 7,479 undergraduates and 4,319 graduate students (total 11,798) are enrolled at the Newark campus.[2]HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard The Camden Campus (or Rutgers-Camden) consists of five undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Camden College of Arts and Sciences, University College, Graduate School, Rutgers School of Business - Camden and Rutgers School of Law - Camden. As of 2010, 4,497 undergraduates and 1,661 graduate students (total 6,158) are enrolled at the Camden campus.[2]ACER Aspire 5110 Laptop Keyboard Governance at Rutgers University rests with a Board of Trustees consisting currently of 59 members and a Board of Governorsconsisting of 11 members: 6 appointed by the Governor of New Jersey and 5 chosen by the Board of Trustees.[19][20][21] The trustees constitute chiefly an advisory body to the Board of Governors and are the fiduciary overseers of the property and assets of the University that existed before the institution became the State University of New Jersey in 1945. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The initial reluctance of the trustees (still acting as a private corporate body) to cede control of certain business affairs to the state government for direction and oversight caused the state to establish the Board of Governors in 1956.[22] Today, the Board of Governors maintains much of the corporate control of the University. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard The members of the Board of Trustees are voted upon by different constituencies or appointed. "Two faculty and two students are elected by the University Senate as nonvoting representatives. The 59 voting members are chosen in the following way as mandated by state law: 28 charter members (of whom at least three shall be women), SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard 20 alumni members nominated by the Nominating Committee of the Board of Trustees, and five public members appointed by the governor of the state with confirmation by the New Jersey State Senate. The six members of the Board of Governors appointed by the governor also serve as members of the Board of Trustees. Of the 28 charter seats, three are reserved for students with full voting rights."[23]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP6003M Laptop Keyboard The president of Rutgers University, chosen by and answerable to the Trustees and Governors, sits as an ex-officio member of both governing boards. He, as the chief administrator of the university, is charged with its day-to-day operations. Robert Barchi became president in September 2012.  HP Pavilion dv5-1021et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Administration and facilities Rutgers' facilities across the three campuses include a golf course, botanical gardens, working agricultural, horse, dairy, and sustainable farms, a creamery, an ecological preserve with multiple use trails, television and radio studios, theaters, museums, athletic facilities, helipads, a makerspace, and more. Services provided by the university include Rutgers Police, Emergency Medical Services, an emergency management office, bus and shuttle service, inter- and intra-campus mail, and occupational and environmental health and safety.  TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey is a colonial chartered college (1766), a land-grant institution (1864), and astate university (1945/1956).[30] Rutgers is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (1921), and in 1989, became a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of the 62 leading research universities in North America.[31]ACER AB6505HB-E03 ZL2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers-New Brunswick is classified by theCarnegie Foundation as "RU/VH", which stands for Research Intensive University, Very High research activity.[32] Rutgers-Newark is classified by the same organization as "RU/H", meaning Research Intensive University, High research activity andRutgers-Camden is given the classification of "Master's M", signifying the university's inclusion in the Master's Colleges and Universities category as a medium-sized institution.[33]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1J1E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers was ranked 38th nationwide and 54th worldwide in the 2008 Academic Ranking of World Universities by the Institute of Higher Education at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.[34] According to the Washington Monthly's 2006 rankings, Rutgers ranks 53rd in the United States.[35] The Top American Research Universities an annual statistical report by The Center at the University of Florida ranks Rutgers 39th.[36] In the 2009 U.S. News & World Report ranking of American national universities, Rutgers is ranked 64th.[37] Toshiba Satellite A300-21H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2003, the Wall Street Journal conducted a study of the undergraduate institutions that most frequently feed students placements at elite professional and graduate programs, such as Yale and Harvard; Rutgers was ranked 20th in the rankings they compiled for state universities.[38] On a side note, Forbes ranked Rutgers as being the 20th best public university in the United States for "getting rich", as judged by its students' median salaries upon graduation.[39]Toshiba Satellite A40-261 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Eleven of Rutgers' graduate departments are ranked by the National Research Council in the top 25 among all universities:Philosophy (2nd), Geology Ranked 9th Nationally based on NSF funding 9th, Geography (13th), Statistics (17th), English(17th), Mathematics (19th), Art History (20th), Physics (20th), History (20th) Comparative Literature (22nd), French (22nd), and Materials Science Engineering (25th).[40][41][42][43][44]SONY VGN-SZ640 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Rutgers Business School is ranked 39th in the Wall Street Journal's Ranking of Top Business Schools.[45] The Philosophy Department ranked first in 2002–04 tied with New York University and Princeton University, and second in 2004–06 (NYU was first, Princeton 3rd, Oxford 4th) in the Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on Philosophy programs in the English-speaking world.[46][47]SONY Vaio VPC-EB2Z1E/BQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Division of Global Affairs (DGA)[5] Ph.D. program at Rutgers University-Newark was ranked fifth in the nation in the Benchmarking Academic Excellence survey of Top Universities in Social and Behavioral Sciences Disciplines in the combined category of International Affairs and Development for 2006-07.[48] HP Envy 17-2090eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to U.S. News & World Report, in the top 25 among all universities: Food Science (2nd), Library Science (6th),Drama/Theater (12th), Mathematics (16th), English (18th), History (19th, with the subspecialty of African-American History ranked 4th and Women's History ranked 1st), Applied Mathematics (21st) and Physics (24th).[19] Also in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report ranking of Computer Science Ph.D. programs, Rutgers was ranked 29th.[49]HP Pavilion dv6-3114et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On September 13, 2010, the Wall Street Journal ranked Rutgers University #21 in schools whose graduates are top-rated by recruiters.[50] On June 28, 2012 the New Jersey state legislature passed the New Jersey Medical and Health Sciences Education Restructuring Act that will dissolve the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and merge most of its schools, including Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey Medical School and New Jersey Dental School, with Rutgers University forming a new Rutgers School of Biomedical and Health Sciences by July 1, 2013. Members of the Rutgers Board of Governors estimated that the takeover of UMDNJ could "elevate Rutgers’ status to among the top 25 most elite research universities in America."[51]DELL Inspiron 1721 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Admissions and financial aid

U.S. News & World Report considers the New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University to be a "more selective" school in terms of the rigor of its admissions processes.[52] For 2006, 56% of undergraduate applicants were accepted, and average SAT scores of enrolling students ranged from 530–630 on the critical reading section, 560–670 for the mathematics section, and 530-640 for the writing section.[53]HP Pavilion dv6-3188la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a state university, Rutgers charges two separate rates for tuition and fees depending on whether an enrolled student is a resident of the State of New Jersey(in-state) or not (out-of-state). The Office of Institutional Research and Academic Planning estimates that costs in-state student of attending Rutgers would amount to $18,899 for an undergraduate living on-campus and $22,395 for a graduate student. For an out-of-state student, the costs rise to $26,497 and $27,476 respectively.[2] As of the 2012-2013 academic school year, the cost of attendance for in-state students is $13,073, $26,393 for out-of-state students and $11,412 for Room and Board.[54]ASUS U3S Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate students at Rutgers, through a combination of federal (50%), state (22%), university (22%), and private (6%) scholarship, loans, and grants, received $291,956,597 of financial aid in the 2004–2005 academic year. Of 37,429 undergraduate students at Rutgers, 30,398 (or 81.2%) receive financial aid. During the same period, 73.2%, or 9,604 graduate students out of a population of 13,124, received assistance in the total of $121,269,211 in financial aid sourced chiefly from federal (33%) and university (65%) funds.[2]DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard The Rutgers University library system consists of 26 libraries and centers located on the University's three campuses, housing a collection of over 10.5 million holdings, including 3,656,283 volumes, 4,600,902 microforms, 2,535,892 documents, and subscriptions to 91,078 periodicals and other electronic resources, and ranking among the nation's top research libraries.[55] The American Library Association ranks the Rutgers University Library system as the 44th largest library in the United States in terms of volumes held.[56]HP Pavilion G6-1V71HE Laptop Keyboard The Archibald S. Alexander Library, in New Brunswick, is the oldest and the largest library of the University.[57] It houses several million volumes focusing on an extensive humanities and social science collection.[citation needed] It mainly supports the sort of research done in the School of Arts and Sciences, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning & Public Policy, SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard the Graduate School of Education, the Graduate School of Social Work, and the School of Communication and Information. Alexander Library also maintains a large collection of government documents, which contains United States, New Jersey, foreign, and international government publications.[57] The Library of Science and Medicine on the Busch Campus in Piscataway houses the University's collection in behavioral, biological, earth, and pharmaceutical sciences and engineeringCompaq Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop Keyboard . The LSM also serves as a designated depository library for government publication regarding science, and owns a U.S. patent collection and patent search facility.[58] It was officially established as the Library of Science and Medicine in July 1964 although the beginning of the development of a library for science started in 1962. The LSM currently has two administrative structures since it is a joint library serving both Rutgers and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ). UMDNJ, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard which was briefly known as Rutgers Medical School, separated from Rutgers in 1970. The current character of the LSM is a university science library also serving a medical school.[59] On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, in addition to Alexander Library, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, including alcohol studies, art history, Chemistry, Mathematical studies, Music, and Physics. Special Collections and University Archives houses the Sinclair New Jersey Collection, manuscript collection, HP Pavilion dv6-2144nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and rare book collection, as well as the University Archives. Although located in the Alexander Library building, Special Collections and University Archives actually comprises a distinct unit unto itself. Also located within the Alexander Library is the East Asian Library which holds a sizable collection of Chinese, Japanese and Korean monographs and periodicals. In Newark, the John Cotton Dana Library, the Institute of Jazz Studies (located within the Dana Library), and the Paul Robeson Library in Camden, serve their respective campuses with a broad collection of volumes. IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers is home to the Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science, also known as RUCCS. Researchers in psychology,linguistics, computer science, philosophy, electrical engineering, and anthropology combine resources to advance the study of the mind at this state of the art institution.  ACER Aspire 3500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Waksman, along with graduate student Albert Schatz (1920–2005), discovered streptomycin—a versatile antibiotic that was to be the first applied to cure tuberculosis. For this discovery, Waksman received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1952. ACER Aspire 5741 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers developed water-soluble sustained release polymers, tetraploids, robotic hands, artificial bovine insemination, and the ceramic tiles for the heat shield on the Space Shuttle. In health related field, Rutgers has the Environmental & Occupational Health Science Institute (EOHSI). Rutgers is also home to the RCSB Protein Data bank,[64] 'an information portal to Biological Macromolecular Structures' cohosted with the San Diego Supercomputer Center. This database is the authoritative research tool for bioinformaticists using protein primary, secondary and tertiary structures world wide.'HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers is home to the Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension office, which is run by the Agricultural and Experiment Station with the support of local government. The institution provides research & education to the local farming and agro industrial community in 19 of the 21 counties of the state and educational outreach programs offered through the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Office of Continuing Professional Education. HP Pavilion dv7-4295us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (RUCDR) is the largest university based repository in the world and has received awards worth more than $57.8 million from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). One will fund genetic studies of mental disorders and the other will support investigations into the causes of digestive, liver and kidney diseases, and diabetes.[65]RUCDR activities will enable gene discovery leading to diagnoses, treatments and, eventually, cures for these diseases. RUCDR assists researchers throughout the world by providing the highest quality biomaterials, technical consultation, and logistical support. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ1M/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers-Camden is home to the nation's PhD granting Department of Childhood Studies. This department, in conjunction with the Center for Children and Childhood Studies, also on the Camden campus, conducts interdisciplinary research which combines methodologies and research practices of sociology, psychology, literature, anthropology and other disciplines into the study of childhoods internationally. HP Pavilion dv2530er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers is home to several National Science Foundation IGERT fellowships that support interdisciplinary scientific research at the graduate-level. Highly selective fellowships are available in the following areas: Perceptual Science, Stem Cell Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology for Clean Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Fuels Solutions, and Nanopharmaceutical Engineering. Compaq Presario CQ60-218ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers also maintains the Office of Research Alliances[66] that focuses on working with companies to increase engagement with the university's faculty members, staff and extensive resources on the three campuses. Rutgers University offers a variety of housing options. On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, students are given the option of on-campus housing in both traditional dorms or apartments. Despite some overcrowding, most students seeking on-campus housing will be accommodated with a space, yet in 2008/2009 students were placed in a nearby hotel. Many Rutgers students opt to rent apartments or houses off-campus within the city of New Brunswick. Similar setups are to be found in Rutgers-Newark and Rutgers-Camden, however a substantial portion of the students on those campuses commute and/or are enrolled on a part-time basis. Compaq Presario CQ60-140ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers University's three campuses are in the culturally-diverse, redeveloping urban areas (Newark, Camden, and New Brunswick) with convenient access to New York City and Philadelphiaby either automobile, Amtrak or New Jersey Transit. US News & World Report ranked Rutgers-Newark the most diverse university campus in the United States.[67] SONY Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Because the area of Rutgers' New Brunswick-Piscataway campus—which is composed of several constituent colleges and professional schools—is sprawled across six municipalities, the individual campuses are connected by an inter-campus bus system. The Rutgers bus system is the second largest bus service in New Jersey, and one of the largest in the country.[68]Compaq Presario CQ60-211DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The school song of Rutgers University is On the Banks of the Old Raritan, written by Howard Fullerton (Class of 1874) in 1873.[10] It is often sung at University occasions, including concerts of the Rutgers University Glee Club, at Convocation and Commencement exercises, and especially at the conclusion of athletic events. The university's fight song is The Bells Must Ring, HP Pavilion dv6-3211tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which features the school's spirit chant: "R-U Rah Rah, R-U Rah Rah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah Rutgers Rah! Upstream Red Team, Red Team Upstream, Rah! Rah! Rutgers Rah!." Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement,convocation, and athletic games are: The Bells Must Ring, the Rutgers University fight song.  HP AELX9U00110 Laptop Keyboard Scarlet was made the official school color of Rutgers University in 1900. Initially, students sought to make orange the school color, citing Rutgers' Dutchheritage and in reference to the Prince of Orange. The Daily Targum first proposed that scarlet be adopted in May 1869, claiming that it was a striking color and because scarlet ribbon was easily obtained. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard During the first intercollegiate football game with Princeton on November 6, 1869, the players from Rutgers wore scarlet-colored turbans and handkerchiefs to distinguish them as a team from the Princeton players.[69] Although Rutgers incorporates the colors black and white on their signs, symbols, athletic uniforms as accent colors, scarlet is the one and only color of the university. The current mascot is the Scarlet Knight. In its early days, Rutgers athletes were known as "Queensmen" in reference to the institution's first name, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Queen's College. However, in 1925, the mascot was changed to Chanticleer, a fighting rooster from the medieval fable Reynard the Fox (Le Roman de Renart) which was used by Geoffrey Chaucer's in the Canterbury Tales. However, this mascot was often the subject of ridicule because of its association with "being chicken." In 1955, the mascot was changed to the Scarlet Knight after a campus-wide election.[69] The names (and mascots) of the athletic teams at Rutgers-Newark and Rutgers-Camden are the "Scarlet Raiders" and the "Scarlet Raptors", respectively. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Rutgers' motto, Sol iustitiae et occidentem illustra (translated as "Sun of righteousness, shine upon the West also") is derived from the motto of theUniversity of Utrecht in the Netherlands, which is Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos (translated as "Sun of Justice, shine upon us"). It is a reference to the biblical texts of Malachi 4:2 and Matthew 13:43.[70] This motto appears in the University's seal (pictured above), which is also derived from that of the University of Utrecht, and depicts a multi-pointed sun.[71]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard At Commencement exercises in the Spring, tradition leads undergraduates to break clay pipes over the Class of 1877 Cannon monument in front of Old Queens, symbolizing the breaking of ties with the college, and leaving behind the good times of one's undergraduate years. This symbolic gesture dates back to when pipe-smoking was fashionable among undergraduates, and many college memories were of evenings of pipe smoking and revelry with friends. Unfortunately, in recent years under President McCormick, SONY VAIO VPCF123FX/H Laptop Keyboard the university administration has decided to stop funding this tradition, despite strong outcry from students and alumni.[72]During commencement exercises, graduating seniors walk in academic procession under the Class of 1902 Memorial Gateway (erected in 1904) on Hamilton Street leading to the Voorhees Mall where the ceremonies are held for Rutgers College. Traditionally, students are warned to avoid walking beneath the gate before commencement over a superstition that one who does will not graduate. Due to the new commencement at High Point Solutions Stadium, students are no longer given the opportunity to walk through the gates during commencement. SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard The shield of the Rutgers coat of arms appears on the university gonfalon, and is at the head of all processions. The first quarter bears the arms of Nassau, the House of Orange, and recognizes the Dutch founders. The arms in the upper sinister quarter are those of George III combined with Queen Charlotte's. It was George III who granted the Charter of 1766 to Queen's College, named in honor of Charlotte of Mecklenburg, King George's consort. The arms shown on the sinister half are Queen Charlotte's. The third quarter from the Seal of the State of New Jersey. The fourth quarter is the coat of arms of Colonel Henry Rutgers. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Rutgers University has a student government which controls funding to student groups. The student government is made up of campus councils and professional school councils. Those councils then send representatives to the student assembly as well as the university senate. An example of these campus councils is the University College Council, which represents adult, part-time, and military veteran students. HP Mini 110-3018cl Laptop Keyboard Rutgers hosts over 700 student organizations, covering a wide range of interests. Among the first student groups was the first college newspaper in the United States of America. The Political Intelligencer and New Jersey Adviser began publication at Queen's College in 1783, and ceased operation in 1785.[10] Continuing this tradition is the university's current college newspaper, The Daily Targum, established in 1869, which is the second-oldest college newspaper currently published in the United States, SAMSUNG R45 Laptop Keyboard after The Dartmouth (1843). Both poet Joyce Kilmer and economist Milton Friedman served as editors. Also included are The Medium, Rutgers Entertainment Weekly, Rutgers Centurion, a conservative newspaper, the Rutgers University Glee Club, a male choral singing group established in 1872 (among the oldest in the country), HP Mini 311-1002TU Laptop Keyboard well as the Rutgers University Debate Union. More recently there has been increased national exposure among Rutgers a cappella groups as they have routinely placed well in the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella, including 2010 when The OrphanSporks placed second in the semifinals.[73] Governed by the Rutgers University Student Assembly and funded by student fees, students can organize groups for practically any political ideology or issue, ethnic or religious affiliation, academic subject, activity, or hobby. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers University is home to chapters of many Greek organizations, and a significant percentage of the undergraduate student body is active in Greek life. Several fraternities and sororities maintain houses for their chapters in the area of Union Street (known familiarly as "Frat Row") in New Brunswick, within blocks of Rutgers' College Avenue Campus. Chapters of Zeta Psi and Delta Phi organized at Rutgers as early as 1845. The Alpha Rho chapter of Chi Psi Fraternity, founded at Rutgers College in 1879, HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard was the first fraternity at Rutgers to own a fraternity house, or "Lodge", purchased in 1887. The fraternity today still owns and occupies the same property at 114 College Avenue. Today, there are over 50 fraternities and sororities on the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, ranging from traditional to historically African-American, Hispanic, Multicultural, and Asian interest organizations.[74] The New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University has a chapter of the only active co-ed Pre-medical Fraternity, Phi Delta Epsilon, as of 2008.[75] Greek organizations are governed by the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs. Twelve organizations maintain chapters in New Brunswick without sanction by the University's administration.[76] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard In the late 19th century, the University banned fraternities because of their unusual hazing practices. This caused them to go underground as secret societies. It also sparked the interest of some students to create their own societies. Cap and Skull was founded at Rutgers before the turn of the 19th to 20th century. Today, Rutgers is well known for 4 of its vocal ensembles: Voorhees Choir (the university's women's ensemble), Kirkpatrick Choir (the university's most selective coed ensemble), Glee Club (the university's most esteemed male ensemble), and University Choir (a larger mixed choir). SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard The center was established in the 1970s as the Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures Program. During the mid-1980s, the program was changed into the Middle Eastern Studies Program and a Major and Minor was officially defined and offered to the University's undergraduate students. The Center's present form was established in 2002 when it became known as the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Students at Rutgers currently have a choice of over 70 different courses offered regularly through the Center.[77]TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers was among the first American institutions to engage in intercollegiate athletics, and participated in a small circle of schools that included Yale University, Columbia University and long-time rival, Princeton University (then called The College of New Jersey). The four schools met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in Manhattan on October 19, 1873 to establish a set of rules governing their intercollegiate competition, and particularly to codify the new game offootball. Though invited, Harvard chose not to attend.[78]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In the early years of intercollegiate athletics, the circle of schools that participated in these athletic events were located solely in the American Northeast. However, by the turn of the 19th to 20th century, colleges and universities across the United States began to participate. In 1864, rowing became the first organized sport at Rutgers. Six mile races were held on the Raritan River among six-oared boats. In 1870, Rutgers held its first intercollegiate competition, against the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, the then top-ranked amateur crew of the time. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Since the start in 1864, Rutgers has built a strong crew program consisting of heavyweight and lightweight men. Women's crew was added to the program in 1974. Financial support of the Men's crew program was discontinued by the university in 2006, though the Crew continues to compete (funded entirely by Alumni and private support) at a high level in the prestigiousEastern Association of Rowing Colleges conference. The first intercollegiate athletic event at Rutgers was a baseball game on May 2, 1866 against Princeton in which they suffered a 40-2 loss.[10]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers University is often referred to as The Birthplace of College Football as the first intercollegiate football game was held on College Field between Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1869 in New Brunswick, New Jersey on a plot of ground where the present-day College Avenue Gymnasium now stands. Rutgers won the game, with a score of 6 runs to Princeton's 4.[10][69][79] According to Parke H. Davis, the 1869 Rutgers football team shared the national title with Princeton.[80] (This game is believed to have been closer to soccer than to modern American football.)[81]HP G71-347CL Laptop Keyboard Since 1866, Rutgers remained unaffiliated with any formal athletic conference and was classified as "independent". From 1946 to 1951, the university was a member of the Middle Three Conference, and from 1958 to 1961, was a member of the Middle Atlantic Conference.[82] In 1978, Rutgers became a member of the Atlantic 10 conference. In 1991, it joined the Big East Conference for football. All sports programs at Rutgers subsequently became affiliated with the Big East in 1995.[83]TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard The first intercollegiate competition in Ultimate Frisbee (now called simply "Ultimate") was held between students from Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1972 to mark the one hundred third anniversary of the first intercollegiate football game. Rutgers won 29–27.[84] The Rutgers Men's Basketball Team was among the "Final Four" and ended the 1976 season ranked fourth in the United States, after an 86–70 loss against the University of Michigan in the semifinals, and a 106–92 loss against UCLA in the consolation round of the 1976 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament.[85]HP 381068-001 Laptop Keyboard Since 1991, Rutgers is a member of the Big East Conference, a collegiate athletic conference consisting of 16 colleges and universities from the East Coast and Midwesternregions of the United States. The Big East Conference is a member of the Bowl Championship Series. Rutgers currently fields 27 intercollegiate sports programs and is a Division I school as sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Rutgers fields thirty teams in NCAA Division I sanctioned sports, including Football, Baseball, Basketball, Crew, Cross Country, Fencing, Field Hockey, Golf, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Soccer, Softball, Tennis, Track and Field, Swimming and Diving,Wrestling, Volleyball.[86]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Since joining the Big East, the Scarlet Knights have won five Big East Conference tournament titles: men's soccer (1997), men's track & field (2005), baseball (2000, 2007), women's basketball (2007). Several other teams have won regular season titles but failed to win the conference's championship tournament.[87]HP 456624-001 Laptop Keyboard Most recently, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights' football team has achieved success on the gridiron after several years of losing seasons, being invited to the Insight Bowl on December 27, 2005 in which they lost 45 to 40 against Arizona State University.[88] This was Rutgers' first bowl appearance since the December 16, 1978 loss against Arizona State, 34–18, at the Garden State Bowl. The 2006 football season also saw Rutgers being ranked within the Top 25 teams in major college football polls. After the November 9, HP Pavilion dv6-2046ez Laptop Keyboard 2006 victory over the #3 ranked, undefeated Louisville Cardinals, Rutgers jumped up to seventh in the AP Poll, eighth in the USA Today/Coaches poll, seventh in the Harris Interactive Poll, and sixth in the Bowl Championship Series rankings. These were Rutgers' highest rankings in the football polls since they were ranked fifteenth in 1961. Rutgers ended the season 11–2 after winning the inaugural Texas Bowl on December 28, 2006, defeating the Wildcats of Kansas State University by a score of 37–10 and finishing the season ranked twelfth in the final Associated Press poll of sportswriters, the team's highest season-ending ranking.[89]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Under Head Coach C. Vivian Stringer, the Women's Basketball program is among the elite programs in the country as they remain consistently ranked in the Top 25, consistently making the NCAA Women's Championship Tournament, and sometimes winning the Big East regular season championship. In 2006-2007, Rutgers won their first ever Big East Conference Tournament Championship. The program has been highly competitive since its inception, winning the 1982 AIAW National Championship, reaching the 2000 Final Four, and reaching the Final Four and national championship game in 2007. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Rutgers maintains athletic rivalries with other collegiate institutions. The university has historic rivalries with Princeton University, Columbia University(formerly King's College), Lafayette College, Lehigh University and New York University originating from the early days of college football. While they maintain this rivalry in other sports, neither of them have met in football since 1980. Rutgers has a basketball rivalry with Seton Hall University,[90] and has developed a growing three-way rivalry with the University of Connecticut and Syracuse University, both fellow Big East Conference members. HP Pavilion dv6-3250us Laptop Keyboard In the fall of 2007, six Rutgers New Brunswick/Piscataway's NCAA Division I sports were discontinued by the University, including men's swimming and diving, men's heavyweight and lightweight crew, men's tennis, and men's and women's fencing. Some continued as club teams, while some were disbanded completely. The University claims this change was due to budget cuts, while others claim it was a politically motivated move designed to protest state's funding changes.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard In November 2012, Rutgers became the latest school to leave the Big East. Syracuse and Pittsburgh have decided to enter the Atlantic Coast Conference, as West Virginia will enter the Big 12 conference, taking effect as of the 2012-2013 season. Rutgers decided to leave the Big East for the Big Ten Conference at a date which has yet to be announced. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard For the August 2005 to May 2006 academic year. Rutgers University had 2,261 full-time and part-time academic faculty members.[2] Among Rutgers notable current and former professors are Alan Prince, Jerry Fodor, Mark Baker, Alan Leslie, Rochel Gelman, John Ciardi, George Hammell Cook, Michael Curtis, Ralph Ellison,Paul Fussell, Robert Trivers, Francis Fergusson, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Mason W. Gross, Leonid Khachiyan, Michael Lesk, David Levering Lewis, Roy Lichtenstein,Wilson Carey McWilliams, George Segal, Endre Szemerédi, Jerrold Tunnell, and Selman Waksman. During his 20 year tenure at Rutgers, David Levering Lewis (born 1936), a professor in the Department of History was twice awarded the Pultizer Prize for Biography or Autobiography (1994 and 2001) for both volumes of hisbiography of W. E. B. Du Bois (1868–1963) and was also the winner of the Bancroft and Parkman prizes. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Five Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rutgers as either faculty or students (Milton Friedman, Toni Morrison, David A. Morse, Heinrich Rohrer and Selman Waksman). Many members of the faculty at Rutgers have achieved t

op honors in their disciplines, including Michael R. Douglas, a prominent string theorist and the director of the New High Energy Theory Center and winner of the Sackler Prize in theoretical physics in 2000. Jerry Fodor, Zenon Pylyshyn and Stephen Stich were awarded the Jean Nicod Prize in philosophy and cognitive science. SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard Furthermore, Rutgers ranks among the top three public AAU institutions in the overall percentage of women faculty.[91] There have been over 335,000 graduates of Rutgers University.[7] Many alumni remain active through alumni associations—including the Rutgers Alumni Association founded in 1831—annual Reunions and Homecomings, and other events. Rutgers has graduated two Nobel Laureates: Selman A. Waksman (A.B. 1915) in Medicine andMilton Friedman (A.B. 1932) in Economics.[92] Alumni awarded the Pulitzer Prize include Michael Shaara (A.B. 1951), author of The Killer Angels, journalistRichard Aregood (B.A. 1965), Roy Franklin Nichols (A.B. 1918), and Junot Díaz. SONY Vaio VPC-EA3L1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni of Rutgers have had a considerable impact in the arts, including those by two noted modern sculptors, George Segal (M.A. 1963) and Alice Aycock (B.A. 1968). Many notable buildings in Boston (the Copley Plaza Hotel), and New York City including the The Dakota, Plaza Hotel, the Waldorf and Astoria Hotels (demolished in 1929 to make way for the Empire State Building) as well as several of the oldest buildings on the Rutgers University campus in New Brunswick,  HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan were designed by architect Henry Janeway Hardenburgh (A.B. 1871). Poet Joyce Kilmer (Class of 1908), attended Rutgers for two years before transferring toColumbia University, was famous for his poem "Trees" and later died in World War I, and Robert Pinsky (B.A. 1962), was appointed Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1997. Filmmaker and critic Wheeler Winston Dixon (Ph.D. 1982) has written more than twenty five books on film history, theory and criticism, and his collected films are housed at The Museum of Modern Art in New York City. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many Rutgers graduates have gone on to careers in public service, including former U.S. Secretary of State and SenatorFrederick T. Frelinghuysen (A.B. 1836), former U.S. Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary (J.D. 19??), former FBI director Louis Freeh (B.A. 1971), Vice President of the United States Garret A. Hobart (A.B. 1863), and former Representative and SenatorClifford P. Case (A.B. 1925). Among the first students enrolled at Rutgers (when it was Queen's College), Simeon DeWitt (A.B. 1776) HP Pavilion dv6-2015sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan became the Surveyor-General for the Continental Army (1776–1783) during the American Revolution and classmate James Schureman (A.B. 1775), served in the Continental Congress and as a United States Senator. Seven Rutgers graduates have served as Governor of New Jersey: Charles C. Stratton (A.B. 1814), William A. Newell (A.B. 1836; A.M. 1839), George C.  HP Pavilion dv7-2230es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ludlow (A.B. 1850, A.M. 1850), Foster M. Voorhees (A.B. 1876, A.M. 1879), A. Harry Moore (J.D. 1922), Richard Hughes (J.D. 1931), andJames J. Florio (J.D. 1967). Alumnus Joseph P. Bradley (A.B. 1836) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1870–1891) and cast the tie-breaking vote on the bipartisan commission that decided the contested American presidential election in 1876. Toshiba Satellite L500-1CQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni have founded or headed businesses, including Leonor F. Loree (A.B. 1877), President of the Pennsylvania Railroad,Bernard Marcus (B.S. 1951), founder of Home Depot, Ernest Mario (B.S. 1961), former Chief Executive Officer ofGlaxoSmithKline, Duncan McMillan (B.S. 1966), co-founder of Bloomberg L.P., and Barry Schuler (B.A. 1976), ACER Aspire 5742G Laptop CPU Cooling Fan former Chairman and CEO of AmericaOnline (AOL). Marc Milecofsky, aka Marc Ecko, founded the clothing brand Eckō in 1993 and launched a special, limited edition collection[93] that specifically pays homage to the Scarlet Knights,[94] Mary Baglivo (B.A. 1979), Chairman and CEO of the Americas, Saatchi & Saatchi, and Michael H. Fleischner, founder of MarketingScoop.com.[95] Compaq Presario C737EL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Graduates of Rutgers have gone on to make advances in medicine, mathematics and science, most notably Nobel Laureate Selman A. Waksman (B.Sc. 1915), but also including Peter C. Schultz (B.S. 1967), co-inventor of fiber optics, geneticist Stanley N. Cohen (B.Sc. 1956) who pioneered in the field of gene splicing, Louis Gluck (B.S. 1930) the "father of neonatology", and computer pioneer Nathan M. Newmark (B.S. 1948) who won the National Medal of Science. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers alumni have entertained Americans for generations, including actors Paul Robeson, Avery Brooks (B.A. 1973), James Gandolfini (B.A. 1983), Oswald "Ozzie" Nelson (B.A. 1927), Kristin Davis (B.F.A. 1987), and Calista Flockhart (B.F.A. 1988),Natalie Morales (B.A. Journalism & Latin American Studies) American news anchor for NBC's "Today Show"., adult film starsAsia Carrera (B.A. 1996) and Joanna Angel (B.A. 2002), and restaurateur Mario Batali (B.A. 1982). A Springfield, New Jerseyband, Midtown, was also formed by three Rutgers graduates. SONY Vaio VPC-EA290X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In athletics, graduates of Rutgers include Major League Baseball managers Eric Young (B.A 1992) and Jeff Torborg (B.A. 1963);Eddie Jordan (B.A. 1977), former NBA head coach; Sonny Werblin (A.B. 1932), former owner of the New York Jets; and David Stern (B.A. 1963), Commissioner of the National Basketball Association. Toshiba Satellite L500-02H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni in the National Football League include Ray Rice (Baltimore Ravens), Brian Leonard (Bengals), Shaun O'Hara (New York Giants), L.J. Smith (Philadelphia Eagles), Clark Harris (Houston Texans), Nate Jones (Denver Broncos), Eric Foster (Indianapolis Colts), Jeremy Zuttah (Tampa Bay Buccaneers),Anthony Davis (San Francisco 49ers), Jason McCourty (Tennessee Titans), Devin McCourty (New England Patriots), Pedro Sosa(Miami Dolphins), and Mohamed Sanu (Cincinnati Bengals).  HP G62-458TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Fictitious alumni include Quincy Magoo (degree unknown, 1903), a lovable cartoon character from the 1950s and 1960s, was among the proudest of Rutgers' "Loyal Sons."[96]The band Looking Glass, who are famous for their 1972 hit "Brandy (You're a Fine Girl)", formed at Rutgers. They were active from 1969-1974.  HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard The Colonial Colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the United States of America became a sovereign nation after the American Revolution.[1] These nine have long been considered together, notably in the survey of their origins in the 1907 The Cambridge History of English and American Literature.[2] Seven of the nine colonial colleges are part of the Ivy League athletic conference: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Penn, Columbia, Brown, andDartmouth. (The eighth member of the Ivy League, Cornell University, was founded in 1865.) TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard The two colonial colleges not in the Ivy League are now both public universities—The College of William & Mary and Rutgers University, the state university of New Jersey. William & Mary was a private institution from 1693 until just after theAmerican Civil War, when it received some support from the state. It became public in 1906. Rutgers became the State University of New Jersey after World War II. SONY VAIO VGN-CR Series Laptop Keyboard Seven of the nine colonial colleges began their histories as institutions of higher learning de novo (i.e., with no predecessor parent organization). Dartmouth College began operating in 1768 as the collegiate department of Moor's Charity School, a secondary school started in 1754 by Dartmouth founder Eleazar Wheelock. Dartmouth considers its founding date to be 1769, when it was granted a collegiate charter. The University of Pennsylvania began operating in 1751 as a secondary school, the Academy of Philadelphia, and added an institution of higher education in 1755 with the granting of a charter to the College of Philadelphia. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard In 1775, representatives from New Jersey's 13 counties established a Provincial Congress to supersede the Royal Governor. In June 1776, this congress had authorized the preparation of a constitution, which was written within five days, adopted by the Provincial Congress, and accepted by the Continental Congress. The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicamerallegislature consisting of a General Assembly with three members from each county and a Legislative Council with one member from each county. All state officials, including the governor, were to be appointed by the Legislature under this constitution. The Vice-President of Council would succeed the Governor (who was the President of the Council) if a vacancy occurred in that office. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Accordingly, the first session of the Legislature convened on August 27, 1776. Legislative politics was defined in the following years by an intense rivalry between the Federalists, and later the Whigs (which dominated South Jersey and Essex, Hudson, and Middlesex Counties), and the Democratic Party (which was prominent in the northwest, the Shore region, and Bergen County).[1][2]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard The New Jersey Constitution of 1844 provided for a direct popular election of the governor, and gave him the power to veto bills passed by the Legislature. The General Assembly was expanded to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the counties based on population. The Legislative Council was renamed the Senate, and was to be composed of one member from each of the state's 19 counties, serving a three-year term. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard During the Civil War, party allegiance became entrenched. Democrats usually won both houses until the Republicans gained control in 1893. A court ruling obtained by the Republicans provided that members of the General Assembly were to be elected from the counties at-large, rather than from election districts of unequal population. Regardless of any changes, the Legislature met infrequently, had high turnover among its members, and was far from being the most influential or powerful organ of state government.[3]HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard New Jersey adopted its current constitution in 1947. Under this constitution, the governor was given additional veto powers and the ability to serve two terms. Hundreds of independent agencies were consolidated into 20 principal executive departments under the control of the governor. Senators' terms were extended to four years; assemblymen's terms to two years. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 1966, the Senate was expanded from 21 to 40 members and the General Assembly from 60 to 80. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1964 and aNew Jersey Supreme Court decision in 1972, the state's legislative districts were reapportioned into the current arrangement. Two more modern developments have also helped shape the Legislature: the increase in importance of legislative committees and the development of longer tenures for the legislative leadership. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The Legislature has the power to enact laws by a majority vote of both houses, subject to the Governor of New Jersey's ability to veto a bill. A veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. By a three-fifths vote of each house, the Legislature may propose an amendment to the State Constitution. Alternatively, it may propose an amendment by a majority vote two consecutive years. In either case, the referendum is placed on the ballot and must be approved in a referendum to become valid as a part of the constitution. HP Pavilion DV3500 Laptop Keyboard The Legislature is also empowered to ratify amendments to the U.S. Constitution, appoint the State Auditor, judge the elections and qualifications of its members, and institute and conduct impeachment proceedings against State officials. The Senate has the sole authority to confirm or reject gubernatorial nominees for judicial and some executive positions.[5]HP Pavilion DV3505xx Laptop Keyboard The current incarnation of the Legislature is outlined by Article IV ("Legislative") of the New Jersey State Constitution 1947. The Legislature is composed of an 80-member General Assembly, and a 40-member Senate. To become an Assemblyman, an individual must be at least 21 years old, must have resided in the state for the past two years, and must live in the district he represents. To become a Senator, an individual must be 30 years old, have lived in the state for the past four years, and again must live in the district he represents.[6]TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

Elections and terms

Unlike elections for most other state legislatures and for the United States Congress, New Jersey legislative elections are held in November of every odd-numbered year. Assemblymen serve two-year terms, while Senators serve four-year terms, except in the first term of a new decade, which only lasts two years. This "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so Senate elections can reflect changes made to district boundaries following the decennial United States Census. If this cycle were not in place, then the boundaries could at times be up to four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Under the current system, the boundaries are only ever two years out of date. IBM ThinkPad T42 2379 Laptop Keyboard The New Jersey Constitution provides that each Legislature is constituted for a term of two years, split into two annual sessions. Because the Constitution also specifies that all business from the first year may be continued into the second year, the distinction between the two annual sessions is more ceremonial than actual. The two-year legislative term begins at noon on the second Tuesday in January of each even-numbered year. For example, the two-year term of the 215th Legislative session began on noon on Tuesday, January 10, 2012. At the end of the second year, all unfinished business expires.[7] GATEWAY MT3705 Laptop Keyboard Service in the Legislature is considered part-time, and most legislators have other employment.[8] In New Jersey, legislators may also concurrently hold another elected office at the county or municipal level. The practice, which is frequently referred to as "double dipping", has recently been banned by the Legislature, although the 19 legislators holding multiple offices as of February 1, 2008 were grandfathered into the system.[9]DELL KR737 Laptop Keyboard The members of the New Jersey Legislature are chosen from 40 electoral districts. Each district elects one Senator and two Assemblymen. New Jersey is one of only seven U.S. states (with Arizona, Idaho, Maryland, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington) in which districts for the upper and lower house of the legislature are coterminous. Districts are redefined decennially by the New Jersey Apportionment Commission following each U.S. Census, as provided by Article IV, Section III of the State Constitution. HP Pavilion DV3550ee Laptop Keyboardstate university system in the United States is a group of public universities supported by an individual state, or a similar entity such as the District of Columbia. These systems constitute the majority of public-funded universities in the country. Each state supports at least one such system. IBM MCF-C10AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Federal funded colleges and universities are limited to military personnel and government employees. Members of foreign militaries and governments also attend some schools. These schools include the United States military academies, Naval Postgraduate School, and military staff colleges. A state university system normally means a single legal entity and administration, but may consist of several institutions, each with its own identity as a university. Some states—such as California and Texas—support more than one such system.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW115J/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan State universities get subsidies from their states. The amount of the subsidy varies from university to university and state to state, but the effect is to lower tuition costs below that of private universities. As more and more Americans attend college, and private tuition rates increase well beyond the rate of inflation, admission to state universities is becoming more and more competitive. ACER Aspire 5742ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Consideration of public higher education was included in the earliest westward expansion of the US, with the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which established theNorthwest Territory. It stated: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." Ohio University (1804) was the first state school so established in the territory, with the other developing states following suit. On a national basis, the state university system was also assisted by the establishment of the Land-grant universities, under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862 and 1890. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The tradition of publicly funded state colleges began primarily in the southern states, where other private educational institutions were less developed. TheUniversity of Georgia is the country's first chartered public university, established on January 27, 1785 by an act of the General Assembly of Georgia. However, the University of Georgia did not hold classes until 16 years later in the fall of 1801. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, while chartered four years after Georgia in 1789, SONY Vaio VPC-EE31FX/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan was the first state university to hold classes. Classes began at UNC in 1795, and UNC is the only state university to have graduated students in the 18th century. The University of South Carolina was chartered in 1801 and held classes for the first time in 1805. The University of Tennessee was originally chartered as Blount College in 1794, but had a very difficult beginning—graduating only one student—and did not begin receiving the promised state funds until 1807 when it was renamed East Tennessee University. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard The first state university that matches most modern definitions of the term—including a strict secular course of study, offering professional and graduate coursework, and allowing students to select their coursework—was the University of Virginia. Established due to the work of Thomas Jefferson and grounded in his philosophy of a strong secular state, UVA was chartered in 1819 and first held classes in 1825. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Determining which state university was the "first" is further complicated by the case of New Jersey's state university system. Facing the embarrassment of being the only state left that had not established a state university, the New Jersey Legislature decided to commission an already existing private university as its state university, rather than build one from the ground up, as other states had done. Rutgers University, which had previously been a private school affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard was designated as a state university by acts of the legislature in 1945 and 1956. It became a 'System' with the absorptions of Newark University in 1946 and The College of South Jersey in 1950, becoming Rutgers' Newark and Camden Campuses, respectively. Rutgers was chartered in 1766, nineteen years before The University of Georgia, but did not become The State University of New Jersey for another 179 years.  HP Pavilion G7-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard Castleton State College in Vermont is the oldest state university in New England, chartered in 1787. This was soon followed by the charter of The University of Vermont in 1791. However, neither institution was a "state university" in the modern sense of the term until many decades later. Castleton State began as the Rutland County Grammar School. It did not become a postsecondary institution until the campus became home to the State Normal School in 1867, which was privately owned despite its name, and did not become a state-owned institution until 1912. UVM was chartered as a private institution and did not become a public university until 1865. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard The largest state university system is State University of New York with over 400,000 students.[1] However, the combined enrollment of the University of California, the California State University, and the California Community Colleges systems exceeds 2,300,000 students.[2] Many state universities were founded in the middle 19th century, in particular supported by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890. Many state universities—such as UCLA and Chico State—were founded as normal schools. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Following the Second World War, many state universities were merged with smaller institutions to achieve economies of scale in administration and also to raise the prestige of the degrees granted by some smaller institutions. A prominent example of this is the State University of New York, which is the largest comprehensive system of universities, colleges, and community colleges in the world.[3]TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard During the 1970s, further mergers took place and the concept of a state system was widely adopted. Some states have more than one state university system. For example, California has the University of California (considered top-tier) and the California State University (considered lower tier) as four-year university systems, and the California Community Colleges as its community college system. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard Some states maintain a separate system for state colleges (often specified as community colleges, technical colleges, or junior colleges), that is distinct from their university system. Examples include the California Community Colleges System, the Florida College System, and the Technical College System of Georgia. In these states, colleges focus primarily on awarding two-year associate's degrees and professional certificates, while universities focus on four-year bachelor's degrees and more advanced degrees. HP AETT3U00010 Laptop Keyboard The California Community Colleges System is the largest in the world. In 2009 the Florida College System changed its name from the Florida Community College System, reflecting the fact that some of its colleges now offer four-year degrees. Some of its colleges were designated "state colleges", distinguishing them from community colleges in that they offer more four year degrees than community colleges.[4]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard

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